Washington University in St. Louis
Bachelor of Fine Arts Degree (May 2008) | Cumulative GPA 3.5 of 4.0
Major in Visual Communications: Graphic Design, Minor in Linguistics
Adobe InDesign, Illustrator, and Photoshop; Dreamweaver; QuarkXPress
Microsoft Word, Excel, and PowerPoint
Proficient in Macintosh and Windows Operating Systems
Fluent English, Proficient Spanish
Self-Employed | Sunnyside, New York
Freelance Graphic Designer (January 2009–present)
Designing information graphics and print projects. Developing system of maps
to accompany thesis publication of an Edinburgh University doctoral candidate.
Timko&Klick | Brooklyn, New York
Graphic Design Intern (November 2009–March 2010)
Worked under the art direction of Mr. Matthias Ernstberger and Mr. Thomas Porostocky.
Designed for print and web; conducted visual research, brainstorming, and illustrating.
Reverie Bar | Edinburgh, Scotland
Graphic Designer (September 2008–February 2009)
Designed promotional materials for busy restaurant pub. Redesigned logo and developed
unified branding system for additional café business of the owner.
The Journey Design Team | St. Louis, Missouri
Graphic Designer (January 2007–October 2007)
Volunteered for The Journey, a non-denominational church in St. Louis, Missouri.
Created music album packaging, redesigned template for bulletin distributed weekly
to all three church campuses, and designed information literature and promotional
material for community events and classes.
andrea powell IridiumGroup, Inc. | New York, New York
Graphic Design Intern (May–July 2007)
www.thisisandrea.com Aided designers in concept development, project design, preparation for client
andrea.d.powell@ gmail.com presentations, and administrative tasks. Conducted subject and photographic research
+1 903.357.8975 for publications; presented project ideas to design team and agency president.
39-44 48th Street Washington University Office of Student Financial Aid | St. Louis, Missouri
Sunnyside, New York 11104 USA Graphic Designer (December 200–February 2007)
Updated and redesigned information literature for the university work-study program.
Scotland, England, France, Egypt (August 2008–August 2009)
Western Europe (July–August 2007)
AIGA, Washington University Chapter
Student Member (September 2007–September 2008)
honors and awards
Washington University in St. Louis
Paul Birdsall Award for Visual Communications (May 2008)
College of Art Dean’s List (December 2005, May 2008)
Hudson Scholarship (August 200–May 2008)
“Mission Statement” installation on permanent display at the Knight Center (May 2008)
Exhibited at the Undergraduate Research Symposium (April 2008)
Book Inescapable placed in Olin Library’s Permanent Collections (April 2008)
Featured in the Bachelor of Fine Arts show (April 2007, April 2008)
Featured in the in(ter)vention annual art journal (2007-2008 volume)
Siroky Art Scholar (August 200–August 2007)
3.0 The birth of a black hole
3.1 Star life
3.2 Star death
4.0 Structure and behavior
5.0 Finding black holes
6.0 Different forms
6.1 Galactic nuclei
6.2 Dark matter
6.4 Active galactic nuclei
7.0 Black holes in popular culture
7.1 Science fiction
7.2 Wormholes and space travel
7.3 Miniature black holes
7.4 Theories in fiction
massive black holes
There are many ways a black hole can form,
and it can be millions of times more massive
than the small stellar-mass black hole.
These large black holes are often located
at the centers of galaxies and are called star formation
massive black holes.
cluster reaches supernova
collision dense cluster
cluster of neutron
stars or small stellar-
mass black holes
collision tightly bound collapse and/or
system of a few accretion
instability one black hole
black hole binary
end massive black hole
Inescapable: black holes and the triumph of gravity | book
(7 x 10 inches, 77 pages)
This thorough book explains the formation and structure of black holes, then explores
theories concerning their effects on the universe. The complex information of the book
is organized using five systems: tabs and chapter labeling, informational graphics, key
words and margin definitions, astronomical photography, and typographic gravity.
Scientists specializing in the subtleties
of general relativity.
The black hole concept In the early s, black holes, with their elegant mathematical
properties, were primarily the intellectual toys of a highly
specialized group of relativists. In the tradition of Einstein,
has become one of the most relativists liked to rely on pure thought and mathematical
elegance to deduce deep truths about the nature of the
charismatic ideas Universe. On the other hand, astrophysics had a strong
the volume between the stars in our Galaxy.
empirical tradition. Theory was important, but it was
absorbing matter from the interstellar medium
An atmosphere of dust and gas that fills
The process of one celestial body taking and
(and remains) observation that drove progress in the ﬁeld.
in contemporary physics. Since black holes are essentially “passive,” the best hope
of locating them lies in discerning their gravitational eﬀects
on neighboring stars or gas. Soviet theorist Yakov Zel’dovich’s
or other celestial bodies.
ﬁrst proposal was to search for binary star systems in which
an ordinary star is orbiting an invisible, yet massive, companion.
Later on, he and American Edwin Salpeter noted that a black
5.0 Finding black holes
hole moving through the interstellar medium of space would
absolute zero, the theoretical absence of all
A thermodynamic temperature scale where
grow by accretion.
What Zel’dovich and Salpeter realized was that a black hole
accreting interstellar gas might conceivably be quite luminous.
thermal energy, is zero (0 K).
As the gas falls deep into the gravitational ﬁeld of the black
hole (but before it crosses the horizon), it will be strongly
compressed and heated. The hot infalling gas could radiate
into space a few percent of the energy locked up in its mass.
Shock waves in the falling gas would heat the gas to very high
temperatures on the Kelvin scale; at these temperatures the
gas would emit radiation predominantly in the x-ray band.
Rapid, randomly ﬂickering of the x-rays was later recognized
as an additional indication that the emission was being
produced in an extremely compact region with the dimensions
of a black hole or neutron star. These signatures are exactly
what led astronomers in the s to the discovery of stellar-
mass black holes.
Heated objects produce a unique spectrum of radiation that
depends only on their temperature, just as stars emit radiation
in the form of visible light with wavelengths (and thus colors)
image, previous spread A nebula made up of both dark and luminous matter. that depend directly on their temperatures. This phenomena
was one of the principal puzzles facing physicists at the turn of
the twentieth century. Its resolution (due, in part, to Einstein)
led to the realization that light behaves both as a wave and as
a particle, and thence led directly to the quantum theory.
stage one: star-forming gas cloud
andrea powell image A nebula whose dense gas is enveloping embryonic stars.
What would be the eﬀect of gravity around a body for which
the escape speed was as high as that of light, the fastest known
form of energy in our Universe? The Reverend John Michell
puzzled over this question in and came to the conclusion
that “all light emitted from such a body would be made to
return towards it, by its own proper gravity.” Michell was
suggesting that the most massive objects in the Universe might
be undetectable by their direct radiation or their production
of visual light but still manifest gravitational eﬀects on material
Over years after Michell came to this conclusion,
Einstein’s special theory of relativity established that the speed
of light sets a limit to the speed at which any kind of matter
or signal propagates, so that the kind of object envisaged by
Michell would be completely cut oﬀ from the outside Universe.
Nothing that ventures inside it would ever be able to escape.
Years later, astronomers discovered objects for which gravity
is as strong as Michell envisaged—these powerfully gravitating
bodies are black holes. As it turns out, in a black hole gravity
so overwhelms other forces that matter is crushed virtually
to a point.
On the Earth and in our Solar System, Newton’s theory of
gravitation aﬀords an excellent approximation of how gravity
and motion interact. But where gravity is so strong that it can
accelerate matter to nearly the speed of light, the Newtonian
description no longer works. We cannot formulate a consistent
picture of a black hole without deeper insights into gravity
than Newton’s theory oﬀers. Fortunately, long before black
holes were discovered, Einstein’s general theory of relativity
provided such insights and laid a ﬁrm theoretical foundation
for our understanding of black holes.
In , Albert Einstein wrote the ﬁrst of two papers that
would establish him as the greatest physicist since Newton.
In this paper, the -year-old Einstein enunciated his “special
theory of relativity,” which, among other breakthroughs,
emphasized the special signiﬁcance of the speed of light.
But it is his gravitational theory, “general relativity,” developed
in , that put Einstein in a class by himself. General
relativity was not a response to any particular observational
enigma. Motivated by more than the desire to explain concrete
observations, Einstein sought simplicity and unity in his
concept of the Universe.
Inescapable: black holes and the triumph of gravity | book
I love what I do. | poster (16.5 x 22.5 inches)
andrea powell Studio: Timko&Klick, Art director: Matthias Ernstberger
A typographic “hijacking” of appropriated text from a humorous classified ad.
Designed for the Type Directors Club’s show “Beautifully Banal”; exhibited on
May 11, 2010, and then auctioned off to raise money for the scholarship fund.
Bürgerbräukeller November 8: Evening The March through Munich November 9: Morning Odeonsplatz November 9: The End of the March
8:30 p.m. Hitler bursts through the doors,
yelling “The national revolution has broken out!”
Hitler returns to the main hall
8:30 p.m. 600 Nazis and extemps “Either the German
surround the Bürgerbräukeller. revolution begins tonight and the
morrow will find us in Germany
a true nationalist government,
or it will find us dead by dawn!”
to much acclaim from the crowd.
Hitler, Ludendorff, nh
and their associates give
lder sp alle
speeches, then allow the Fe on
crowd to leave. lder
Hitler is injured, dislocating his shoulder.
3 days later Hitler is captured, arrested,
and charged with treason.
Ludendorff leads them to the Bavarian Defense Ministry. Ludendorff is captured.
2000 Nazi men march with no plan of where to go.
lder 10:20 p.m. Hitler leaves
to deal with the putsch
Hitler begins the march through Munich.
elsewhere in Munich.
The Nazi troops and
10:30 p.m. Ludendorff state police officers
releases Triumvirate. Ludendorff yells “We will march!” exchange fire.
Nor Hitler realizes the putsch is failing.
Early morning Hitler orders a seizure of the Munich city council as hostages.
Hitler and his associates force The Nazi troops are stopped by a
Triumvirate into a side room, blockade of 100 German soldiers.
then Hitler demands their
support for the putsch. bräuke
Triumvirate refuses to cooperate. Bürger l
Hitler returns to anteroom.
9:00 p.m. Ludendorff forces
cooperation from Triumvirate.
Adolph Hitler Ten Nazi soldiers
Munich 1923 Erich Ludendorff
dictators of Germany:
One Nazi casualty
Ten audience members
One civilian casualty
Gustav von Kahr
Hans Ritter von Seisser Ten police officers
Adolf Hitler leads the new Nazi party in an unsuccessful Otto von Lossow
One police officer casualty
Police Senior Lieutenant
attempt to overthrow the German government. Baron Michael von Godin
Beer Hall Putsch | map (66 x 28 inches)
andrea powell Hitler made his first dash for power in Munich during the early days of the
Nazi party. This map simultaneously traces the chronological and geographical
progression of actions and events for major characters of the Nazi party and
the opposing Bavarian government forces during the putsch.
back in nature
wastewater treatment plant
7 ft 6 ft 5 ft
Down the drain | exhibition (14 x 18 x 8.5 feet, 5 rooms)
This museum exhibition about urban waste management illustrates a typical sewage
system for an audience ranging from upper-primary school children to adults.
The five rooms contain three-dimensional graphic illustrations, flat maps, detailed
diagrams, photos, and text explaining the many levels and steps of sewage disposal.
Sewage district Household unit Sewer
After you flush the toilet, your poop
enters the underground sewage system.
It isn’t just poop that enters this world,
but it’s a mix of shower water, washing
machine water, kitchen sink water,
diswasher water, rainwater... everything
that goes down the drain enters the
sewage system. Sewer system is generally
gravity powered, though pumps may be
used if necessary. The sewer system
carries this waste water through a
sewers are usually pipelines that begin with
connecting pipes from buildings to one or more
levels of larger underground horizontal mains.
network of pipes to the waste water
horizontal mains, which terminate at sewage
treatment facilities. treatment facility.
Vertical pipes, called manholes, connect the mains
to the surface.
Down the drain | exhibition