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Posterior Pituitary
      Hormone           Structure                        Action                                     Control                  Miscellaneous
        ADH              Protein           (+)’s H20 reabsorption V2 via cAMP    (+) by  Osmolality                        Diabetes
                           9 AA’s*         (+)’s Vasoconstriction via IP3        (+) by  Blood Volume                      Insipidus
                      1 Disulfide Bond
                       (primarily from
     Oxytocin            Protein           (+)’s Milk Ejection                   (+) by Suckling
                           9 AA’s*         (+)’s Uterine Contraction             (+) by Pressure on Cervix (Parturition)
                      1 Disulfide Bond     (+)’s Seminiferous
                       (primarily from
                            PVN)                 Tubule Peristalsis
                                                           via IP3
                      * Differ by AA’s 3 & 8

Anterior Pituitary
      Hormone           Structure                          Action                                       Control             Miscellaneous
       ACTH              Peptide           (+)’s Cortisol Synthesis & Release    HT: (+) by CRH
                         39 AA’s           from Adrenal Cortex
                                                                                 Neural: 1. Circadian
                                                                                         2. Stress
                                                        via cAMP                         3. ADH (from PVN  Portal blood)

                                                                                 FB: Cortisol (-)’s CRH & ACTH
     Prolactin           Protein           (+)’s Milk Production                 HT: 1. (-) by PIF (Dopamine)               Hyperprolactinemia
                        198 AA’s           (+)’s Progesterone Synthesis               2. (+) PRF                            Male:  Libido
                       3 Disulfide         (+)’s Follicular Growth                    3. (+) TRH                                   Amenorrhea
                         Bonds             (-)’s Estrogen Synthesis
                                                                                 FB: Prolactin (+)’s TIDA neurons which
                                                                                     (-) Prolactin release (Short Loop)
                                           (-)’s GnRH, LH & FSH during
                                                 pregnancy                       Other: (+) by Estrogen
                                                                                        (+) by Stress
Growth Hormone           Protein           (+)’s Growth of Bone, Cart., &        HT: (+) by GHRH (Gs   cAMP)              Gigantism
                        191 AA’s                   Muscle                             (-) by SRIF (Gi   cAMP)             Acromegaly
                                           (+)’s Protein Synthesis                                                          Dwarfism
                                           (+)’s Lipolysis                       Neural: (+) by Deep Sleep
                                                                                        (+) by Stress (Exercise)
                                           (+)’s Gluconeogenesis                        (+) by Hypoglycemia                 GH-Induced
                                            Plasma Glucose                                                                       Diabetes
                                                                                 FB: GH (-)’s GHRH
                                                   Mediated by IGF-I                 GH (+)’s SRIF (somatostatin)
                                                                                     IGF (-)’s GH & GHRH

Milton Wolf                                                        Page 1 of 7                                                        4/29/96
Anterior Pituitary, cont.
       Hormone           Structure               Action                                     Control                     Miscellaneous
         TSH            Glycoprotein    (+)’s Synthesis &               HT: (+) by TRH                    I P3athway
                       ~200 AA’s ()   Release of T3 & T4 from
                        ~15% CHO        Thyroid                         Neural: (+) by Cold & Stress

                                                                        FB: 1. T3 & T4 (-) TSH
                                                via cAMP                        (Not TRH)
                                                                            2. (-) by Somatostatin (SRIF)
                                                                            3. (-) by Cortisol
          LH            Glycoprotein    Male:                           HT: (+) by GnRH (pulsatile)     IP3 Pathway
                       ~200 AA’s ()   (+)’s Leydig Cells to
                        ~15% CHO        synthesize / release            FB: (-) by Estrogen (Progesterone synergizes)
                                        Testosterone                             (-)’s LH release
                                                                                 (-)’s GnRH release (@ Low Levels)
                                        (+)’s Thecal, Granulosa,            (+) by Estrogen (Progesterone synergizes)
                                        & Luteal Cells for                        Pituitary sensitivity to GnRH
                                        Ovulation, Follicle                         (after a few days)
                                        Maturation & Steroid                     (+)’s GnRH        (@ High Levels)

                                                via cAMP
         FSH            Glycoprotein    Male:                           HT: (+) by GnRH (pulsatile)     IP3 Pathway
                       ~200 AA’s ()   (+)’s Sertoli Cells for
                        ~15% CHO        Spermatogenesis                 FB: (-) by Estrogen
                                                                                 (-)’s LH release
                                        Female:                                  (-)’s GnRH release (@ Low Levels)
                                        (+)’s Granulosa Cell for
                                        Follicle Growth & Steroid           (+) by Estrogen
                                        Synthesis                                 Pituitary sensitivity to GnRH
                                                                                     (after a few days)
                                                via cAMP                         (+)’s GnRH         (@ High Levels)

Milton Wolf                                                       Page 2 of 7                                                  4/29/96
       Hormone       Structure                       Action                                         Control                 Miscellaneous
       Insulin         Peptide         CHO         ABSORPTIVE STATE                     (+) By                             Diabetes Mellitus
                       51 AA’s          Glucose Uptake … K+ follows                     Plasma Glucose
                  2 Disulfide Bonds         (Muscle & Adipose, NOT Brain)                Plasma AA’s
                                        Glycogenesis                                   Parasympathetic Neurons
                                        AA Uptake                                      (-) By
                                        Protein Synthesis                              Epinephrine
                                       (-)’s Proteolysis                                Sympathetic Neurons

                                        TAG Storage
                                        FA Synthesis
                                       (-)’s Lipolysis

                                                via Tyrosine Kinase
     Glucagon          Peptide         CHO     POST-ABSORBTIVE STATE                    (+) By
                       29 AA’s          Glycogenolysis                                  Plasma Glucose
                                        Gluconeogenesis                                 Plasma AA’s (same as Insulin!)
                                        Ketone Bodies                                  Epinephrine

                                       Fat                                              (-) By
                                        Lipolysis                                      Insulin
                                                      via cAMP
   Somatostatin    Cyclic Peptide       Insulin & Glucagon                             (+) By
                     14 AA’s              Release                                        Plasma Glucose
                                        GI Activity                                     Plasma AA

       Hormone       Structure                              Action                                   Control               Miscellaneous
                                       Plasma Ca          &  Plasma PO4
                                                      ++                 -
         PTH          Peptide                                                           (+) By
                      84 AA’s         (+)’s Ca++ (& PO4-) release from bone (rapid)      Plasma Ca
                                      (+)’s Osteoclast Osteolysis           (delayed)
                                      (+)’s Ca++ net reabsorption (renal)
                                                                                        Epinephrine ( agonist) via cAMP
                     (Chief Cells)
                                      (+)’s PO4- excretion (renal)
                                      (+)’s 1-Hydoxylase  Vit D (renal)               (-) By
                                      (+)’s Ca++ Absorption (GI) … via Vit D3           1,25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D3
                                                           via cAMP

Milton Wolf                                                     Page 3 of 7                                                          4/29/96
Adrenal Medulla
       Hormone      Structure                          Action                       Control                    Miscellaneous
    Epinephrine     Tyrosine           Glucagon release                (+) By                               Pheochromocytoma
                    Derivative         Insulin release                 Stress
                                       PTH release                      Plasma Glucose (Brain Glucose
                                       Glycogenolysis
                                       Gluconeogenesis - Liver
                                       Lipolysis

                                                    via cAMP

Adrenal Cortex
       Hormone      Structure                       Action                           Control                   Miscellaneous
                                       Renal Na Reabsorption
    Aldosterone      Steroid                                            (+) By
                      21 C             Renal K Secretion
                                                                         Blood Pressure
                                                                         Osmolality
                    Mineralo-                                           Renin
                    corticoid                                           Hyperkalemia
                  Zona Glomerulosa
       Cortisol       Steroid          Gluconeogenesis                 (+) By                               Cushing’s Syndrome
                       21 C            Lipolysis                       ACTH                                  (Adrenal Diabetes)
                                       Proteolysis
                  Glucocorticoid      (-)’s Glucose Uptake                                                   Addison’s Disease
                                                                        FB: Cortisol (-)’s CRH & ACTH
                                      (-)’s Immune Response
                       from           (-) ‘s Bone Growth
                  Zona Fasciculata
                                      (+)’s Surfactant
                                      (+)’s GI Enzymes

                                      Modulates CNS
     Androgens        Steroid
                       19 C

                   Zona Reticularis

Milton Wolf                                               Page 4 of 7                                                   4/29/96
       Hormone         Structure                             Action                          Control                  Miscellaneous
                   3,5,3’-Triiodo- (or)     (+)’s Growth                         HT: (+) by TSH    via cAMP         Cretinism
 Thyroid Hormone   3,5,3’,5’-Tetraiodo-     (+)’s Neural Maturation
      T3 & T4
                        thyronine           (+)’s Metabolic Rate                 FB: T3 & T4 (-) TSH                Hashimoto’s
                                            (+)’s Erythropoiesis                                                           Thyroiditis
                                             Protein Synthesis                    Iodine (+)’s                    Grave’s Disease
                                               (XS - Proteolysis)                  Iodine (-)’s
                                             Glycogenesis                        Wolff-Chaikoff Effect
                                               (XS - Glycogenolysis)
                                             Glucose Uptake
                                             Lipolysis
                                            (+)’s Ca Deposit in Bone             (+) by  Plasma Ca
     Calcitonin         Peptide
                   (Parafollicular Cells)   (-)’s PTH on Bone                    (+) by Gastrin

       Hormone         Structure                          Action                                Control                Miscellaneous
         Renin          Peptide             Renin  AI  AII                     (+) by  Filtrate volume in JGA
                        12 AA’s
                       (from JGA)
  Erythropoietin                            (+) RBC production                   (+) by  pO2
                                             Plasma Ca &  Plasma PO4
                                                          ++                 -                                      Rickets
  1,25-Dihydroxy         Steroid                                                 (+) by PTH
                                                                                 (+) by  Plasma Ca
                                                    ++     -                                       ++
    Vitamin D3
                       (from 1-            (+)’s Ca (& PO4 ) Absorption (GI)
                      Hydroxylase)                  ++
                                            (+)’s Ca Resorption from Bone        (-) by  PO4

                                                                                 FB: 1,25-diOH VitD (-)’s PTH

      Hormone        Structure                                 Action                        Control                 Miscellaneous
      Melatonin                             Unknown                              (+) by Darkness
                                             Gonadal Regulation?                 (-) by Light
                                                                                        via Sympathetics from
                                                                                       Superior Cervical Ganglion

Milton Wolf                                                        Page 5 of 7                                                     4/29/96
      Hormone          Structure                           Action                                  Control                  Miscellaneous
      Estrogen           Steroid         (+)’s Endothelium proliferation              (+) by LH
                                         (+)’s Myometrium excitability
                           18 C          (+)’s Mammary Duct growth                    FB: Estrogen (-)’s LH, FSH & GnRH
                                         (+)’s Prolactin release (but (-)’s action)        (Until LH surge)
                                         (+)’s Liver Transporting Globulins
                                         Also: Anabolic
                                                H2O retention
   Progesterone          Steroid         (+)’s Uterine Gland development              (+) by LH
                                         Induces Stromal Cell  Decidual Cell
                           21 C          (-)’s Myometrium excitability                FB: Progesterone (-)’s LH & FSH
                                         (+)’s Mammary Alveoli growth
                                         Also: Catabolic
       Activin         Polypeptide       (+)’s FSH               Only at the
       Inhibin         Polypeptide       (-)’s FSH              Level of the
      Follistatin      Polypeptide       (-)’s FSH            Anterior Pituitary
       Relaxin          Peptide          Softens Pelvic Ligaments
                                         Loosens Cervix
                                         (-)’s Myometrial Contraction

       Hormone          Structure                         Action                                   Control                   Miscellaneous
     Androgens           Steroid         (+)’s Spermatogenesis                        (+) by LH                           Leydig Cells contain
(Testosterone & DHT)                     (+)’s 2 Sex Characteristics
                                                                                                                          (Testosterone  DHT)
                       (Leydig Cells)    (+)’s Anabolic growth                        FB: Androgens (-) GnRH & LH
        Inhibin          Peptide         (-)’s FSH                                    (+) b FSH
                                                                                                                        Sertoli Cells contain
                                                                                      FB: Inhibin (-) FSH release         Aromatase
                       (Sertoli Cells)
       Activin           Peptide         (+)’s FSH                                    (+) by FSH                          (Testosterone 
                             2                                                                                                          Estrogen)

                       (Sertoli Cells)
          MIS          Glycopeptide      (-)’s Mullerian Duct

                       (Sertoli Cells)

Milton Wolf                                                      Page 6 of 7                                                               4/29/96
       Hormone        Structure                      Action                               Control                  Miscellaneous
         hCG         Glycopeptide   (+)’s Progesterone release from C.L.      (+) by GnRH (from cytotrophoblast)
                                  (+)’s Fetal growth & Steroidogenesis
                                    (+)’s Relaxin from C.L.
                                    (-)’s Mentrual Cycle

                                                     via cAMP
Placental Lactogen     Peptide      Unkown
                                    May overlap with GH & Prolactin
   Progesterone        Steroid      Maintains pregnancy after involution of
                                    the Corpus Luteum

Milton Wolf                                                 Page 7 of 7                                                    4/29/96

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