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									Chapter 21 - Birds: Feathers, Flight and Endothermy                      Name ____________________________

1. Birds belong to the _______________Kingdom, the _________________Phylum, the ________________Subphylum
and the ________________________Class. The earliest bird ___________________________show reptilian features.
2. Feathers are modified reptilian _______________ and develop from tiny pits called __________________________.

3. Match the feather to its description.
____ down feathers          a. covers the body and gives the bird shape
____ flight feathers        b. provides insulation
____ countour feathers      c. specialized countour feathers found on the wings and tail

4. Why does a bird put oil on its feathers?________________________________________________________

5. What is preening and why is it done?__________________________________________________________
6. Name two structures on the bird skeleton that no other living vertebrate has.
7. What purpose does the large keeled breastbone serve? (fig 21.5)
8. What is an endotherm?
9. In the avian heart, the __________________ and_______________________ are completely separated. This
prevents mixing of ___________ ________________ blood with ___________ ________________ blood.
10. Why do birds have a much higher demand for energy than other animals?
11. How far can migrating birds fly? _______________________________________________________

12. Use the picture of the Avian Lung Structure (page 335) to answer true or false to the following statements.
______ During inhalation (inspiration), fresh air is pulled into the thorasic air sacs.
______ The abdominal air sacs are located posterior to the thorasic air sacs.
______ During exhalation (expiration), fresh air from the abdominal air sacs enters the lungs.
______ During exhalation (expiration), fresh air from the thorasic air sacs enters the lungs.

"Up Close: Bald Eagle" (scientific name: _____________________ _____________________)
13. What is the most important sense in the bald eagle? ____________________________________________________
14. What do bald eagles eat? _________________________________________________________________________
15. What does the eagle use its curved beak for? __________________________________________________________
16. What is the function of the cerebrum? _______________________________________________________________
17. What substances exit the cloaca? ____________________________________________________________________
18. What is the function of the crop? ____________________________________________________________________
19. What is the function of the gizzard? __________________________________________________________________

20. Describe the monogamous relationship of birds. _______________________________________________.
21. Describe the Order Passeriformes.___________________________________________________________.
22. Describe the beak of a cardinal. (scientific name: _____________________ _____________________)
23. Describe the feet of Order Galliformes. What are they adapted for?
24. What are long legs, like those on a heron, adapted for?___________________________________________
25. The American robin has __________________ chicks and the Killdeer have ___________________chicks.

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