Non-small cell lung cancer

Document Sample
Non-small cell lung cancer Powered By Docstoc
					Non-small cell lung cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the lung.

The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs in the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body as you breathe in. They release carbon
dioxide, a waste product of the body’s cells, as you breathe out. Each lung has sections called lobes. The left lung has two lobes. The right lung is
slightly larger and has three lobes. Two tubes called bronchi lead from the trachea (windpipe) to the right and left lungs. The bronchi are sometimes
also involved in lung cancer. Tiny air sacs called alveoli and small tubes called bronchioles make up the inside of the lungs.
A thin membrane called the pleura covers the outside of each lung and lines the inside wall of the chest cavity. This creates a sac called the pleural
cavity. The pleural cavity normally contains a small amount of fluid that helps the lungs move smoothly in the chest when you breathe.


There are two main types of lung cancer: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. (See the PDQ summary on Small Cell Lung Cancer
Treatment for more information.)


There are several types of non-small cell lung cancer.

Each type of non-small cell lung cancer has different kinds of cancer cells. The cancer cells of each type grow and spread in different ways. The types
of non-small cell lung cancer are named for the kinds of cells found in the cancer and how the cells look under a microscope:


            Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that begins in squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells that look like fish scales. This is also called
         epidermoid carcinoma.
           Large cell carcinoma: Cancer that may begin in several types of large cells.
           Adenocarcinoma: Cancer that begins in the cells that line the alveoli and make substances such as mucus.


Other less common types of non-small cell lung cancer are: pleomorphic, carcinoid tumor, salivary gland carcinoma, and unclassified carcinoma.


Smoking can increase the risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer.

Smoking cigarettes or cigars is the most common cause of lung cancer. The more years a person smokes, the greater the risk. If a person has stopped
smoking, the risk becomes lower as the years pass, but is never completely gone.


Anything that increases a person's chance of developing a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer;
not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. People who think they may be at risk should discuss this with their doctor. Risk factors
for lung cancer include the following:


           Smoking cigarettes or cigars, now or in the past.
           Being exposed to second-hand smoke.
           Being treated with radiation therapy to the breast or chest.
           Being exposed to asbestos, radon, chromium, arsenic, soot, or tar.
           Living where there is air pollution.


When smoking is combined with other risk factors, the risk of developing lung cancer is increased.


Possible signs of non-small cell lung cancer include a cough that doesn't go away and shortness of breath.

Sometimes lung cancer does not cause any symptoms and is found during a routine chest x-ray. Symptoms may be caused by lung cancer or by other
conditions. A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur:


           A cough that doesn’t go away.
           Trouble breathing.
           Chest discomfort.
           Wheezing.
           Streaks of blood in sputum (mucus coughed up from the lungs).
           Hoarseness.
           Loss of appetite.
           Weight loss for no known reason.
           Feeling very tired.


Tests that examine the lungs are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage non-small cell lung cancer.

Tests and procedures to detect, diagnose, and stage non-small cell lung cancer are often done at the same time. The following tests and procedures
may be used:


           Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or
         anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits, including smoking, and past jobs, illnesses, and treatments will also
         be taken.
    Chest x-ray: An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto
film, making a picture of areas inside the body.




                                     X-ray of the chest. X-rays are used to take pictures of organs and
                                     bones of the chest. X-rays pass through the patient onto film.


   CT scan (CAT scan): A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, such as the chest, taken from different
angles. The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or
tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial
tomography.
   PET scan (positron emission tomography scan): A procedure to find malignant tumor cells in the body. A small amount of radioactive
glucose (sugar) is injected into a vein. The PET scanner rotates around the body and makes a picture of where glucose is being used in the
body. Malignant tumor cells show up brighter in the picture because they are more active and take up more glucose than normal cells do.




                         PET (positron emission tomography) scan. The patient lies on a table
                         that slides through the PET machine. The head rest and white strap help
                         the patient lie still. A small amount of radioactive glucose (sugar) is
                          injected into the patient's vein, and a scanner makes a picture of where
                          the glucose is being used in the body. Cancer cells show up brighter in
                          the picture because they take up more glucose than normal cells do.




  Sputum cytology: A procedure in which a pathologist views a sample of sputum (mucus coughed up from the lungs) under a microscope, to
check for cancer cells.
   Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of the lung: The removal of tissue or fluid from the lung using a thin needle. A CT scan, ultrasound, or
other imaging procedure is used to locate the abnormal tissue or fluid in the lung. A small incision may be made in the skin where the biopsy
needle is inserted into the abnormal tissue or fluid. A sample is removed with the needle and sent to the laboratory. A pathologist then views
the sample under a microscope to look for cancer cells. A chest x-ray is done after the procedure to make sure no air is leaking from the lung
into the chest.




                                      Lung biopsy. The patient lies on a table that slides through the computed
                                      tomography (CT) machine which takes x-ray pictures of the inside of the body.
                                      The x-ray pictures help the doctor see where the abnormal tissue is in the lung.
                                      A biopsy needle is inserted through the chest wall and into the area of abnormal
                                      lung tissue. A small piece of tissue is removed through the needle and checked
                                      under the microscope for signs of cancer.




   Bronchoscopy: A procedure to look inside the trachea and large airways in the lung for abnormal areas. A bronchoscope is inserted through
the nose or mouth into the trachea and lungs. A bronchoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also
have a tool to remove tissue samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer.
                                           Bronchoscopy. A bronchoscope is inserted through the mouth, trachea,
                                           and major bronchi into the lung, to look for abnormal areas. A
                                           bronchoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for
                                           viewing. It may also have a cutting tool. Tissue samples may be taken to
                                           be checked under a microscope for signs of disease.


           Thoracoscopy: A surgical procedure to look at the organs inside the chest to check for abnormal areas. An incision (cut) is made between
        two ribs, and a thoracoscope is inserted into the chest. A thoracoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may
        also have a tool to remove tissue or lymph node samples, which are checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. In some cases, this
        procedure is used to remove part of the esophagus or lung. If certain tissues, organs, or lymph nodes can’t be reached, a thoracotomy may be
        done. In this procedure, a larger incision is made between the ribs and the chest is opened.
            Thoracentesis: The removal of fluid from the space between the lining of the chest and the lung, using a needle. A pathologist views the
        fluid under a microscope to look for cancer cells.


Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:


           The stage of the cancer (the size of the tumor and whether it is in the lung only or has spread to other places in the body).
           The type of lung cancer.
           Whether there are symptoms such as coughing or trouble breathing.
           The patient’s general health.


For most patients with non-small cell lung cancer, current treatments do not cure the cancer.

After lung cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the lungs or to other
parts of the body.

The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the lungs or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the
staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment. Some of the tests used to diagnose
non-small cell lung cancer are also used to stage the disease. (See the General Information section.) Other tests and procedures that may be used in
the staging process include the following:


           Laboratory tests: Medical procedures that test samples of tissue, blood, urine, or other substances in the body. These tests help to
        diagnose disease, plan and check treatment, or monitor the disease over time.
           MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of
        areas inside the body, such as the brain. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
   Radionuclide bone scan: A procedure to check if there are rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, in the bone. A very small amount of
radioactive material is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The radioactive material collects in the bones and is detected
by a scanner.
   Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS): A procedure in which an endoscope is inserted into the body. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument
with a light and a lens for viewing. A probe at the end of the endoscope is used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal
tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. This procedure is also called
endosonography. EUS may be used to guide fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of the lung, lymph nodes, or other areas.




                                Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. An
                                endoscope that has an ultrasound probe and a biopsy needle is inserted
                                through the mouth and into the esophagus. The probe bounces sound
                                waves off body tissues to make echoes that form a sonogram (computer
                                picture) of the lymph nodes near the esophagus. The sonogram helps the
                                doctor see where to place the biopsy needle to remove tissue from the
                                lymph nodes. This tissue is checked under a microscope for signs of
                                cancer.


  Lymph node biopsy: The removal of all or part of a lymph node. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
   Mediastinoscopy: A surgical procedure to look at the organs, tissues, and lymph nodes between the lungs for abnormal areas. An incision
(cut) is made at the top of the breastbone and a mediastinoscope is inserted into the chest. A mediastinoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument
with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue or lymph node samples, which are checked under a microscope for
signs of cancer.




                                Mediastinoscopy. A mediastinoscope is inserted into the chest through an
                                incision above the breastbone to look for abnormal areas between the
                                lungs. A mediastinoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a
                                lens for viewing. It may also have a cutting tool. Tissue samples may be
                                taken from lymph nodes on the right side of the chest and checked under
                                a microscope for signs of cancer. In an anterior mediastinotomy
                                (Chamberlain procedure), the incision is made beside the breastbone to
                                          remove tissue samples from the lymph nodes on the left side of the chest.


             Anterior mediastinotomy: A surgical procedure to look at the organs and tissues between the lungs and between the breastbone and heart
          for abnormal areas. An incision (cut) is made next to the breastbone and a mediastinoscope is inserted into the chest. A mediastinoscope is a
          thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue or lymph node samples, which are
          checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. This is also called the Chamberlain procedure.


There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.

The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:


            Through tissue. Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.
            Through the lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.
            Through the blood. Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.


When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary)
tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if
breast cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone
cancer.


The following stages are used for non-small cell lung cancer:

Occult (hidden) stage

In the occult (hidden) stage, cancer cells are found in sputum (mucus coughed up from the lungs), but no tumor can be found in the lung by imaging or
bronchoscopy, or the primary tumor is too small to be checked.


Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)

In stage 0, abnormal cells are found in the innermost lining of the lung. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal
tissue. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.


Stage I

                                                                                                                                         Enlarge
      Stage I non-small cell lung cancer. In stage IA, cancer is in the lung only. In stage IB, the cancer may do one or more of the following: (a) grow larger
      in the lung, (b) spread to the main bronchus of the lung, (c) spread to the innermost layer of the pleura that covers the lungs.


In stage I, cancer has formed. Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB:


           Stage IA: The tumor is in the lung only and is 3 centimeters or smaller.
           Stage IB: One or more of the following is true:
                        The tumor is larger than 3 centimeters.
                       Cancer has spread to the main bronchus of the lung, and is at least 2 centimeters from the carina (where the trachea joins the
                  bronchi).
                        Cancer has spread to the innermost layer of the membrane that covers the lungs.
                        The tumor partly blocks the bronchus or bronchioles and part of the lung has collapsed or developed pneumonitis (inflammation
                  of the lung).


Stage II
      Stage II non-small cell lung cancer. In stage IIA, cancer has spread to lymph nodes on the same side of the chest as the cancer. In stage IIB, cancer
      is either the same as in stage IB and has also spread to lymph nodes on the same side of the chest; or cancer has not spread to lymph nodes but
      has spread to one or more of the following: (a) the chest wall, (b) the diaphragm, (c) the pleura between the lungs, (d) the membrane around the
      heart, and/or (e) the main bronchus.


Stage II is divided into stages IIA and IIB:


            Stage IIA: The tumor is 3 centimeters or smaller and cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes on the same side of the chest as the tumor.
            Stage IIB:
                         Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes on the same side of the chest as the tumor and one or more of the following is true:
                                     The tumor is larger than 3 centimeters.
                                    Cancer has spread to the main bronchus of the lung and is 2 centimeters or more from the carina (where the
                            trachea joins the bronchi).
                                     Cancer has spread to the innermost layer of the membrane that covers the lungs.
                                    The tumor partly blocks the bronchus or bronchioles and part of the lung has collapsed or developed pneumonitis
                            (inflammation of the lung).


                  or


                         Cancer has not spread to lymph nodes and one or more of the following is true:
                                    The tumor may be any size and cancer has spread to the chest wall, or the diaphragm, or the pleura between the
                            lungs, or membranes surrounding the heart.
                                    Cancer has spread to the main bronchus of the lung and is no more than 2 centimeters from the carina (where the
                            trachea meets the bronchi), but has not spread to the trachea.
                                    Cancer blocks the bronchus or bronchioles and the whole lung has collapsed or developed pneumonitis
                            (inflammation of the lung).


Stage IIIA
      Stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer. The cancer has spread to the lymph nodes on the same side of the chest as the cancer. It may also spread to
      one or more of the following: (a) the main bronchus, (b) the chest wall, (c) the diaphragm, (d) the pleura between the lungs, and/or (e) the
      pericardium (membrane around the heart).


In stage IIIA, cancer has spread to lymph nodes on the same side of the chest as the tumor. Also:


           The tumor may be any size.
          Cancer may have spread to the main bronchus, the chest wall, the diaphragm, the pleura around the lungs, or the membrane around the
        heart, but has not spread to the trachea.
           Part or all of the lung may have collapsed or developed pneumonitis (inflammation of the lung).


Stage IIIB
      Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer. The cancer has spread to (a) lymph nodes above the collarbone or lymph nodes on the opposite side of the
      chest from the cancer, and/or it may also spread to one or more of the following: (b) the heart, (c) the inferior vena cava and the aorta, (d) the chest
      wall, (e) the diaphragm, (f) the trachea, and (g) the sternum or esophagus. Cancer may also spread to the fluid between the pleura (thin layers of
      tissue lining the lungs and chest cavity).


In stage IIIB, the tumor may be any size and has spread:


           To lymph nodes above the collarbone or in the opposite side of the chest from the tumor; and/or
           To any of the following:
                        Heart.
                        Major blood vessels that lead to or from the heart.
                        Chest wall.
                        Diaphragm.
                        Trachea.
                        Esophagus.
                        Sternum (chest bone) or backbone.
                       More than one place in the same lobe of the lung.
                       The fluid of the pleural cavity surrounding the lung.


Stage IV




                                          Stage IV non-small cell lung cancer. The cancer has spread to another
                                          lobe of the same lung, to the other lung, and/or to one or more other parts
                                          of the body.


In stage IV, cancer may have spread to lymph nodes and has spread to another lobe of the lungs or to other parts of the body, such as the brain, liver,
adrenal glands, kidneys, or bone.


Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Recurrent non-small cell lung cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the brain, lung,
or other parts of the body.


There are different types of treatment for patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

Different types of treatments are available for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment),
and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information
on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may
become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have
not started treatment.


Six types of standard treatment are used:

Surgery

Four types of surgery are used:
   Wedge resection: Surgery to remove a tumor and some of the normal tissue around it. When a slightly larger amount of tissue is taken, it is
called a segmental resection.




                                Wedge resection of the lung. Part of the lung lobe containing the cancer
                                and a small amount of healthy tissue around it is removed.


  Lobectomy: Surgery to remove a whole lobe (section) of the lung.




                                Lobectomy. A lobe of the lung is removed.


  Pneumonectomy: Surgery to remove one whole lung.
                                          Pneumonectomy. The whole lung is removed.


            Sleeve resection: Surgery to remove part of the bronchus.


Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There
are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation
therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer.


Radiosurgery is a method of delivering radiation directly to the tumor with little damage to healthy tissue. It does not involve surgery and may be used
to treat certain tumors in patients who cannot have surgery.


The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.


Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing.
When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the
body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the spinal column, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the
drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the
cancer being treated.


Laser therapy

Laser therapy is a cancer treatment that uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) to kill cancer cells.


Photodynamic therapy (PDT)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer treatment that uses a drug and a certain type of laser light to kill cancer cells. A drug that is not active until it
is exposed to light is injected into a vein. The drug collects more in cancer cells than in normal cells. Fiberoptic tubes are then used to carry the laser
light to the cancer cells, where the drug becomes active and kills the cells. Photodynamic therapy causes little damage to healthy tissue. It is used
mainly to treat tumors on or just under the skin or in the lining of internal organs.


Watchful waiting

Watchful waiting is closely monitoring a patient’s condition without giving any treatment until symptoms appear or change. This may be done in certain
rare cases of non-small cell lung cancer.


New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials.
This summary section describes treatments that are being studied in clinical trials. It may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information
about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.


Chemoprevention

Chemoprevention is the use of drugs, vitamins, or other substances to reduce the risk of developing cancer or to reduce the risk cancer will recur
(come back).


Biologic therapy

Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient's immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used
to boost, direct, or restore the body's natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy.


New combinations

New combinations of treatments are being studied in clinical trials.


Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial.

For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials
are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.


Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard
treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.


Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective
new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward.


Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.

Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten
better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.


Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. See the Treatment Options section that follows for links to current treatment clinical trials.
These have been retrieved from NCI's clinical trials database.


Follow-up tests may be needed.

Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to
see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests. This
is sometimes called re-staging.


Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has
changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups.


Treatment Options by Stage

Occult Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)
Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Stage IIIA and Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer


A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed.
Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.


Occult Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Treatment of occult non-small cell lung cancer depends on where the cancer has spread. It can usually be cured by surgery.
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with occult non-small cell lung cancer. For
more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug.
General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.


Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)

Treatment of stage 0 may include the following:


            Surgery (wedge resection or segmental resection).
            Photodynamic therapy using an endoscope.


Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with stage 0 non-small cell lung cancer.
For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the
drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.


Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Treatment of stage I non-small cell lung cancer may include the following:


            Surgery (wedge resection, segmental resection, or lobectomy).
            External radiation therapy (for patients who cannot have surgery or choose not to have surgery).
            Surgery followed by chemotherapy.
            A clinical trial of photodynamic therapy using an endoscope.
            A clinical trial of surgery followed by chemoprevention.


Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. For
more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug.
General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.


Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Treatment of stage II non-small cell lung cancer may include the following:


            Surgery (wedge resection, segmental resection, lobectomy, or pneumonectomy).
            External radiation therapy (for patients who cannot have surgery or choose not to have surgery).
            Surgery followed by chemotherapy, with or without other treatments.
            A clinical trial of external radiation therapy following surgery.


Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with stage II non-small cell lung cancer.
For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the
drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.


Stage IIIA and Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Treatment of stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer may include the following:


            Surgery with or without radiation therapy.
            External radiation therapy alone.
            Chemotherapy combined with other treatments.
            A clinical trial of new ways of giving radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
            A clinical trial of new combinations of treatments.


Treatment of stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer may include the following:


            External radiation therapy alone.
            Chemotherapy combined with external radiation therapy.
            Chemotherapy combined with external radiation therapy, followed by surgery.
            Chemotherapy alone.
            A clinical trial of new ways of giving radiation therapy.
            A clinical trial of new combinations of treatments.


Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer.
For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the
drug. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.


Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Treatment of stage IV non-small cell lung cancer may include the following:


            Watchful waiting.
            External radiation therapy as palliative therapy, to relieve pain and other symptoms and improve the quality of life.
            Chemotherapy.
            Laser therapy and/or internal radiation therapy.
            A clinical trial of chemotherapy with or without biologic therapy.


Treatment Options for Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Treatment of recurrent non-small cell lung cancer may include the following:


            External radiation therapy as palliative therapy, to relieve pain and other symptoms and improve the quality of life.
            Chemotherapy alone.
            Surgery (for some patients who have a very small amount of cancer that has spread to the brain).
            Laser therapy or internal radiation therapy.
            Radiosurgery (for certain patients who cannot have standard surgery).
            A clinical trial of biologic therapy or other new treatments.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:34
posted:11/7/2011
language:English
pages:17