INTRODUCTION TO ERGONOMICS

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INTRODUCTION TO ERGONOMICS Powered By Docstoc
					   ERGONOMICS

      ERGON --> WORK
       NOMOS --> LAW
The Laws to be Observed at Work
           Human Factor Engineering
Human Factors                              Engineering

Physical and mental work capacity          Industrial design
Fatigue                                    Work place design
Body forces, strength and posture          Product design
Body sizes                                 Furniture design
Thermal comfort/ heat stress/cold stress   Machine design
Vision                                     Ventilation
Hearing                                    Lighting
Perception                                 Acoustics
Information processing                     Engineering control
Decision making                            (Chemical & Physical)
Performance and efficiency                 Building orientation
Adaptation and rehabilitation              Maintenance
Behavior & social relations
                 Ergonomics

 Ergonomics means literally the study or
  measurement of Work
 In addition to work as labour for monetary
  gain, work also includes
  Sports
  Leisure activities
  Domestic work
  Education and training
  Health and social services
  Ergonomics considers
human operators variability
  An automobile design has to consider
    – Range of physical size and strengths
      of users
    – Seats are comfortable
    – Controls readily identifiable and
      within easy reach
    – Clear visibility front and rear
    – Easily read internal instruments
    – Ease of entry and egress
     AIMS OF ERGONOMICS
Ensures that human needs for safe and efficient
 working are met in the design of work system
To design
  Appliances
  Technical Systems
  Tasks
   In such a way to improve
        Human Safety
        Health
        Comfort and
        Performance
Basic aims of ergonomics
Efficiency in purposeful activity
To achieve desired result without
  Waste
  Error
  Damage to persons
Working situation in harmony with
 the activities of the worker
Difficulties in achieving the
    aims of ergonomics
 Human operator is flexible and adaptable
 Large individual differences
   Obvious differences: --> Physical size,
    strength
   Not obvious differences --> Culture, style,
    level of skill

   Thus a systematic approach and theory are necessary.
   There should be measurable objectives to be checked and
   remedial action taken. A detailed study of the science of
   ergonomics provides these approaches and theories
 DEFINITIONS OF ERGONOMICS

 Ergonomics is a means of improving working
  conditions and reducing illness at work
 Ergonomics attempts to „Fit the Job to the
  Man‟ rather than „Fit the Man to the Job‟
 Ergonomics is concerned with the design of
  systems in which people carry out work
 Ergonomics optimizes Efficiency, Health,
  Safety and Comfort of people through better
  designs of products and work places
Who is a human operator?
 Skilled professional using a
  complex machine in an artificial
  environment
 Customer who has purchased a
  new equipment
 Child sitting in a classroom
 Disabled person in a wheel chair
ERGONOMICS and DISCIPLINES

• Ergonomics is a Multi-Disciplinary
  Science

• Ergonomics is also an Inter-Disciplinary
  Science
ERGONOMICS
          DISCIPLINES IN ERGONOMICS




PSYCHOLOGY                        PHYSIOLOGY
-COGNITIVE                        -ENVIRONMENTAL
-WORK                             -WORK
-SOCIAL         ERGONOMICS


                 ANATOMY
                 -ANTHROPOMETRY
                 -BIOMECHANICS
                 DISCIPLINES IN ERGONOMICS



     ECONOMICS             LAW           MANAGEMENT




       PSYCHOLOGY                        PHYSIOLOGY
       -COGNITIVE                        -ENVIRONMENTAL
       -WORK                             -WORK
       -SOCIAL         ERGONOMICS
                                                 INDUSTRIAL DESIGN
TOXICOLOGY
                        ANATOMY                  OPERATIONS
                        -ANTHROPOMETRY
                                                 RESEARCH
ENVRONMENTAL
                        -BIOMECHANICS
MEDICINE                                         ENGINEERING
                  DISCIPLINES IN ERGONOMICS

     ECONOMICS              LAW           MANAGEMENT

   ARTIFICIAL
   INTELIGENCE                              MANUFACTURING


        PSYCHOLOGY                        PHYSIOLOGY
        -COGNITIVE                        -ENVIRONMENTAL
        -WORK                             -WORK
        -SOCIAL         ERGONOMICS
                                                  INDUSTRIAL DESIGN
TOXICOLOGY
                         ANATOMY                  OPERATIONS
                         -ANTHROPOMETRY
                                                  RESEARCH
ENVRONMENTAL
                         -BIOMECHANICS
MEDICINE                                          ENGINEERING

                                          WORK
  SYSTEMS DESIGN                          ORGANIZATION
ERGONOMICS
                  PROFESSIONS HAVING
               COMPLEMENTARY ROLES WITH
                     ERGONOMICS

                              Safety                  Civil
        Occupational          Officer                 Engineer
        Health Officer


                                                                      Mechanical
Industrial                                                            Engineer
Nurse                         ERGONOMICS

                                                                           Architect
  Physiotherapist



                                                              Industrial
               Ind. Medical
                                       Social                 Designer
               Officer
                                       Psychologist
          ERGO-SYSTEMS

• Simple ergo-systems
    e                 e
    H                 H M


• Complex ergo-systems
    e MM             e M H
    MHM               H H H
   WHAT IS ERGONOMICS?

  Ergonomics is:
 “Higher productivity and a better place to work”
 “The science that saves both lives and dollars”
 “Human engineering where the goal is to
  optimize worker well being and productivity”
 “A way of thinking about and planning work so
  that it suits the capabilities and needs of the
  people”
    WHAT IS ERGONOMICS?

   Ergonomics is a solution finding method for
   questions like these:
 How can human body dimensions be applied to car seat design?
 What is the proper height for kitchen counters?
 How can traffic lights be programmed for optimal urban traffic
  flow throughout the day?
 How can stereo receiver displays and controls be coded to
  effectively define their respective functions?
 How can the material and design of swim suits for competition be
  improved for minimal water resistance?
 How should computer software and screens work and look best to
  fit human cognitive capabilities?
       Ergonomic needs in a workplace
 Physical work environment
    Thermal comfort
    Noise and vibration control
    Adequate and proper lighting
 Chemical environment
    Control of pollution
    General and exhaust ventilation
 Work physiology
      Control excessive physical load
      Avoid physical and muscular fatigue
      Adequate rest pauses
      Arrangement of static and dynamic work
Ergonomic needs in a workplace (Contd.)

  Anthropometry (Body sizes)
      Designs to fit body sizes of users
      Appropriate working levels
      Adequate work space
      Avoid overcrowding of machines and workers
  Occupational Biomechanics
    Appropriate work postures (sitting, standing)
    Safe load lifting and carrying techniques
    Adopt proper techniques in manual materials
     handling
Ergonomic needs in a workplace (Contd.)

 Psychological aspects
     Avoid perceptual and mental loads and fatigue
     Appropriate design of displays and control
     Appropriate conditions for Vigilance tasks
     Avoid human error and stress
     Job motivation and satisfaction
 Social psychology
   Practice good relationship among employees and
    between employer and employee
 Ergonomic needs in a workplace (Contd,)
 Macro ergonomics
     Suitable working hours , intervals, holidays, leave
     Appropriate shift schedules
     Welfare facilities
     Job rotation and incentives schemes
     Fair salary structure, Good administrative structure
     Good work organization schemes
     Fringe benefits (housing, transport, sports)
     Labour union facilities
     Training and education
     Promotional prospects
  Ergonomic needs in a workplace (Contd.)
 Safety and Ergonomics
   Good housekeeping
   Performance feedback
 Systems ergonomics
   Systems groups in problem solving and development
    work
   Participative ergonomics
   User centered designs
Benefits of ergonomics
Productivity
Product quality
Safety
Health
Reliability
Job satisfaction
Personal development
      The Questions Employers Need
             Answers For:
   Developing new products
   Increasing production capacity
   Identifying equipment and labor needs
   Identifying costs of manufacturing products
   Determining work hours and shift schedules
   Defining job productivity and quality standards
   Setting compensation levels
   Identifying skills for tasks
   Structuring tasks into jobs
   Increasing the available workforce by reducing problematic
    tasks
   TRADITIONAL AND PRESENT
   DAY TOOLS AND MACHINES
  Traditional              Present Day
 Relatively simple        Increasingly complex
 Made by the user         Made by a manufacturer
 Small number made        Large number made
 Design error - small     Design error - profound
  consequences             consequences
 Product competitive-     Marketing competitiveness
  ness unimportant         vital
 Restricted user- popu-   Wide variation in user
  lation characteristics   population
  HOW CAN ERGONOMICS CONTRIBUTE
   TO TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN
INDUSTRIALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
 By adaptation of technology of the west
 By improving working conditions through ergonomics
  interventions
 By developing traditional methods
 In acquiring modern technology
 In modifying techniques




      Need Training and Education in Ergonomics
 Ergonomic contributions to development
   in industrially developing countries
 Research on basic data needs
 Promote special abilities
 Refine simple methods
 More appropriate “experts”
 Action learning (Learning by doing, not
  imitating)
 Better supported education and research
 Re-conceptualize standard setting
Present trend of occupational
  diseases and complaints
     Factors              % of diseases and complaints
    Ergonomics                           52.9
    Chemicals                            22.1
    Noise                                12.1
    Biological                             3.2
    Other causes                           9.5
     WHY?
   More sedentary work
   Fewer distinct work types
   Less muscle usage
   More static than dynamic work
  Some important ergonomic requirements (From ILO Ergonomic
                        Checkpoints)

  Materials storage and handling
 Clear and mark transport routes
 Provide ramps of 5-8% inclination instead of
  small stairs
 Use mechanical devices for lifting, lowering
  and moving heavy material
 Instead of carrying heavy weights divide them
  into smaller lightweights e.g. 2x10 kg instead
  of 20 kg.
 Combine heavy lifting with physically lighter
  tasks
   Some important ergonomic requirements (From ILO Ergonomic
                         Checkpoints)

                     Hand Tools
Use hanging tools for operations repeated in
 the same place
Provide hand support when using precision
 tools
Provide hand tools with a grip of the proper
 thickness (hand diameter 30-40 mm, handle
 length 125 mm and size to fit male hands)
Provide a home for each tool (Enables good
 housekeeping)
   Some important ergonomic requirements (From ILO Ergonomic
                         Checkpoints)

        Production machine safety
Locate controls in sequence of
 operations
Make displays and signals easy to
 distinguish and easy to read
Use properly fixed guards and interlock
 devices
  Some important ergonomic requirements (From ILO Ergonomic
                        Checkpoints)

    Improving workstation design
Adjust the working height around elbow
 level
  Light work: at elbow level
  Precision work: above elbow level
  Hard work: below elbow level
     Some important ergonomic requirements (From ILO Ergonomic
                           Checkpoints)

                         Lighting
•   Increased use of daylight
•   Light up the work area evenly
•   Sufficient lighting for working
•   Local lighting for precision work
•   Removing shiny surfaces
•   Avoid glare
   Some important ergonomic requirements (From ILO Ergonomic
                         Checkpoints)

                       Premises
Prevent the exposure to excessive heat
Install effective local exhaust systems
Increase the use of natural ventilation
   Some important ergonomic requirements (From ILO Ergonomic
                         Checkpoints)

                Welfare facilities
• Provide effective and acceptable
  personal protective devices
   Some important ergonomic requirements (From ILO Ergonomic
                         Checkpoints)

              Work Organization
• Involve worker in planning
• Inform the worker the results of their
  work
• Job enrichment (combine tasks)

				
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posted:11/7/2011
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