Neck Lecture

					         Identify the muscles of the neck and indicate their major actions and sources of
        innervation. Indicate the relationship of each of the muscle groups to the layers of
                                       deep fascia in the neck.
Posterior cervical triangle                                          Anterior triangles                                         Suprahyoid
                                                                                                                                 muscles




                                                                                                                              Infrrahyoid
                                                                                                                                muscles




 Trapezius


                                                                            Investing layer of deep cervical fascia
                                                     Sternocleidomastoid
                                                                                                Pretracheal fascia
                                                                                                (visceral part)
                                                    Carotid
                                                    sheath


             Sternocleidomastoid                                        T
                                                                                                                Pretracheal
                                                                        E                                       fascia
                                                                                                                (muscular
                                                                                                                part)
                                                                                                                              Prevertebral muscles
                                                                                                                Alar fascia                          Scalene muscles
                              Buccopharyngeal
                                   fascia


                              Prevertebral fascia




                                       Trapezius
                                                              Deep Cervical Fascia
    Identify the three pharyngeal constrictor muscles and their anterior attachments to
bony/cartilaginous structures. Identify the three small longitudinal muscles of the pharynx.


 Buccinator




                             Superior constrictor                               Salpingopharyngeus
                                                    Stylopharyngeus

                         Stylopharyngeus                                         Palatopharyngeus
                                                    Superior constrictor

                            Middle constrictor       Middle constrictor

  Pterygomandibular                                   Inferior constrictor
        raphe
                            Inferior constrictor
                                                        Cricopharyngeus
                            Cricopharyngeus
                 Identify the major cartilages of the larynx
                                                                                          Epiglottis
                          Epiglottis
                                                           Hyoid


                            Hyoid



                        Thyroid cart.
                                                                            Thyroid cart.

                                                          Arytenoid
                          Arytenoid                                          Vocal Cord
                                                            cart.
                            cart.


                         Cricoid cart.                                   Cricoid cart.




    Anterior view                        Posterior view               Sagittal Section




http://www.emory.edu/ANATOMY/Contents.html
    …and the muscles which bring about their movement.




                                       Arytenoideus


   Cricothyroid                           Posterior
                                       Crico-arytenoid
                                    Thyro-arytenoid
                                       Lateral
                                   Crico-arytenoid
                            Cricothyroid




Lateral view        Lateral view                         Posterior view
                      (deeper)
Identify the role played by each of these muscles in the control of the control of the
                              size of the rima glottidis.

 Post. Crico-arytenoid                Lat. Crico-arytenoid              Arytenoid cart.
                                                                                          Rima glottidis
                     Arytenoid cart

                                                             Aryepiglottic fold

                     Rima glottidis
                                                                                                 Vocal cord
                         Vocal cord
                     Thyroid cart.                                       Thyroid cart.




     Arytenoideus
 Actions of intrinsic laryngeal muscles

                                                             http://www.voice-center.com/voice_mecha.html
Follow the course of sensory and motor innervation of the larynx. Predict the functional
                       consequences of damage to these nerves.
Trace the course of nerves through the neck noting especially: the sensory and motor branches
   of the cervical and brachial plexuses, their course and distribution in the neck and their
          relationship to major bony, muscular, or vascular landmarks in the region.
                                                                                                                                      Great auricular n.
                                                                                   Hypoglossal n. (XII)                          C1
                                        Great auricular n.   Lesser occipital n.
                                                                                                                                                     Lesser
                                                                                                                                                    occipital
                                                                                                                                      C2               n.
                                                                                    Transverse
                                                                                    cervical
                                                                                    nn.
                                                                                                                                       C3


                                                                                                                                       C4
                                                                                    Ansa cervicalis
                                                             Accessory n. (XI)

  Hypoglossal n. (XII)                                                                                                                  C5
                                                                                           Supraclavicular nn.
                                                                                                                                        Accessory n. (XI)
                                                                                                                     Phrenic n.
         Ansa cervicalis
                                                                                   C5
                                                                                                          Dorsal scapular n.
                                                                                   C6                               Nn. to longus colli and scalenes


            Vagus n. (X)                                                           C7                                          Suprascapular n.

                                                                                   C8
                           Phrenic n.

                                                                                   T1


                                                                                    Long thoracic n.
Trace the course of nerves through the neck noting especially: the extension of the
             upper part of the sympathetic trunk into the neck region.




     Vagus (X)
                       C1
     Sup. Cervical gang.

                  C2
                  C3
     Carotid plexus
                  C4                 Glossopharyngeal (IX)
        Middle      C5
     Cervical gang.
                   C6
                    C7
    Cervicothoracic
         gang.      C8
Trace the flow of arterial blood from the aorta through the neck including vessels that pass
through the neck without branching and those that send branches to viscera and muscles of
                                          the neck.
Two main arteries are found in the neck: Subclavian and branches and Carotid

                                 Vertebral
        Deep cervical                                    Post.
                                                                          Superficial temporal
                                                         auricular

                                                                             Maxillary
                                     Ascending
                                      cervical
                                                                                   Facial
                                                            Int.                            Digastric
       Transverse
                                       Inf. thyroid        carotid       Lingual
        cervical
                                                                                   Ext. carotid
                                                                                   Sup. thyroid
                                     Thyrocervical
                                                                                   Sup. laryngeal
                                      Suprascapular

                                                          Ascending          Omohyoid
                                                          pharyngeal



                                                                            Common carotid




                        Subclavian                                   Ext. Carotid
 Trace the pathways for venous drainage from the neck into the brachial veins.




                                                                         Sup. thyroid



Ext. jugular
                                       Int. jugular

                                                                             Middle
                                                                             thyroid




                                                                     Inf. thyroid
                              Ant. jugular

				
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posted:11/7/2011
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