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					                                         761st Newsletter
March 15, 2008                               The Official Newsletter of the                        Volume 3, Issue 1
                                              761st Tank Battalion & Allied
                                                  Veterans Association

           Inside this issue:

  CWO Christopher Navarre
 (Ret) and the French Legion        1
        of Honor Medal

    59th Annual Reunion             4

    60th Annual Reunion             6

      President’ Corner             10

         Charles King               11

 Ask the Historian—an Inter-
 view with Buddie V. Branch
                                            Christopher Navarre and his wife, Bernice on the Washington State
                                                                     Senate Floor
   A Primer on Gas Prices           16
                                                     In the Fall of      “we have a consulate in       vice to both France dur-
  A Stand for Legacy—Mark                   2006 CWO Christopher         San Francisco.” Chris         ing WWII and America
                                    19      Navarre (RET) was in-        wrote back and again          during both WWII and
                                            vited by the President       stated “I no longer fly” to   the Korean War.
                                            of the French Republic       which the French govern-
           Mail Call                21      to come to France to for     ment replied “where?”                 In his remarks
                                            a very special award.        and Chris replied “here”, I   on the senate floor the
                                            Chris wrote back to          live in DuPont in the state   Consul General of
   Special points of interest:
                                            them that although he        of Washington.                France in San Francisco,
                                            was very honored, he                                       M r .      F r é d é r i c
  ♦ The 60/30 reunion is coming up.         no longer flies. The                 On April 10, 2007     Desagneaux made the
      Read all about it on page 6           President responded ,        at a ceremony that took       following remarks:
                                            how about a special          place on the Washington
                                                                         State Senate floor, CWO              “Dear     Christo-
                                            ceremony in Washing-                                       pher Navarre,
  ♦ Lieutenant Jackie Robinson to be        ton, DC at the French        Christopher P. Navarre
   featured in the spring edition of Pro-   Consulate? Chris wrote       (AUS Ret), a member of                You were one of
          logue Magazine—Page 9             back and restated “I no      the 761st Tank Battalion,     these heroes. After at-
                                            longer fly.” It was impor-   was named a Chevalier of      tending high school, you
                                            tant to the French gov-      the French Legion of          joined the army in 1940
♦ Questions about the 761st history ? —     ernment to accommo-          Honor and was presented       and were assigned to
      - Ask the Historian—Page 13           date Chris’s every need      with a commendation by        the 25th infantry regi-
                                            so they responded with       the US Army Freedom           ment, first stationed in
                                                                         Team Salute for his ser-      Arizona, then Louisiana
                Page 2                                                  761st Newsletter

and Mississippi. In 1944 you
crossed the Atlantic and after
spending some time in Wales,
you landed in Normandy on D-
Day plus six.
         You were then a First
Sergeant with the 590th Ambu-
lance company and your mis-
sion took you throughout
France, Luxemburg and Bel-
gium, in support of the front
line units. It was an extremely
perilous task, since you were
not allowed to carry arms or
fire back while you yourselves
were under heavy enemy fire.
         It was probably this
frustration that prompted you
to ask to be assigned to an-
other unit, a combat unit where
you would participate fully in
the military operations. So you
became a member of the 761st
Tank Battalion, and remained            Christopher Navarre surrounded by his wife Bernice and family
on the front line as a tank gun-
ner until the end of the war.      publqiue, nous vous remettons                           bassador of France to the
With your fellow soldiers, you     les insignes de Chevalier De                            United States, in a letter to Na-
achieved extraordinary results     L’Ordre National de la Legion                           varre.
under General Patton’s com-        D’Honneur.”
mand, inflicting heavy losses                                                                     In accepting the award
to the enemy while your battal-            “This award testifies to                      Christopher Navarre said “I
ion suffered a 50% casualty       the President of the French Re-                        wish to dedicate this distin-
rate.                             public’s highest esteem for your                       guished award to my fallen
                                  merits and accomplishments,”                           comrades of the 761st Tank Bat-
         You were present at wrote Jean-David Levitte, Am-                               talion who fought with me dur-
the capitulation of the German
armies, thus witnessing the
successful outcome of the war,
the victory of the allied forces,
                                                                  National Officers
the defeat of those who advo-                           Mr. Charles Womble ——- National President
cated hatred and racism.
                                                         Mr. John Weston ——- First Vice President
         I know this meant a lot
                                                        Mr. Roscoe Strozier —— Second Vice President
for you as it does for us all to-
day.”                                                         Mr. Kenneth C. Tait ——- Secretary
         “Allow me to add also,                          Mr. Gloucester Stephens ——- Treasurer
as was recalled by Senator
Carrell a few minutes ago, that                  Mr. Edward Walker and Mr. Rufus Taylor ——- Chaplains
in order to be transferred to a
                                                           Mr. Wayne Robinson ——- Historian
tank unit, Christopher Navarre
chose to relinquish his grade                            Mr. William D. Smith ——- Webmaster
as a First Sergeant and to be
downgraded to the rank of Pri-                         Mr. Rufus Taylor—Chairman, T.G. Hill Fund
vate.”                                     761st Tank Battalion and Allied Veterans Association
       “Christopher Navarre,                                 P.O. BOX 211009
au nom du President de la Re-                            Detroit, Michigan 48221
                                Volume 3, Issue 1                                                  Page 3

ing WWII., may their souls rest in         decorations were the perk of the offi-    President of the Republic is the
peace.                                     cers. The legion, however, is open to     Grand Master of the Order and, as a
        The Legion of Honor is an or-      all military ranks and civilian profes-   courtesy, foreign heads of state and
der of merit given by the French gov-      sions. It is conferred upon men or        the wives or concerts of monarchs
ernment.                                   women, French citizens or foreign-        are made Grand-Cross.
                                           ers, for outstanding achievements in
         In the French revolution all of                                                      The French citizens are first
                                           military or civil life. Only merit or
the Orders of the Kingdom were abol-                                                 received in the order to the class of
                                           bravery counted. The order’s motto
ished. Napoleon loathed orders of                                                    Knight. After a number of years have
                                           is Honneur et Patrie (Honor and Fa-
knighthood but he felt the need to re-                                               passed and proof is given that the
                                           therland). It is the premier order of
ward and commend the civilian and                                                    Knight as provided additional excep-
                                           France and considered a great dis-
military so the Legion of Honor (Ordre                                               tional services to France, a promo-
national de la Légion d'honneur) was in-                                             tion to a higher class is possible. As
stituted on May 19, 1802, as a body of              The Legion of Honor is the       the Grand Master of the Order, the
citizens that was not an Order of Chiv-    only French decoration that has sur-      President of France makes all ap-
alry. The Emperor, in fact, would be-      vived the different political admini-     pointments and promotions by con-
come angry if it was referred to as an     strations since 1802 until today. An      vention, on the advice of the Govern-
order. It was loosely patterned after a    important factor may be that the co-      ment. A foreigner is not received in
Roman Legion, with Legionnaires, offi-     habitation of military and civilians in   the order; instead he or she is deco-
cers, commandants and a grand coun-        the same order helped ensure its          rated with the insignia.
cil.                                       survival.
                                                                                             Similar to our “Stolen Valor
         Before the French revolution              The order includes three          Act” proposed recently in the United
orders of the monarchy were limited to     grades, Chevalier (Knight), Officer,      States, in France it is an offense to
Catholics and to be a knight you first     and Commander and two dignities,          wear the decoration of the Legion of
had to be a nobleman and military          Grand-Officer and Grand-Cross. The        Honor without having the right to do

                                                                                             The Order has a maximum
                                                                                     quota that helps to impose limits on
                                                                                     how many of each class there are.
                                                                                     The quotas allow a maximum of 75
                                                                                     Grand Cross, 250 Grand Officers,
                                                                                     1,250 Commanders, 10,000 Officers
                                                                                     and 113,425 Knights. Since foreign-
                                                                                     ers are not actually received in the
                                                                                     order, their appointments are made
                                                                                     independent of the quotas as well as
                                                                                     several other exceptions. In addition
                                                                                     to individual appointments, military
                                                                                     units (West Point and Annapolis
                                                                                     were so honored), cities and compa-
                                                                                     nies have been awarded the Legion
                                                                                     of Honor.

                                                                                              Congratulations to Christo-
                                                                                     pher Navarre, not only for the distinct
                                                                                     honor the French government has
                                                                                     bestowed on him, but also for the
                                                                                     tireless efforts over the years Chris
                                                                                     has dedicated to helping returning
                Brigadier General Sheila Baxter and                                  veterans from our current “War
           Legion of Honor recipient Christopher Navarre.,                           against Terrorism.”
                Page 4                                                     761st Newsletter

                       761st 59th Annual Reunion—Troy, Michigan
                                                                                         number of topics came up that
                                                                                         would have long range implications
                                                                                         affecting the future of the Associa-
                                                                                         tion. Should there be another reun-
                                                                                         ion? What can we do about the
                                                                                         Association’s declining member-
                                                                                         ship? What if we no longer had the
                                                                                         761st website? These and many
                                                                                         other questions arose.
                                                                                                   The consensus about the
                                                                                         next reunion was that there should
                                                                                         be one and since there were three
                                                                                         requests for the location, Detroit,
                                                                                         Chicago and Hattiesburg, Missis-
                                                                                         sippi, the decision was made that
                                                                                         each location would submit a pro-
                                                                                         posal by December 1, 2007 and
                                                                                         the executive committee would
                                                                                         make a decision based on the mer-
                                                                                         its of the proposal.
                                                                                                The declining membership
                                                                                         was addressed by a change in the
                                                                                         Association’s bylaws (see article
                                                                                         by Mark Vaz on page 18) to elimi-
 The business meeting was especially productive amid concerns about                      nate some unintended conse-
                    the future of the association                                        quences of the current wording
      John Weston, TJ Mann and Rufus Taylor in the foreground
                                                                                         and to also broaden the require-
        The fifty-ninth annual reunion of the   urer, Gloucester Stevens and             ments. There have been many
761st Tank Battalion & Allied Veterans As-      checked the registration list to see     membership inquiries in the past,
sociation was held August 23—25, 2007 at        who had already arrived. After           however there was not a solid
the Embassy Suites Hotel in Troy, Michigan.     checking into the hotel and un-          process in place to address this.
Members and guest began arriving Thurs-         packing, the next stop is , of
day from all corners of the United States;      course, to find the hospitality suite.
Robert Cooper from Florida, Edris and
Shauna Dade from California, John Weston                 Friday morning the first
from Chicago, Baron and Dorry Bates from        general meeting was held and a
New York and on and on.                         Jazz Dinner Cruise was scheduled
                                                for 6pm on the Detroit River. Dur-
         Traveling across country, even for     ing the evening between 6 and 7
the seemingly brief time of the reunion, is     pm there were severe storm warn-
both a major effort and expense for many of     ings in the Troy, Michigan area and
the association members so at the previous      at the hotel announcements were
reunion in Killeen, Texas, Mr. Steven A.        made over the hotel Public Ad-
White committed financial support to help       dress system advising everyone to
relieve the expense. Steven White’s feeling     go to the center of the building (the
was that cost should not be the only reason     atrium) because of a tornado that
a member of the association could not at-       had been spotted in the area. For-
tend.                                           tunately neither the hotel or the
                                                dinner cruise were affected by the
        Thursdays are usually the most cas-     storm and everyone had an enjoy-
ual day of the reunion and as arrivals are      able evening.                                  Rebecca Coleiro
scattered through out the day. Everyone                                                     San Rafael, California
registered in the main lobby with the asso-            The business meetings             2007 Educational Assistance
ciation secretary, Kenneth Tait, and treas-     were especially productive in that a              Recipient
                              Volume 3, Issue 1                                           Page 5

                                                                        long time to come. The documentary has
                                                                        also been shown at the UrbanWorld
                                                                        VIBE Film Festival.
                                                                                Congratulations are in order for
                                                                        the 2007 Educational Assistance Award
                                                                        winner, Rebecca Coleiro from San
                                                                        Rafael, California. Her goal is to major in
                                                                        Pharmacy and if her physics and biology
                                                                        grades are any indication for future suc-
                                                                        cess—Rebecca will succeed in any
                                                                        medical field she chooses.
                                                                                Nolwazi Landers, a previous
                                                                        Educational Assistance award winner,
                                                                        who has been studying in Thailand gave
                                                                        a delightful speech about her experi-
                                                                        ences there. The feedback was very
                                                                        positive and the association members,
                                                                        very proud that they contributed to her
                                                                                Our historian Wayne Robinson
                                                                        was selected for the “Man of the Year
  Robert Cooper, James B. Jones and Rufus Taylor catch up on the Award” this year. As the historian,
         latest news during a break from the business meeting           Wayne has worked tirelessly, research-
                                                                        ing the units history and promoting the
         There was a lot of discus- ion. There was some irony in that Association’s mission as stated in our
sion about the 761st website and many of the tankers who appeared in bylaws. Congratulations to Wayne, Re-
two points became immediately the film are no longer with us, however, becca, and Nolwazi.
clear. One was that many members they had a chance to speak and their
did not know or realize the world words and feelings are captured for a
wide exposure that it gave to the
association and the other was that
all of these years, and many hours
of work every year, it has been
maintained by our Webmaster Bill
Smith without cost to the associa-
tion. The membership voted to
make Bill a permanent (honored)
member of the association and will
in the future will pick up all of the
out-of-pocket expenses that he has
carried for the Association.
         Saturday evening, as al-
ways, the banquet dinner was held.
Instead of a guest speaker the
documentary that Steve White, Pete
Chatmon, and Wayne Robinson
have been working on for several
years was shown to the Association
members for the first time. The re-
action was very positive and enthu-
siastic. Narrated by the Emmy
Award winning actor Andre
Braugher, the story told was a very
personal one told by many original
members of the 761st Tank Battal-       Roscoe Strozier and Gloucester Stevens present Unit Historian
                                              Wayne Robinson with the “Man of the Year” award
                                 Volume 3, Issue 1                                                   Page 6

                  60/30—60th Annual Reunion and 30th Anniversary of the “PUC”
                                            tions that honor soldiers and veter-
                                            ans and their families.

                                                     World class museums of
                                            many different venues are available,
                                            as are entertainment, sports, boat-
                                            ing, sightseeing or just plain relaxing
                                            and enjoying friends you have not
                                            seen for a long time. If you can’t find
                                            it here– you aren’t going to find it.     If anyone has pictures, newspaper arti-
          The 60th annual reunion and                                                 cles, letters, documents or any infor-
of the 761st Tank Battalion & Allied                  Early indications are that this mation about the 761st, please bring it
Veterans Association will be held from      will be our largest reunion in a while    to the reunion. We plan on having a
Thursday August 28 through Sunday           based on the number of inquiries          computer and scanner available so
August 31 at the Sheraton Gateway           already made. Everyone, I am sure,        that we can capture it in your presence
Suites Chicago O’Hare in Rosemont,          is looking forward to renewing old        and return it to you. If you cannot at-
Illinois.                                   friendships, making new ones and          tend, consider having it scanned locally
                                            just catching up with the latest news. and get it to us by e-mail or on a CD.
         The Sheraton Gateway Suites        It is also a very special year in that it With each image we also want as
is located in Rosemont, Illinois, and is    will be both the 60th annual reunion      much information as possible, such as
convenient to many local attractions in     and the 30th anniversary of when the the date, location and who is pictured.
Rosemont as well as all that the Chi-       761st was finally awarded the Presi-      That includes pictures taken during the
cago metropolitan area has to offer.        dential Unit Citation after a 33 year     war, and after. We would also like to
Your choice activities are so wide and      delay.                                    have pictures taken at earlier reunions.
varied it would be impossible to list                                                 Our goal is to be able to put together a
here and there are so many you would                                                  written and photographic history of the
have never thought existed. For those                                                 761st, its members and families. As we
of you that lived in Germany after the                                                collect all of this information we will
war, you would never have thought                 it will be both the 60th
that the worlds largest public display of    annual reunion and the 30th organize it in a format that we can
                                                 anniversary of when the              have an evolving history of the 761st
Hummel figurines (over a thousand)
would be in Rosemont, Illinois or that        761st was finally awarded that can be viewed on a television or
the 500 acre Cantigny Park is home to       the Presidential Unit Citation Personal Computer. Another goal is to
                                                                                      help ensure that our history does not
two world known museums, the Robert                                                   fade away because so much has been
R. McCormick Museum and the Can-                                                      forever lost in time. Please don’t send
tigny First Division Museum.                                                          originals because if they are lost or
                                                      The Association officers are    damaged, they are most likely irre-
          The Robert R. McCormick Mu-       working very hard and are very ex-        placeable.
seum served as the country estate of        cited that interest has grown in the
the McCormick Tribune Foundation’s          association. In addition to hanging
benefactor, Col. Robert R. McCormick,       out with your friends and taking in
until his death in 1955. The First Divi-    the area, there will be a lot of deci-
sion Museum portrays the history of         sions for us to make concerning fu-
the First Infantry Division of the United   ture directions for the association.
States Army as well as general military     There will be will be two general
history up through the war on terror-       meetings for us to discuss and vote
ism.                                        on the future of the association.
          The Research Center provides               At the 2007 reunion there
resources for the serious study of mili-    were some significant decisions
tary history. The McCormick Founda-         made and this year should be no
tion has donated over a $1billion dol-      less productive. If there are items
lars in the last 50 years and in 2006       you want brought up or discussed,
$96 million was granted to nonprofit        please send a not to the association
organizations, $3 million to organiza-      secretary, Kenneth Tait.
                                                                                          Sheraton Gateway Suites
                                Volume 3, Issue 1                                                    Page 7

                 60/30—60th Annual Reunion and 30th Anniversary of the “PUC”
To help you get started in your plan-      O’Hare Airport. The normal hours the       -art cardiovascular and weight training
ning for the reunion we are including a    shuttle operates between the hotel         equipment as well as their indoor
broad amount of information about the      and airport are from 6am to 11pm,          pool, whirlpool and sauna.
Sheraton Gateway Suites Chicago            however if you need transportation                  You also have access to the
O’Hare, the surrounding area, and          outside of those hours you can call in     Willow Creek Health Club which is a
information specific to your mode of       advance and the hotel will accommo-        50,000 sq foot state-of-the-art facility
travel.                                    date you. The shuttle will also be         located one half block from the hotel.
                                           available to groups of up to 18 indi-      Located within the Willow Creek
First of all the hotel:                    viduals to travel within a 2 mile radius   Health Club is Touch Companies
The Sheraton Gateway Suites                of the hotel. In Rosemont the two mile     which provides such services as mas-
6501 N. Mannheim Road                      radius includes a lot of destinations      sages, body wraps, facials, nails, etc.
Rosemont, Illinois 60018                   that would interest you. More detailed
Reservations (800) 325-3535                information will be coming out the         Travel by Plane:
Direct Phone: (847) 699-6300               second half of April to assist you in
Fax: (847) 699-0617                        making this one of your most enjoy-                 There are two primary air-
www.sheraton.com/gatewaychicago            able reunions.                             ports in the Chicago metropolitan
Location:                                                                             area: Chicago O’Hare (ORD) and
         The Sheraton Gateway Suites       Hotel Restaurants:                         Midway Airport (MDW). The Sheraton
O’Hare is located at the intersection of            The Luna Grill is a bright and    Gateway Suites is one half ( ½) mile
Mannheim and Higgings Road. It is          airy casual restaurant that serves a       from the Chicago O’Hare Airport.
one-half mile from O’Hare International    contemporary and creative American                  The O’Hare Airport is about
Airport and one mile from the Kennedy      cuisine. Breakfast includes an impres-     17 miles northwest of downtown Chi-
Expressway (Interstate 90) to down-        sive hot and cold buffet as well as        cago and Midway Airport is about 10
town Chicago                               most of your morning favorites cooked      miles due west of downtown Chicago.
                                           to your liking. The hours are 6am to       Driving distance between the two is
Parking:                                   3pm and 5pm to 10pm.                       about 28 miles. There is regularly
        Parking at the hotel is $12 per                                               scheduled transportation between the
day if you park in the hotel’s lot, how-   Lounge:                                    two airports. Flying into O’Hare, how-
ever, there is a multilevel lot about 50           The 72 West Lounge is open         ever, would be the most convenient
yards away that will provide free park-    from 2pm until 12am and is the per-        because of the free shuttle and short
ing to guests of the hotel. When park-     fect spot to kick back and renew old       distance of only one half (½) mile
ing there you will identify yourself as    friendships. If you can’t find them in     travel from O'Hare to the Sheraton. If
you pull into the building as a guest of   the 761st Hospitality room — you will      you find it necessary to fly into Mid-
the Sheraton and you will receive com-     find them here.                            way Airport, you can take a shuttle
plementary parking thru out the reun-                                                 bus between the two airports for an
ion.                                       Services:                                  additional cost of $14 and an extra
                                                   Safety deposit boxes are           hour of travel. When you arrive at the
Shuttle:                                   available at the front desk and each       O’Hare airport you can catch the
        The Sheraton Hotel offers a        room has a foldout bed available.          Shuttle provided by the Sheraton.
complementary shuttle for all guest for
pickup and drop off at the Chicago         Guest Rooms:                               Transportation Between O'Hare
                                                    Of the 296 rooms available        and    Midway      Airports:
                                           smoking is allowed only in rooms on
                                           the third floor. The remaining floors
                                           are smoke free. All rooms have high
                                           speed internet access, cable televi-
                                           sion with complementary movie chan-
                                           nels, hair driers, iron and ironing
                                           boards, and coffee makers. Each is a
                                           two room suite which makes it easier
                                           to entertain guest.

                                           Exercise Facility:
                                                  The Sheraton offers comple-
           The Luna Grill                  mentary guest use of their state-of-the             72 West Lounge
                                Volume 3, Issue 1                                                   Page 8

                 60/30—60th Annual Reunion and 30th Anniversary of the “PUC”

                                            O’Hare International Airport
                                          tion between O'Hare International and       to several interstate exchanges and
Coach USA Wisconsin offers hourly         Midway Airport but is also the more time    parking information at the hotel is
service between O’Hare International      consuming at close to two hours. The        earlier in this article under the hotel
Airport and Midway Airport from 6:30      CTA Blue Line serves O'Hare (located        information topic.
a.m. until 10:30 p.m. for $15 for a one   at the lowest level of the Main Parking
-way fare or $27 round trip. Pickup is    Garage, next to elevator center 4, and is   From the West:
at O’Hare at the Bus Shuttle Center       accessible by pedestrian tunnels located            Northwest Toll way (I-90)
and at Midway on the lower level. Al-     in Terminals 1, 2, and 3), and the Or-      East to 190 West O’Hare turnoff: exit
low at least 1 hour travel time be-       ange Line serves Midway. Clark and          Mannheim Road North, ahead two
tween O’Hare International and Mid-       Lake is the free downtown transfer stop     blocks and the hotel is on the right.
way Airports. They may be reached at      between the two lines. The one way fare
1-800-236-2028 toll free or at 262-542    is $2.                                      From the North:
-8861.                                                                                        Tri-State (294) South to 190
                                          Taxi Rates: Currently average taxi rates    West O’Hare turnoff; exit Mannheim
Omega Airport Shuttle, Inc. Travels       between the two airports are in the         Road North, ahead two blocks and
between Midway and O’Hare from            range of $55 to $60 and can vary with       the hotel is on the right.
7am until 10pm every hour on the          traffic conditions. There is no extra
hour. The one way fare is $16 and         charge for baggage or credit card use.      From the South:
round trip fare is $32. They may be       Credit cards will be accepted. Taxi vans           Tri-State Toll way (294)
reached at 773-734-6688 or on the         for the disabled are available upon re-     North to 190 West O’Hare turnoff;
internet at www.omegashuttle.com.         quest—just notify the taxi starter.         exit Mannheim Road North, ahead
Omege has a $3 fuel surcharge for                                                     two blocks and the hotel is on the
each way which became effective           Travel by Car:                              right.
3/16/2008, however, I have been told
by Omega that this does not apply to          Get a good map, allow plenty of         From the East:
the Midway to O’Hare route.          time and make frequent stops. If you                     Driving across Lake Michi-
                                     have time, get off the interstate and see        gan is not recommended.
The CTA (Chicago Transit Authority) how many “Historical Markers” you can
is an economical mode of transporta- stop to read. The hotel has easy access
                                   Volume 3, Issue 1                                                            Page 9

                   60/30—60th Annual Reunion and 30th Anniversary of the “PUC”

        Chicago Midway International Airport                                Chicago Airport Locations and Interstates

Travel by Train:                                         The Amtrak could be a most enjoy-      son (Newsletter Editor) for additional
                                              able ride and depending on what part of the       information and assistance.
          Amtrak has a station near down-
town Chicago. Union station also is the       country you are traveling from an exceptional
station that the Metra Commuter trains        opportunity. Trails and Rails is an innovative    Travel by Motorcycle:
use. There are several ways to get to         partnership between the National Park Ser-
O’Hare Airport from Union Station. The        vice and Amtrak. It’s a program that provides              The same as by car—take your
most expensive would be to take a cab         rail passengers with educational opportuni-       time and enjoy the trip.
but if you do that you may as well go di-     ties that foster an appreciation of various
rectly to the hotel. The cost would be $40                                                                Rand McNally and Harley
                                              regions’ natural and cultural heritage. The
to $45.                                                                                         Davidson put together a 320 page road
                                              Texas Eagle, for example, which travels be-
Union Station to O’Hare by Metra:                                                               atlas that is designed to fit in your sad-
                                              tween Chicago and San Antonio, Texas has
                                                                                                dlebags and made with a protected tear
         Metra North Central Service goes     National Park Service Guides onboard be-
                                                                                                resistive cover. Its not just a map atlas,
from Union Station to O'Hare in about 30      tween San Antonio and Fort Worth. Did you
                                                                                                but there is a wealth of information as
minutes, but service is infrequent. Fare is   know that Spanish Missions were not
$3.45 (assumes you buy a ticket at the                                                          well as motorcycle laws by state and
                                              churches? They were Indian towns, with the
Metra windows at Union Station); if you                                                         province.
                                              church as the focus, where native people
pay on the train without buying a ticket      were learning to become a citizen. In the
before boarding, there's a $2 surcharge.                                                        Additional Information:
                                              1700s, in order to become a citizen, they had
                                              to be Catholic.                                           The next newsletter will have
Union Station to O’Hare by CTA:                                                                 additional travel information and infor-
                                                       There is a lot to see and learn here.    mation about the reunion itself.
          The most economical way would
                                              If you decide to travel by train, do some re-
be to take the Chicago Transit Authority                                                                  There is a lot to celebrate,
                                              search for gems like this—and enjoy.              this being the 60th reunion and the
(CTA) blue line to O’Hare for $2 ... (The
                                                                                                30th anniversary of the Presidential
nearest subway entrance for the blue line     Travel by Motor Home/Trailer:                     Unit Citation (PUC) and a lot of deci-
is on either Monroe and Dearborn or Jack-                                                       sions to make affecting the future of
son and Dearborn) It is about a 10 min                  If you are combining a RV trip with     the Association so please make every
walk from Union station and the train ride                                                      effort to attend.
                                              the reunion, parking is scarce for large vehi-
will be about an hour.                        cles in any city this size. Contact Ivan Harri-
              Page 10                                                      761st Newsletter

                                 President’s Corner — A Special Message
  In honor of Black History

 Month, this M4A1 Sherman is

marked in tribute to the 761st

   Tank Battalion; the first

  African-American armored

 unit to enter combat during

  WWII. In gratitude to SSgt.

Floyd Dade who dedicated the

later part of his life educating

others on the history of black

tankers, issues of segregation

   and remembrance of the

  Holocaust, this vehicle is

 named “Agnes II”, the name of

    Floyd’s own A Company
                                   Sherman Tank on display at the Planes of Fame Air Museum in Chino, California
           Sherman.                                         http://www.planesoffame.org

                                             One of Our Very Own
                                                          The spring edition of Pro-       of Infamy” speech and a letter
                                                 logue Magazine will feature an            from Jackie Robinson written to
                                                 article about Lt Jackie Robinson          the President are all to be found
                                                 when he was member of the                 here.
                                                 761st Tank Battalion.
                                                                                                     When Robinson retired
                                                          Prologue Magazine is a           from baseball and worked as an
                                                 quarterly publication by the Na-          executive for Chock Full of Nuts
                                                 tional Archives and Records Ad-           he continued to champion the
                                                 ministration (NARA) The NARA is           cause of civil rights. Robinson
                                                 the government agency that pre-           wrote letters to Eisenhower, Ken-
                                                 serves and maintains records and          nedy, Johnson and Nixon while
                                                 materials of legal and/or historical      they were President to express
                                                 significance and makes them               his frustrations with how slow they
                                                 available for research. Chances           were moving to advance the
                                                 are you will find records and ma-         cause of civil rights. The letters
                                                 terial about yourself, your ances-        are all in the Archives.
                                                 tors, and the community you live
                                                 in.                                               April 1, 2008 subscription
                                                                                           rates to Prologue will increase.
                                                           The 15 hour World War II        The annual rate will go from $20
                                                 documentary by Ken Burns that             to $24 and the single copy rate
                                                 aired on PBS last fall relied heav-       will go from $5 to $6 (plus $3
                                                 ily on still pictures, films and origi-   shipping). To order you can call 1-
                                                 nal documents from the NARA to            800-234-8861 or 202-357-5482 or
                                                 really bring the film to life.            go online to:
                                                 The Declaration of Independ-              http://www.archives.gov/
National Archives Quarterly “Prologue”           ence, Bill of Rights, FDR’s “Day          publications/prologue/
         Cover for Spring 2008
                                Volume 3, Issue 1                                                   Page 11

   Charles M.                       said she was told by
                                    an Army captain that
                                    because of his rank,
     King                           her brother did not
                                    have to accompany
                                    the convoy, but felt
Ex-Clevelander among                obliged to offer his
soldiers from U.S. killed           experience to the
Saturday in Iraq                    younger soldiers.
Wednesday, October 18, 2006 John "He said he could
P. Coyne Plain Dealer Reporter   not in good faith
                                     send his soldiers on
A former Clevelander serving in
                                     a mission unless he
Iraq was among three servicemen
                                     did it himself," said
killed Saturday when a roadside
                                     King's fiancée, Dana
bomb exploded near their ar-
                                     Canedy, a former
mored vehicle.
                                     Plain Dealer reporter
First Sgt. Charles M. King, 48,      now working at the
was a career soldier who was         New York Times.          First Sgt King at 761st memorial dedication Novem-
scheduled to return home next        "He made sure                       ber 10, 2005, Fort Hood, Texas
month, said his mother, Gladys       every one of his sol-
King, who, with her husband,         diers took leave before he would    ad illustrator for a newspaper in Mobile, Ala.
Charles, still lives in the same Lee take his leave," she said.          before joining the Army in his late 20s, his sister
-Miles neighborhood where their                                          said.
                                     King, who joined the Army in
son grew up.
                                     1987, also served in Iraq in 1990- While in the Army, he became intrigued by the
The soldiers were assigned to the 91 as part of Operation Desert         heroism of the 761st Tank Battalion, an all-black
1st Battalion, 67th Armor Regi-      Storm.                              unit that served in World War II. His interest in
ment, 2nd Brigade, 4th Infantry                                          the unit prompted him to create several illustra-
                                     King attended Cuyahoga Commu-
Division out of Fort Hood, Texas.                                        tions depicting it in battle.
                                     nity College and received an as-
The unit was deployed to Iraq last
                                     sociate of arts degree from Cham- A collection of his work was part of a Black His-
                                     berlain Junior College in Boston.   tory Month display at the Pentagon in 1998.
King was the senior officer in a     He also attended the Art Institute  More of his artwork is now being exhibited at
convoy on a resupply mission         of Chicago.                         military museums at Fort Lewis near Tacoma,
when the vehicle was hit near                                            Wash., and at Fort Knox, Ky.
                                     He worked as a fashion illustrator
Baghdad. His sister, Gail King,
                                     in Montgomery, Ala., and as an      King and Canedy, who lives in New York, have
                                                                         a 6-month-old son, Jordan Canedy King, whom
                                                                         King saw for the first time last month. He also
                                                                         has a daughter, Christina, 15, of Kileen, Texas.
                                                                          "He wrote a 200-page journal to the baby while
                                                                          he was in Iraq, telling him everything he thought
                                                                          he would need to know to grow up," Canedy
                                                                          said. "Everything from his favorite Bible verses,
                                                                          why he wanted to have a baby, why he wanted
                                                                          to be a soldier, and how to treat women.
                                                                          "He started the journal with a letter to me say-
                                                                          ing, 'This is the letter every soldier should write.'
                                                                          "And he ended it with a letter to his son saying,
                                                                          "I will do my best to make you and your mother

                                                                           Article reprinted with permission from
                          761st Memorial                                   The Plain Dealer (www.cleveland.com)
                                     Volume 3, Issue 1                                        Page 12

                                    the service of all Army veterans
Mangrum                             of all generations. Sponsored
                                    by the Secretary of the Army

                                    and the Army Chief of Staff,
                                    the program allows everyone to
                                    recognize U.S. Army veterans

for WWII                            with a commendation for their
                                    dedicated service. The public
                                    and civilians, as well as all ser-

  service                           vice members, can submit the
                                    names of an unlimited number
                                    of      Army       veterans     at
   The United States Army hon-
ored the courage, service and       www.freedomteamsalute.com.
patriotism of World War II             The 761st Tank Battalion was
Army veteran and former             known as the “Black Panthers.”
Cobbs Creek resident Thomas         The unit saw 183 days of con-
Mangrum Saturday on the Na-         tinuous combat, inflicting thou-
tional Mall in Washington,          sands of enemy casualties, lib-      Sunday May 18, 1947—don’t miss it
D.C., with a Freedom Team           erating 30 major towns, break-
Salute Commendation.                ing through the Nazis’ vaunted
   The honor came as part of a      Siegfried Line, fighting major
public program presented by         engagements in six countries
WETA TV-26, the local Public        and ending the war as the east-
Broadcasting System affiliate,      ernmost American unit in Aus-
and Friends of the National         tria. They were among the first
World War II Memorial that          U.S. troops to reach the out-
paid tribute to all the men and     skirts of Berlin. Their unit
women who served in the mili-       motto was: “Come out fight-
tary during World War II.           ing.” In 1978 President Jimmy
Mangrum was honored along           Carter awarded the 761st Tank
with six other U.S. Army veter-     Battalion the Presidential Unit
ans prior to a screening of film    Citation for Extraordinary
clips from the final segments of    Heroism.
the new Ken Burns film, “The           “World War II veterans paid
War. “                              a high price to ensure the sur-
   Mangrum, who lives in Dum-       vival of our nation. It is appro-
fries, was honored for his ser-     priate that we as a society take
vice as part of the 761st Tank      every opportunity to pay our          Germany after 1945 (Cologne?)
Battalion, the first U.S. armored   respects for the enormous sacri-
unit comprised of black soldiers    fices that were required of those
committed to combat.                who served in uniform as well
   “By the end of World War II,     as supporters on the home-front
more than half of the men and       who made their service possi-
women serving in the military       ble,” said Rowe.
wore the Army uniform,” said
Major General Richard J. Rowe
Jr., commanding general, Mili-
tary District of Washington.
“We believe the nation has a
responsibility to acknowledge
the sacrifice of World War II
veterans, to ensure they are not
   The U.S. Army Freedom
Team Salute program honors
From the Gloucester-Mathews Gazettte-Journal -
September 2007                                                           Germany after 1945 (Cologne?)
          Page 13                                             761st Newsletter

                                  Ask the Historian
                                           PART I: The Dayton Boys Go To War

                             Buddie V. Branch was inducted on Au-        "In August of 1944 we boarded a
                             gust 9, 1943 in Cincinnati, Ohio. He        troop train for Camp Shanks. When
                             was drafted along with Dayton child-        the train went through towns in Louisi-
                             hood chums Odell Williams, Clarence         ana we had to draw the window
                             Copeland, and Henry Middlebrooks.           shades because some white people
                             Another friend, Jovan Council, had          would throw rocks at the train when
                             been drafted a year earlier and sent to     they saw black G.I.s.
                             Camp Claiborne, Louisiana. Middle-
                             brooks eventually served with the           We sailed from New York Harbor to
                             784th Tank Battalion and was killed in      Dorset, England on August 27, 1944.
                             combat. Williams and Copeland served        When we landed in England on Sep-
                             alongside Branch in "B" Company of          tember 7, 1944, we drew brand new
                             the 761st Tank Battalion.                   tanks and all the other gear. From
                                                                         there, we crossed the English Chan-
                             After taking an apitude test at Fort Tho-   nel to Omaha Beach. There were
                             mas in Covington, Kentucky, Branch          wrecked trucks, tanks, and everything
                             was selected for training at the Armor      else all tangled up in the water. See-
                             School at Fort Knox Kentucky. There,        ing those knocked-out tanks was a
     Buddie V. Branch        he and his fellow recruits received         real wake-up call."
                             training in the use of pistols, carbines,
                             rifles, and basic operation and mainte-     The tankers spent two days preparing
 “We crossed the English     nance of the M4 Sherman Tank.               the vehicles for action, then made the
                                                                         400-mile road march from Omaha
 Channel to Omaha Beach.     In November of 1943, Buddie was             Beach to St. Nicholas du Port, east of
                             transferred to Camp Hood, Texas, and        Nancy, France.
There were wrecked trucks,   assigned to "B" Company of the 761st
                             Tank Battalion.
tanks, and everything else
                             "Fort Hood was where we trained on
 all tangled in the water.   the Shermans in earnest. We had
                             three companies of Shermans, 17
 Seeing those knocked out    tanks apiece, plus one company of 17
                             light tanks, M-5 Stuarts. We lived on
 tanks was a real wake-up    the tanks in the field. We went on tacti-
                             cal maneuvers, practiced gunnery with
          call”              the 75mm main gun, fired the fifty cali-
                             ber and thirty caliber machines guns,
                             and learned to field strip and re-
                             assemble the weapons blindfolded.
                             Every man learned to fight as Loader,
                             Driver, Gunner, and Co-Driver. My
                             main job was Gunner, but we were
                             also trained to take over as Tank Com-
                             mander in case of trouble."

                             In June of 1944, Branch went home on
                             leave for one week. When he returned
                             to Hood, the Battalion had been alerted
                             for overseas movement. Another
     Wayne D. Robinson       month of intense combat training fol-                    Whitbev
                                                                                    Austria 1944
                                 Volume 3, Issue 1                                                    Page 14

                                                Ask the Historian
                                           tell us that. our motto was "ComeOut
                                           Fighting." Didn't I tell you that?"

                                           On the same day, we were joined by
                                           the war correspondent, Mr. Trezz-
                                           vant Anderson. He stayed with us for
                                           the rest of the war and helped us to
                                           write the best book about the 761st,
                                           Come Out Fighting.

                                           I will never forget the night before we
                                           went into battle. It got real cold. We
                                           checked and re-checked everything
                                           on the Sherman, then got together
                                           and said a prayer. Just then, Moses
                                           Ballard, our tank commander, came
                                           running back from a meeting at
                                           headquarters with Captain John
                                           Long, our company commander. He              Wooden, Knight and Branch
                                           gathered us by the tank- me, George
Simmons, Cooper, Coleman, Bird
                                           Gaffney, Driver; George Coleman,
          and Chops                        Loader, and a guy we called               watch out for the infantry on our flanks,
     Men of Company “B”                    "Chops," the Assistant Driver. Ballard    the Yankee Division guys."
                                           said we were going into a town
"We drove through all these towns,         called Morville. We had orders to         Branch and "B" Company were as-
where the French people cheered us         support the infantry by killing any       signed to one of two task forces going
on in a most welcoming manner.             enemy troops, and blowing up any-         into the attack. The task force was led
When we got to Saint Nicholas, the         thing that could be used for an ob-       by Colonel Peter Kopcsak, commander
rain and mud made for miserable go-        servation post- steeples, high win-       of the 602nd Tank Destroyer Battalion,
ing. We had to ignore the wet condi-       dows, everything. He told us to           one of the first four tank destroyer bat-
tions, load armor piercing rounds,                                                   talions in the U.S. Army. Kopcsak had
High Explosive rounds, thousands of                                                  personally written the book on tank de-
rounds of machine gun ammo, not to                                                   stroyer tactics at Camp Hood.
mention tools, batteries for the radios,
checking the radios, and cleaning and                                                "At about five a.m, we climbed in the
checking all weapons. We were work-                                                  tank and moved out, just after a big artil-
ing hard to make sure the tanks were                                                 lery barrage. We had infantry and a
ready for battle. We were less than                                                  Tank Destroyer outfit with us. I think "A"
fifty miles from the front lines. You                                                Company was somewhere on our right,
could hear artillery, and sometimes                                                  "C' was on our left. At the time, we did
even small-arms fire.                                                                not know much about where the other
                                                                                     tankers were, but later on I heard the
In the middle of all this, General Pat-                                              "C" Company tankers got hit pretty
ton visited us one rainy day just be-                                                hard.
fore we went into combat. He said, "I
would never have asked for you if you                                                I remember when we moved out of St.
weren't good. I have nothing but the                                                 Nicholas. The rain had turned to snow.
best in my Army. I don't care what                                                   Inside the tank, there was a steady
color you are as long as you go up                                                   grinding noise, a vibration though you
there and kill those Kraut sons of                                                   the crew compartment. You couldn't
bitches." At the time, I thought he was                                              hear anything because of the engine
a funny guy with the six guns and                    Hill and Chippy                 noise, except over the intercom. Ballard
stuff, but hell, we didn't need him to                Austria 1944                   sat up and behind me. Coleman was on

                      by WAYNE D. ROBINSON, 761st TANK BATTALION HISTORIAN
               Page 15                                                     761st Newsletter

                                               Ask the Historian
                                                                                      reached over and tapped me on the
                                            Up ahead, the column was stalled          shoulder, motioning for me to look left.
                                            when when the leading tank, com-          I stood on my seat and squeezed up
                                            manded by Sgt. Roy King, was dis-         to where Ballard made room in the
                                            abled by enemy anti-tank fire. Ac-        commander's hatch so I could look
                                            cording to Anderson, the Germans          out to the side. We passed a halftrack
                                            laid on mortar, anti-tank and artillery   with five dead GIs in the back, sitting
                                            fire, setting the tank ablaze. When       there looking normal, except they
                                            the crew attempted to bail out, King      were burned up.
                                            was killed by machine gun fire and
                                            tumbled into the street to the right      At the time, I did not pause to think
                                            side of the tank; Corporal Herbert        much about what we had done. That
                                            Porter made it out despite severe         came later. We were lucky to drive
                                            wounds sustained inside the tank;         through the town without getting hit by
                                            Pfc. Nathaniel Ross was hit twice.        an 88 or a mortar."
                                            Pvt. John McNeill and Tech 5 Jack
                                            Whitby crawled out through the
                                            tank's escape hatch in the bottom of


                                                                                      Part 2 will be featured in the next
the left side of the gun, I sat on the                                                newsletter in April
other side. The driver and co-driver
were down in the hull. Just as I pressed
the tank helmet onto my head and
braced my forehead against the brow-
pad on the Gunner's sight, Ballard but-
toned up, got on the intercom and or-
dered Coleman to "load H.E." Coleman
pulled a round from the ready rack and
slammed it into the breech. When I
heard the breech slam shut, I knew we
were getting ready to cut loose on that
town.                                        Buddie, Council, Wooden and
From what I could see through my peri-
scope, Morville was a mess. The Jerries
were caught out in the open at first, be-   the hull. They brought their subma-
cause the noise of the artillery barrage    chine guns and used them to kill
covered our approach. I was ready to        Germans attempting to fire an anti-
step on the firing switch when Ballard      tank gun. Whitby re-entered the
said: GUNNER- COAX- TROOPS. I               burning tank and opened fire with the
answered IDENTIFIED. Ballard said           coax machine gun, enabling the task
FIRE. I said ON THE WAY, stepping on        force to pass through the center of
the foot trigger on the "Y" of WAY. We      town.
just tore them apart with the co-ax ma-
chine guns. Three other tanks were fir-     "Ballard told Gaffney to hit the gas
ing to our left. The combined tracer fire   and we rolled right through the other
looked like a swarm of fiery bees. The      side of town. There was a roadblock;
Jerries ran for the buildings, I saw a      the Sherman busted through like it
bunch of overcoats trying to jump           was on rails. In the turret, there was      Gordon, Young and Coleman
through basement windows. Some did-         a smell sort of like cap gun smoke.               Austria 1944
n't make it."                               Coleman opened the pistol port, then
                Page 16                                                         761st Newsletter

                                  A Primer on Gas Prices (Got Gas?)
There is hardly a day that goes by that        2112. Recent realities such as the              1       Virgin Is-    1,058
you do not read about the rising cost of       tremendous economic growth in                            lands
fuel or get that feeling of stunned disbe-     China would indicate the peak pro-
lief as the numbers climb and climb            duction year to be sooner rather than           2       Gibraltar     859
while you fill your gas tank. If that were-    later.
n’t bad enough, there is the feeling of                                                        3     Netherlands     315
hopelessness. The price at the pump is                  “The U.S is the world’s larg-                 Antilles
not negotiable except to go somewhere          est energy producer, consumer, and
else in hopes of saving a few cents per        net importer. It also ranks 11th world-         4      Singapore      178
gallon. You are powerless and pain of          wide in reserves of oil, six natural
salt being rubbed into an open wound           gas, and first in coal” according to            5     United Arab     153
smarts as you also read about record           the Energy Information Agency                          Emirates
profits in the oil industry.                   (EIA). Currently we import about
                                               59.5% of the total petroleum we use.           17     United States   69.46
         They say that knowledge is            The countries the U.S imports petro-
power. The knowledge gained from this          leum from may surprise you. The top            35        Japan         43
article will give you some unique per-         five, as of February 2007, in order of
spectives and boost your understanding         quantity are:                                  54       Germany        32
of the oil industry but unfortunately it
won’t lower the price of gas at the pump               ·   Canada                             84        Russia        17
or make a dent in your electric bill, but it           ·   Mexico
will make you sound more interesting as                                                       138       China         5
you complain about today’s high energy                 ·   Venezuela
cost.                                                                                      Oil consumption based on popu-
                                                       ·   Saudi Arabia
         The first thing to understand is
that the world’s oil supply acts like an               ·   Nigeria
asymptote value – a math term that              If you look at oil consumption by
means a value gets closer and closer to         country you should not be surprised
zero but never reaches it. When search-         that the U.S. is at the top of the list.
ing for oil, the oil companies first re-
trieve the most accessible and therefore       United States         20,730,000 bbl/day
the cheapest to obtain and afterwards
go after the more and more difficult and
also costly to get. Depending on current       China                 6,534,000 bbl/day
prices, a particular oil find may not be
extracted because the expense of re-           Japan                 5,578,000 bbl/day
moving the oil would exceed what the
current market price would bring. It is a
lot more costly to extract oil from a float-   Germany               2,650,000 bbl/day
ing platform in the Gulf of Mexico over
2,000 feet of water than from a 300 foot       Russia                2,5000,000 bbl/day
well in Oklahoma. The oil we are using
now is the byproduct of a process that
took millions of years and the amount of         Oil Consumption by Country
crude oil available has a limit. According
to the Energy Information Administra-
tion, a branch of our government that                  The numbers that may sur-
provides us official energy statistics, oil     prise you are oil consumption (per
production in the U.S. has been on the          capita) by country, that is, how
decline since 1970. The agency also             much oil is consumed based on
forecasts peak crude oil production             population. The numbers below are
worldwide, and based on factors such            barrels per day per 1,000 people. I
as growth in consumption and within 12          also added the names from the pre-
different scenarios place the world’s           vious chart to show their positions.
                                                                                           Where does your gas dollar go?
peak production between 2021 and
                 Page 17                                                            761st Newsletter

               Petroleum Products Yielded from One Barrel of Crude Oil in California

                                                                                                   Product            Percent of Total
                                                                                             Finished       Motor
                                                                                             Distillate Fuel Oil      15.3%
                                                                                             Jet Fuel                 12.6%
                                                                                             Still Gas                5.4%
                                                                                             Marketable Coke          5.0%
                                                                                             Residual Fuel Oil        3.3%
                                                                                             Liquefied     Refinery
                                                                                             Asphalt and Road
                                                                                             Other Refined Prod-
                                                                                             Lubricants               0.9%

                  Petroleum Products Yielded from One Barrel of Crude Oil in California

One barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil. The total volume of products made from crude oil based origins is 48.43 gallons on average
- 6.43 gallons greater than the original 42 gallons of crude oil. This represents a "processing gain" due to the additional other petroleum
products such as alkylates are added to the refining process to create the final products.

Additionally, California gasoline contains approximately 5.7 percent by volume of ethanol, a non-petroleum-based additive that brings
the total processing gain to 7.59 gallons (or 49.59 total gallons).
Source: California Energy Commission, Fuels Office, PIIRA database. Based on 2004 data.
                                 Volume 3, Issue 1                                                    Page 18

         Global annual consump-                Canada’s tar sand production         of a gallon of gas in 1981 would be at
tion of crude oil far exceeds new      was initiated in the 1960s and has           $3.29. The average fuel efficiency in
discoveries of oil. Driven largely     steadily to over a million barrels/day       1981 was a little over 15 mpg and to day
by developing Asian economies,         and is projected to be at 2.5 billion bar-   the average fuel efficiency is at 21 mpg.
world demand for conventional          rels/day by 2017. The Alberta Tar            As a nation we are spending less than
oil is increasing at an unusually      Sands industry was the result of dec-        3% of gross domestic product today
high rate. In the U.S. annual de-      ades of close cooperation between the        compared to 4.6% in 1981.
mand growth is projected at an         Canadian government and Canadian                     Another price factor you hear
estimated 1.5 percent while            industry.                                    about frequently in the news today has to
China has had demand growth                    The massive shale oil reserves       do with oil refineries. Every time a refin-
exceeding 28% in 2003, for ex-         have been recognized as strategically        ery is impacted by weather, fire or me-
ample. Total world oil consump-        important to the U.S. for over a hundred     chanical problems the pump price goes
tion is estimated to grow from         years. In 1912 President Taft estab-         up because the immediate supply will be
83.7 million barrels per day in        lished an Office of Naval Petroleum and      impacted. Why don’t oil companies build
2006, to 91.6 million b/d in 2010      Oil Shale reserves to ensure oil for na-     more refineries to increase capacity? It’s
and 118.0 million b/d in the year      val military operations. The emerging oil    a 10 to 15 year multibillion dollar to build
2030. The U.S will import 60% of       shale industry started about 1974 and        a new refinery. Oil profits are high now
its oil requirements this year and     collapsed in the 1980s, not due to re-       but they were relatively flat before 2002.
China and India are expected to        source failure or technology potential or    With calls to seek alternative fuels and
increase their annual demand for       even environmental considerations. It        reduce the use of fossil fuels, it is no
imported oil by 7 and 6 percent        collapsed simply because crude oil           wonder that oil companies don’t want to
respectively.                          prices fell sharply and the projects were    make multibillion dollar investments that
         The future is not difficult   no longer economical. Today govern-          may not pay for themselves. No new re-
to see. The world is pumping           ment and industry are revisiting the idea    fineries have been build since 1976,
more conventional oil than it is       of a profitable shale oil industry and       however existing ones have been greatly
discovering. At the same time          have set ambitious goals of 2 million        expanded.
the U.S. and other consuming           barrels of oil per/day by 2020 and 3 mil-            Its frustrating when you drive by a
countries are increasing their         lion by 2040.                                gas station and see one price for gas
demand for imported oil at re-                 Oil shale is very different from     and then drive back on the same route
cord levels. High demand, lim-         the oil that we are most familiar with. It   and gas has gone up 15 cents a gallon.
ited or diminishing supply; the        is not directly pumped out of the ground     You know that the gas he is selling at the
result is that you, as a consum-       as a liquid because the oil substances       higher is the same gas from before the
ers will pay more, the nation’s        in oil shale are solid. It must first be     prices went up. The answer is that the
economic productivity is im-           mined and heated to a high temperature       cost of an item, for any market, will be
pacted, your standard of living        to separate the solid from the liquid or     the cost to replace the item. Don’t forget
and national security is impacted      an experimental process referred to as       that when the price goes down it is the
if the Department of Defense           in situ retorting involves heating the oil   same gas that the station paid a higher
cannot maintain secure sources         shale while still underground and pump-      price for earlier. Stations typically make
of fuel to mobilize it’s land vehi-    ing the resulting liquid to the surface.     only 2 to 3 cents per gallon. When gas
cles, aircraft and naval fleets at     You can see where this is going. It is a     goes down they risk loosing money.
home or around the world.              much more expensive process with po-                 Another issue you hear about is
         Earlier in this article I     tentially greater environmental impacts      that many consumers believe that oil
wrote that the world’s oil supply      such as air quality, carbon emissions,       companies are engaged in price goug-
acts like an asymptote value and       groundwater, spent shale disposal, and       ing. There are no federal laws barring
that the most accessible and           land reclamation just for starters. Much     price gouging. A bill was introduced last
easiest to process is the first to     of the water required would come from        year making gouging illegal but its scope
be pumped and the more difficult       the Colorado River Basin and according       was narrowed to times involving federal
and lower grade will be put off        to a study by the Rand Corporation, it       emergency or disaster. There are anti-
until it becomes economically          would take 3 barrels of water to produce     trust laws to that make it illegal for com-
feasible. It may surprise you to       1 barrel of shale oil.                       panies to collude and keep prices artifi-
know that between tar sands in                 Now that we see the “big” picture    cially high. Some states do have laws
Alberta, Canada and America’s          lets focus on now and you and I. How         against gouging and the news media
rich, massive and concentrated         does the price we pay at the pump to-        have periodically reported on their en-
oil shale reserves that lay in         day compare with the price we paid 25        forcement, in particular, during times of
Colorado, Utah and Wyoming             years ago? According to the Energy           emergency or disaster such as around
there are several trillion barrels     Information Administration (research         the time of Hurricane Katrina .
of oil; more than what lies in the     arm of the U.S. Department of Energy)                After all that’s said, gas, on aver-
Middle East.                           that when adjusted for inflation the price   age will only climb in price.
               Page 19                                                    761st Newsletter

                                        Taking A Stand for Legacy
September 20, 2007                     changed the constitution to state that      of African Americans to be relegated
                                       “all members of the general public are      to subservient grunt work or dis-
         The 761st Tank Battal-        eligible for membership in the 761st        missed from combat altogether. That
ion’s 59th annual reunion in the       Tank Battalion and Allied Veterans As-      the 761st was among the last to
Detroit area was another festive       sociation.” This was a watershed deci-      serve in a segregated military speaks
gathering, but poignant in the         sion, ensuring that a living, breathing     volumes of the far-reaching conse-
dwindling number of those veter-       organization dedicated to the memory        quences of what was truly won on
ans who once roared across the         of the 761st might continue into perpe-     the battlefields of WW II. President
battlefields of Europe and spear-      tuity.                                      Harry Truman, who would desegre-
headed on numerous fronts,                                                         gate the military, put it perfectly at a
helped turn the tide in the Bulge,     Such an on-going 761st association
smashed the Siegfried Line, and        will draw upon the battalion’s out-
finally rolled to a halt on V-E Day.   standing principles, inspiring present      That the 761st has opened up
The opening stanza of Phil             and future generations with the patriot-    the association to the public
Latimer’s poem, which has              ism, pursuit of excellence, and dedica-      is a gift to their country...
graced reunion programs for            tion to duty the tankers displayed in the
years, says it all: “Where have        ultimate crucible of war. The change
all my buddies gone? Gone and                                                      ceremony in the nation’s capital one
                                       means the T.G. Hill Educational Assis-
left me so alone. We were young                                                    summer day in 1946 when he hon-
                                       tance Fund can continue and that a
in forty four.        Now they’ve                                                  ored the Japanese American
                                       revitalized association might even ex-
crossed o’er Jordan’s shore.”                                                      100/442nd Regimental Combat
                                       pand upon that philanthropic tradition.
That sentiment was echoed, but                                                     Team with words that rang true for all
defied, at the 59th reunion, with a                                                segregated units: “You fought not
                                       An on-going association will ensure the     only the enemy, but you fought preju-
bold decision to perpetuate the
                                       761st is never forgotten. The battal-       dice—and you have won. Keep up
battalion’s legacy.
                                       ion’s epic story includes not only the      that fight, and we will continue to
                                       events of World War II, but the harsh       win—to make this great republic
The valor of old soldiers is often     realities of the racism that defined        stand for just what the constitution
immortalized in monumental             America for generations. The black          says it stands for: the welfare of all
works of stone and marble, but         panther tankers and others of the seg-      people all the time.”
what happened at the 2007 reun-        regated units were the last to serve in
ion created something more than        a divided military, beginning with “the
some lifeless chunk of statuary.                                                  Television news anchor Tom Brokaw
                                       fight for the right to fight,” as the late
At the Saturday afternoon busi-                                                   coined the memorable phrase “the
                                       Floyd Dade once described the refusal
ness meeting, in a nondescript                                                    greatest generation” to describe the
conference room of the Embassy                                                    survivors of the Great Depression
Suites Hotel in Troy, the assem-                                                  who became soldiers in World War II
bled argued about changing the                                                    and “went on to build modern Amer-
association’s constitution and                                                    ica,” as he wrote in his bestselling
bylaws to open up membership.                                                     book, The Greatest Generation. The
“We all have our time,” James                                                     segregated units were among the
Jones said during a spirited dis-                                                 builders, but theirs was the toughest
cussion. “If you narrow                                                           task—to break down the barriers of
[membership] down, it’s going to                                                  homefront racism, those fortifications
die out—open up as wide as pos-                                                   of segregation that had stood for
sible.” Ivan Harrison, Jr. made a                                                 generations. Beating Hitler and his
motion, Jones seconded it, unit                                                   Nazi army was easy compared to
historian Wayne Robinson articu-                                                  changing hearts and minds on the
lated the new language, and a                                                     second front in a two-pronged war,
                                                  Mark Cotta Vaz                  that war against racism at home.
unanimous “Aye” formally
                                                                                  The modern civil rights movement

                                                  By Mark Cotta Vaz
              Page 20                                             761st Newsletter

                                         Taking A Stand for Legacy
arguably began with the men of the
segregated units. Their ultimate
victory is evident in the multi-ethnic
face of modern America seen on
the political stage, in corporate
boardrooms, in the arts and culture
and integrated neighborhoods. This
feat of spiritual engineering has
been indispensable to the building
of modern America. Through edu-
cational outreach and the collection
and preservation of its history and
artifacts for present and future gen-
erations, an on-going association
will always be able to remind the
nation of the 761st’s role in shaping
the outcome of the war and postwar
That the 761st has opened up its
association to the public is a gift to
their country, perhaps the last un-
selfish act of a unit that gave so                      l/r Front: TJ Mann and John Weston
much. The surviving veterans, and         l/r 2nd Row: Mark Vaz, Edris Dade, Shauna Dade and Rufus Taylor

                                                                            those who watch and wait on the
                                                                            banks of Jordan, can rest easy
                                                                            knowing their family and friends
                                                                            will carry on their legacy.

L/R Front: Kenneth Tait(Secretary), Wayne Robinson(Historian) and
                Gloucester Stevens(Treasurer)

  Mark Cotta Vaz is a New York Times bestselling writer who has been attending 761st reunions since
 the fiftieth reunion in Las Vegas. He has recently finished his book on the segregated units of World
                            War II , which features the 761st Tank Battalion.
                                 Volume 3, Issue 1                                                       Page 21

                                 Center Foundation is a           to learn more about our           As you already know the
Hello Ivan,                      non-profit, 501(c)3 organi-      mission and goals, and how        758th, 761st, 784th are all
On Sept. 29 here in DC at        zation located in south-         your organization and its         featured in the
the World War II Memorial,       central Kansas. At this          members might be able to          "Segregated Armor" exhibit
the Army will join with Public   time, we are in the process      help. We understand that          at the Patton Museum on
Broadcasting and Friends of      of acquiring land for our        the World War II generation       Fort Knox. Here's a
the World War II Memorial to     55,000 square foot facility      will not be around for much       direct link to that exhibit:
present a screening of an        which will include indoor/       longer, so we are working         http://
abbreviated version of the       outdoor/interactive dis-         as quickly as we can to en-       www.generalpatton.org/qtvr/
last episodes of Ken Burns'      plays on all aspects of          sure that their sacrifices will   qtvr08f07.asp
film, THE WAR. As part of        World War II, including the      not be forgotten before they      once there, you will have to
that event we will perform       European, Pacific, and           are all gone.                     click inside of the room to be
our Freedom Team Salute          Home Fronts. We will             Please help us to realize         able to view
ceremony, with (potentially)     have a library full of books,    our goal of establishing a        inside of the exhibit as well.
the Secretary of the Army        periodicals, and other re-       tribute to the finest example     http://GeneralPatton.org
presiding. We would like to      sources which will open to       of what being an American
honor one of the 761st mem-      the public free of               is all about.                     Keep up the good work on
bers who live in this area at    charge. Our facility will                                          the websites!
that time                        also include archival stor-      Sincerely,
Jean Davis                       age and retrieval, a 160         Allen R. Cooley                   Tim Williams
                                 seat theater/auditorium, a       Founder and President             4th Battalion, 64th Armor
I am proud to follow in the      memorial to the World War        World War II History Center       Regiment
footsteps of honorable men       II generation and the na-        Foundation                        "TUSKERS!...WE PIERCE!"
like you and other members       tion's only full-scale World     "Remember, Honor, Edu-
of the 761st Tank Battalion.     War II battlefield on-           cate"
Your accomplishments in the      site. This battlefield will be                                     Hyde Park Films wrote:
                                                                  (316)322-8753                     Dear Sir,
face of racism and bigotry       approximately 15 to 20           wwiihistorycenter@att.net
were amazing. Being a black      acres in size and include a                                        My name is Andre King and I
                                                                  www.wwiihistorycenter.org         have written a screenplay
man, I clearly understand        small village, bunkers,
your sufferings and your tri-    trenches and many other                                            based on the true events
umph. Unbelievably, many         battlefield implements typi-                                       and experiences of the
                                                                  I am starting a drive to have     761st. I have named it
soldiers, black and white,       cal to World War II. Its         an Oklahoma state road,
especially black soldiers        purpose is to stage battle                                         "Liberators" borrowing the
                                                                  building or park named after      title of the book I used for
don't realize the courage and    reenactments, allow tours        SSG Ruben Rivers. I have
gallantry with which the         at a much lower cost than                                          most of my source mate-
                                                                  sent letters to state Con-        rial. I would like to contact
761st served. Right now, I       traveling overseas, and          gressmen and the Governor
am a member of the 3rd US        provide rides to visitors in                                       some of the remaining mem-
                                                                  and the local papers. I am        bers if at all possible. I just
Army stationed in Atlanta,       restored WWII military ve-       interested in getting help to
Ga. Fort McPherson. God          hicles.                                                            saw a History channel spe-
                                                                  spread the word. Is there         cial on the Battalion and I am
Bless and thanks for your                                         any assistance your organi-
service and sacrifice!!          The World War II History                                           deeply moved. I would love
                                 Center will provide a pack-      zation might be able to give      to share my work with you
LTC Billy Miller                 age of services and attrac-      me?                               and have some feed-
Chief, Command Training          tions unmatched anywhere         http://                           back. Please let me know of
3rd US Army HQs                  else in the United States,       rubenriverspeti-                  your interest.
                                 and already offers many          ton.blogspot.com/  
                                 services at its temporary        Ron Simpson 
                                 location. However, we            BCS Compliance Analyst 
 This e-mail is to inform your   need your help.                  Business Customer Ser-
organization about our foun-     Support from organizations       vices 
dation's efforts to construct    like yours is critical to the    Business Markets Group 
and operate a regional mu-       success of our ven-              Cingular Wireless, now the
seum and research library        ture. We would ask that          new AT&T 
dedicated to World War           you refer to our website at      Email:
II. The World War II History     www.wwiihistorycenter.org        ron.simpson@cingular.com
                                  Volume 3, Issue 1                                                   Page 22

Greetings,                                 James wrote:                             fended. When these Hero's go on to their
                                                    I just caught the tail end of   Heavenly rewards, I hope they have a
My name is Michael Smith. I am a           a show on the History Channel on         Bugler to play over their graves. It is the
photo restoration expert of 24 years       the 761st Tank Battalion the other       only proper way to pay the last respects to
and at this time I would like to offer     day. I never knew any colored tank-      these fine Soldiers. Thank all of you, from
complete restore and rebuild of any        ers were involved in the relief of       the bottom of my heart, and may God
photographs FREE OF CHARGE to              Bastogne. I am 46 years old and          Bless each one of you and your Families.
any and all of the family of the           never realized the extent of racism                                 Jim Watson
761st.                                     that these Soldiers had to endure. I
The business is located in Las Vegas       am white, and was brought up in          Ron wrote:
Nevada. If my services could be of         a much different time in the history     Last year I started the petition to get a
use to any of the veterans and family      of our Country. I do not use the         state highway in Oklahoma named after
members please respond.                    term "African American", I use the       SSG Ruben Rivers.
I am simply doing this as a gesture        term "Black". My family is of Scot-      Here is the progress.
after a recent lecture at UCLA I at-       tish Origin on both sides and I don't    Senator Charlie Laster and his office intro-
tended. I want to show my thanks in        refer to myself as a "Scottish Ameri-    duced an amendment to legisla-
the only way I know how.
                                           can". I was born in the United           tion yesterday to have a part of State
Thank you                                  States of America, so me and eve-        Highway 9 in Tecumseh named after SSG
Michael Smith                              rybody else who was born here is         Rivers.
                                           an American, PERIOD, we are just         After I started this effort, I found that my
                                           different colors. The Soldiers who       brother works with a woman that is part of
Dear Sir or Ma'am,                         served in the 761st are Americans. I     his family and we were able to contact
                                           am proud to be able to type and          SSG Rivers' brother and got his blessing
I just watched the TV show about           send this e-mail to these Valiant        for this.
black tankers in WW2. As a tanker          Soldiers who served my Country
and a minority, I felt very inspired by    with distinction. I will hopefully be    I just wanted to give you all an update.
the show. As a platoon leader, I had       able to shake the hand of one of
Soldiers from all different races. It is   these Gentlemen one day. I hope
                                                                                    Ruben Rivers Highway
interesting to see how things have         the webmaster will forward my sin-       I have attached a copy of the amendment
changed over the years. However, it        cere Thanks and Gratitude to any         that I introduced naming a section of high-
seems to me that African Americans         and all surviving members of this        way after Ruben Rivers. The amendment
were predominantly the first to pave       Battalion. All of you were and are       was added to SB 1894 which passed the
the way for minorities in the Armed        truly members of “The Greatest           Senate yesterday 48-0. The bill is now on
Forces. As a veteran of Operation          Generation", always know this, and       its way to the House for consideration. I
Iraqi Freedom, I would like to extend      always be proud of it. This Country      will keep you updated as the bill makes it
my thanks to the Soldiers of the           owes, not only you, but all the veter-
                                           ans a debt of gratitude. My late Un-     way through the legislative process.
761st. They made it possible, along
with their commander, for Americans        cle Raymond Johnson retired from         Sharon Veazey
of all races and cultures to service       the Navy as a Master Chief. He
                                           fought in WW 2, Korea, and Viet-         Executive Assistant to
gallantly on the front line in the name                                             Senator Charlie Laster
of their country.                          nam. When he was buried in 2000,
                                           Taps was played on a boom box,
On the way!                                needless to say, I was deeply of-        John Burke wrote:
                                                                                    I am trying to get a contact number or e-
Ivan E. Hong                                                                        mail address for the 761st Tank Division. I
                                                                                    had a person from Washington DC call
                                                                                    looking for a good contact number. If you
                                                                                    could supply me with a contact number I
                                                                                    would appreciate it.

                                                                                    John Burke,
                                                                                    Adjutant 1st District
                                                                                     American Legion Department of Michigan
                                      Volume 3, Issue 1                                                  Page 23

 Scholarships and Educational Assistance Available to 761st Family Members
T    here are two established
     scholarships that are associ-
ated with the 761st Tank Battal-
                                       T   he T.G. Hill Education Assis-
                                           tance fund has provided
                                       support to many young students             McDaniel College Contact Information
ion. The Paul L. Bates Memorial        over the years with over $87,000
Scholarship Fund and the T.G           in cash awards. In 2005 there
Hill Educational Assistance            were two awards of $1,000 to
Fund.                                  each of two students.                                Contact Admissions
          The Paul L. Bates Me-                  The assistance pro-                       Phone: 800-638-5005
morial Scholarship Fund was            vided to the young students is                Email: admissions@mcdaniel.edu
established in 1999 in memory          different from other scholarships
                                                                                       Address: McDaniel College
of Colonel Paul L. Bates who,          in that the student receives a
perhaps more than any other            check in their own name and                              Office of Admissions
single person, shaped the battal-      has the freedom to use the                                   2 College Hill
ion into the remarkable unit that      money at their own discretion.                         Westminster, MD 21157
it became. Colonel Bates was a         This is important because many
1931 graduate of Western Mary-         students who receive other
land College (on July 1, 2002,         forms of financial support, family              Contact Graduate Admissions
the name officially changed to         or institutional, experience a
McDaniel College), and during          financial gap that puts a strain                   Phone: 410-857-2500
his college years was an All-          on family resources and/or is not
                                                                                            Fax: 410-857-2515
American football player.              covered by other sources. There
                                       are many extra costs associated               Email: gradadms@mcdaniel.edu
          The scholarship was          with higher learning that are of-      Address: Graduate & Professional Studies Office
established as a tribute to the        ten overlooked until the student
brave men who fought under his                                                                Academic Hall, 2nd Floor
                                       is faced with difficult choices.
command and provides awards                                                                       McDaniel College
for lineal descendants of mem-                  Can I join a professional                           2 College Hill
bers of the 761st Tank Battalion       organization in the field I am                       Westminster, MD 21157-4390
who served with the unit from          majoring in, can I afford books in
August 1944 through April 1945.        my field that are not required
                                       reading for any of my courses,       For information on scholarships and financial aid con-
          Recipients must be ac-       those reference books are so                tact the Director of Financial Aid at email:
cepted to and attend McDaniel          expensive but it would help so        pwilliams@mcdaniel.edu or phone: 410-857-2233
College, possess and maintain a        much to have my own set or it
2.0 grade point average at             could just be that my socks get
McDaniel College and demon-            wet when it rains because of the     An additional contact for more information about the
strate financial need.                 hole in my shoes—whatever.                           scholarship, contact:
          McDaniel College is a                  The T.G. Hill Educa-
private four year college of the       tional Assistance Fund is pro-                        Ms. Debbie Leazer
liberal arts and sciences. There       vided through donations to the               Assistant Director of Donor Relations
is a flexible curricula at both the    761st Tank Battalion & Allied                          McDaniel College
undergraduate and master’s             Veterans Association by both
degree level where students                                                                     2 College Hill
                                       members and friends. The Asso-
from 31 states and 17 countries        ciation is chartered as a non-                     Westminster, MD 21157
prepare for their future lives.        profit corporation with 501(c)(3)                   Phone: 410-857-2251
Over the years the college has         status. Donations to the educa-                E-mail: dleazer@mcdaniel.edu
grown from a single building with      tional assistance fund are al-
37 students to 40 buildings on a       ways welcome. Checks should
160-acre campus populated by           be made out the 761st Tank
1,600 undergraduates and 1,300         battalion & Allied Veterans As-            T.G. Hill Educational Assistance Fund
graduate students. The average         sociation with the notation T.G.
class size is 17 students and          Hill Education Fund in the
there is a student-faculty ratio of                                                      For an application write to:
                                       memo area. The mailing ad-
12 – 1. This enables a close-knit      dress is as follows:
community where learning is                                                  761st Tank Battalion & Allied Veterans Association
collaborative and every student        761st Tank Battalion & Allied                          P.O. Box 211009
receives personal attention.           Veterans Association
                                                                                          Detroit, Michigan 48221
         For information about         P.O. Box 211009
                                                                                Attn: T.G. Hill Educational Assistance Fund
McDaniel College and how to            Detroit, Michigan 48221
apply, visit the McDaniel College
web site at www.mcdaniel.edu.
           Volume 3, Issue 1                               Page 24

  The 761st Newsletter has learned of the following deaths.
Our deepest sympathy goes out to the families and friends of
the deceased.

Floyd Dade, Jr.                        September 27,2006

1st Sgt. Charles M. King               October 14, 2006

E.G. McConnell                         March 13, 2007

Kenneth Hamm                           May 16, 2007

Phil Agnew                             May 25, 2007

Johnnie Stevens                        July 12, 2007

L Z Anderson                           January 8, 2008

Harry K. Tyree                         February 15, 2008

Sidney A. Dickason, Sr.                March 16, 2008

Herman Taylor                          March 8, 2008

         Anyone who knows of a member’s death please
          notify the Newsletter so that person can be
          listed in TAPS and also on the Honor Roll at
                        the next reunion
                                                           Come Out Fighting

                                                                                                    Statement of Publication
          The Official Newsletter of the                     New Directory
761st Tank Battalion & Allied Veterans Association
                                                               The Latest directory created
               Organization Address                   for the 761st Tank Battalion and Allied   This is the official publication of the 761st
 761st Tank Battalion & Allied Veterans Association                                             Tank Battalion & Allied Veterans Asso-
                                                      Veterans Organization was several
                 P.O. Box 211009                                                                ciation. It will be published on a tri-annual
             Detroit, Michigan 48221
                                                      years ago and a lot has changed since
                                                      then. If you know of any former 761st     basis with publication dates of April 30,
        Kenneth C. Tait— National Secretary           members or of their families please       August 31, and December 31. All mem-
              Phone: 313-361-2986                     forward their information so that we      bers and associates are encouraged to
             E-mail: kcttnt@aol.com                   may mail them future issues of the        support the voice of the 761st. Reader
                                                      761st newsletter. There will be valu-     response will ultimately determine the
                                                                                                frequency of publication.
                                                      able information on topics such as
          We’re on the Web!                           scholarships available to family mem-              The news letter is intended to be
            www.761st.com                             bers, activities of the 761st Tank Bat-   a vehicle for the members and associ-
                                                      talion and Allied Veterans Association    ates to express opinions, make sugges-
                                                      and updates on individual members.        tions, share experiences and especially
                                                                                                to keep in touch.
                                        New Publications                                          All letters and stories submitted
                                                                                         will be considered for publication but they
                                                                                         must be signed. Letters requesting that
                                                              761st Black Panther
                                                                                         the writer’s name be withheld will be hon-
                                                              Tank Battalion in World ored and stated so in the printed article.
                                                              War II: An Illustrated     Because the Association is a non-profit
                                                              History of the First Afri- organization, letters espousing a political
                                                              can American Armored position will not be printed.
                                                              Unit to See Combat.
                                                                                                         Unless stated otherwise, the
                                                                                                views printed in the newsletter are those
                                                              by Joe Wilson, Jr.                of the article’s writer and do not neces-
                                                              (Afterword), Julius W.            sarily represent the views of the Associa-
                                                              Becton                            tion leadership or the editor of the news-
                                                              ISBN: 0-7864-2862-7                         The Association is not responsi-
                                                                                                ble for the accuracy of articles submitted
                                                                                                for publication. It would be impossible to
                                                                                                check each story. Therefore we rely on
                                                                                                the submitter to research each article.
                                                                                                         The editor reserves the right to
                                                               The 784th Tank Bat-              edit letters to conform to space limita-
                                                                                                tions and grammar.
                                                               talion in World War
                                                               II: The History of an                     You are encouraged to actively
                                                               African American                 participate in the newsletter by submitting
                                                                                                your letters, stories, photographs and
                                                               Armored Unit in                  suggestions.
                                                               Europe. (Hardcover)
                                                                                                         Letters may be submitted to:
                                                                   By Joe Wilson, Jr.
                                                                (Author), and Bill Smith        Ivan H. Harrison, Jr.
                                                                      (Foreword)                7518 Hamilton Ave
                                                                                                Burr Ridge, Illinois 60527-6923
                                                                  ISBN: 0-7864-2758-1           ivanharrisonjr@hotmail.com
                                                               ISBN-13: 978-0786427581

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