Technology in Medicine by xiaopangnv


									Technology in
Biomedical Technology
Educational Requirements for Jobs In
   Dependant on many factors
   Varies state to state
   Some basic standards do exist
Educational Requirements
   Secondary education: sciences, HO,
    computer skills, etc.
   Post-secondary education: received
    after high school
Post-Secondary Degrees
   Associate’s Degree
       Technical school or community college
       Completion of 2-year course of study
   Bachelor’s Degree
       College or university
       4+ years
Post-Secondary Degrees
   Master’s Degree
       College or university
       1-3 years after bachelor’s
   Doctorate or Doctoral Degree (PhD)
       College or university
       2+ years after bachelor’s or master’s (up to 4-6
        more years)
Careers in Biomedical Technology
   Medical Imaging/Radiology
       The creation of radiographs of internal structures
        of the body
       FDA regulates exposure of individuals to
            Film badge: detects the amount of radiation
Specialties in Radiology
   Radiologist: physician who specializes in the
    use of diagnostic machines to diagnose & treat
   Nuclear Medicine Technician: uses radioactive
    tracers to create images of body parts (PET scan)
   Ultrasonography Technician/Medical
    Sonographer: uses sound waves for diagnosis &
    treatment of injury/illness
Specialties in Radiology
   Medical Dosimetrist: measures the dose of
    radiation emitted by a radioactive source
   Electrocardiograph Tech: tests for heart
   Echocardiograph Tech: uses US to detect heart
   Electroencephalograph Tech: measures
    electrical activity of the brain
Careers in Biomedical Technology
   Biomedical Equipment Tech: install,
    inspect, service medical equipment
   Central Services Tech: in charge of
    equipment and tools necessary for surgery
   Biomedical Engineer: develop diagnostic
    machines, prosthetics
Computers in Healthcare
1.   As Medical Information Systems
2.   In Administrative Applications
3.   Computer Assisted Surgery
4.   Prosthetic Devices
5.   Computerized Pharmacy
6.   Radiology & Digital Imaging
7.   Bloodless Surgery
Computers in Healthcare
   1. Medical Information Systems
       References
       Up to date information

   2. Administrative Application
       Office management
       Patient information
Computers in Healthcare
   3. Computer Assisted Surgery
       The use of robotics and/or computer-assisted surgical
        planning to provide minimally-invasive surgery
            Cost effective
            More efficient
            Accurate diagnoses
            Better visualization
            Better patient care: improved outcomes, increased safety,
             decrease in complications, morbidity & patient readmissions
Computers in Healthcare
   Examples of Computer Assisted Surgery
   Precision Freehand Sculpting (of bone)
       Handheld tool for shaping bones for artificial joint
   Microsurgery Error Compensation
       Tool used to compensate for physiological hand
Computers in Healthcare
   Examples of Computer Assisted Surgery
   Endoscopic Surgery
       Endoscope: an instrument for visually examining
        the interior of a bodily canal or hollow organ—
            Laparoscopy-abdominal surgery
            Arthroscopy-joint surgery
Computers in Healthcare
   4. Prosthetic Devices
       Used for limbs & organs
       For functional or aesthetic purposes
       History of use goes as far back as 484 BCE and
        has become more advanced with war & higher
        levels of technology
Computers in Healthcare
   Prosthetic Limbs Continued
   Now able to be controlled by the users
       Myoelectric limbs: coordinates electric signals in
        muscles to provide movement of artificial limb
       Transducers: sensors used on artificial limbs
        that detects sensory information and relay the
        information to the brain
    This limb can even
 detect when something
is slipping from your grip.
Computers in Healthcare
   5. Computerized Pharmacy
       Used to catch drug errors: over prescriptions or
        drug reactions
       Ability to send prescriptions to various
        pharmacies (i.e. for traveling)
       Maintain better patient histories (tracking
        allergies, other medications)
Computers in Healthcare
   6. Radiology
   Radiology: the use of electromagnetic
    radiation & ultrasonics for the diagnosis &
    treatment of injury & disease
   Wilhelm Roentgen: German physicist who
    discovered x-rays in 1895; awarded Nobel
    Prize in Physics in 1901
Computers in Healthcare
   6. Radiology (continued)
   Ionizing Radiation: the passing of a localized
    beam of electromagnetic waves through a body
    part to be examined; produces a static image
    called a radiograph
       X-rays: used most often in orthopedics & dentistry
       Mammograms: an x-ray of female breast
       Tomograph: a series of x-rays to shoe entire depth of an
        anatomical structure
Computers in Healthcare
   Ionizing Radiation continued
       CT or CAT scan: computerized axial
        tomography; creates a cross-sectional image-
        sometimes uses contrast media to increase
       MRI: magnetic resonance imaging: produces
        images of soft tissues; uses electromagnets to
        create a magnetic field 30,000 X stronger than
        Earth’s-no radiation
MRI   CAT Scan
Computers in Healthcare
   6. Radiology
   Dynamic Images: record movement of
    organs/systems (intestinal tract, blood
    vessels; EXAMPLE
       PET scans: (positron emission tomography):
        patients injected with tracers attached to glucose
        (blood sugar); produces pictures of activity and
PET Scan
Computers in Healthcare
   6. Digital Imaging: the process of transforming or
    altering a digital image by manipulating it on a
   Advantages
       no developing process
       copies as good as original
       viewed on computer screen
       transmitted over phone lines
       can be highlighted or enhanced
Computers in Healthcare
   7. Bloodless Surgery: the use of less-invasive
    surgical techniques to reduce the loss of blood
    during procedures; EXAMPLES:
       Interventional Radiology: used for treatment & diagnosis
        of disease
            Insertion of small instruments (catheters, wires, cameras)
            Using diagnostic tools (x-rays, MRI’s)
            Can eliminate need for hospitalization
Computers in technology
   7. Bloodless Surgery EXAMPLES (continued)
       Focused Ultrasound Surgery:
            non-invasive
            outpatient surgical procedure
            Uses high frequency US waves to destroy tissues
            Uses MRI images to guide and monitor treatment
       Stereotactic Radiology: the precise delivery of radiation
        therapy to cancer cells
            Painless
            Reduces side effects seen in typical radiation therapy
             patients (nausea, red skin, hair loss)
   The use of computers, the Internet and
    other communication technologies to
    provide medical care to patients at a
   Gives us the ability to:
       Diagnose
       Monitor patients
       Treat patients
Forms of Telemedicine
   Voice
   Data
   Still Images
   Motion Picture
Use of Telemedicine
   Homebound health care to elderly
   Connect rural primary care physicians to urban
   Allows families of high-risk newborns to watch
    babies’ hospital care from home
   Data can be transmitted from ambulance to ER
   Patients with chronic illnesses can receive
    medication reminders at home
Advantages of Telemedicine
   Brings high quality medical care to anyone
    regardless of distance
   Decrease patient wait time
   Decreases patient travel time
Limitations of Telemedicine
   Examining a patient at a distance is not the
    same as examining them face-to-face
   Small hospitals and clinics may find
    hardware costs to be too expensive
Effectiveness of Telemedicine
   In prisons, it has led to decreased costs &
    improved health care for inmates
   Medical assistants at the remote sites may
    be useful
   Research studies generally favorable for
    medical and cost effectiveness
Types of Telemedicine
   Telehealth: a larger      Teleradiology: oldest
    field that includes        form of telemedicine
    health-related             using computers &
    education, public          telecommunications
    health research and           Transports diagnostic
    health services                images across distances
Types of Telemedicine
   Interactive Video           Telepathology:
    Conferencing:                transmission of
    conferencing that            microscopic images
    allows medical               over
    professionals &              telecommunication
    patients to consult in       lines allowing the
    real-time, using             pathologist to view
    telephones & video           images on a monitor
    screens                      instead of under a
Types of Telemedicine
   Telepsychiatry: uses         Remote Monitoring
    teleconferencing to           Devices
    deliver psychotherapy;           Telespirometry: used
    may not be suitable for           for asthmatics
    some types of mental             Arrhythmia
                                      Monitoring: ECG
                                      telemetry that monitors
                                      a patient’s cardiac
                                      status & sends it to a
                                      remote location
Issues With Telemedicine
   Technical Issues
       Appropriate telecommunications infrastructure
        must be in place
       Not available in some rural or urban areas
       Requires high bandwidth (cable modem)
   Legal Issues
       Licensing laws differ in each state
       Liability is not clear
Issues With Telemedicine
   Insurance Issues
       To date, insurance may not cover costs of
        telemedicine techniques
   Privacy Issues
       Electronic medical record subject to misuse
       HIPAA: Health Insurance Portability &
        Accountability Act of 1996

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