hormone_worksheet

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					Organ                Glandular/Neural       Releases                               Tropic/Non- Target                            Hormone Action                         Other
                                                                                   tropic
Hypothalamus         Integrates nervous & Releasing factors (hormones)                         Pituitary gland                                                          Portal circulation carries
                     endocrine systems    stimulate secretion by anterior                                                                                               hormones directly from
                                          pituitary                                                                                                                     hypothalamus to anterior
                                          Inhibiting factors (hormones are                                                                                              pituitary
                                          antagonistic to releasing factors

                                            Nervous tissue carries hormones to
                                            posterior pituitary

Pituitary gland      Anterior – glandular   See anterior & posterior lobes                      See anterior & posterior lobes                                          Attached to hypothalamus via
                     (E.T.)                                                                                                                                             infundibulum
                     Posterior - neural                                                                                                                                 Protected by sella turcica of
                                                                                                                                                                        sphenoid
                                                                                                                                                                        Divided into 2 lobes – anterior &
                                                                                                                                                                        posterior
Anterior pituitary   Glandular              Human growth hormone (GH)              Non-tropic   All/most body cells (especially Promotes growth & repair                “master gland” – makes &
                                                                                                bone & muscle) – especially                                             secretes tropic & non-tropic
                                                                                                sensitive when young, many                                              hormones hormones
                                                                                                body cells have GH receptors


                                            Prolactin (PRL)                        Non-tropic   Mammary tissue                   Promotes milk production
                                            Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)      Tropic       Thyroid gland                    stimulates production of thyroid
                                                                                                                                 hormone
                                            Adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH) Tropic          Adrenal cortex                   controls production/secretion of
                                                                                                                                 adrenal cortex hormones

                                            Gonadotropic hormones                  Tropic       Gonads (ovaries/testes)          production of gametes (sex cells-ova
                                                                                                                                 & sperm) & sex hormones in both
                                                                                                                                 sexes
                                            Luteinizing hormone:                   Tropic       Gonads (ovaries/testes)          production of sex hormones,
                                            -LH in females                                                                       prepare uterus for implantation,
                                            -ICSH in males (interstitial cell                                                    develop copus luteum in ovary
                                            stimulating hormone)
Posterior pituitary Neural                  Oxytocin (similar to pitocin used to   Non-tropic   Uterus & mammary glands          stimulates contractions to eject       -Stores & releases hormones
                                            induce labor)                                                                        fetus & milk                           produced by hypothalamus
                                            Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) - also      Non-tropic   Kidneys                          Conserve water - reduces urine         -Does not synthesize hormones
                                            called vasopressin                                                                   output, puts fluid back into blood,    -Receives messages from
                                                                                                                                 thus increasing blood pressure         hypothalamus via
                                                                                                                                                                        neurotransmitters through
                                                                                                                                                                        infundibulum




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Organ                Glandular/Neural    Releases                                Tropic/Non- Target                          Hormone Action                       Other
                                                                                 tropic
Thyroid gland        Glandular           T3 (Triiodothyronine                    Non-tropic Most body cells                  increase metabolic rate regulate
(inferior to hyoid                       T4 (Thyroxine)                                                                      (how fast you use energy in your
bone)                                                                                                                        body), regulate body temperature

                                         Calcitonin                              Non-tropic   Bone/osteclast inhibition      decrease blood calcium            low blood calcium is more
                                                                                                                             (hypocalcemia if excessive) -     common than high blood calcium
                                                                                                                             antagonist of parathyroid hormone

                                                                                                                                                                  -thyroid gland is prone to cancer
                                                                                                                                                                  -if thyroid doesn't have iodine to
                                                                                                                                                                  create T3 & T4, it continues to
                                                                                                                                                                  store intermediary product in
                                                                                                                                                                  thyroid follicles creating goiters




Parathyroid glands Glandular             Parathyroid hormone                     Non-tropic   Bone/stimulation of            increase of blood calcium            on posterior of thyroid gland,
                                                                                              osteoclasts                    (hypercalcemia if excessive) -       although some people have
                                                                                                                             antagonist of calcitonin             ectopic parathyroid (away from
                                                                                                                                                                  the thyroid gland)

Adrenal glands –     Glandular           cortisol                                Non-tropic   Many tissues                   make glucose (liberate glucose into same as hydrocortisone
cortex                                                                                                                       the blood), decrease inflammation

                                         aldosterone                             Non-tropic   Kidneys                        maintain Na+/K+ blood levels         -Na+/K+ are necessary for muscle
                                                                                                                                                                  contraction
                                                                                                                                                                  -when aldosterone rises, Na+
                                                                                                                                                                  increases in blood, K+ flushed in
                                                                                                                                                                  urine-water follows the Na+
                                                                                                                                                                  -alcohol upsets action of
                                                                                                                                                                  aldosterone

Adrenal glands –     Neural (not E.T.)   epinephrine/adrenalin                   Non-tropic   heart, liver, muscles, blood   prepare for sudden threat, increase -both are considered hormones
medulla                                  (fear/flight response) - panic                       vessels, etc.                  heart rate, respiration, decrease non- & neurotransmitters-bodily
                                                                                                                             essential bodily processes             response is FAST
                                                                                                                             (digestion), pupils dilate, blood flow -normal ratio is
                                                                                                                             increases                              epinephrine/norepinephrine 3:1,
                                         norepinephrine/noradrenaline            Non-tropic   heart, liver, muscles, blood                                          people with other ratios can have
                                         (anger/fight) - anger                                vessels, etc.                                                         different stress responses




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Organ            Glandular/Neural       Releases                            Tropic/Non- Target                      Hormone Action                        Other
                                                                            tropic
Pancreas         Glandular              glucagon                            Non-tropic liver                        raises blood glucose by breaking      -both an endocrine & exocrine
                                        (antagonist to insulin)                                                     down glycogen into glucose in the     gland-exocrine to digestive
                                                                                                                    liver and releasing into blood        system (produces enzymes)
                                                                                                                                                          -Islets of Langerhans are
                                        insulin                             Non-tropic   most/all cells             promotes glucose transport into       endocrine portion-produce both
                                        (antagonist to glucagon)                                                    cells, decreases blood glucose by     hormones
                                                                                                                    pulling glucose out of blood into
                                                                                                                    cells
Pineal gland     Glandular              melatonin ("go to sleep" hormone)   Tropic       Hypothalamus               -sets biological rhythms & promotes   -light inhibits production of
                 (part of endocrine &                                                                               sleep                                 melatonin, darkness promotes
                 CNS)                                                                                               -circadian rhythms                    production
Thymus           Glandular              thymosins                           Non-tropic   T cells of immune system   T cell maturation                     -thymus atrophies @ puberty
                                                                                                                    (immunocompetence)                    because T-cells know "self"
                                                                                                                                                          -located in mediastinum, superior
                                                                                                                                                          to heart

Gonads-ovaries   glandular              estrogens                           Non-tropic   uterus, ovaries, other     prepare for fetus, secondary sexual
                                                                                                                    characteristics:
                                                                                                                    -development of breasts, hair,
                                                                                                                    subcutaneous fat throughout body

                                        progesterone                        Non-tropic   uterus                     maintains pregnancy, prevents         suppresssion of smooth muscle
                                                                                                                    uterine contractions                  contractions may cause
                                                                                                                                                          constipation
Gonads-testes    glandular              testosterone                        Non-tropic   various body parts         secondary sexual characteristics:     in utero, testosterone causes
                                                                                                                    -deposit of fat in abdomen            fetus to change from female to
                                                                                                                    -hair growth                          male
                                                                                                                    voice deepens
                                                                                                                    -genitalia develops




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