ELECTRICITY

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					ELECTRICITY

    for kitchens & baths
Electricity

Amber
Electricity
   We know that electricity behaves in a
    consistent predictable manner, in given
    situations, but electricity has never
    clearly been defined.
   Atoms –neutrons, protons and electrons
       Atoms are neutrally charged
       Most of the weight of an atom is found in the
        protons and neutrons.
       Protons are more or less attached to the
        nucleus
       Electrons revolve around the nucleus like
        planets revolve around the sun
Electricity

Atom
Electricity

   Some electrons, particularly in
    metals are loosely bound and can
    detach and become “free electrons”

   Free electrons as the name implies
    can move freely from atom to atom

   When a force or pressure is applied
    free electrons begin to move
Electricity

   The materials that allow this
    movement are called
    CONDUCTORS
   The three metals that make the best
    conductors:
       Silver
       Copper
       Aluminum
Electricity

Copper Atom
Electricity

Silver atom
Electricity

   Insulators or Non Conductors:
       Dry Wood
       Glass
       Rubber
       Mica
       Asbestos
   Semi-Conductors:
       Silicon
Electricity

   Electrical energy is transferred
    through conductors by means of
    movement of free electrons
   A material’s ability to conduct
    current flow determines whether it
    is a good or bad conductor
Electricity
Terms

   Voltage
   Amperage (current)
   Resistance (Ohms)
   Wattage (power)
Electricity
    voltage
   Current that flows
    through electrical
    conductors is
    directly proportional
    to the difference in
    potential

   Current is directly
    proportional to the
    amount of voltage

   Voltage increases –
    current increases
Electricity
    voltage

Six Methods of Producing Voltage
 Friction – Static electricity

 Pressure – Compression of crystals

 Heating – In copper, electrons move
   away from the heat. In iron they move to
   the heat.
 Light – Photoelectric cells

 Chemical Action - Batteries

 Magnetism
Electricity
charge
What is Charge?
 The stuff inside conductors
 It’s the free electrons
How do we measure charge?
 1 Coulomb = 6.28 x 1018
 electrons
 6,280,000,000,000,000,000
 Ampere = 1 coulomb of charge
 flow per second
  Electricity
  charge

                   The copper wire is
copper wire
                    full of “charged
                    stuff” but there is
                    no movement
Electricity
charge

              battery


              -    +
Electricity
charge

         battery


                   +
                   -




The battery drives the ring of charge into
  motion, the charge moves along like a
  drive belt, and the light bulb filament
  “rubs” against the moving charge which
  makes it glow white hot.
Electricity
charge

   The higher the amperage the faster
    charge stuff moves
   The more charge stuff that flows
    (though a larger wire) the higher the
    amperage
   A fast flow through a narrow wire can
    have the same amps as a slow flow of
    charge through a bigger wire.
   If you keep the speed constant and
    increase the size of the wire you also
Electricity
watts

Watts is the name given to electrical
  flow – but what flows?
Energy
Energy is measures in joules
A joule of electrical energy can move
  from place to place along the wires.
The amount of energy that flows in
  one second is one watt
Electricity
btu’s

   BTU short for British thermal unit, a
    British standard unit of energy. One Btu
    is equal to the amount of heat required to
    raise the temperature of one pound of
    liquid water by 1 degree Fahrenheit at its
    maximum density, which occurs at a
    temperature of 39.1 degrees Fahrenheit.
    One Btu is equal to approximately 251.9
    calories or 1055 joules.
   As a rough guide, 1 joule is the absolute
    minimum amount of energy required (on
Electricity
closed circuits

   A closed loop of wire is not
    necessarily a circuit unless voltage
    is present.
   In any electric circuit where
    electrons move around, three things
    are present:
       Voltage
       Current
       Resistance
Electricity
closed circuits

   The physical pathway for current
    flow is the circuit
   The circuits resistance controls the
    amount of current flow around the
    circuit.
   By knowing any two of the three
    quantities, the third can be
    calculated.
Electricity
watts

Watts is the name given to electrical
  flow – but what flows?
Energy
Energy is measures in joules
A joule of electrical energy can move
  from place to place along the wires.
The amount of energy that flows in
  one second is one watt
Electricity
watts

   Power pertains to the rate at which
    work is being done.
   Work is done whenever a force
    causes motion
    i.e. when voltage causes electrons to
       move in a circuit work is done
   The rate at which this work is done
    is called the electric power rate and
    is measured in WATTS
Electricity                 watts
power

Watts = the amount of voltage across
 a circuit x the current through the
 circuit
                or
          Watts = Volts x Amperes
                 or
               P= EI
Resistance
Another helpful formula
V = Voltage
A = Amperage
O = Ohms (resistance)



V=AxO
or
A = V/O
Calculator
Electricity                  watts
power

15amp circuit *120volts =1800watts

100watt bulb*10 =1000watts
Electricity            What you
need to remember

   Voltage – The force that moves
    electrons in a conductor. Electrical
    pressure
   Amperage – The rate of flow of
    electrical current.
   Watts – The measure of the amount
    of electrical power.
   Watts = Volts X Amps
Kitchen Electricity Circuits

   Four types of circuits for the
    Kitchen
       General Lighting
       Small Appliance
       Individual Appliance
       Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter
Electricity Circuits

   General Lighting Circuits – rules of
    thumb
       One 15 amp circuit per 600 square feet
        12 receptacles for a 15-amp circuit
    o One 20 amp circuit per 800 square feet
        16 receptacles for a 20-amp circuit
Note: Lights in kitchens and baths
  must be permanently wired.
Kitchen Electricity Circuits

Receptacle Circuits – Rule of thumb
 12 receptacles for a 15-amp circuit
 16 receptacle for a 20-amp circuit
 Small appliance circuits
     Two 20-amp circuits
     One or more 20-amp circuits in the
      dining room or family room
     These circuits may not be used for
      lighting
Electricity
circuits

   Individual Appliance Circuits are
    dedicated to devices that draw
    enough current to warrant their own
    circuit.
Electricity
circuits
Appliance                Voltage   Breaker Capacity Amps
Garbage Disposer           120               20
Electric Range/Cooktop     240              50
Gas Range/Cooktop          120              20
Dishwasher                 120              20
Electric Tankless
  Hot Water                 240              30
Refrigerator                120              20
Microwave Oven              120              20
Exhaust Fan                 120              20
Electricity
circuits

   Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters are
    required for receptacles within 6 feet of a
    water source, such as a faucet or
    showerhead.
   Most receptacles mounted above a
    kitchen countertop or bath lavatory fall
    into that category.
   Receptacles that serve countertops must
    be spaced 4’ apart
   For Universal Design place receptacles
Electricity
Wiring

   Island receptacles no more than 12”
    below the countertop surface.
   Smoke detectors at least 12’ from
    kitchen
Electricity                          Kitchen
Wiring

   Kitchen Wiring
       Dedicated circuit for the dishwasher
       Dedicated circuit for the disposer
       Dedicated circuit for built-in microwaves
       At least two 20 amp dedicated small
        appliance circuits for the outlets serving the
        countertops
       All outlets serving the countertop surface to
        be GFCI protected
       Dedicated range/cooktop/oven circuits
       Lighting Circuit
Electricity                Bath
Wiring

   All Receptacles on dedicated circuit
    (GFCI)
   One Receptacle installed within 36”
    of the sink (GFCI)
   No receptacles placed within the
    tub or shower space.
   No switches can be located within
    reach of a person standing in the
    tub or shower, unless part of a
    listed tub or shower assembly
Electricity                   Bath
Wiring
Special Needs
 Hard wire electric towel warmers or
  lighted or lighted magnifying mirrors
 Individual circuits for electrical
  resistance heaters and electric floor heat
 Wiring for ceiling heaters and ventilation
  systems
 Individual circuit for spas, whirlpools,
  steam showers, some toilets and bidets
 Hard wire anti-fog mirrors behind glass
 Cloths washer/dryer
Electricity
Outdated Wiring

   The house is over 30 years old
   A fuse box
   100 Amp breaker panel
   Ungrounded
   Aluminum wire
Electricity
Outdated Wiring

   GFCI’s are not present
   Lights flicker when appliances cycle
   Fuses blow
   Too few switches and receptacles
    or lights present
   Extension cords must be used
Electricity
wire types
Electricity
Wiring Size

   15 Amp Circuit – 14 gauge
   20 Amp Circuit – 12 gauge
   30 Amp Circuit – 10 gauge
   40 Amp Circuit – 8 gauge
   50 Amp Circuit – 6 gauge
Electricity
wire
Electricity
circuits

   Adding Circuits to the Breaker
    Panel

    Consult your
     electrician
Electrical Codes
Codes for Kitchens

   Countertop receptacles every 4’-0”




    24       48          48      24
 Codes for Kitchens

Sinks, stoves, & cooktops
act divide countertops




   27        27
        54        36        54
Plug Strips
Codes for Kitchens

   Receptacles no higher than 20”
    above countertop
   Receptacles no more than 12”
    below countertop
Codes for Kitchens

   Islands must be served by at least
    one receptacle
                   96
Codes for Kitchens

   Peninsulas are measured from the
    connecting edge
             48        48




                              24




                              48
Power Grommet
Codes for Kitchens

   Receptacles serving countertops
    must be on 2 dedicated 20amp
    circuits and must be GFCI
    protected.
   They must also serve the dining
    room and pantry if applicable.
   Lighting may not be included in
    these curcuits
Codes for Baths

   At least one receptacle within 3’-0”
    of the outside edge of each basin
   Vertical location same as kitchen
   This receptacle cannot be inside a
    medicine cabinet
   Receptacle must be powered by a
    20 amp circuit with no other outlets.
    May serve two bathrooms and may
    power an exhaust fan and lighting
Codes for Baths

   No receptacles over a bathtub or
    inside a shower stall.
Electrical Symbols
Electricity
outlet symbols
SINGL E R EC EP T A C L E O UT L ET




                                SINGL E R EC EP T A C L E O UT L ET
Electricity
outlet symbols

D UP L EX R EC EPT A C L E O UT L ET
SP L IT - C IR C UIT




                                                 WP

                                       WEA T HER PR O O F
                                       R EC EP T A C L E
                                       O UT L ET
Electricity
symbols




EL EC T R IC R A NGE/
C O O K T O P O UT L E T
Electricity
outlet symbols
FL O O R SING L E
R EC EP T A C L E
O UT L ET




                    FL O O R D O UB L E
                    R EC EP T A C L E
                    O UT L ET
Electricity
outlet symbols
G R O UND FA UL T C IR C UIT
INT ER UP T ER R EC EP T A C L E
O UT L ET


                                            F

                              G FC I   FA N O UT L ET
Electricity
outlet symbols
                   SP EC IA L P UR P O SE O UT L ET

WIR ED D IR EC T




            DW



                            HEA T L A MP
Electricity
lighting symbols

  WA L L SC O NC E
Electricity
lighting symbols



T R A C K L IG HT ING
Electricity
lighting symbols


HA NG ING C EIL ING FIX T UR E
Electricity
lighting symbols

                            LO W V O LTA GE
                            T R A NSFO R M ER

                                      T
                                          L




             B UIL T - IN L O W V O L T A GE
             T A S K L IG HT
Electricity
lighting symbols

      R EC ESS ED C EIL ING
      V A P O R L IG HT
Electricity
lighting symbols

  T EL EV IS IO N   CA B LE
  O UT L ET         O UT L ET



    TV                  C
Electricity
lighting symbols

B UIL T - IN FL UO R ES C ENT
T A S K L IG HT
     Electricity
     lighting symbols




R EC ESS ED C EIL ING
D O WN L IG HT ING
Electricity
special purpose symbols

 C L O C K HA NG ER
 R EC EP T A C L E



        C
Electricity
special purpose symbols

  FA N
                                 T EL EPHO NE O UT L ET
  R EC EP T A C L E



        F

                      INT ER C O M
Electricity
special purpose symbols

  T HER MO ST A T                           G A S S UP P L Y



        T                                              G

                    SMO K E D ET EC T O R
Electricity
special purpose symbols


 HEA T R EGIS T ER
Electricity
switch symbols
                 Single pole switch
 S
                 Double pole switch
 S2
 S3              Three way switch

 S4              Four way switch

  SD M           Single pole switch w/
                    dimmer
                 Three way switch
  S3 D M            w/dimmer

				
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posted:11/8/2011
language:English
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