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					Geant4 updates
Makoto Asai (SLAC/SCCS)
G4NAMU meeting @ Orlando
Jul/30/2006
Contents
• Short introduction to Geant4
• New features in versions 8.0 and 8.1
• New features foreseen in version 9.0
• Short introduction to gMocren (former GRAPE)
• Conferences of interests




July 30, 2006                Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   2
What is Geant4?
•    Geant4 is the successor of GEANT3, the world-
     standard toolkit for HEP detector simulation.

•    Geant4 is one of the first successful attempt to
     re-design a major package of HEP software for
     the next generation of experiments using an
     Object-Oriented environment.

•    A variety of requirements have also taken into
     account from heavy ion physics, CP violation
     physics, cosmic ray physics, astrophysics, space
     science and medical applications.

•    In order to meet such requirements, a large
     degree of functionality and flexibility are provided.

•    G4 is not only for HEP but goes well beyond that.

July 30, 2006                     Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   3
Flexibility of Geant4
•    In order to meet wide variety of requirements
     from various application fields, a large degree of
     functionality and flexibility are provided.
•    Geant4 has many types of geometrical
     descriptions to describe most complicated and
     realistic geometries
       – CSG, BREP and Boolean solids
       – Placement, replica, divided, parameterized,
            reflected and grouped
       – XML interface
•    Everything is open to the user
       – Choice of physics processes/models
       – Choice of GUI, Visualization, persistency,
            histogramming technologies


July 30, 2006                       Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   4
       Physics in Geant4
  •     It is rather unrealistic to develop a uniform physics model to cover wide variety of
        particles and/or wide energy range.
  •     Much wider coverage of physics comes from mixture of theory-driven,
        parameterized, and empirical formulae. Thanks to polymorphism mechanism,
        both cross-sections and models (final state generation) can be combined in
        arbitrary manners into one particular process.
  •     Geant4 offers
          – EM processes
          – Hadronic processes
          – Photon/lepton-hadron processes
          – Optical photon processes
          – Decay processes
          – Shower parameterization
          – Event biasing techniques
          – And you can plug-in more

July 30, 2006                      Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)       5
       Geant4 – Its history
   •     Dec ’94 - Project start
   •     Apr ’97 - First alpha release
   •     Jul ’98 - First beta release
   •     Dec ’98 - First Geant4 public release
   •     …
   •     Dec 17th, ’04 - Geant4 version 7.0 release
   •     June 30th, ’05 - Geant4 version 7.1 release
   •     Dec 16th, ’05 - Geant4 version 8.0 release
           – Feb 10th, ’06 - Geant4 8.0-patch01 release
   •     June 30th, ’06 - Geant4 version 8.1 release
           – Jul 27th, ’06 - Geant4 8.1-patch01 release
   •     We currently provide two to three public releases every year.
           – Bimonthly beta releases are available to the registered beta-testers.


July 30, 2006                       Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   6
Geant4 Collaboration




  TRIUMF




  Lebedev

                                                                        Collaborators also from non-
                                                                        member institutions, including
                                                                          Budker Inst. of Physics
  J.W.Goethe                                                                   IHEP Protvino
                                                                             MEPHI Moscow
  Universität                                                               Pittsburg University

July 30, 2006   Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)                                    7
July 30, 2006   Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   8
                http://top25.sciencedirect.com/index.php?subject_area_id=21




July 30, 2006         Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   9
 http://www.in-cites.com/hotpapers/2004/november04-eng.html

     http://www.in-cites.com/hotpapers/2005/jan05-eng.html
       http://www.in-cites.com/hotpapers/2005/mar05-eng.html

            http://www.in-cites.com/hotpapers/2005/may05-eng.html

                http://www.in-cites.com/hotpapers/2005/july05-eng.html




July 30, 2006                        Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   10
July 30, 2006   Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   11
  Courtesy of S.Incerti (IN2P3/CNRS)
July 30, 2006                Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   12
                Smart-2                                         INTEGRAL




                                  ACE

                                                                                Cassini



                                                LISA



                                                   Herschel
                               GLAST
Bepi Colombo                                                                 SWIFT


               Astro-E2




                          XMM-Newton
                                         GAIA                  JWST


                                  EUSO




                                                              AMS     MAXI
          ISS Columbus
                                                                        Courtesy T. Ersmark, KTH Stockholm
July 30, 2006   Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)                               14
July 30, 2006   Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   16
July 30, 2006   Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   17
                GEANT4 based proton dose calculation
                 in a clinical environment: technical
                  aspects, strategies and challenges




                                                                        Harald Paganetti



July 30, 2006            Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)         18
Geant4 8.0 - general picture
  1.            New capabilities
          –        EM („standard‟) : new MSC model implementation
          –        New design for particle definitions, no longer „static‟
          –        Concrete scoring and filter classes
          –        Geometry overlap check at construction
  2.            Improvements and fixes
          –        to existing hadronic physics modeling & models
          –        in physics process implementations
  3.            Migrations, updates
          –        Support for CLHEP 2.0.X series
                  –    Keeping compatibility with 1.9.X series
          –        Usage of <sstream> replacing obsolete <strstream>




July 30, 2006                          Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   19
Geant4 8.1 - general picture
  1.            Adoption of a new Geant4 Software License
  2.            New capabilities
          –        Updated particle definitions to match PDG-2005
          –        New „material scanner‟ utility
          –        New „tessellated‟ solids for interface with CAD systems
          –        ß-release of very low-energy processes in water
  3.            Numerous improvements in EM “standard” physics
          –        Simulation of back-scattering improved
          –        Tail of angular distribution now material dependent
          –        Visible energy in sampling calorimeters less sensitive to production
                   threshold
  3.            Fixes in hadronic physics and reviewed physics-lists
          –        New combined elastic-scattering models
          –        Extended use of Binary and Bertini cascade models




July 30, 2006                          Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   20
EM Physics
•    New stepping algorithm for multiple-                •    Refinements to multiple scattering
     scattering process (since 8.0)                           process (version 8.1)
                                                                – Improved back-scattering
       – To improve behavior of low energy
                                                                – Improved scattering on very thin
         particles
                                                                  layers
       – Significantly reduced cut                              – Tail of angular distribution now
         dependency                                               material dependent
       – More precise visible energy in                         – Even less sensitive to production
         sampling calorimeters                                    thresholds in sampling
                                                                  calorimeters
       – Limits step size for particles
                                                         •    Reintroduced option to create
       – Extra CPU cost when using same                       secondaries below the cut near
         value of production thresholds                       geometrical boundaries (sub-cutoff)
       – Mechanism provided to deactivate                •    Improved simulation of ionization for
                                                              ions
         step limitation
                                                                – Data from NIST databases used




July 30, 2006                     Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)               21
Physics … more
  •     Synchrotron radiation (version 8.1)
                • New process version released: new methods for angular distributions;
                  enhanced to work with local fields and set polarization
  •     Transition radiation (version 8.1)
                • New algorithm for XTR angular distribution
                • Multiple scattering does not use table
                    – Needed to ensure repeatability
                • Refined PAI (Photon-Absorption-Ionisation) model
  •     Low energy EM (version 8.1)
                • New models for photoelectric angular distribution
                • ß-release of low energy processes in water down to eV scale (Geant4-
                  DNA)



July 30, 2006                       Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   22
More …
   •     Data sets
           – New data set for high precision neutron processes G4NDL 3.9 (release 8.1)
           – New data set for low-energy EM processes G4EMLOW 4.0 (release 8.1)
   •     Examples
           – New extended examples:
                • TestEm0 - uses G4EmCalculator to print x-sections and stopping
                  power
                • TestEm16 - simulation of synchrotron radiation
                • Hadr01 - simulation of proton/ion beam interaction in water
                • Parameterization/gflash - usage of gflash for shower parameterization
                • Persistency/P01 - object persistency through Reflex
           – New advanced examples:
                • Microbeam - cellular irradiation beam line at CENBG facility, France
                • Raredecay_calorimetry - photonuclear reactions for photon inefficiency
                • Radiation_monitor - LHC radiation monitoring detectors
           – Many improvements and fixes …

July 30, 2006                      Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   23
New features foreseen in 9.0
•    Scheduled release date - December 15th, 2006
•    Kernel / Geometry
       – Parallel navigator, first implementation
       – Revision of biasing/scoring processes
       – Optimized navigation for voxelized phantom geometries
       – Addition of magnetic moment to particle properties
       – Ability to change temperature and density of gaseous materials
•    Visualisation and Graphics Representations
       – Support visualization of G4Polyhedra with generic constructor
       – Extensions to G4RichTrajectory and provide examples
       – Provide convenient visualization tools for new Scorers
       – Provide solution integrated into normal visualization system for visualization of
         DICOM files
       – Full support for visualization of boolean shapes
       – Support visualisation of regions/envelopes/parallel geometries


July 30, 2006                     Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)      24
New features foreseen in 9.0
•    Standard EM
      – Updates to ionisation processes
          • Spin and mass effects for pions, muons, kaons
          • Ability to plug-in user data for stopping powers
          • Alternative multiple-scattering processes for different particle types
              – e+, e-, muons, hadrons and ions
      – Introduction of K-L shell X-rays in photo-electric process
•    Low-energy EM
      – Low energy extensions in water (down to O(1eV))
      – Evaluation of Penelope multiple scattering
      – Low energy extensions in silicon
•    Hadronic Physics
      – Evaluate and improve hadronic elastic scattering
      – Extension to G4NDL data library and repackaging using ENDF
      – Development of sub-models of Bertini cascade and application to ions
      – Binary cascade interface to string models
      – Review of total, elastic, inelastic cross sections

July 30, 2006                    Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   25
gMocren
•    gMocren (former GRAPE) is being developed for the purpose of visualizing patient
     data with a dose distribution which is calculated by Geant4-based simulation for the
     radiotherapy.

•    This activity is a part of the project, "Development of Simulation Framework for
     Advanced Radio Therapy" supporting by CREST, JST (Core Research for
     Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency).

•    gMocren home page

       http://geant4.kek.jp/gMocren/

       – Currently, only the Windows version is available for download. Linux version
            should come soon.




July 30, 2006                    Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)      26
Screen shots of gMocren




July 30, 2006   Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)   27
Conferences of interests
•    First European Workshop on Monte Carlo Treatment Planning of the European
     Workgroup on MCTP
       – October 22 - 25, 2006
       – Gent, Belgium
•    The Japan-Taiwan Symposium on Simulation in Medicine
       – December 12 - 15, 2006
       – Tsukuba, Japan
•    Monte Carlo techniques in radiotherapy and verification : Third McGill International
     Workshop
       – May 28 - June 1, 2007
       – McGill University, Montreal, Canada




July 30, 2006                    Geant4 updates @ G4NAMU meeting - M. Asai (SLAC/SCCS)      28

				
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