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					   Science Measurement
SI units, adapted from the metric
    system, are used in science

      Base units are:
      Meter – length
      Liter – volume
       Gram - mass
           Science TAKS Need to Know   1
      Types of Graphs - LINE
Different types of graphs are used to show
  different relationships between data
Line graphs – show continuous change
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                Science TAKS Need to Know    2
      Types of Graphs - BAR
Different types of graphs are used to show
  different relationships between data
Bar graphs – compare two measured
 variables (show differences)




                Science TAKS Need to Know    3
       Types of Graphs- PIE
Different types of graphs are used to show
  different relationships between data
Pie graphs – show percentages




                Science TAKS Need to Know    4
   Democritus named the atom
2,500  years ago, the Greek
 philosopher Democritus,
 decided that matter was
 made up of tiny, indivisible
 units called “atoms”.
8.3E

            Science TAKS Need to Know   5
           Spring Scale
Measure WEIGHT in Newtons




              Science TAKS Need to Know   6
Graduated Cylinder and Beaker
Both measure volume in mL, but the
 graduated cylinder is more precise.




                Science TAKS Need to Know   7
         Meniscus
"A characteristic of liquids
  in glass containers is that
  they curve at the edges.
  This curvature is called
  the meniscus. You
  measure the level at the
  horizontal center or
  inside part of the
  meniscus. With water in
  glass, the meniscus will
  curve up at the edges and
  down in the center.
  Always read the bottom
  of the meniscus."

                       Science TAKS Need to Know   8
        Triple Beam Balance
Measures MASS in GRAMS




Always carry this with 2 hands!

                 Science TAKS Need to Know   9
                Microscope
   Calculate total magnification by
    multiplying the power of the eye lens X
    the power of the objective lens




                   Science TAKS Need to Know   10
                   Goggles
   Protective plastic goggles are worn during
    experiments to keep your eyes safe.




                   Science TAKS Need to Know   11
               Telescope
Used to view far away objects, like stars and
 planets.
Contains lenses or mirrors to magnify
 distant objects.




                 Science TAKS Need to Know   12
              Test Tube
A glass tube used to hold or heat
  substances. Never point the open end of
  a test tube at anyone!




                Science TAKS Need to Know   13
                  Hot plate
   An electrical plate used to heat substances
    in a lab investigation. Always protect
    yourself!




                   Science TAKS Need to Know   14
                Meter Stick
   A ruler marked in millimeters, centimeters
    & meters used to measure length.




                   Science TAKS Need to Know     15
                Petri Dish
A round, flat dish with a cover that is used
  to grow microorganisms in the lab.




                 Science TAKS Need to Know     16
Thermometer

                     Measures
                      temperature in
                      degrees Celsius
                      (oC)




  Science TAKS Need to Know             17
       Independent Variable
The MANIPULATED or CHANGED factor in
 an experiment. This is the variable
 controlled by the person doing the
 experiment.

Ex: You may change the amount of water
  you give a plant or the amount of fertilizer
  applied to soil.

                 Science TAKS Need to Know   18
        Dependent Variable
The outcome or RESULT of manipulating or
 changing the independent variable.

What happens to the dependent variable is
 the EFFECT of what the experimenter
 does to the independent variable



               Science TAKS Need to Know   19
              Inferences
Conclusions that go beyond the facts




                Science TAKS Need to Know   20
         Promotional Claim
A statement used to sell a product or
  service. Can sometimes be misleading, so
  you need to understand basic science
  facts to be able to evaluate how valid the
  information is.




                 Science TAKS Need to Know   21
           Valid conclusion
Valid results are those that are well-
 supported by evidence. When scientific
 findings are evaluated, a scientist looks for
 reliable and accuracy. Multiple trials, or
 sets of data, give us more reliable and
 valid information.

VALID results are REPRODUCIBLE – they
 can be recreated by other scientists.

                 Science TAKS Need to Know   22
                        Models
A diagram or an object that represents
     something else & demonstrates how it
     works.
Models aren’t exactly the same as what
     they represent so they have limitations
     and can always be improved.

     Questions to ask about models-
1.   How closely does it resemble what it
     represents?
2.   What does the model show?
3.   How might the model be improved?


                       Science TAKS Need to Know   23

				
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posted:11/7/2011
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