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Introduction to Psychology

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					   AP PSYCHOLOGY

       Unit One
       Chapter 1

Introducing Psychology:
 Thinking Critically with
  Psychological Science
   High-Low Stats Game
  Left Brain vs. Right Brain

1. How many students took the 2007
   AP Psychology Exam? 114,000
2. How many teachers graded the
   FRQ’s?               3,860
3. What was the “Mode” score of the
   2007 FRQ’s?           3
          AP PSYCHOLOGY

     Psychology as a Science
 1.) Identify 5 Adjectives that describe
 what you believe about psychology.
 2.) Where do you place psychology?

B.S. in Micro-Biology           B.A. in Art
Straight Thinking About Psych
1. How much can psych experiments using
  rats, cats, monkeys tell us about ourselves
  as human beings?
We share 96-98% of our genetic material with
primates, it’s probably a “4.” Only 7% of psych
experiments use animals – ex. Harry Harlow’s monkeys
2. How much is psych a real science like
  chemistry or biology?
Psych uses the Scientific Method, it’s a “4” although a
young science and very eclectic. Closer to biology than
chemistry – ex. Wilhelm Wundts’ 1879 lab
 Straight Thinking About Psych
 3. How much of psychology facts such as the
   bystander effect or the aggression-frustration
   principle can be trusted if every human is
   different?
Psych’s facts are empirically derived and are statistically
expressed, it’s a “4.” Statistical facts are about the
population as a whole, not as individuals.
  4. How much can psychology study the mind
    or love?
 Since psych is a science it can’t study anything that is
 not operationalized in quantified behavior
 (observable/measureable) so it’s a 1 or 2.
   AP PSYCHOLOGY

       Unit One
       Chapter 1

Introducing Psychology:
 Thinking Critically with
  Psychological Science
Psychology is defined as…

The scientific study of behavior
and mental processes
 behavior – is anything an organism
 does – any action we can observe
 and record.
 mental processes are the internal
 subjective experiences we infer from
 behavior.
    Thinking Critically with
    Psychological Science

Critical Thinking
 thinking that does not blindly
  accept arguments and
  conclusions
   examines assumptions
   discerns hidden values
   evaluates evidence
Limits of Intuition and
Common Sense
Hindsight Bias
 tendency to believe, after learning an
  outcome, that one would have
  foreseen it
 the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon

  Recent Psychological Finding…
 Limits of Intuition and
 Common Sense
Romantic Love…
 “Out of Sight Out of Mind”
   Psychologists have found that
 separation weakens romantic attraction.

 Or
 “Absence Makes the Heart Grow Fonder”
 Psychologists have found that separation
 strengthens romantic attraction.
Limits of Intuition and
Common Sense

What is greater than God…
more evil than the Devil…
the Poor have it,           It’s
the Rich do not…            Nothing!
if you eat it you will die!
Limits of Intuition and
Common Sense

Overconfidence
 we tend to think we know more than
  we do

 WREAT         WATER
 ETRYN         ENTRY
 GRABE         BARGE
Limits of Intuition and
Common Sense
Overconfidence

How about this one…
   OCHSA

   CHAOS
   AP PSYCHOLOGY

       Unit One
       Chapter 1

Introducing Psychology:
 Thinking Critically with
  Psychological Science
 Goals of Psychology are to…

describe particular behaviors by
careful scientific observation
 Goals of Psychology are to…

explain behaviors by conducting
experiments to determine their
causes
   Goals of Psychology are to…

predict when a behavior being
studied will occur in the future
 Goals of Psychology are to…

change/control inappropriate
behavior or circumstances.
Socrates


     Aristotle


    Plato


Hippocrates
A Brief History

Pre-scientific Psychology
 “I think therefore I am”
Renee Descartes (1596-1650)
 Viewed mind and the body
 as interactive machines.
 Ideas both innate (within) and
 acquired.
A Brief History

             “tabula rasa”
           John Locke (1632-1704)
          Empiricist approach –
          knowledge should be
          acquired by careful
          observation.
 Opposed notion of innate ideas –
 all ideas come from experience or
 reflection.
Founders of Scientific Psychology
         Structuralism
Wilhelm Wundt (1879 laboratory)
Edward Titchener (lab at Cornell U.)
 To study conscious experience
and its structure
     Experiments; introspection
Founders of Scientific Psychology
          Functionalism
William James (1st Psych text 1890)
G. Stanley Hall (1883 laboratory)
 To study how the mind works in
allowing an organism to adapt to
the environment
  Naturalistic observation of animal
         and human behavior
Founders of Scientific Psychology
           Behaviorism
John B. Watson (classical conditioning)
B.F. Skinner (operant conditioning)
 To study only observable behavior
and explain behavior via learning
principles
   Observation of the relationship
  between environmental stimuli and
        behavioral responses
 Founders of Scientific Psychology
         Psychoanalytical
Sigmund Freud (the Id,Ego & Superego)
CarlGustav Jung (collective unconscious)
  To explain personality and behavior;
 to develop techniques for treating
 mental disorders
       Study of individual cases,
       free association, hypnosis
          and dream analysis
 Founders of Scientific Psychology
              Humanistic
Carl Rogers (unconditnl positive regard)
Abraham Maslow (hierarchy of needs)
  Helps individual reach potential for
 growth and realization of personal
 uniqueness
  Create a safe, open environment for
        exploration of unique self
 Founders of Scientific Psychology
    Cognitive or Social Learning
Albert Bandura (human/enviro interact)
Albert Ellis (Rational-Emotive Therapy)
 How we take in, mentally represent,
and store information; how cognitive
processes are related to behavior
 Analyze schemas and ways in which
    information is processed (ABC)
 Modern Perspectives/Theoretical
    Orientations in Psychology
   The Biopsychosocial Approach
Neuroscience
& Behavior Genetics
Evolutionary
Psychodynamic
Behavioral
Humanism
Cognitive
Social-Cultural
 Modern Perspectives/Theoretical
    Orientations in Psychology

Neuroscience        Roger Sperry
Evolutionary        Social Darwinists
Behavior genetics   Thomas Bouchard
Psychodynamic       Sigmund Freud,
                    CG Jung
Behavioral          JB Watson,
                    BF Skinner
Modern Perspectives/Theoretical
   Orientations in Psychology

Cognitive         Jean Piaget,
                  Noam Chomsky
Social-Cultural   Stanley Milgram
Founders of Scientific Psychology
 BOTTOM LINE – Most psychologists
 are quite ECLECTIC like
 science generally is.
 We take a bit from each,
 but we still have a BIAS,
 one or more perspective we
 favor and makes more sense to
 us than another
Careers/Subfields in Psychology

Clinical Psychologists (55%)
Counseling Psychologists
School Psychologists
Educational Psychologists
Industrial/Organizational
Psychologists
Careers/Subfields in Psychology

Social Psychologists
Developmental Psychologists
Careers/Subfields in Psychology

Experimental/Research Psychology
  Basic Research
      memory
      perception
  Applied Research
      industrial/organizational
      sports psychologist
      consumer psychologist
Careers/Subfields in Psychology


And Teach… Psychology!
     A Three Sentence History of
    Psychology and Consciousness

PSYCHOLOGY FIRST
LOST ITS…          MIND
THEN ITS…          CONSCIOUSNESS,
BUT IT STILL
SOMEHOW…           BEHAVED.
THERE IS NOW…      GOOD EVIDENCE
PSYCHOLOGY IS…     REGAINING
                   CONSCIOUSNESS
   AP PSYCHOLOGY

       Unit One
       Chapter 1

Introducing Psychology:
 Thinking Critically with
  Psychological Science
Research Strategies

            General Steps
     in the Scientific Method

1.   Developing a Research Question
2.   Forming a Hypothesis
3.   Gathering Evidence (data)
4.   Draw a conclusion/state a fact
  Research Strategies
Experimental Method
 a research method in which the
   investigator manipulates one or more
   factors (independent variables) to
   observe their effect on some behavior
   or mental process (the dependent
   variable) while controlling other
   relevant factors by random assignment
   of subjects
   Experimental Method


 The only research method capable of
showing cause and effect
   Includes a hypothesis
    1. A statement about the relation
    between two or more variables
    2. Must be testable, verifiable, and
    refutable
Research Strategies

Theory
 an explanation using an
  integrated set of principles
  that organizes and predicts
  observations
    Chocolate covered peanuts
     and improved memory!
 Research Strategies

 Hypothesis
   a testable prediction
   often implied by a theory
Example Case
 Proposed Hypothesis -
Chocolate covered peanuts enhance memory.
 Research Strategies

 Improved Hypothesis with
  Operational variables.

“C-C peanuts improve recall scores
from a list of unrelated nouns.”
   Experimental Method

Dependent Variable
  the experimental factor that may
   change in response to manipulations
   of the independent variable
  usually a behavior or mental process
Independent Variable
  the experimental factor that is
   manipulated by the experimenter
  the variable whose effect is studied
   Experimental Method




Example Case
  Manipulate Independent Variable
  How?
  Experimental Method

 Confounding Variable –any
variable besides the Independent
variable – its influence is unwanted
 Experimental Method


 Must control all other relevant
variables.
 a. Subject-relevant variables
 b. Situation-relevant variables
 c. Need for “placebo” control
  Experimental Method
Experimental Condition
 the condition of an experiment that
   exposes subjects to the treatment,
   that is, to one version of the
   independent variable
Experimental Group – the group that
    receives the treatment
    Experimental Method
Control Condition
 the condition of an experiment that
  contrasts with the experimental
  treatment to eliminate alternative
  explanations of the results
 serves as a comparison for evaluating
  the effect of the treatment
Control Group – serves as a basis for
   comparison or results from the E.G.
  Experimental Method

Population – The larger
 group of people from
 which samples are
 drawn
 Sample – Set of
 subjects drawn from
 particular population
  Experimental Method

Random Assignment
 assigning subjects to experimental
  and control conditions by chance
 minimizes pre-existing differences
  between those assigned to the
  different groups
   Experimental Method

Control Measures
   Single blind Procedure
        subject is ignorant (blind)
        regarding:
        - the dependent variable
        - the treatment – received the
           treatment or a placebo
         Experimental Method

 Placebo
     an inert substance or condition
     that may be administered instead
     of a presumed active agent, such
     as a drug, to see if it triggers
     the effects believed to
     characterize the active
     agent
 Experimental Method

Double-blind Procedure
  an experimental procedure in
  which both the subject and the
  research staff are ignorant (blind)
  about whether the subject has
  received the treatment or a placebo
  commonly used in drug-evaluation
  studies
   AP PSYCHOLOGY

       Unit One
       Chapter 1

Introducing Psychology:
 Thinking Critically with
  Psychological Science
Experimental Method

 Observe the outcome – measure the
  dependent variable.
 Decide what confidence you place in
  the findings.
  What can we “infer” or generalize
  from findings?
Experimental Method

 “Inferential Statistics” tell us how
different the two scores must be before
we can attribute it to the I.V. and not
chance factors.
        When is a Difference Reliable?
  Three principles to aid in deciding when
   it is safe to generalize from a sample.

1. Representative samples are better than
   biased samples.
2. Less-variable observations are more
   reliable than those that are more
   variable.
3. More cases are better than fewer.
Research Strategies

Threats to Validity
What can happen during experiments
that make it hard to prove cause and
effect?
Research Strategies
 Threats to Validity
   History
   Maturation
   Testing effects
   Selection problems
   Attrition
   Reactive (experimental effects)
Research Strategies

Replication
 repeating the essence of a research
  study to see whether the basic
  finding generalizes to other subjects
  and circumstances
 usually with different subjects in
  different situations
   AP PSYCHOLOGY

       Unit One
       Chapter 1

Introducing Psychology:
 Thinking Critically with
  Psychological Science
Research Methods

 Descriptive Studies
   Case Study
  an observation technique in which
  one person is studied in depth in
  the hope of revealing universal
     principles
 Descriptive Studies
 Survey Method
   used to measure
   attitudes, motives,
   opinions, and so on.
   self-reported data: then
   interpreted
  valid only if worded clearly and
  unbiased, sample is representative,
  participants answers are honest
 Descriptive Studies

 Participant Bias
   small return rate
   virtually ensures a
   sample that is not
   representative.
   social desirability response – a
   desire to been seen in a positive
   light.
Descriptive Studies

 Phrasing of the questions may affect
respondent’s answers
Example:
   Is it possible for Kobe Bryant get a
   fair trial?
   Is it possible for an African American
   NBA Super Star to get a fair trial in a
   predominantly white rural county in
   Colorado?
Descriptive Studies

             Naturalistic
              Observation
               observing and
                recording behavior
                in naturally
                occurring situations
                without trying to
                manipulate and
                control the situation
Correlation Studies

Correlation
 a statistical measure that indicates the
   extent to which two factors vary together
   and thus how well either factor predicts
   the other
 Variables are quantified and statistically
   compared
 Does not establish cause and effect
 Sign (+) or (-) coefficient indicates the
   direction and strength of the relation
Correlation Studies


    Correct Answers on                   Correct Answers on
    Final/Number of Days                 Final/Day of the
    attending class                      Month born on




                       Wrong Answers on
                       Final/Number of Days
                       attending class
Perceptions of
Violence
     Perception of illegal play when
        players seen to wear black
 8


 3


 2


 1
                                         White Jerseys
                                         Black Jerseys
 0
     Color Visible   Color Not Visible
Correlation Studies
                “Seeing”
 relationships that actually don’t exist.

When we believe there is a relationship
 between two things, we are likely to
          notice and recall
  instances that confirm our belief.
  Correlation Studies
   Illusory Correlation
    the perception of a relationship where none
    exists
            Conceive  Do not conceive Do you believe
       confirming    disconfirming     that previously
Adopt
       evidence      evidence
                                       infertile couples
                                       become more
                                       likely to
       disconfirming
       evidence
                     confirming
                     evidence
                                       conceive a child
Do not
adopt
                                       after adopting a
                                       baby?
Duck or Rabbit?
Our preconceptions can bias our
 observations and interpretations
Random Sequences



Which sequence is most
likely if this penny is flipped
6 times? heads(H)/tails(T)

HHHTTT                            Are the chances of being
or                                dealt either of these hands
       They are all
HTTHTH equally likely!            precisely the same?
or
                                  Yes! 1 in 2,598,960
HHHHHH
   AP PSYCHOLOGY

       Unit One
       Chapter 1

Introducing Psychology:
 Thinking Critically with
  Psychological Science
Describing Data
Do you see the significant   How about now? Does the
difference in the trucks     apparent difference shrink?
durability?



                               Can
                               Statistics
                               Deceive?
Measures of Central
Tendency
Always note which measure of central tendency is
reported. If it is the mean, are a few atypical scores
(outliers) distorting it?
Measures of Variability
  A normal distribution (bell shape curve) of IQ scores. The
  mean, median, and mode all have the same value (100).
  Standard Deviation is 16 (1 SD is 84 or 116).




              52     68    84     100   116    132   148
Standard
Deviations           -2    -1      0    +1     +2
Calculating Standard Deviation
 Raw Data           Difference                  D²
                    from Mean = D
     2             2 – 4 = -2              4
     2             2 – 4 = -2              4
     3             3 – 4 = -1              1
     4             4–4=0                   0
     9             9–4=5                   25
Mean = 20/5 = 4                       ∑ D² = 34


 Standard Deviation = ∑ D² =   34 = 6.8 = 2.6
                    √ N      √ 5
Inferential Statistics

Measure of confidence in one’s findings comes
from:    Replication
         - to replicate or repeat an
         experiment with a new group of
         patients.
         Inferential Statistics
         – put a precise mathematical value on
         the confidence or probability that
         repeating the same experiment would
         yield similar (or stronger) results.
Inferential Statistics:
    Statistical Significance

When the sample averages are reliable and the
difference between them is relatively large, we
say the difference has statistical significance.

Simply put, the difference we observed is
probably not due to chance variation between
the samples.
Inferential Statistics:
    Statistical Significance
The t test allows the researcher to ask how
likely it is that the difference between two
means occurred by chance rather than as a
function of the effect of the independent
variable.
When the t test says that the probability of
chance is small enough (less than 5%), the
results are said to be statistically significant.
Calculating Statistical Significance
The formula for t is:
                     (M1 – M2)
t=

     √   (N1 – 1) S1² + (N2 – 1) S2²

                 N1 + N2 – 2
                                          N1 + N2

                                           N1 N2

Where:
     M1 = mean of group 1
     M2 = mean of group 2
     N1 = number of scores or observations for group 1
     N2 = number of scores or observations for group 2
     S1 = standard deviation of group 1 scores
     S2 = standard deviation of group 2 scores
           Statistical Significance
Test Scores for Lo-Incentive and Hi-Incentive Conditions
Low Incentive High Incentive
     4                 6
                                13 participants in each group
     6                 4
     2                 10       Lo 65/13 or mean of 5
     7                 10       Hi 94/13 or mean of 7.23
     6                 7
     8                 10
     3                 6
     5                 7
     2                 5
     3                 9
     5                 9
     9                 3
     5                 8
Calculating Statistical Significance
The formula for t is:
                      (M1 – M2)
t=

      √   (N1 – 1) S1² + (N2 – 1) S2²

                  N1 + N2 – 2
                                               N1 + N2

                                                N1 N2

                        7.23-5 = 2.23
 t=

      √    (12) 5.09 + (12) 4.46

                        24
                                               13 + 13 = 26

                                             13 x 13 = 169
              2.23
             √.735 = 2.64 with 24 df (13 + 13 – 2 = df)
Calculating Statistical Significance

  Example: a t score: 2.60

  A t Table would read as follows:
                 p Value
  df .10 (10%) .05 (5%)          .01 (1%)
  19     1.33         1.73         2.54
  24      1.32        1.71         2.49

  A t score pf 2.60 is statistically significant
   AP PSYCHOLOGY

       Unit One
       Chapter 1

Introducing Psychology:
 Thinking Critically with
  Psychological Science
Ethical Concerns in Research


 Is it ethical to experiment on people?

 Why do psychologists study animals?

 Is it ethical to experiment on animals?
Ethical Concerns in Research
 Ethical Principles developed by the
  APA for research on People…
  Obtain the informed consent of
  potential participants.
  Freedom to withdraw at any time
  Debriefing and protection from
  harm and discomfort.
  Confidentiality
Ethical Concerns in Research

  APA’s Guidelines for the Ethical
 Conduct in the Care and Use of
 Animals (2004)
The End

				
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