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					Chapter 18 ■ Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941


Name _________________________________________________ Date __________________


                        CHAPTER 18
  BLACK PROTEST, THE GREAT DEPRESSION, AND THE NEW DEAL,
                         1929–1941



CHAPTER TEST 18A

1. The cause of the Great Depression was:
   a. a drive for profits unchecked by federal regulation.
   b. a weak international trading system.
   c. the great inequality of wealth and income.
   d. All of these answers are correct.

2. As desperation during the Great Depression set in, white Southerners:
    a. sold their land and moved north.
    b. competed with black people for jobs considered ―Negro Work.‖
    c. worked with black people to appeal for federal aid.
    d. allowed black people into their unions.

3. Although Dr. Matilda Evan’s Columbia Clinic did not stay open long, it taught black people:
   a. the need to apply pressure on the state for greater access to health resources.
   b. better health care that northern states could provide.
   c. diseases that affected only black people.
   d. diseases that black people could catch from white people.

4. During the 1930s, black women made exceptional contributions to the NAACP through:
   a. membership drives.
   b. fund-raising efforts.
   c. Neither of these answers.
   d. Both of these answers are correct.

5. To survive the hard economic times of the 1930s, black women in
   Harlem:
    a. turned to performing songs and dances in the streets.
    b. relied on sympathetic white women for donations.
    c. consolidated their economic power.
    d. had fewer children so there would be fewer people to feed in the house.




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                                           Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941 ■ Chapter 18


6. President Roosevelt’s core of highly placed African Americans in his
  administration became known as the:
    a. ―Black Cabinet.‖
    b. ―Urban Administration.‖
    c. ―Negro Party.‖
    d. ―Black Movement.‖

7. Unlike the American Federation of Labor, the Committee for Industrial
   Organization:
    a. used violence to fight for better wages and working conditions.
    b. was favored by President Roosevelt.
    c. was committed to interracial membership.
    d. was in favor of child labor.

8. Some African Americans were attracted to the Communist Party because:
     a. it had a black president.
     b. of its militant antiracist views.
     c. of its peaceful protests.
     d. they believed the party was the future of American politics.

9. The NAACP attacked the Communist Party by:
    a. destroying its offices.
    b. sending in its own members to act as spies.
    c. challenging its sincerity toward black people.
    d. spreading rumors and lies.

10. Although the Tuskegee Study was to last 6 months, it ended up lasting:
     a. almost 40 years.
     b. 12 months.
     c. almost 2 years.
     d. 10 years.




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Chapter 18 ■ Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941


Name _________________________________________________ Date __________________


                        CHAPTER 18
  BLACK PROTEST, THE GREAT DEPRESSION, AND THE NEW DEAL,
                         1929–1941


CHAPTER TEST 18B

1. By 1933, the price of ___________, the mainstay of the southern economy, had fallen to 6
cents a pound.
    a. tobacco
    b. corn
    c. cotton
    d. sugar

2. Unlike most business during the Great Depression, the Atlanta Life Insurance
   Company:
   a. hired professional black workers but paid them less than white workers.
   b. would rather go bankrupt than sell insurance to black customers.
   c. received federal relief from the government.
   d. was one of the few black businesses that was able to thrive.

3. During the Great Depression, W. E. B. Du Bois advocated that black people should:
   a. develop an ―economic nation within a nation.‖
   b. focus on civil liberties.
   c. focus on political equality.
   d. form their own unions to fight for better wages.

4. The NAACP was encouraged by the decision in Gaines v. Canada in 1938 because the case:
   a. challenged the constitutionality of ―separate but equal.‖
   b. challenged cases where black defendants were convicted by all-white juries.
   c. forced labor unions to integrate.
   d. forced the federal relief funds to be given out more fairly to black people.

5. NAACP leader Charles Hamilton Houston tried to fight segregation by:
    a. any means necessary.
    b. making separate institutions too expensive for states to maintain.
    c. peaceful sit-ins.
    d. taking over white-only institutions.




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                                             Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941 ■ Chapter 18


6. During his first 100 days in office, President Franklin D. Roosevelt initiated a slew of
economic programs that came to be known as the:
    a. Reconstruction Program.
    b. Federal Relief Program.
    c. New Deal.
    d. Freedom Program.

7. During the first New Deal, African Americans gained an influential ally named:
   a. Marian Anderson.
   b. President Herbert Hoover.
   c. Judge John Parker.
   d. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt.

8. The 1944 study, An American Dilemma, helped to:
  a. foster racists beliefs among white people.
  b. set the agenda for the civil rights movement.
  c. increase membership to the Ku Klux Klan.
  d. bolster support for the NAACP.

9. The landslide presidential election in 1936 marked the first time that:
   a. the Democratic Party won a significant number of African-American voters.
   b. a woman was a candidate for vice president.
   c. black people boycotted the election.
   d. an independent candidate won the election.

10. A significant result of the ―Scottsboro Boys‖ case was two court decisions that:
  a. took away the basic rights of black people.
  b. reinforced Jim Crow laws.
  c. reaffirmed black people’s right to the same protection that all other American citizens
      enjoyed.
  d. made it harder for black people to serve jury duty




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Chapter 18 ■ Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941


Name _________________________________________________ Date __________________


                        CHAPTER 18
  BLACK PROTEST, THE GREAT DEPRESSION, AND THE NEW DEAL,
                         1929–1941


IDENTIFICATION
For each of the following, identify by answering the questions, who? what? when? and where?
Describe the significance by answering the questions, Why is this important? Why do we study
this?

Great Depression
Marvel Cooke
Ella Baker
―The Bronx Slave Market‖
Binga Bank
Jesse Binga
Atlanta Life Insurance Company
Alonzo Franklin Herndon
North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company
Charles Clinton Spaulding
Dr. Daniel Hale Williams
Dr. Matilda A. Evans
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
―Hoovervilles‖
Herbert Hoover
Charles Houston
Thurgood Marshall
Walter White
Gaines v. Canada
Sipuel v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma
Sweatt v. Painter
John J. Parker
Terrell Law
Nixon v. Herndon
Smith v. Allwright
Daisy Adams Lampkins
Juanita Mitchell
Negro Women’s Franchise League
City-Wide Young People’s Forum
Young Negroes’ Cooperative League


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                                          Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941 ■ Chapter 18


Name _________________________________________________ Date __________________


                       CHAPTER 18
 BLACK PROTEST, THE GREAT DEPRESSION, AND THE NEW DEAL,
                        1929–1941


IDENTIFICATION
For each of the following, identify by answering the questions, who? what? when? and where?
Describe the significance by answering the questions, Why is this important? Why do we study
this?

Fannie B. Peck
Detroit Housewives League
John Parker
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
New Deal
Agricultural Adjustment Act
National Industrial Recovery Act
National Recovery Administration
―Negro Removal Agency‖/―Negroes Robbed Again‖
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
Civilian Conservation Corps
Public Works Administration
Civil Works Administration
Daughters of the American Revolution
Marian Anderson
Harold Ickes
Clark Foreman
Federal Council on Negro Affairs
―Black Cabinet‖
Mary McLeod Bethune
Robert Weaver
First New Deal
E. Franklin Frazier
Charles S. Johnson
Carter Woodson
Benjamin Quarles
John Hope Franklin
Gunnar Myrdal
An American Dilemma
Second New Deal


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Chapter 18 ■ Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941


Name _________________________________________________ Date __________________


                        CHAPTER 18
  BLACK PROTEST, THE GREAT DEPRESSION, AND THE NEW DEAL,
                         1929–1941


IDENTIFICATION
For each of the following, identify by answering the questions, who? what? when? and where?
Describe the significance by answering the questions, Why is this important? Why do we study
this?

Social Security Act
National Labor Relations Act
Works Progress Administration
Arthur W. Mitchell
1936 Democratic Convention
Harry Hopkins
Augusta Savage
John L. Lewis
Committee for Industrial Organizations
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
A. Philip Randolph
Railway Labor Act
Louise ―Mama‖ Harris
Tobacco Workers Organizing Committee
Theodosia Simpson
Angelo Herndon
Scottsboro Boys
Communist Party
International Labor Defense
Powell v. Alabama
Norris v. Alabama
Ada Wright
Eugene Gordon
George Schuler
John P. Davis
Tuskegee Experiment
United States Public Health Service
Eunice Rivers
Fred D. Gray



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                                           Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941 ■ Chapter 18


ANSWER KEY CHAPTER TEST 18A

1. d; (p. 631)
2. b; (p. 633)
3. a; (p. 636)
4. d; (p. 641)
5. c; (p. 643)
6. a; (p. 650)
7. c; (p. 655)
8. b; (p. 657)
9. c; (p. 660)
10. a; (p. 662)


ANSWER KEY CHAPTER TEST 18B

1. c; (p. 632)
2. d; (p. 635)
3. a; (p. 638)
4. a; (p. 640)
5. b; (p. 639)
6. c; (p. 644)
7. d; (p. 648)
8. b; (p. 652)
9. a; (p. 652–653)
10. c; (p. 658)


OBJECTIVE/ANALYTICAL QUESTIONS

The Great Depression, 1929–1933

1. Which of the following was not a primary cause of the Great Depression?
a. The stock market crash
b. Corporations running unchecked by government regulation
c. A weak international trading system
d. Inequalities in the distribution of wealth in America

(Answer: a; page 631) [Conceptual]

2. Which of the following is true about farming during the Great Depression?
a. Consumer demand fell but production rose, generating great drops in prices.
b. Consumer demand for some products rose, but farmers were unable to produce more.
c. Farmers were not hit very hard during the Depression, since they were self-sufficient.

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Chapter 18 ■ Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941


d. Farmers actually saw their income rise over the course of the Depression.

(Answer: a; page 632) [Factual]

3. How did black unemployment in large cities compare with the national unemployment rate?
 a. Black unemployment was lower.
 b. Black unemployment was higher.
 c. Black unemployment was at the national average.
 d. No statistics were kept on black unemployment during the time, since the government did not
    consider them to be very important.

(Answer: b; page 632) [Factual]

4. Why were black women often more affected by the Depression than black men?
 a. Black women generally lacked the high level of education of men.
 b. White families could not afford domestic help during the Depression, or they could get it at
    almost no cost at all since some black women were so desperate.
 c. The only jobs available during the Depression were skilled jobs, which black men were more
    prepared for than women.
 d. Black women had to stay at home and take care of their children.

(Answer: b; pages 633–634) [Conceptual]

5. How did the Depression affect black workers? What differences were there between
    difficulties for blacks in the North and South? What skills did blacks use or develop in order
    to survive?

(Answer, pages 632–634) [Factual]

6. What was the ―Bronx Slave Market‖?
 a. An area in New York where white racists tried to reinstitute the slave trade
 b. An area in New York were black men could go to get jobs that paid very little
 c. An area in New York where white women could very cheaply obtain day help from black
    women
 d. A play by Langston Hughes about the difficulties of black life

(Answer: c; page 633) [Factual]

7. What was generally not a characteristic of black society during the Great Depression?
 a. Many blacks emerged from the Great Depression with little other than their bodies.
 b. Blacks often refused to help others since they barely had enough money or resources to even
    feed their families.
 c. Women frequently would trade or share goods or services to get by.
 d. None of these answers is correct.


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                                            Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941 ■ Chapter 18


(Answer: b; page 634) [Factual]

8. What does the story of the Binga Bank tell us about blacks during the Great Depression?
 a. Some blacks were financially ruined through their attempts to help their community and other
    blacks.
 b. Some black businesses were able to succeed even with the difficulties of the Great
    Depression.
 c. Some blacks would turn on each other during the crisis for their own economic gain.
 d. None of these answers is correct.

(Answer: a; page 635) [Conceptual]

9. What does the story of the Atlanta Life Insurance Company tell us about blacks during the
   Great Depression?
a. Some blacks were financially ruined through their attempts to help their community and other
   blacks.
b. Some black businesses were able to succeed even with the difficulties of the Great
   Depression.
c. Some blacks would turn on each other during the crisis for their own economic gain.
d. None of these answers is correct.

(Answer: b; page 635) [Conceptual]

10. How were elite blacks affected by the Depression? Give examples. How was their situation
    similar to or different from poor blacks?
(Answer, pages 632–636) [Conceptual]

11. How were relief programs handled before the Great Depression?
 a. The were handled through private charities and individuals.
 b. They were handled through the federal government.
 c. No charities or relief efforts existed before the Great Depression.
 d. Generally, cities had very extensive systems of aid to help the poor and unemployed.
(Answer: a; pages 636–637) [Factual]
12. Why did President Hoover do very little during the Great Depression to alleviate poverty?
 a. He was actually a very active president, but Congress refused to pass the huge variety of relief
    programs he proposed.
 b. He believed that government, when it acted, should help the wealthy and big businesses only.
 c. He strongly believed that individuals or charities, not the government, should help alleviate
    poverty.
 d. All of these answers are correct.

(Answer: c; page 637) [Factual]

13. Why could Hoover not solve the problems of the Great Depression? What solutions did he
    offer?
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Chapter 18 ■ Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941


(Answer, page 637) [Conceptual]

14. How did Hoover deal with African Americans during the Great Depression?
 a. Hoover was actually a great friend to African Americans, but was never able to get his
    appointments through Congress, since they blamed him for the economic problems.
 b. Hoover wanted an all-white Republican Party and tried to appoint a racist to the Supreme
    Court.
 c. Hoover ignored blacks, paying absolutely no attention to them at all.
 d. Hoover made several visits to the South to look into black problems, but refused to do
    anything concrete about them.

(Answer: b; page 637) [Factual]

Black Protest during the Great Depression

15. What did W. E. B. Du Bois begin to criticize the NAACP for in 1934?
 a. Not filing enough legal cases to end segregation
 b. Being too divided, and not helping Marcus Garvey before he was deported
 c. Not putting enough emphasis on economic development for blacks
 d. All of these answers are correct.

(Answer: c; pages 638–639) [Factual]

16. How was the NAACP being criticized by its own members during the 1930s? What results
occurred because of this criticism?

(Answer, pages 638–639) [Conceptual]

17. Who was central to the NAACP’s effectiveness during the 1930s in chipping away at
segregation through the court system?

(Answer: Charles Hamilton Houston; page 639) [Factual]

18. What was Houston’s legal focus?
 a. He wanted to file cases to completely eliminate segregation directly.
 b. He wanted to gain an amendment to the Constitution, allowing black women to vote.
 c. He tried to force the South to equalize facilities, especially in education.
 d. All of these answers is correct.

(Answer: c; page 639) [Factual]

19. Why did Houston and Thurgood Marshall focus on gaining blacks’ access to professional and
graduate schools?
 a. They desperately needed more lawyers.
 b. The inequalities were very obvious; almost no graduate facilities existed for blacks in the
     South.
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                                             Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941 ■ Chapter 18


c. Black graduate schools had been outlawed by many southern states.
d. Blacks could only get high-paying, top jobs in corporations with graduate degrees.

(Answer: b; page 640) [Factual]

20. What did the NAACP’s fight over the Terrell law demonstrate?
 a. Racism was so entrenched in Texas that public schools could be completely shut down rather
    than accept black children.
 b. Lynching could be legalized in several southern states.
 c. Local and community involvement in NAACP activities was very important.
 d. None of these answers is correct.

(Answer: c; page 641) [Conceptual]

21. Why did the all-white primary law disfranchise black voters in Texas, when they could still
vote in the general election?
 a. It did not allow any blacks to vote in the general election, either.
 b. It limited the political candidates to whites, so blacks had few options for improvement.
 c. Texas was so heavily democratic that the only really contested election was the primary race.
 d. It took all black businesses away, so blacks had no financial base to campaign for offices.

(Answer: c; page 641) [Factual]

22. What case ended the all-white primary strategy altogether?
 a. Nixon v. Herndon
 b. Smith v. Allwright
 c. White v. The State of Texas
 d. Brown v. Board of Education

(Answer: b; page 641) [Factual]

23. What was the Terrell law? What effect did it have on blacks? Why was Smith v. Allwright
such a big victory for the NAACP?

(Answer, page 641) [Conceptual]

24. Which of the following is true about the role of black women in the NAACP?
 a. Black women were excluded from the NAACP until the 1950s.
 b. Because they had no political power, they had very little to do with the organization.
 c. Black women often made huge contributions through organizing and fund-raising.
 d. Black women were allowed to lead only children’s branches of the NAACP.

(Answer: c; page 641) [Factual]

25. What was the focus of the legal team of the NAACP? Why did it focus on these issues?
What results did it get?

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Chapter 18 ■ Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941


(Answer, pages 639–641) [Conceptual]

26. Discuss the cases of Gaines v. Canada, Sipuel v. Board of Regents of the University of
Oklahoma, and Sweatt v. Painter. What were the results of these cases for the NAACP? For the
individual blacks involved? What does this tell us about the Supreme Court at the time?

(Answer, pages 640–641) [Conceptual]

27. What ―first‖ was accomplished by Juanita E. Jackson?
 a. She was the first black woman admitted to practice law in Maryland, and through her legal
    cases helped destroy segregation.
 b. She was the first woman to gain a recording contract with a major white label.
 c. She was the first black doctor in the state of Georgia, though she was never allowed to
    practice.
 d. She was killed by whites after having an affair with a white married man.

(Answer: a; page 642) [Factual]

28. What was a goal of the Detroit Housewives’ League, as well as housewives’ leagues
established in other cities?
 a. To gain women the right to vote
 b. To help increase black economic opportunity through the direction of black women’s
    purchasing power
 c. To help children have cleaner schools
 d. To gain equal pay for teachers in black schools

(Answer: b; page 643) [Factual]

29. What influence did black women have in community organizing? What types of things did
they do?

(Answer, pages 641–643) [Factual]

The New Deal

30. How was Roosevelt able to get elected in 1932 and 1936? What groups voted for him?

(Answer, page 644) [Factual]

31. How did black voting patterns begin to change after the first election of Franklin Delano
Roosevelt?
 a. Blacks continued to stay with the Republican Party, the party of Lincoln.
 b. Blacks began to shift to the Democratic Party.
 c. Blacks briefly formed their own separate party, just as they had formed separate churches and
    other institutions.

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                                            Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941 ■ Chapter 18


d. Blacks split over Roosevelt, with their support about evenly divided between him and Hoover
   in 1936.

(Answer: b; page 644) [Factual]

32. How was Roosevelt unlike Hoover in his attempts to end the Great Depression?
 a. Roosevelt merely implemented the changes Hoover wanted to put through.
 b. Roosevelt had very bright people working for him.
 c. He proved very flexible and willing to experiment with new changes and ideas.
 d. Roosevelt was very committed to black rights and worked consistently through his
    presidency to gain rights for blacks.

(Answer: c; page 644) [Conceptual]

33. How was the Agricultural Adjustment Act unevenly implemented?
 a. Control of AAA money was left to local, white boards.
 b. White landlords often kept the money that should have been distributed to tenants.
 c. White landlords sometimes evicted tenants from their land during the Great Depression.
 d. All of these answers are correct.

(Answer: d; page 645) [Factual]

34. How did the AAA benefit blacks?
 a. It did not—it generally only benefited white landowners.
 b. It poured huge amounts of money into the area in which many were employed.
 c. It provided food for blacks in the cities.
 d. It helped to reopen banks after the Depression and get savings returned to black investors.

(Answer: b; page 645) [Factual]

35. What is true about the National Industrial Recovery Act’s effect on black Americans?
 a. The NIRA had no effect on blacks, since its provisions only covered white industries.
 b. The NIRA had a very positive effect, since it was able to completely eliminate racism within
    unions.
 c. The NIRA was favored by black leaders, but was struck down by the Supreme Court as
    unconstitutional.
 d. When the NIRA increased wages, employers fired blacks to hire whites.

(Answer: d; page 645) [Factual]

36. Which of the following was not a New Deal welfare program?
 a. The Civilian Conservation Corps
 b. The Civil Works Administration
 c. The National Labor Relations Act
 d. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration

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Chapter 18 ■ Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941


(Answer: c; page 645) [Factual]

37. What was a problem with the Civilian Conservation Corps?
 a. It employed only whites.
 b. It employed few blacks in segregated camps.
 c. It paid whites and blacks the same amount, which provoked violent riots among many white
    workers.
 d. None of these answers is correct.

(Answer: b; pages 647–648) [Factual]

38. Discuss some of the New Deal programs. How did they have an uneven effect across race
lines?

(Answer, pages 645–648) [Conceptual]

39. How did welfare programs help blacks? How were they discriminatory?

(Answer, pages 645–648) [Conceptual]

40. Who was black people’s main ally within the Roosevelt administration?
 a. Franklin Roosevelt himself
 b. No one—the Roosevelt administration was very unfriendly to blacks.
 c. Eleanor Roosevelt
 d. Harry Truman

(Answer: c; page 648) [Factual]

41. Who was the biggest supporter of black rights in the Roosevelt administration? What did
this person do to demonstrate support?

(Answer, pages 648–649) [Factual]

42. What was the role of the Black Cabinet?
 a. The Black Cabinet served as token blacks in the administration with no real power.
 b. They helped the president formulate policy with respect to the Great Depression.
 c. They helped reorganize the American university system to eliminate segregation.
 d. The Black Cabinet pressured the president and other governmental agencies to create color-
    blind policies.

(Answer: d; pages 650–651) [Factual]

43. Discuss Mary McLeod Bethune’s role within the Black Cabinet. How did she help set the
agenda for the civil rights movement?


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                                           Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941 ■ Chapter 18


(Answer, page 650) [Conceptual]

44. What did many blacks think the role of social sciences was during the Great Depression?
 a. Many thought it should provoke additional research and thought only, and it should stay away
    from political issues.
 b. Many intellectuals thought that they might improve race relations.
 c. Blacks refused to get into social sciences during the Great Depression, as it was dominated by
    racist whites.
 d. Many thought it would prove that racism, and the inferiority of blacks, was an accurate view.

(Answer: b; pages 651–652) [Factual]

45. Other than through government programs, how did blacks gain, socially and economically,
during the New Deal?

(Answer, pages 649–652) [Factual]

46. What happened to much First New Deal legislation during the Great Depression?
 a. The Supreme Court declared much of it unconstitutional.
 b. Blacks were able to get it repealed.
 c. White supremacists worked against it, since it benefited blacks.
 d. Franklin Roosevelt changed his mind and decided to stop reforming the United States.

(Answer: a; page 652) [Factual]

47. Which of the following programs was not initiated during the Second New Deal?
 a. The Social Security Act
 b. The Civilian Conservation Corps
 c. The Federal Art Project
 d. None of these answers is correct.

(Answer: b; page 652) [Factual]

48. What was significant about the 1936 presidential election?
 a. Black voters outside the South shifted in significant numbers to the Democratic Party.
 b. Fewer blacks than ever voted, since violence and intimidation tactics were rampant.
 c. Black voters inside the South shifted to the Republican Party.
 d. All of these answers are correct.

(Answer: a; pages 652–653) [Conceptual]

49. Why did blacks shift to the Democratic Party beginning in 1936?
(Answer, pages 652–653) [Factual]

50. Who was the first black Democrat to win a House of Representatives seat?

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Chapter 18 ■ Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941


(Answer: Arthur W. Mitchell; page 653) [Factual]

51. Which of the following was a reason for blacks to move to the Democratic Party during the
1936 election?
 a. Blacks felt that Roosevelt had been doing more for them than any other president.
 b. Blacks wanted to support the Democratic Party, especially in the South.
 c. Blacks actually didn’t begin to support the Democratic Party until after World War II.
 d. None of these answers is correct.

(Answer: a; page 653) [Factual]

52. How did many whites react to the increased presence of blacks in the Democratic Party?
 a. Whites accepted the blacks, as long as they stayed in subordinate positions.
 b. Some southern whites were infuriated and actually walked out of the presidential convention
    when blacks spoke.
 c. Whites began to organize violent action in the presidential convention hall to get rid of
    blacks.
 d. Blacks were not formally allowed to participate in the Democratic Party at all.

(Answer: b; page 653–654) [Factual]

53. What was a problem with the management of the Works Progress Administration?
 a. It was limited to whites as a compromise to southern congressmen.
 b. It never had any money to spend on jobs programs, and was limited by a small staff.
 c. It was limited to only about 1,000 jobs for those who had been upper-middle class before the
    Depression.
 d. It was actually administered far more equally than previous programs. It helped many black
    families.

(Answer: d; page 654) [Factual]

54. Which of the following was not the focus of a program of the WPA?
 a. Employing black writers and actors
 b. Giving food to hungry blacks and whites
 c. Collecting stories of slavery
 d. None of these answers is correct.

(Answer: b; pages 654–655) [Factual]

55. How did the relationship between African Americans and labor unions change during the
1930s? Why? Discuss gender differences in labor organizing.

(Answer, page 655) [Conceptual]

56. How did the relationship between African Americans and labor unions change during the
1930s?
 a. It did not—labor unions remained completely hostile toward blacks.
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                                             Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941 ■ Chapter 18


b. Labor unions actually became more hostile toward blacks, since jobs were so scarce.
c. In the 1930s, more labor unions allowed blacks membership, and some even began integrated
   unions.
d. The government forced unions to accept any black during the 1930s.

(Answer: c; page 655) [Factual]

57. Why did John L. Lewis form the Committee for Industrial Organization?
 a. He was angry that the AFL refused to incorporate unskilled workers into its ranks.
 b. He wanted to gain power for himself and make a bid for the presidency in 1940.
 c. He did not like the AFL’s new policy of including blacks and wanted an all-white
    organization.
 d. He was a very conservative Republican and thought that labor unions were becoming too
    liberal.

(Answer: a; page 655) [Factual]

58. How did the Railway Labor Act amendments of 1934 affect the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters?
 a. It completely destroyed the union, since it said that black people had no right to organize into
    unions.
 b. Its provisions eventually forced the Pullman Company to recognize the union and bargain
    with it in good faith.
 c. It had no effect on blacks since it failed to include any provisions about unions.
 d. It said companies had to bargain with unions, but it was so weak it never had any real effect.

(Answer: b; page 656) [Factual]

59. What industry saw substantial union organizing among black women?
 a. tobacco
 b. iron works
 c. cotton farming
 d. All of these answers are correct.

(Answer: a; page 656) [Factual]

60. How were jobs allocated in the tobacco industry?
 a. Overall, pretty fairly—all positions were given out according to skills and ability.
 b. Strictly by race and gender. This left black women with the most difficult and tedious jobs.
 c. Black women were generally the only workers in the tobacco industry, so they exercised a
    tremendous amount of political clout.
 d. None of these answers is correct.

(Answer: b; page 656) [Factual]




                                                 477
Chapter 18 ■ Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941


The Communist Party and African Americans

61. Why were some blacks attracted to the Communist Party during the 1930s?
 a. The Communist Party vowed to establish a separate nation for them in Africa.
 b. The Communist Party said it was against racism, but it never did anything to prove that.
 c. The Communist Party worked to reduce unemployment and worked against racism.
 d. The Communist Party was a very large, mainstream party in the 1930s, with many members
    from across the United States.

(Answer: c; page 657) [Factual]

62. What did the case of the Scottsboro Boys involve?
 a. Two young communists who were accused of plotting to overthrow the government
 b. Two young white women who falsely accused nine young black men of rape on a train
 c. Blacks schoolteachers who had taught the concept of evolution, rather than the biblical story
    of the evolution of man
 d. Two young boys who were lynched for stealing candy from a white-owned store

(Answer: b; pages 657–658) [Factual]

63. What organization quickly rushed to the aid of the young black men accused in the
Scottsboro case?
 a. The NAACP
 b. The Communist Party
 c. The Democratic Party
 d. Clarence Darrow’s law firm

(Answer: b; page 658) [Factual]

64. What did the case of Powell v. Alabama, decided by the Supreme Court in 1932, state?
 a. Blacks had no right to sue in the United States
 b. The Scottsboro Boys had been discriminated against because they were communists
 c. The Scottsboro Boys had not been given adequate council, and the trial was not fair because
    it had occurred in a hostile environment
 d. The Alabama Supreme Court was correct in jailing the young men for raping the white
    women.

(Answer: c; pages 658–659) [Factual]

65. What did the case of Norris v. Alabama, decided by the Supreme Court in 1935, state?
 a. All Americans have the right to a jury of their peers. Excluding blacks from jury pools was
    deemed unconstitutional.
 b. The Scottsboro Boys had not been given adequate council and the trial was not fair because it
    had occurred in a hostile environment.
 c. The Alabama Supreme Court was correct in jailing the young men for raping the white
    women.
 d. The Scottsboro Boys had been discriminated against because they were communists.

                                                                   478
                                            Black Protest, the Great Depression, and the New Deal, 1929-1941 ■ Chapter 18


(Answer: a; page 659) [Factual]

66. Discuss the Scottsboro case. Who led the defense? Why? What was the result of the case?

(Answer, pages 657–660) [Factual]

67. How did black Americans react to the Communist Party?
 a. Some approved of its work, but very few actually joined the party or participated in it.
 b. Some felt that the Communist Party offered far better leadership than the NAACP.
 c. Some felt that it was the equivalent of the KKK in some ways.
 d. All of these answers are correct.

(Answer: d; page 660) [Factual]

68. Why were some blacks attracted to communism? What role did the Communist Party play in
civil rights during the 1930s? How did it affect other civil rights organizations?

(Answer, pages 658–661) [Conceptual]

69. What organization did the National Negro Congress become more and more associated with
in the late 1930s?
 a. The NAACP
 b. Marcus Garvey’s UNIA
 c. The Communist Party
 d. None of these answers is correct.

(Answer: c; page 661) [Factual]

The Tuskegee Study

70. What was the Tuskegee Experiment?
 a. A group of communists that attempted to take over the political affairs of the city
 b. A health study sponsored by the federal government that monitored, but did not treat, black
    men with syphilis
 c. An effort by some blacks to revive Booker T. Washington’s philosophy
 d. Black women organizing to get better prices for household goods

(Answer: b; page 662) [Factual]

71. What was the Tuskegee Study? How did the administrators of the study exploit
socioeconomic disadvantages?

(Answer, page 662) [Conceptual]




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