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Chapter 1 - Anatomical Terms

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Chapter 1 - Anatomical Terms Powered By Docstoc
					       Chapter 1

The Anatomical Position &
  Medical Terminology
     The Anatomical Position

Subject is standing
upright, facing the
observer, with the
upper limbs placed at
the sides, palms
turned forward, and the
feet flat on the floor.
           Anatomical Terms
            Anterior Surface

Common Name      Anatomical Name
Head             Cephalic
Skull            Cranial
Face             Facial
Neck             Cervical
Forehead         Frontal
Eye              Orbital
Ear              Otic
          Anatomical Terms
           Anterior Surface

Common Name      Anatomical Name
Cheek            Buccal
Nose             Nasal
Mouth            Oral
Chin             Mental
Armpit           Axillary
Arm              Brachial
Front of Elbow   Antecubital
        Anatomical Terms
         Anterior Surface

Common Name   Anatomical Name
Forearm       Antebrachial
Wrist         Carpal
Palm          Metacarpal
Fingers       Digital (Phalangeal)
Chest         Thoracic
Breastbone    Sternal
Breast        Mammary
       Anatomical Terms
        Anterior Surface

Common Name   Anatomical Name
Navel         Umbilical
Hip           Coxal
Groin         Inguinal
Hand          Manual
Pubis         Pubic
Thigh         Femoral
        Anatomical Terms
         Anterior Surface

Common Name     Anatomical Name
Front of Knee   Patellar
Leg             Crural
Foot            Pedal
Ankle           Tarsal
Toes            Digital (Phalangeal)
         Anatomical Terms
         Posterior Surface

Common Name      Anatomical Name
Base of Skull    Occipital
Shoulder         Acromial
Shoulder Blade   Scapular
Spinal Column    Vertebral
Back             Dorsal
Back of Elbow    Olecranal
           Anatomical Terms
           Posterior Surface

Common Name       Anatomical Name
Loin              Lumbar
Between Hips      Sacral
Buttock           Gluteal
Behind the Knee   Popliteal
Calf              Sural
Sole of Foot      Plantar
Heel of Foot      Calcaneal
         Directional Terms

TERM & DEFINITION            EXAMPLES
                         1. The heart is
     Superior               superior to the
                            liver
 Toward the head or      2. The brain is
upper part of the body      superior to the
                            spinal cord
          Directional Terms

TERM & DEFINITION            EXAMPLES
                         1. The small
      Inferior              intestines is
                            inferior to the liver
 Away from the head      2. The stomach is
 or towards lower part      inferior to the
      of the body           lungs
           Directional Terms

TERM & DEFINITION              EXAMPLES
                           1. The heart is
       Anterior               anterior to the
                              backbone
 Near to/at the front of   2. The sternum is
        the body              anterior to the
                              lungs
          Directional Terms

TERM & DEFINITION             EXAMPLES
                          1. The esophagus is
      Posterior              posterior to the
                             trachea
 Near to/at the back of   2. The kidneys are
        the body             posterior to the
                             liver
          Directional Terms

TERM & DEFINITION             EXAMPLES
                          1. The ulna is on the
       Medial                medial side of the
                             forearm
Near the midline of the   2. The nose is medial
         body                to the ears
         Directional Terms

TERM & DEFINITION          EXAMPLES
                       1. The radius is on
      Lateral             the lateral side of
                          the forearm
  Far(ther) from the   2. The humerus is
        midline           lateral to the rib
                          cage
         Directional Terms

TERM & DEFINITION       EXAMPLES
                    1. The ring finger is
   Intermediate        intermediate to the
                       little and middle
   In between two      fingers
       structures   2. The heart is
                       intermediate to the
                       lungs
          Directional Terms

TERM & DEFINITION             EXAMPLES
                          1. The femur is
      Proximal               proximal to the
                             tibia
Nearer to an attachment   2. The humerus is
   of a limb/point of        proximal to the
          origin             ulna
         Directional Terms

TERM & DEFINITION             EXAMPLES
                          1. The fibula is distal
       Distal                to the femur
                          2. The carpals are
   Farther from an           distal to the
 attachment or point of      scapula
         origin
         Directional Terms

TERM & DEFINITION          EXAMPLES
                       1. The sternum is
    Superficial           superficial to the
                          heart
 Towards the surface   2. The epidermis is
                          superficial to the
                          dermis
          Directional Terms

TERM & DEFINITION            EXAMPLES
                         1. The kidneys are
        Deep                deep to the liver
                         2. The ribs are deep
 Away from the surface      to the skin of the
                            chest
           Planes & Sections
Sagittal Plane: Divides the body into Right (R) &
Left (L) sides
      1. Midsagittal – equal planes
      2. Parasagittal – unequal planes
Frontal (Coronal) Plane: Divides the body into
anterior (front) & posterior (back) portions
Transverse Plane: Divides the body into superior
(upper) & inferior (lower) portions
Oblique Plane: Passes through the body/organ at an
angle
Planes & Sections
                 Body Cavities
Dorsal Body Cavity
  1. Cranial Cavity – Brain
  2. Vertebral Cavity – Spinal cord & nerve origins
Ventral Body Cavity
  1. Thoracic Cavity – Chest cavity
      A. Pleural Cavity – Lungs
      B. Pericardial Cavity – Heart
      C. Mediastinum
  2. Abdominopelvic Cavity
      A. Abdominal – stomach, spleen, gallbladder,
         liver, pancreas, small & large intestines
      B. Pelvic – bladder, portions of large intestines, sex
         organs
Body Cavities

				
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posted:11/7/2011
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