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NATIONAL ICT COMPETENCY STANDARD _NICS_ FOR CIVIL SERVANTS

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					     COMMISSION ON INFORMATION AND
     COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY




NATIONAL ICT COMPETENCY STANDARD (NICS)
           FOR CIVIL SERVANTS
INTRODUCTION


The National ICT Competency Standard for ICT Specialists in the Civil
Service (NICS-CS) defines the basic knowledge and skills an individual must
possess at a recognized level of competence. It helps ensure that an individual
has the necessary level of knowledge and competence in specific ICT fields or
job roles.

The NICS-CS was based on a broad comparative research on current industry
best practices in other countries, and was developed in consultation with various
government and private agencies, institutions, academe and stakeholders.
Moreover, it prescribes essential standards that comply with universal
requirements of competency drawn from recognized international ICT
competency development groups such as the NWCET, ISTE, IFIP, ICDL, MCREL,
EDC, JITSE and others.

Knowledge and skills in competency areas are presented generally with specifics
on essential areas of learning, but avoids reference to specific vendors, versions
or equipment. Thus, it allows flexibility in the adoption of the standard while
preserving the general requirements for competence.

NICS-CS was developed in collaboration with the academe, government
agencies, and several private stakeholders. A series of technical discussions and
workshops were conducted in Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao to ensure a
concrete ICT Competency Framework for each major and specific area.
Attendees to these workshops include:

   •   Undersecretaries, Directors, and Consultants from Commission on Higher
       Education and Department of Education;
   •   Deans, Department Heads, and faculty members of private and State
       Universities and Colleges;
   •   Project Directors of different Non-Government Organizations; and
   •   IT Officers, Head Programmers, and MIS Heads of various National
       Government Agencies, Government Owned and Controlled Corporations,
       and private institutions.




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CONTENTS

DEFINITION OF TERMS.................................................................................1
UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE...............................................................2
PROJECT MANAGER ......................................................................................3
INFORMATION SYSTEMS ANALYST ................................................................6
COMPUTER PROGRAMMER ..........................................................................10
WEB DESIGNER AND DEVELOPER................................................................13
NETWORK ADMINISTRATOR .......................................................................19
SYSTEMS ADMINISTRATOR.........................................................................26
DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR.......................................................................30
COMPUTER USER SUPPORT ........................................................................33
TECHNICAL WRITER ...................................................................................35
TELECOMMUNICATIONS SPECIALISTS .........................................................38
REFERENCES..............................................................................................43




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DEFINITION OF TERMS


Information & Communications Technology (ICT)
Information and Communications Technology" (ICT) is defined as the totality of
electronic means to collect, store, process and present information to end-users
in support of their activities. It consists, among others, of computer systems,
office systems and consumer electronics, as well as networked information
infrastructure, the components of which include the telephone system, the
Internet, fax machines and computers


Standard
Conventionally, a standard is defined as an accepted or approved example or
technique against which other things are judged or measured, or which sets out
a set of criteria that serves as a guideline for how something should be done;
accepted level and scope of attainment of proficiency; a reference point against
which other things are judged or measured. In the handbook, the term is used
to refer to concise statements that describe the key area of competency.


Competency
Knowledge, skill, ability, or characteristic associated with high performance on a
job. Some definitions of competency include motives, beliefs, and values.
Competencies can also help distinguish high performance from average and low
performance.; A desirable quality or behavior; a performance indicator




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UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE

The NICS for Civil Service is a wealth of information presented in a very compact
form comprising the following elements:


   Job Role
        The Job Role represents the position an ICT professional in a
        government agency.

   Job Description
        The Job Description is a brief explanation of the responsibilities
        covered by the job role.

   Statements
        The Statements point to specific elements or key areas of competence
        that will result in the satisfactory performance as required in the
        workplace.

   Indicators
         The Indicators identify the actions an ICT professional would normally
         take to perform the area of competence detailed in the relevant
         statement. They are specific evidence of the achievement of a
         defined skill or knowledge level or the competent completion of a task.

   Underpinning Knowledge
        The Underpinning Knowledge identifies the essential areas of learning
        and understandings that underpin the area of competence described
        in the standard. It also indicates broad areas of learning and
        development that an individual might consider to strengthen this
        specific area of competence.
                                              Sample Entry
         Job Role
         Job Description




         Statements

         Indicators



          Underpinning
          Knowledge




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JOB ROLE A                         PROJECT MANAGER

Job Description:
• Manage and supervise IS projects
• Define project plan, scope, goals/outcomes and tasks
• Organize a project team and defines their roles and responsibilities
• Allocate project resources
• Organize tasks into a schedule
• Communicate with and listens to clients and other key stakeholders

Standard 1: Manage information system project methodologies


Indicators:

•   Define the scope of the project
•   Develop task list (work breakdown structures)
•   Evaluate project requirements
•   Identify required resources and budget
•   Secure needed resources
•   Estimate time requirements
•   Develop initial project management flowchart
•   Identify interdependencies
•   Identify critical milestones
•   Evaluate risks
•   Manage the change control process
•   Track critical milestones
•   Participate in project phase review
•   Utilize project management software
•   Develop a method of evaluation


Standard 2: Define scope of work to achieve individual and group goals


Indicators:

•   Identify size and specifics of the task
•   Formulate task sequence
•   Plan multiple tasks simultaneously
•   Identify potential problems
•   Develop contingency plans




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Standard 3: Develop time and activity plan to achieve objectives


Indicators:

•   Coordinate plan with team, cross-functional groups, or individuals
•   Formulate a task strategy
•   Prioritize tasks according to business needs
•   Manage multiple tasks simultaneously
•   Devise plan of action


Standard 4: Manage work processes and procedures


Indicators:

•   Analyze situation
•   Create work plan based on analysis of situation
•   Identify supplies and tools needed
•   Develop budget guidelines
•   Coordinate work processes and procedures
•   Monitor work processes and procedures
•   Evaluate work processes and procedures
•   Generate task status reports


Standard 5: Manage risks over the course of the project


Indicators:

•   Consider both the impact and likelihood of risks
•   Use contingency and management reserves appropriately
•   Distinguish between risks (always in the future) and problems (in the
    present)
•   Take prudent risks and exploit unexpected opportunities
•   View past problems as current risks and plan for them




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Standard 6: Manage communications over the course of the project


Indicators:

•   Plan all types communications
•   Distribute pertinent information
•   Report performance through an appropriate type of communication


Underpinning Knowledge:

•   Project selection models
•   Project acquisition and risk analysis and management
•   Change management
•   Technical writing
•   Developing RFPs
•   Scope Management
•   Time, Cost and Quality Management
•   Communications Management
•   Use of appropriate management software
•   General communication skills
•   Project Team Building
•   Project Termination




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JOB ROLE B                       INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                                 ANALYST

Job Description:
• Manage and supervise IS design and development
• Analyze, plan and design new computer systems
• Devise ways to apply existing systems’ resources to additional operations
• Prepare specifications, flow charts, process diagrams and hardware and
   software requirements
• Recommend alternative solutions to existing problems of the organization

Standard 1: Initiate a system project


Indicators:

•   Identify the phases in a system project
•   Select basic fact-gathering techniques to be used
•   Define the scope of the systems project
•   Conduct a preliminary investigation


Standard 2: Perform a detailed system investigation and analysis


Indicators:

•   Identify time, technology and resource constraints
•   Determine investigation techniques to be used
•   Record facts gathered through system investigation
•   Perform appropriate diagnostic tests
•   Research and evaluate technical alternatives


Standard 3: Conduct needs analysis


Indicators:

•   Define business problem to be solved by the application (e.g., through
    interview process)
•   Identify scope of project
•   Define business information requirements
•   Align information system (IS) design with the business process
•   Determine hardware and software needs
•   Interpret source data, charts, and graphs
•   Review organizational structure
•   Interpret existing operating documents and procedures for the system

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•   Observe existing procedures
•   Document existing procedures
•   Document possible alternative solutions
•   Identify processing requirements
•   Define variables
•   Analyze specifications
•   Present findings and recommendations to users and management (e.g., work
    plan, project estimate)


Standard 4: Design computer applications


Indicators:

•   Establish standards and policies to govern the development of organizational
    information systems
•   Identify development team
•   Develop team mission statement aligned with organizational mission
•   Determine the roles of user and management in the computer system
    development process
•   Outline steps for program development cycle, (e.g., prototyping,
    storyboarding)
•   Identify processing requirements
•   Create specs with development team
•   Divide design specifications into logical blocks (e.g., flowchart, dataflow
    diagram, system flow record and layout)
•   Identify constraints (e.g., political, financial, time, hardware, and systems)
•   Select programming language
•   Select hardware platform
•   Establish input and output (I/O) requirements
•   Design system input/output processes
•   Differentiate between system documentation and user documentation
•   Determine compilers to be used in design
•   Apply rules for naming variables
•   Apply normalization rules to data attributes
•   Define test data to be developed
•   Employ normalization and modeling as cross-checking techniques
•   Maintain project scope
•   Create design documentation




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Standard 5: Develop documentation


Indicators:

•   Identify documentation needs
•   Prepare program documentation
•   Prepare user documentation
•   Prepare dataflow diagrams
•   Update design documentation
•   Establish documentation-update method


Standard 6: Evaluate system


Indicators:

•   Identify evaluation criteria
•   Develop test plan
•   Conduct tests
•   Analyze test data
•   Present test results


Standard 7: Install / implement computer application system


Indicators:

•   Review organizational structure
•   Interpret existing operating documents and procedures for the system
•   Design implementation plan
•   Present implementation plan to users and management
•   Perform implementation or changeover to new system
•   Perform post-implementation evaluation of new system
•   Correct deficiencies
•   Train personnel
•   Identify ongoing support requirements




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Underpinning Knowledge:

•   Information systems components
•   Systems development methodologies
•   Systems development life cycle
•   Preliminary investigation
•   Requirements modeling
•   Data and process modeling
•   Object modeling
•   Feasibility and cost analysis tools
•   Project management tools
•   Programming languages
•   RAD tools
•   Technical writing




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JOB ROLE C                        COMPUTER PROGRAMMER

Job Description:
• Develop computer systems according to specifications
• Converts the specifications into a logical series of instructions
• Codes these instructions in a conventional programming language
• Tests program to ensure the instructions are correct and the program
   produces the desired outcome
• Updates, repairs, modifies, and expands existing programs

Standard 1: Apply concepts of different programming languages


Indicators:

•   Apply techniques of physical representation of digitized information (e.g.,
    data, text, image, voice)
•   Apply techniques of data and procedural representation
•   Demonstrate knowledge of the function and operation of compilers and
    interpreters
•   Use basic principles of programming for analyzing a problem
•   Employ basic principles of structured, object-oriented, and event-driven
    programming
•   Demonstrate knowledge of how a programming language can support
    multitasking and exception-handling
•   Utilize current key programming languages and the environment they are
    used in (e.g., C, C++, Visual Basic, Java, RPG, COBOL, Assembler)


Standard 2: Apply the process of algorithm and structured code
            development


Indicators:

•   State a problem identifying desired outputs for given inputs
•   Provide an overview of problem to be solved
•   Describe the fundamental data types and their operations
•   Design program logic using both graphical and pseudocode techniques
•   Translate data structures and program design into code in a programming
    language
•   Perform mathematical calculations using operators




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Standard 3: Apply appropriate techniques in the stages of program
            development


Indicators:

•   Identify the use of program design tools
•   Employ structured/modular programming
•   Apply appropriate methodologies in the stages of the system development
    life cycle
•   Differentiate the characteristics and uses of batch processing
•   Differentiate the characteristics and uses of interactive processing
•   Differentiate the characteristics and uses of event-driven, object-oriented
    processing


Standard 4: Perform technical documentation associated with software
            development


Indicators:

•   Secure needed information using appropriate reference materials
•   Analyze specifications
•   Identify constraints
•   Identify input and output (I/O) requirements
•   Prepare logic using a program flowchart


Standard 5: Apply computational and logical operations


Indicators:

•   Develop   programs   that   use   arithmetic operations
•   Develop   programs   that   use   relational operators and compound conditions
•   Develop   programs   that   use   control breaks
•   Develop   programs   that   use   subtotals and final totals


Standard 6: Apply techniques for building applications


Indicators:

•   Use appropriate development environment or platform
•   Use editors
•   Compile or interpret applications into runable form

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•   Run application


Standard 7: Apply language specific programming techniques


Indicators:

•   Develop programs using desired language
•   Incorporate the use of sort routines
•   Develop programs designed to create, update, and delete records
•   Develop programs using menus
•   Develop programs that require user input
•   Use key constructs and commands specific to the language
•   Compile program


Standard 8: Debug programs


Indicators:

•   Test/run program
•   Correct syntax errors
•   Debug compiler errors
•   Correct common run-time errors
•   Debug complex logic errors
•   Maintain legacy applications


Underpinning Knowledge:

•   Problem-solving techniques
•   Algorithm and pseudo-code writing
•   Variables, operators, syntax, data types and conventions
•   Functions and procedures
•   Branching, looping and sorting
•   User interface design
•   Procedural and object oriented programming languages
•   Databases
•   RAD tools
•   Systems development life cycle




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JOB ROLE D                        WEB DESIGNER AND DEVELOPER

Job Description:
• Design, develop and maintain the organization’s website
• Design and develop the content of the organization’s web site
• Administer and monitor the organization’s website
• Maintain and secure the organization’s website

Standard 1: Exhibit basic knowledge of the Internet


Indicators:

•   Identify the key characteristics of the Internet
•   Trace the development of Internet technology
•   Identify current issues related to the Internet
•   Identify services and tools offered on the Internet
•   Identify the specific strengths, weaknesses, and special features of available
    search engines
•   Exercise accepted Internet etiquette (netiquette)
•   Identify current uses and applications of the Internet


Standard 2: Exhibit advanced knowledge of the Internet


Indicators:

•   Understand and explain the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
    (TCP/IP) suite
•   Understand and explain the Domain Name Server (DNS)
•   Understand and explain Simple Network Management Protocol
•   Understand and explain Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) and Dynamic Host
    Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
•   Understand and explain the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
•   Understand and explain IP forwarding, encapsulation, and fragmentation
•   Discuss Internet security issues
•   Identify available Internet security systems


Standard 3: Access the Internet


Indicators:

•   Connect to the Internet
•   Test Internet connection
•   Understand and explain the components of Internet software

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•   Install Internet software
•   Explore browser features
•   Download free software upgrades and shareware from the Internet
•   Unpack files using compression software
•   Show awareness of virus protection techniques


Standard 4: Utilize Internet services


Indicators:

•   Access business and technical information using the Internet
•   Select search engine(s) to use
•   Select appropriate search procedures and approaches
•   Locate information using search engine(s) and Boolean logic
•   Navigate web sites using software functions (e.g., Forward, Back, Go To,
    Bookmarks)
•   Evaluate Internet resources (e.g., accuracy of information)
•   Access library catalogs on the Internet
•   Access commercial, government, and education resources
•   Bookmark web addresses (URLs)
•   Download files from FTP archives
•   Communicate via e-mail using the Internet
•   Subscribe to mailing lists
•   Participate in newsgroups
•   Retrieve online tools
•   Download/convert Internet programming files
•   Install/configure web browser
•   Explore the multimedia capabilities of the World Wide Web
•   Add plug-ins and helpers to the web browser
•   Explore collaboration tools
•   Participate in online audio and video conferencing
•   Archive files
•   Compile a collection of business sites (e.g., finance and investment)
•   Explore electronic commerce


Standard 5: Understand web page design basics


Indicators:

•   Differentiate between a client and a server
•   Explain the functions of browsers in reading files on the World Wide Web
    (text-only, hypertext)
•   Identify how different browsers affect the look of a web page
•   Compare/contrast the features and functions of software editors available for
    designing web pages
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•   Explain how bandwidths affect data transmission and on-screen image
•   Explain the uses of plug-ins
•   Compare the advantages and disadvantages of running your own server vs.
    using a server provider


Standard 6: Understand Internet programming basics


Indicators:

•   Recognize the importance of Internet programming standards
•   Use standards in Internet programming/coding
•   Use special Internet programming feature codes (tags)
•   Differentiate between various versions of Internet programming
•   Understand how to use standard word processing and page layout programs
    to produce an Internet application
•   Identify authoring programs specifically designed for Internet programming
    production (e.g., Adobe PageMill, Corel Xara, Microsoft FrontPage)
•   Locate free Internet programming authoring programs on the Internet
•   Compare/contrast features, strengths, and weaknesses of different authoring
    programs
•   Identify cross-platform issues
•   Keep up-to-date with new and emerging trends related to Internet
    programming


Standard 7: Apply web programming techniques


Indicators:

•   Understand the purpose of web content delivery enablers (e.g., CGI, API,
    SSI)
•   Understand how to interface client/server
•   Explain client-side processing and its advantages/disadvantages
•   Identify security issues related to client-side processing
•   Identify standard scripting languages (e.g., JavaScript, Visual Basic Script,
    ActiveX)
•   Explain the uses and advantages/disadvantages of various scripting
    languages
•   Understand how to use a scripting language to program a site
•   Understand the use of advanced communication protocols




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Standard 8: Format page layout


Indicators:

•   Understand the use of Internet programming codes for formatting page
    layout
•   Create a solid color background
•   Calculate the hexadecimal code for a color value
•   Change the color of text and hypertext link items
•   Create a textured background using a graphic file
•   Create various types of hard rule lines for page dividers (e.g., different
    thicknesses and widths, with and without 3-D shading)
•   Create a table with rows and columns of text in a gridded display
•   Create a layout scheme integrating text and pictures
•   Create an invisible table with side-by-side columns
•   Create a table that has different colored cells
•   Design interfaces
•   Display interlaced images
•   Organize information using frames


Standard 9: Add audio and video to a web page


Indicators:

•   Deliver audio and video signals in real time (streaming)
•   Use different audio and video compression techniques
•   Add audio and video to a web page using Internet programming codes
•   Establish network administration procedures for audio and video



Standard 10:      Link documents


Indicators:

•   Identify the function of URLs (Uniform Resource Locators)
•   Recognize the structure of a URL
•   Copy URLs from a web browser to an Internet programming text document
•   Write an Internet programming anchor to link to another document in the
    same directory as the first document
•   Write an Internet programming anchor to link to another document in a
    different directory from the first document
•   Write an Internet programming anchor to link to another web document on
    the Internet
•   Write an Internet programming anchor to link to files

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•   Write an Internet programming anchor that links to another section of the
    same document
•   Incorporate a graphic that acts as a hyperlink to another document
•   Identify the significance of a file called index.html on a web server
•   Create a hypertext link that will send an e-mail message
•   Differentiate between client-side image mapping and server-side image
    mapping
•   Create an inline image that has different portions hyperlinked to other web
    pages, pictures, and other sites on the Internet
•   Create hyperlinks for the use of plug-ins



Standard 11:     Create/maintain a basic Internet programming document


Indicators:

•   Open up a workspace to create a new Internet programming document
•   Create the basic Internet programming structure for a web page using a text
    editor
•   Demonstrate knowledge of the advantages of creating short multiple web
    pages rather than a single, long web page
•   Determine logical points to split information into multiple web pages
•   Create a template file using a text editor
•   Make appropriate changes to template file to create individual pages
•   Insert nondisplayed comments into Internet programming files
•   Display document within a web browser
•   Make text modifications using a text editor
•   Place different-level headings within document using appropriate Internet
    programming tags
•   Insert paragraph breaks into the text of document using appropriate Internet
    programming tag
•   Manipulate text cut and paste functions
•   Insert a stylized footer at the bottom of a page
•   Format text
•   Create lists
•   Add graphics/images
•   Add animation



Standard 12:     Apply web hosting


Indicators:

•   Compare the advantages and disadvantages of running your own server vs.
    using a server provider
•   Identify hardware requirements for a server

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•   Identify server software options
•   Evaluate server providers
•   Establish a domain name
•   Comply with TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
•   Upload files to the server
•   Publicize the site (e.g., submit announcements to major search engines)
•   Collect/analyze usage statistics



Underpinning Knowledge:

•   Planning a website
•   Web programming languages
•   Web scripting tools
•   Image and animation tools
•   Page Layout and Navigation
•   Content design
•   Internet Browsers
•   Website and Internet security
•   FTP and TCP/IP concepts
•   Web hosting
•   Systems development life cycle
•   RAD tools
•   Basic networking concepts




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JOB ROLE E                        NETWORK ADMINISTRATOR

Job Description:
• Administer and manage the organization’s local area network
• Setup the organization’s network system
• Interconnect users
• Secure the network from unwanted and unauthorized users
• Troubleshoot network problems
• Administer the daily operation of the network system
• Plan and recommend periodic upgrades and improvements

Standard 1: Understand and explain the basics of network architecture


Indicators:

•   Explain the characteristics and uses of network components (e.g., hub,
    switches, routers, firewall)
•   Identify LAN transmission methods (e.g., bus, pure ring, star ring topologies)
•   Understand broadband and baseband transmission methods and standards
•   Identify LAN transmission media (e.g., twisted pair, fiber-optic cable,
    wireless)
•   Understand and explain LAN medium-access protocols (e.g., CSMA/CD, token
    bus, token ring, FDDI)
•   Identify the components of, and relationships within, the OSI 8802 (IEEE
    802) protocol suite
•   Identify LAN performance factors (signal attenuation, signal propagation
    delay)
•   Compare/contrast various frame formats for LANs
•   Understand and explain the OSI reference model
•   Differentiate between a physical and logical topology



Standard 2: Understand and explain the basics of Ethernet technology


Indicators:

•   Understand and characterize Ethernet topology
•   Understand Ethernet media-access algorithm
•   Explain basic Ethernet configurations (e.g., simple, hub, hubs and bridges,
    server, switch)
•   Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of an Ethernet network




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Standard 3: Understand and explain the basics of token ring technology


Indicators:

•   Characterize a token ring network
•   Explain the token ring information-flow/media-access control
•   Understand and explain the token ring send algorithm
•   Identify token ring configurations (simple, IBM host)
•   Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of a token ring network



Standard 4: Understand and explain the basics of token bus, Fiber
            Distributed-Data Interface (FDDI), and wireless LAN
            technology

Indicators:

•   Identify token bus configuration
•   Evaluate token bus advantages and disadvantages
•   Explain Fiber Distributed-Data Interface (FDDI) technology
•   Identify the key components of wireless LAN technology (e.g., spread-
    spectrum radio, infrared light, narrow-band radio)
•   Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of a wireless LAN


Standard 5: Understand and explain the TCP/IP protocol


Indicators:

•   Explain basics of TCP/IP layers, components, and functions
•   Identify how the TCP layers relate to the OSI model
•   Discuss the TCP and IP delivery service
•   Identify TCP/IP applications and services (e.g., rlogin, SMTP, telnet, FTP,
    Domain, NFS)
•   Explain the TCP/IP protocol details (e.g., Internet addresses, dotted decimal
    notation, ARP, RARP, IP datagram format, routing IP datagrams, TCP
    segment format)
•   Identify the services provided by the major TCP/IP applications




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Standard 6: Understand and explain basic communication protocols


Indicators:

•   Explain the ARPANET, MILNET and NSFnet and their relationship to the
    Internet
•   Discuss how names and addresses are determined for LANs
•   Identify components of a Class B Internet address in dotted decimal form
•   Differentiate between an ordinary and gateway node
•   Discuss the importance of IPX/SPX protocol and how it works together with
    TCP/IP
•   Identify the basics of the ARP/RARP protocol
•   Identify the contents of the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache
•   Identify the basics of the DNS, HTTP, telnet, and FTP protocols
•   Identify the basics of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
•   Compare/contrast SNMP functions to the OSI model
•   Identify the basics of the PAP and CHAP protocols
•   Identify the basics of MAC layer protocols
•   Identify the levels at which networking can occur
•   Differentiate between architectures (e.g., ISO, SNA, DNA)


Standard 7: Identify appropriate network operating systems


Indicators:

•   Identify the purposes of a network operating system (NOS)
•   Differentiate between network operating systems and data distribution
    systems
•   Identify how the four components of a network operating system (i.e., server
    platform, network services software, network redirection software,
    communications software) support network operations
•   Define the criteria used to evaluate network operating systems
•   Identify how protocols are supported
•   Identify licensing requirements
•   Characterize client/server models
•   Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the client/server model
•   Identify the properties of open systems
•   Discuss LAN connectivity issues




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Standard 8: Understand and explain the different types of network
            operating systems (i.e., Novell NetWare, Windows NT, LINUX,
            UNIX, IBM Network, AppleTalk)

Indicators:

•   Identify network architecture
•   Differentiate between network systems and OSI
•   Identify capabilities of network systems
•   Identify network support systems
•   Discuss the different types of protocols
•   Identify network models
•   Identify unique network tools



Standard 9: Install network operating system


Indicators:

•   Create domain trusts
•   Maintain domain controllers
•   Make policy changes
•   Employ policy templates
•   Create user accounts, groups, and login scripts
•   Control access to files and directories
•   Establish shared network resources
•   Configure network domain accounts and profiles
•   Implement system policies
•   Create roaming user profiles
•   Troubleshoot network performance


Standard 10:      Identify and explain different network classifications and
                  topologies


Indicators:

•   Interpret basic networking terminology
•   Differentiate between LANs, MANs and WANs
•   Explain how to turn LANs into MANs and WANs
•   Identify the basic point-to-point network topologies (e.g., star, ring, tree,
    network, irregular)
•   Explain packet-switching techniques
•   Identify the basic broadcast topologies (e.g., star ring, bus)
•   Characterize and differentiate connection-oriented and connectionless
    networks

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Commission on Information and Communications Technology
•   Identify standard high-speed networks (e.g., broadband, ISDN, SMDS, ATM,
    FDDI)
•   Identify emerging networks (e.g., ATM; ISDN; satellite nets; optic nets;
    integrated voice, data, and video)


Standard 11:      Identify the different LAN physical media


Indicators:

•   Differentiate between baseband and broadband transmission
•   Explain Manchester encoding
•   Identify the criteria used in making cable selection decisions (e.g., physical
    properties, transmission technologies, transmission span, bandwidth,
    topology, security, noise immunity, installation considerations, cost)
•   Identify the different cable types (e.g., coaxial, twisted-pair, optical fibers)
•   Compare/contrast a cable types
•   Identify the different types of cable connectors and grounding techniques
•   Understand and explain the different cable standards (e.g., ANSI, EIA/TIA-
    568, EIA/TIA-569, TWSS, NEC)
•   Identify the advantages and disadvantages of LAN cabling systems
•   Understand how to conduct cable installation site survey
•   Understand how to estimate cable and components required based on
    installation site survey results
•   Identify the checks that need to be made prior to installing cable
•   Perform documentation and labeling when installing cable
•   Employ accepted methods for installing cable
•   Troubleshoot typical problems associated with cable installation
•   Perform cable testing and tolerance levels
•   Identify possible sources of interference and methods for overcoming each


Standard 12:      Understand and explain network connectivity


Indicators:

•   Differentiate point-to-point channels, switched, and meshed network
•   Explain the characteristics and functions of broadcast channels
•   Identify software used to connect networking devices
•   Explain the types of interoperability (e.g., peer-to-peer, peer-to-host)
•   Explain Internet, Intranet, and Extranet usage and connectivity




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Commission on Information and Communications Technology
Standard 13:      Differentiate processes, services, and protocols


Indicators:

•   Explain protocol concepts (e.g., converters, basic layering concepts, peer
    communication, routing, stacks/suites)
•   Differentiate between a process and a protocol
•   Explain the different standard types of cooperative processes (e.g., peer-to-
    peer, client server, master-slave)



Standard 14:      Explain the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standard


Indicators:

•   Identify the benefits of using a layered network model
•   Identify the seven layers at which decisions must be made according to the
    OSI standard
•   Explain the OSI stack positions and their relationship to one another
•   Explain the decisions to be made in the OSI Layers 1-7
•   Differentiate between OSI Layers 1-4 and Layers 5-7


Standard 15:      Explain the basics of telecommunications and the
                  interconnection of networks

Indicators:

•   Explain the different WAN technologies (e.g., subrate facilities, dataphone,
    digital service, multiplexers, time division multiplexing, modems, RS-232)
•   Differentiate between the types of WAN connections
•   Explain point-to-point (PPP) interconnection
•   Identify basic telecommunications services (e.g., satellite, circuit switching,
    packet switching, wireless)
•   Differentiate between local exchange carriers (LECs) and interexchange
    carriers (IXCs or IECs)
•   Define local access and transport areas (LATAs)
•   Identify long-distance carriers and their services
•   Identify packet carriers and their services
•   Identify the role of telecommunications tariffs




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Commission on Information and Communications Technology
Standard 16:      Design WAN systems


Indicators:

•   Understand electronic communication (e.g., LAN, Internets, remote database
    access, EDI)
•   Understand basic telephony (analog vs. digital signals)
•   Understand the conversion of analog speech to digital
•   Investigate emerging technologies
•   Relate voice, data concepts, and video to wide-area networks
•   Select primary and backup data circuits
•   Evaluate analog and digital transmission for cost, performance, and reliability
•   Create firewalls between trusted network and WAN
•   Establish a Virtual Private Network (VPN) to form the infrastructure of the
    WAN
•   Determine routers needed to connect with LAN
•   Interconnect LANs using WAN services
•   Incorporate cost-savings approaches, including frame-relay ATM and
    voice/video/data compression



Underpinning Knowledge:

•   Types of topologies
•   Types of network media and equipment
•   Fiber optic technology
•   TCP/IP protocol suites
•   OSI reference model
•   Types of network addresses
•   IP addressing and subnetting
•   IEEE, EIA-TIA and other networking standards
•   LANs, WANs, MANs and VPNs
•   Network troubleshooting and maintenance
•   Network threats and security
•   Advanced networking concepts




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Commission on Information and Communications Technology
JOB ROLE F                        SYSTEMS ADMINISTRATOR

Job Description:
• Manage and supervise the organization’s information systems
• Install, configure and maintain information system
• Troubleshoot common system error
• Setup back-up and recovery procedures
• Formulate problem-handling processes

Standard 1: Understand the life cycle of an information system


Indicators:

•   Research the concept of information system life cycles
•   Identify criteria for deciding between acquisition of software packages and
    custom development of software



Standard 2: Install information system


Indicators:

•   Develop a detailed training, conversion, and installation plan for an
    information system application
•   Design networked solutions
•   Install DBMS on the server
•   Install appropriate operating system and telecommunications hardware and
    software
•   Identify system requirements for various types of installations
•   Evaluate installation requirements
•   Install information system application program in accordance with
    requirements
•   Evaluate processes and outcomes
•   Customize a general-purpose software package to provide specific
    functionality beyond the default settings
•   Add capability to a software system by recording macros and storing them in
    the system’s library
•   Access needed technical information using software help facilities
•   Operate server applications
•   Ensure that all multi-user aspects of the application function are operational
•   Operate coupled application systems




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Commission on Information and Communications Technology
Standard 3: Perform software configuration and loading


Indicators:

•   Develop program and system specifications
•   Load software with minimum disruption of process flow
•   Convert data
•   Resolve compatibility issues
•   Configure software appropriately for system and user application
•   Perform software coding
•   Participate in application and system development reviews
•   Evaluate emerging technologies and their potential effect on information
    system software
•   Assemble necessary components to implement information system design


Standard 4: Monitor the information system


Indicators:

•   Conduct post-implementation evaluation
•   Identify abnormal system performance
•   Determine required service levels
•   Monitor multiple technologies
•   Recognize system alerts
•   Recognize security problems
•   Recognize environmental problems


Standard 5: Perform system maintenance


Indicators:

•   Understand the basic elements of computer maintenance
•   Identify available diagnostic tools used for system maintenance
•   Identify maintenance procedures and processes
•   Identify problems using diagnostic tools
•   Document solutions
•   Tear down a computer
•   Identify (by name) new or replacement computer components needed
•   Install/replace computer components
•   Reassemble a computer
•   Establish a preventive maintenance plan
•   Perform preventive maintenance on computer components
•   Create maintenance plan for regular integrity checks

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•   Evaluate maintenance processes
•   Evaluate maintenance outcomes


Standard 6: Manage backup and recovery, both on- and off-site


Indicators:

•   Develop backup plan to be used by technical support group and users
•   Develop recovery plan to be used by technical support group and users
•   Implement backup procedures in accordance with a regular schedule
•   Implement recovery procedures as needed
•   Evaluate whether backup and recovery plans meet users’ needs


Standard 7: Troubleshoot problems


Indicators:

•   Employ basic troubleshooting steps
•   Detect problems
•   Identify criticality of problem
•   Perform appropriate analyses to identify problem cause
•   Develop resolution plan
•   Identify possible solutions
•   Test identified solutions
•   Select most appropriate solution
•   Implement selected solution
•   Minimize impact of problems on productivity (e.g., minimize downtime)


Standard 8: Evaluate problem-solving processes and outcomes


Indicators:

•   Evaluate problem-solving outcomes to determine whether the problem was
    solved as intended
•   Evaluate whether the process was applied in an efficient and responsible
    manner
•   Assess the validity and usefulness of the outcomes
•   Determine needed follow-up actions




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Commission on Information and Communications Technology
Standard 9: Perform software upgrades and fixes


Indicators:

•   Identify principles governing software acquisition and upgrades
•   Analyze operational problems
•   Recommend solutions for operational problems
•   Upgrade software


Standard 10:     Perform general system administration tasks


Indicators:

•   Facilitate the delivery of technical services
•   Set up/maintain user accounts on multiple systems
•   Provide technical product support
•   Perform planning for overall system functions
•   Prepare cost justifications
•   Manage inventory and assets
•   Identify new application requirements within the system
•   Participate in the evaluation, analysis, and recommendation of technical
    computing products
•   Participate in evaluation of total system
•   Document performance problems
•   Retrieve historical data for trend analysis
•   Analyze historical data to identify trends
•   Provide input on technical procedures
•   Increase knowledge of system infrastructure
•   Formulate technical procedures
•   Prepare documentation manuals
•   Prepare required reports
•   Maintain technical industry knowledge



Underpinning Knowledge:

•   System startup and shutdown procedures
•   Adding and removing users and groups
•   Managing users and groups
•   Creating backup and restore routines
•   System tuning and troubleshooting
•   Backup and maintenance
•   System security
•   Network file systems
•   Advanced networking concepts

National ICT Competency Standard for Civil Servants                            29
Commission on Information and Communications Technology
JOB ROLE G                       DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR

Job Description:
• Manage and supervise the organization’s databases and data warehouses
• Manage, store and preserve data and related information essential to the
   organization’s operation
• Manage and handle various kinds DBMS
• Setup back-up and recovery procedures
• Formulate problem-handling processes

Standard 1: Understand Database Management Systems (DBMS)


Indicators:

•   Interpret terminology associated with relational databases
•   Explain the features, functions, and architecture of a DBMS
•   Trace the evolution of DBMS models and their implementation
•   Identify the uses of a DBMS in business organizations
•   Explain the concepts necessary to access organizational databases
•   Analyze the organization of data in a DBMS
•   Identify the impact of networks on DBMS
•   Explain how a DBMS ensures data integrity through transaction-control
    techniques


Standard 2: Operate a DBMS


Indicators:

•   Build database applications
•   Distribute data across a distributed DBMS
•   Analyze/model organizations using Entity-Relationship and Object
    technologies
•   Remove data anomalies through the process of normalization
•   Create/update a relational database using Structured Query Language
•   Query a relational database using Structured Query Language
•   Query data from an organizational repository using a database access facility
•   Perform database administration tasks




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Commission on Information and Communications Technology
Standard 3: Manage implementation of a DBMS


Indicators:

•   Execute implementation plan according to project time line
•   Implement transition plan with minimal impact on productivity
•   Conduct user training
•   Define needed external informational resources (e.g., source, content, cost,
    and timeliness)
•   Access external information resources using Internet tools
•   Create/maintain a directory of external information resources
•   Develop editors to facilitate data entry
•   Design simple reports for validating the performance of application systems
•   Apply software development principles, methods, and tools in implementing
    IS applications
•   Apply database design techniques to the implementation of a solution with
    calls from a program to the DBMS
•   Apply networking considerations in implementing distributed models
•   Develop server applications for installation and operation in a multi-user
    environment


Standard 4: Monitor and maintain a DBMS


Indicators:

•   Coordinate security requirements, including documentation functions
•   Identify desired levels of access and security
•   Communicate decisions concerning levels of access and security
•   Select monitoring tools and procedures
•   Identify monitoring methodologies
•   Identify problems in a timely fashion
•   Document problems
•   Propose solutions that are congruent with application requirements
•   Implement solutions to problems
•   Calibrate DBMS configuration parameters for optimum performance




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Commission on Information and Communications Technology
Underpinning Knowledge:

•   Database design
•   Normalization, abstraction, data integrity and security and performance
•   RDBMS and SQL
•   Users, groups, rights and privileges
•   Database installation and configuration
•   Database backup and recovery
•   Database troubleshooting and maintenance
•   Database security




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Commission on Information and Communications Technology
JOB ROLE H                        COMPUTER USER SUPPORT

Job Description:
• Provide technical support to all computer users in the organization
• Assist in the installation of common software applications and hardware
   devices
• Maintain and troubleshoot basic software and hardware problems
• Document a variety of information technologies
• Communicate ideas and concepts through electronic sources

Standard 1: Provide technical support needed by computer users


Indicators:

•   Operate help desk
•   Utilize desktop productivity tools
•   Maintain documentation and users’ manuals
•   Prepare status reports
•   Install common computer applications
•   Provide basic hardware and software troubleshooting
•   Communicate problems/solutions using electronic sources


Standard 2: Explain data communications components and trends


Indicators:

•   Employ key communications procedures
•   Operate data communication equipment
•   Differentiate types of communications media
•   Understand data transmission codes and protocols
•   Distinguish between local area networks and wide-area networks
•   Identify data communication trends
•   Identify major current issues in data communications


Standard 3: Use electronic sources in communicating and providing support


Indicators:

•   Explain basic purposes of e-mail systems
•   Identify e-mail features and options
•   Understand security issues and guidelines for legal usage of e-mail
•   Identify available e-mail systems and the characteristics/features of each
•   Access e-mail system using login and password functions

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Commission on Information and Communications Technology
•   Access e-mail messages received
•   Access e-mail attachments
•   Employ e-mail etiquette
•   Create e-mail messages in accordance with established business standards
    (e.g., grammar, word usage, spelling, sentence structure, clarity, e-mail
    etiquette)
•   Send e-mail messages
•   Assign priority levels to messages
•   Create distribution lists
•   Employ e-mail options such as "reply requested" and "out-of-office reply"
•   Reply to e-mail messages
•   Forward e-mail messages
•   Attach documents to messages
•   Create folders for organizing messages and documents
•   Save e-mail messages/attachments
•   Delete e-mail messages
•   Print e-mail messages/attachments
•   Access needed information using e-mail help facilities and tools


Standard 4: Access information using electronic sources


Indicators:

•   Conduct searches using electronic sources (e.g., selection of search terms)
•   Access information using telecommunications software
•   Access information using teleconferencing/video conferencing techniques
•   Access information using CD-ROM technology
•   Access information using a public information retrieval service
•   Evaluate the quality and usability of electronic information
•   Download information


Underpinning Knowledge:

•   Communication and computer skills
•   Help desk operation
•   Install and troubleshoot operating systems
•   Install and troubleshoot hardware and software
•   Using the internet
•   Basic networking concepts




National ICT Competency Standard for Civil Servants                               34
Commission on Information and Communications Technology
JOB ROLE I                        TECHNICAL WRITER

Job Description:
• Evaluate, translate and document technical specifications concerning
   computer operations in the organization
• Design and develop technical documentation
• Design and develop user training materials and self-paced tutorials for
   new systems
• Conduct technical and information system research

Standard 1: Evaluate IS project technical requirements


Indicators:

•   Define/prioritize communication needs
•   Resolve conflicting requirements
•   Specify project objectives
•   Determine the size and specifics of the work to be completed
•   Estimate time, materials, and capabilities needed to complete assignment
•   Identify criteria for successful completion of project
•   Evaluate strengths and weaknesses of completed project


Standard 2: Write technical reports


Indicators:

•   Determine audience
•   Access needed information using standard references and sources
•   Identify type of report needed
•   Compile relevant data
•   Organize data into charts and graphs
•   Analyze data
•   Draw conclusions from data analysis
•   Outline report
•   Draft report
•   Edit report (e.g., check spelling, grammar, punctuation, sentence structure,
    accuracy of content)
•   Review report with peers
•   Revise report as needed based on peer feedback
•   Proofread revised report
•   Present reports




National ICT Competency Standard for Civil Servants                            35
Commission on Information and Communications Technology
Standard 3: Conduct technical research


Indicators:

•   Define research questions
•   Determine priorities for the information that should be gathered
•   Identify potential sources of information
•   Identify target audience/user group as a key information source
•   Identify subject-matter experts
•   Evaluate potential sources of information based on established criteria (e.g.,
    affordability, relevance)
•   Conduct interviews with selected human information sources
•   Gather information from selected print and electronic sources
•   Determine the accuracy and completeness of the information gathered
•   Assist the Project Manager/Information Systems Analyst in the research
    requirements of projects/systems
•   Provide support and assistance to other teams in jobs requiring research
    works


Standard 4: Design technical documentation


Indicators:

•   Define purpose of documentation
•   Specify standards for documentation, including critical success criteria
•   Identify delivery options
•   Evaluate cost-effectiveness of each delivery option
•   Select tools appropriate for task purpose
•   Plan information flow
•   Select writing style and tone appropriate for given documentation
•   Determine level of detail needed
•   Identify visuals appropriate for given documentation
•   Provide feedback on design to development team/individual


Standard 5: Develop technical documentation


Indicators:

•   Determine audience
•   Identify parameters
•   Monitor development progress
•   Interpret specifications or drawings for target audience

National ICT Competency Standard for Civil Servants                             36
Commission on Information and Communications Technology
•   Record process (e.g., flowchart, step-by-step narrative)
•   Record data
•   Maintain test logs
•   Compile cumulative reference/record
•   Measure compliance with established parameters
•   Verify the accuracy and validity of the information
•   Select information relevant to and appropriate for the given documentation
•   Organize/synthesize information
•   Present content in clear and concise way
•   Translate technical terminology into understandable terms (for audience)
•   Employ presentation tools and techniques appropriate for the given
    documentation
•   Obtain feedback on the information provided and its technical accuracy


Underpinning Knowledge:

•   Communication and computer skills
•   Technical writing techniques
•   Research and documentation techniques
•   Analytical report preparation
•   Writing proposals
•   Systems development life cycle
•   Project management
•   Professional ethics




National ICT Competency Standard for Civil Servants                          37
Commission on Information and Communications Technology
JOB ROLE J                        TELECOMMUNICATIONS
                                  SPECIALISTS

Job Description:
• Manage the organization’s telecommunications systems and facilities
• Interconnect computers and communications equipment
• Design voice and data communication systems
• Install different communications systems
• Manage, troubleshoot and maintain telecommunications systems and
   facilities

Standard 1: Understand and operate transmission line applications


Indicators:

•   Define power conversion
•   Explain the principles and operation of two-wire and four-wire transmission
    lines
•   Explain the principles and operation of coaxial cable
•   Explain the principles and operation of a microwave guide and wireless
•   Explain the principles and operation of fiber optics, analog, and digital
    circuits
•   Explain the different telecommunications standards


Standard 2: Operate transmitters and receivers


Indicators:

•   Explain the principles and operation of   RF amplifiers
•   Explain the principles and operation of   modulation/demodulation (e.g., AM,
    FM, SSB, DSSC, pulse modulation)
•   Construct modulators/demodulators
•   Operate modulators/demodulators
•   Explain the principles and operation of   microwave and satellite
    communication systems
•   Explain the principles and operation of   repeater systems (e.g., trunk and
    fiber/scramble/data)




National ICT Competency Standard for Civil Servants                               38
Commission on Information and Communications Technology
Standard 3: Work with various types of multiplexing systems


Indicators:

•   Explain the principles and operation of analog multiplexing systems (e.g.,
    CATV)
•   Explain the principles and operation of digital multiplexing systems (e.g., T-1,
    fiber)


Standard 4: Troubleshoot transmitters, receivers and antennas


Indicators:

•   Isolate   system   faults   in   CRT modulation/demodulation circuits
•   Isolate   system   faults   in   RF transmitters and receivers
•   Isolate   system   faults   in   RF modulation/demodulation circuits
•   Isolate   system   faults   in   antenna systems


Standard 5: Work with various data communication systems


Indicators:

•   Explain the principles and operation of data communications, signaling
    systems, codes, formats, and protocols
•   Explain the principles and operation of parallel and serial ports
•   Explain the principles and operation of synchronous and asynchronous
    signals
•   Explain the principles and operation of data modems
•   Operate data modems
•   Explain the principles and operation of fax machines
•   Explain the principles and operation of various types of networks (e.g.,
    Ethernet, token ring)
•   Operate various types of networks
•   Employ accepted techniques for cable termination (e.g., UTP, COAX, FIBER)


Standard 6: Troubleshoot data communications systems


Indicators:

•   Isolate system faults in data modems
•   Isolate system faults in various types of networks

National ICT Competency Standard for Civil Servants                              39
Commission on Information and Communications Technology
•   Isolate system faults in various types of cable
•   Isolate system faults in various types of carrier systems
•   Identify the different networking topologies
•   Determine hardware communication faults utilizing diagnostic tools
•   Identify network problems utilizing network management tools (e.g.,
    hardware, software carriers)


Standard 7: Work with fiber optic communications systems


Indicators:

•   Employ accepted techniques for fiber splicing
•   Employ accepted techniques for fiber termination
•   Explain the basic characteristics of optics (e.g., reflection, total reflection,
    and refraction)
•   Explain the characteristics and components of fiber optic cables
•   Identify bandwidth and attenuation limitations for fiber optic systems
•   Explain the technique of wavelength multiplexing in fiber optic cables
•   Explain the characteristics of various types of light sources and light
    detectors used in fiber optic systems
•   Identify the components of fiber optic transmission systems and the function
    of each
•   Discuss how data signals are transformed into light pulses
•   Operate a simple fiber optic data transmission system
•   Differentiate between multi-mode and single-mode systems


Standard 8: Practice RF systems safety


Indicators:

•   Comply with safety procedures for   working with RF systems antennae and
    support structures (e.g., towers)
•   Comply with safety procedures for   working with RF systems high
    voltage/power supply
•   Comply with safety procedures for   working with RF generators
•   Comply with safety procedures for   working in RF radiating environments




National ICT Competency Standard for Civil Servants                               40
Commission on Information and Communications Technology
Standard 9: Work with antenna systems


Indicators:

•   Explain the principles and operation of single-element antennae (e.g., 1/4
    wave dipole, longwire, vertical)
•   Explain the principles and operation of multi-element antennae (e.g., point-
    to-point, broadcast)
•   Explain the principles and operation of impedance matching of antennae
    systems
•   Understand antennae system measurement


Standard 10:     Design telecommunications networks


Indicators:

•   Explain the role telecommunication networks play in the contemporary
    business environment
•   Discuss how voice, data, and video inputs are converted to electromagnetic
    signals
•   Identify advanced telecommunication technologies, including frame relay and
    ATM
•   Explain how to design telecommunication protocols
•   Discuss the TCP/IP protocol and how each layer functions
•   Identify applications that should be addressed using the client-server model
•   Discuss the X.25 protocol
•   Explain the characteristics and function of ISDN and ISDN signaling
•   Explain the characteristics and function of frame relay congestion control
•   Explain the characteristics and function of asynchronous transfer mode
    (ATM)
•   Discuss legacy traffic over ATM
•   Explain how ATM traffic is managed
•   Discuss ATM PNNI
•   Identify mobile communications technologies, including cellular and personal
    communication networks
•   Understand international telecommunications standards, models, trends
•   Employ error detection and correction systems
•   Explain the characteristics and function of data compression
•   Explain the characteristics and function of data concentration




National ICT Competency Standard for Civil Servants                            41
Commission on Information and Communications Technology
Underpinning Knowledge:

•   The OSI and TCP/IP models and network protocols
•   Modems and broadband internet technologies
•   Telecommunications standards
•   Telecommunications media
•   Telecommunications devices and equipment
•   Transmitters, receivers and antennas
•   Installation, troubleshooting and maintenance of telecommunications facilities
•   Security concepts
•   Internet, intranet and extranets
•   Telephone Networks
•   LANs, WLANs, WANs, MANs, VPNs
•   Advanced networking concepts




National ICT Competency Standard for Civil Servants                            42
Commission on Information and Communications Technology
REFERENCES

•   Center for IT Excellence (CITE)
       http://www.bcc.ctc.edu/cite/

•   International Computer Driving Licence in Asia pacific (ICDLAP)
       http://www.icdlap.com/

•   International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) - National
    Educational Technology Standards (NETS)
       http://cnets.iste.org/

•   Japanese IT Standards Examination (JITSE)
       http://www.jitse.org/

•   Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL)
       http://www.mcrel.org

•   National Workforce Center for Emerging Technologies (NWCET)
       http://www.nwcet.org/

•   Ohio Information Technology Competency Profile
       http://www.itworks-ohio.org/




National ICT Competency Standard for Civil Servants                       43
Commission on Information and Communications Technology

				
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