Docstoc

NEW-CDP

Document Sample
NEW-CDP Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan

                                                        Table of Contents

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .............................................................................................................1
1         INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 11
    1.1        BACKGROUND .............................................................................................................11
    1.2        OBJECTIVES AND GOALS OF JNNURM ......................................................................11
    1.3        OBJECTIVES AND GOALS OF SHIMLA CDP .................................................................12
    1.4        SCOPE OF CDP ............................................................................................................12
    1.5        APPROACH ..................................................................................................................13
    1.6        STATE COMMITMENT..................................................................................................13
    1.7        STRUCTURE OF CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN ................................................................13
    1.8        DATA LIMITATIONS ....................................................................................................14
2         CONSULTATIVE PROCESS & VISION ................................................................ 15
    2.1        INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................15
    2.2        THE CONSULTATIVE PROCESS .....................................................................................15
    2.3        DEPARTMENTAL DISCUSSIONS ...................................................................................15
    2.4        FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS ......................................................................................16
    2.5        STAKEHOLDERS’ CONSULTATION WORKSHOP ...........................................................16
    2.6        NGO WORKSHOP ........................................................................................................18
    2.7        WEB-BASED FEEDBACK ..............................................................................................19
    2.8        FINALIZATION WORKSHOP .......................................................................................19
    2.9        URBAN POOR WORKSHOP..........................................................................................19
    2.10       KEY PRIORITIES IN THE CIY .......................................................................................20
    2.11       FORMULATION OF VISION FOR SHIMLA .....................................................................21
    2.12       SECTOR VISION ...........................................................................................................22
3         OVERVIEW OF SHIMLA .................................................................................... 24
    3.1        EVOLUTION OF CITY ...................................................................................................24
    3.2        GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING ...........................................................................................24
    3.3        HILLY AREA................................................................................................................25
    3.4        GEOLOGY ....................................................................................................................25
    3.5        CLIMATE .....................................................................................................................25
    3.6        REGIONAL LINKAGES .................................................................................................26
    3.7        DEFINING THE PROGRAMME REGION .........................................................................26
    3.8        CITY FUNCTIONS ........................................................................................................27
4         DEMOGRAPHY................................................................................................. 29
    4.1        POPULATION ...............................................................................................................29
    4.2        FLOATING POPULATION ..............................................................................................29
    4.3        LITERACY, SEX RATIO AND AGE COMPOSITION ........................................................30
    4.4        OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE ......................................................................................30
    4.5        POPULATION PROJECTION ..........................................................................................31
5         ECONOMIC BASE ............................................................................................ 32
    5.1        OVERVIEW OF ECONOMIC SITUATION IN HIMACHAL PRADESH .................................32
    5.2        OVERVIEW OF SHIMLA ECONOMICS ...........................................................................32
    5.3        WORK FORCE PARTICIPATION .....................................................................................32
    5.4        INDUSTRIES .................................................................................................................33
    5.5        ECONOMIC POTENTIAL, STRATEGY AND RECOMMENDATIONS..................................35
6         GOVERNANCE & INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK .............................................. 38
    6.1        INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................38
    6.2        74TH CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT ACT ................................................................38
            INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                     i
            CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


    6.3        GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE FOR SHIMLA ....................................................................39
    6.4        LOCAL BODIES ............................................................................................................39
    6.5        STATE GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS ........................................................................43
    6.6        STATUTORY BODIES ...................................................................................................45
    6.7        INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES .............................................................................47
    6.8        PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP ..................................................................................48
    6.9        ISSUES AND CONCERNS ..............................................................................................48
    6.10       VISION AND STRATEGY ..............................................................................................49
    6.11       SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN ...................................................................................50
7         PLANNING ....................................................................................................... 51
    7.1        OVERVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT OF TOWN ....................................................................51
    7.2        SHIMLA PLANNING AREA ...........................................................................................51
    7.3        POLICY, LEGAL, AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ..................................................52
    7.4        PHYSICAL PLANNING ..................................................................................................53
    7.5        PLANNING ISSUES IN DEVELOPMENT OF HILL AREA .................................................56
    7.6        VISION AND STRATEGY ..............................................................................................56
    7.7        SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN ...................................................................................59
    7.8        PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS .................................................................................60
8         WATER SUPPLY ................................................................................................. 61
    8.1        INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................61
    8.2        POLICY, LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ...................................................61
    8.3        SOURCES OF WATER ...................................................................................................61
    8.4        TREATMENT OF WATER ..............................................................................................65
    8.5        PRESENT TRANSMISSION AND STORAGE CAPACITIES ................................................65
    8.6        LOCAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM: .................................................................................67
    8.7        SERVICE COVERAGE: ..................................................................................................68
    8.8        WATER DEMAND AND DEFICIT ..................................................................................69
    8.9        WATER CHARGES .......................................................................................................70
    8.10       COST OF WATER AND SUBSIDY ON WATER................................................................71
    8.11       UNACCOUNTED FOR WATER ......................................................................................71
    8.12       ISSUES AND ASPECTS ..................................................................................................72
    8.13       VISION AND GOALS ....................................................................................................73
    8.14       STRATEGY AND IDENTIFICATION OF INTERVENTIONS ................................................73
    8.15       PROPOSED IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK ..............................................................74
    8.16       SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN ...................................................................................76
    8.17       PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS .................................................................................77
9         SEWERAGE SYSTEM .......................................................................................... 80
    9.1        INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................80
    9.2        POLICY, REGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK .......................................80
    9.3        SEWERAGE SYSTEM ....................................................................................................80
    9.4        NETWORK COVERAGE ................................................................................................80
    9.5        SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS....................................................................................82
    9.6        RECYCLING AND REUSE OF TREATED WATER ...........................................................84
    9.7        TARIFF NOTIFICATION ................................................................................................84
    9.8        ISSUES AND ASPECTS ..................................................................................................84
    9.9        VISION AND GOALS ....................................................................................................85
    9.10       STRATEGY AND IDENTIFICATION OF INTERVENTIONS ................................................85
    9.11       SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN ...................................................................................86
    9.12       PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS .................................................................................87
10        STORM WATER DRAINAGE............................................................................... 89
    10.1       INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................89
            INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                ii
            CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                              Shimla City Development Plan


 10.2     INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITY ................................................................................89
 10.3     NATURAL DRAINS.......................................................................................................89
 10.4     ROAD SIDE DRAINS ....................................................................................................89
 10.5     ISSUES AND ASPECTS ..................................................................................................91
 10.6     VISION AND GOALS ....................................................................................................91
 10.7     STRATEGY AND IDENTIFICATION OF INTERVENTIONS ................................................92
 10.8     SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN ...................................................................................93
 10.9     PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS .................................................................................94
11   SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT .......................................................................... 96
 11.1     INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................96
 11.2     POLICY, LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ...................................................96
 11.3     GENERATION...............................................................................................................96
 11.4     COLLECTION ...............................................................................................................97
 11.5     TRANSPORTATION ......................................................................................................98
 11.6     PROCESSING AND TREATMENT ...................................................................................98
 11.7     DISPOSAL ....................................................................................................................98
 11.8     ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE ......................................................................................98
 11.9     FINANCIALS ................................................................................................................99
 11.10    ROLE OF PRIVATE SECTOR .........................................................................................99
 11.11    ISSUES AND CONCERNS ............................................................................................100
 11.12    VISION AND GOALS ..................................................................................................102
 11.13    STRATEGY AND IDENTIFICATION OF INTERVENTIONS ..............................................102
 11.14    SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN .................................................................................105
 11.15    PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS ...............................................................................106
12   TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION ....................................................................111
 12.1     INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................111
 12.2     POLICY, REGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK .....................................111
 12.3     REGIONAL ROAD NETWORK .....................................................................................113
 12.4     MOBILITY IN SHIMLA................................................................................................114
 12.5     REGISTERED VEHICLES: COMPOSITION AND GROWTH ............................................121
 12.6     TRAFFIC FLOWS AND TRAFFIC DEMAND ..................................................................123
 12.7     SETTLEMENT WISE WORK FORCE PARTICIPATION AND TRIP DISTANCE ................124
 12.8     MODE AND MODAL SPLIT.........................................................................................125
 12.9     PUBLIC TRANSPORT ..................................................................................................125
 12.10    PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES ...........................................................................................129
 12.11    PARKING ...................................................................................................................131
 12.12    JUNCTIONS ................................................................................................................135
 12.13    BOTTLENECKS ..........................................................................................................135
 12.14    TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORT SAFETY...........................................................................136
 12.15    ISSUES AND ASPECTS ................................................................................................137
 12.16    VISION AND GOALS ..................................................................................................139
 12.17    STRATEGY AND IDENTIFICATION OF INTERVENTIONS ..............................................139
 12.18    SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN .................................................................................147
 12.19    PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION SHEETS.........................................................................148
13   TOURISM..........................................................................................................162
 13.1     TOURISM IN INDIA- AN OVERVIEW ..........................................................................162
 13.2     TOURISM IN HIMACHAL PRADESH - AN OVERVIEW .................................................162
 13.3     SITUATION ANALYSIS ...............................................................................................164
 13.4     POLICY, LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK .................................................167
 13.5     ISSUES AND CONCERNS ............................................................................................169
 13.6     VISION AND GOALS ..................................................................................................170
 13.7     STRATEGY .................................................................................................................171
        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                  iii
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                              Shimla City Development Plan


 13.8     SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN .................................................................................173
 13.9     PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS ...............................................................................174
14   ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS ........................................................................180
 14.1     INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................180
 14.2     ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION STATUS .................................................................180
 14.3     GARDENS, OPEN SPACES AND URBAN FORESTS ......................................................184
15   DISASTER MANAGEMENT ...............................................................................190
 15.1     NATURAL HAZARDS .................................................................................................190
 15.2     FIRE HAZARDS ..........................................................................................................190
 15.3     ISSUES AND CONCERNS ............................................................................................191
 15.4     STRATEGY .................................................................................................................192
 15.5     SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN .................................................................................192
16   HERITAGE CONSERVATION ............................................................................195
 16.1     INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................195
 16.2     EXISTING STATUS .....................................................................................................195
 16.3     RESTORATION OF GAIETY THEATRE ........................................................................197
 16.4     POLICY, INSTITUTIONAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK .....................................198
 16.5     ISSUES AND CONCERNS ............................................................................................198
 16.6     VISION AND GOALS ..................................................................................................198
 16.7     STRATEGY .................................................................................................................199
 16.8     SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN .................................................................................201
 16.9     PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS ...............................................................................202
17   HOUSING AND URBAN POOR ........................................................................203
 17.1     INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................203
 17.2     OVERVIEW OF EARLIER LAND SUPPLY FOR HOUSING .............................................203
 17.3     LAND AND HOUSING PROVISION IN SHIMLA ............................................................203
 17.4     HOUSING PROJECTIONS ............................................................................................204
 17.5     POLICY, REGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK : HOUSING ...................205
 17.6     ISSUES AND CONCERNS: HOUSING ...........................................................................205
 17.7     STRATEGY: HOUSING................................................................................................206
 17.8     SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN .................................................................................206
 17.9     URBAN POOR ............................................................................................................207
 17.10    BASIC SERVICES TO THE URBAN POOR .....................................................................210
 17.11    POLICY, REGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK: URBAN POOR .............212
 17.12    SOCIAL IMPACTS OF THE PROJECTS ON URBAN POOR ..............................................212
 17.13    ALLOCATION OF THE INVESTMENT PLAN TO THE URBAN POOR ...............................213
 17.14    ISSUES: URBAN POOR ...............................................................................................215
 17.15    VISION AND GOALS ..................................................................................................215
 17.16    STRATEGY: URBAN POOR .........................................................................................215
 17.17    SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN .................................................................................217
 17.18    PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS ...............................................................................218
18   OTHER INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES .......................................................222
 18.1     POWER ......................................................................................................................222
 18.2     E-GOVERNANCE .......................................................................................................224
 18.3     HEALTH AND EDUCATION ........................................................................................225
19   FINANCIAL PROFILE ........................................................................................226
 19.1     INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................226
 19.2     REVENUE SOURCES ..................................................................................................227
 19.3     EXPENDITURE TREATMENT ......................................................................................227
        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                  iv
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                             Shimla City Development Plan


 19.4     FINANCIAL STATUS AT A GLANCE ............................................................................227
 19.5     REVENUE ACCOUNT .................................................................................................229
 19.6     CAPITAL ACCOUNT ...................................................................................................236
 19.7     OUTSTANDING LIABILITIES AND ASSETS .................................................................238
 19.8     KEY FINANCIAL INDICATORS ....................................................................................239
 19.9     KEY ISSUES ...............................................................................................................240
 19.10    VISION AND STRATEGY ............................................................................................240
20   REFORM AGENDA STATUS ..............................................................................243
 20.1     INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................243
 20.2     ADOPTION OF MODERN ACCRUAL BASED DOUBLE ENTRY ACCOUNT SYSTEM .........243
 20.3     INTRODUCTION OF E-GOVERNANCE SYSTEM ..........................................................243
 20.4     PROPERTY TAX REFORM ..........................................................................................244
 20.5     BY LAWS...................................................................................................................244
21   CITY INVESTMENT PLAN ..................................................................................247
 21.1     INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................247
 21.2     CAVEATS FOR CITY INVESTMENT PLAN ...................................................................247
 21.3     SUMMARY OF INVESTMENTS WITH IDENTIFIED PROJECTS .......................................248
 21.4     SECTORWISE SOURCES OF FUNDS & IMPEMENTATION FRAMEWORK ......................249
 21.5     FINANCING STRATEGIES ...........................................................................................258
22   IMPLEMENTATION PLAN .................................................................................259
 22.1     PRIORITIZATION ........................................................................................................259
 22.2     IMPLMENTATION TIMELINE ......................................................................................263
 22.3     ACTION PLAN FOR JNNURM IMPLEMENTATION.....................................................264
23   ANNEXURES ....................................................................................................268
 23.1     PROCEEDINGS OF CONSULTATION WORKSHOP .........................................................268
 23.2     PROCEEDINGS OF NGO WORKSHOP........................................................................276
 23.3     PROCEEDINGS OF WORKSHOP WITH URBAN POOR ..................................................278
 23.4     PROCEEDING OF FINAL WORKSHOP .........................................................................279
 23.5     LIST OF IDENTIFIED NALLAHS ..................................................................................281
 23.6     LIST OF OPEN DRAINS ..............................................................................................282
 23.7     LIST OF HERITAGE BUILDINGS .................................................................................284
 23.8     FINANCIAL ASSESSMENT OF LAST FIVE YEARS ........................................................287




        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                 v
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan

                                                         List of Figures

FIGURE 2.1 STAKEHOLDERS’ CONSULTATION ............................................................................................ 18
FIGURE 3.1 HIMACHAL PRADESH MAP ...................................................................................................... 25
FIGURE 3.2 SHIMLA PLANNING AREA ........................................................................................................ 26
FIGURE 3.3 SHIMLA CITY FUNCTIONS ........................................................................................................ 27
FIGURE 4.1 OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE ................................................................................................... 30
FIGURE 4.2 SHIMLA PLANNING AREA – POPULATION PROJECTIONS ......................................................... 31
FIGURE 6.1 ELECTED BODY OF SHIMLA MUNICIPAL CORPORATION ......................................................... 40
FIGURE 6.2 ADMINISTRATIVE BODY OF SHIMLA MUNICIPAL CORPORATION ............................................. 42
FIGURE 7.1 EXISTING LANDUSE PATTERN OF SHIMLA PLANNING AREA ................................................... 53
FIGURE 7.2 PROPOSED LANDUSE PATTERN OF SHIMLA PLANNING AREA .................................................. 54
FIGURE 7.3 PROPOSED LANDUSE PATTERN OF SHIMLA PLANNING AREA ................................................. 55
FIGURE 7.4 PLANNING STRATEGIES FOR SHIMLA PLANNING AREA ........................................................... 57
FIGURE 8.1 SOURCES OF WATER FOR SHIMLA PLANNING AREA ................................................................. 64
FIGURE 8.2 EXISTING WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM OF SHIMLA ....................................................................... 66
FIGURE 8.3 WATER SUPPLY PIPELINES ...................................................................................................... 68
FIGURE 9.1 EXISTING SEWERAGE SYSTEM OF SHIMLA............................................................................... 81
FIGURE 11.1 SOLID WASTE GENERATION AND PROJECTION ........................................................................ 97
FIGURE 12.1 EXISTING ROAD NETWORK OF SHIMLA PLANNING AREA .................................................... 118
FIGURE 12.2 NUMBER OF TICKETS SOLD FOR USAGE OF LIFT .................................................................. 121
FIGURE 12.3 COMPOSITION OF REGISTERED VEHICLES IN SHIMLA PLANNING AREA ............................. 122
FIGURE 12.5 SETTLEMENT WISE WORKFORCE PARTICIPATION ................................................................ 124
FIGURE 12.6 MODE CHOICE AND MODAL SPLIT OF WORK TRIPS ........................................................... 125
FIGURE 13.1 DOMESTIC TOURIST PATRONAGE IN VARIOUS STATES ......................................................... 163
FIGURE 13.2 FOREIGN TOURIST PATRONAGE IN VARIOUS STATES........................................................... 163
FIGURE 13.3 TOURIST INFLOW TO SHIMLA .............................................................................................. 165
FIGURE 13.4 SEASONAL VARIATION OF TOURIST IN SHIMLA .................................................................... 166
FIGURE 13.5 BED CAPACITY VS. TOURIST INFLOW ................................................................................. 166
FIGURE 13.6 PROJECTION OF TOURISTS .................................................................................................. 167
FIGURE 17.1 HOUSING PROJECTIONS....................................................................................................... 204
FIGURE 17.2 WARD-WISE SLUM POPULATION IN SHIMLA ......................................................................... 207
FIGURE 18.1 DETAILS OF POWER CONSUMPTION .................................................................................... 223
FIGURE 18.2 PROJECTION OF POWER DEMAND ....................................................................................... 223
FIGURE 19.1 STRUCTURE OF MUNICIPAL FINANCES ................................................................................ 226
FIGURE 19.2 INCOME EXPENDITURE DETAILS OF SHIMLA MUNICIPAL CORPORATION ............................ 228
FIGURE 19.3 DETAILS OF REVENUE INCOME ........................................................................................... 229
FIGURE 19.4 DETAILS OF NON-TAX INCOME........................................................................................... 231
FIGURE 22.1 SECTOR-WISE PRIORITIES ................................................................................................... 259
FIGURE 22.2 WATER SUPPLY- INTERVENTION PRIORITIES ...................................................................... 260
FIGURE 22.3 SEWERAGE - INTERVENTION PRIORITIES ............................................................................. 260
FIGURE 22.4 TOURISM - INTERVENTION PRIORITIES ................................................................................ 261
FIGURE 22.5 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT- INTERVENTION PRIORITIES ................................................. 261
FIGURE 22.6 TRAFFIC & TRANSPORTATION - INTERVENTION PRIORITIES ............................................... 262
FIGURE 22.7 : HOUSING & URBAN POOR– INTERVENTION PRIORITIES .................................................... 262




           INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                  vi
           CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                                        Shimla City Development Plan


                                                              List of Tables

TABLE 2.1 KEY PRIORITIES OF SHIMLA ..................................................................................................... 20
TABLE 2.2 SECTOR WISE VISION STATEMENT ........................................................................................... 22
TABLE 2.3 SECTORWISE GOALS ................................................................................................................ 23
TABLE 4.1 SETTLEMENT WISE POPULATION OF SHIMLA ............................................................................ 29
TABLE 4.2 FLOATING POPULATION OF SHIMLA- EXISTING AND PROJECTED ............................................. 30
TABLE 4.3 AGE COMPOSITION OF POPULATION OF SHIMLA ....................................................................... 30
TABLE 5.1 WORK FORCE PARTICIPATION ................................................................................................. 32
TABLE 5.2 EMPLOYMENT IN TOURISM INDUSTRY ..................................................................................... 33
TABLE 5.3 SMALL SCALE INDUSTRIES IN SHIMLA ..................................................................................... 34
TABLE 5.4 PRODUCTION OF APPLE ............................................................................................................ 35
TABLE 6.1 FUNCTIONS OF VARIOUS COMMITTEES .................................................................................... 40
TABLE 6.2 DELEGATION OF FINANCIAL POWERS ...................................................................................... 42
TABLE 6.3 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR PLANNING & DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION &
    MAINTENANCE .................................................................................................................................. 47
TABLE 6.4 ROLE OF PRIVATE SECTOR IN URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION ...................................... 48
TABLE 6.5 PPP – OPTIONS AND ALLOCATION ........................................................................................... 50
TABLE 7.1 AREA DETAILS OF SHIMLA PLANNING AREA ........................................................................... 52
TABLE 7.2 AREA DETAILS OF SHIMLA PLANNING AREA ........................................................................... 54
TABLE 8.1 DETAILS OF SOURCES OF WATER FOR SHIMLA CITY ................................................................ 63
TABLE 8.2 DETAILS OF PUMPS, RAISING & GRAVITY MAINS OF BULK WATER SUPPLY ............................. 65
TABLE 8.3 DETAILS OF STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DISTRIBUTION NETWORK ......................................... 67
TABLE 8.4 DETAILS OF THE ZONES AND AREAS COVERED UNDER THE LOCAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ....... 67
TABLE 8.5 DETAILS OF CONSUMER CONNECTIONS ................................................................................... 68
TABLE 8.6 WATER SUPPLY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS........................................................................... 69
TABLE 8.7 ESTIMATION OF FUTURE WATER DEMAND ............................................................................... 69
TABLE 8.8 MUNICIPAL WATER CHARGES ................................................................................................. 70
TABLE 8.9 WATER COST AND WATER CHARGES ...................................................................................... 71
TABLE 9.1 PERFORMANCE INDICATORS .................................................................................................... 80
TABLE 9.2 DETAILS OF SEWERAGE TREATMENT PLANT ........................................................................... 82
TABLE 9.3 TARIFF NOTIFICATION OF SEWERAGE ...................................................................................... 84
TABLE 11.1 SOLID WASTE GENERATION AND PROJECTION ........................................................................ 96
TABLE 11.2 PPP OPTIONS IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT.................................................................... 104
TABLE 11.3 EXAMPLES OF PPP IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA ............................................ 104
TABLE 12.1 ROAD INVENTORY DETAILS OF THE CONFIGURATION OF CART ROAD ................................. 116
TABLE 12.2 WARD WISE DETAILS OF MUNICIPAL ROADS ...................................................................... 116
TABLE 12.3 WARD WISE DETAILS OF MUNICIPAL PATHS ....................................................................... 119
TABLE 12.4 NUMBER OF DAILY TICKETS (UP AND DOWN ...................................................................... 120
TABLE 12.5 DETAILS OF REGISTERED VEHICLES IN SHIMLA PLANNING AREA........................................ 121
TABLE 12.6 REGISTERED VEHICLES IN THE SHIMLA ............................................................................... 122
TABLE 12.7 GROWTH OF REGISTERED VEHICLES AND FUTURE PROJECTIONS......................................... 122
TABLE 12.8 TRAFFIC DEMAND FORECASTING FOR SHIMLA CITY – PCUS/ HOUR ................................... 124
TABLE 12.9 TRIP DISTANCE OF WORK TRIPS .......................................................................................... 125
TABLE 12.10 PUBLIC TRANSPORT TRIPS PER DAY ON SELECTED ROUTES IN SHIMLA CITY .................... 126
TABLE 12.11 REGIONAL BUS SERVICE ON SELECTED ROUTES TO AND FROM SHIMLA CITY .................... 127
TABLE 12.12 SHARE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT........................................................................................... 129
TABLE 12.13 PEDESTRIAN FLOWS AT VARIOUS LOCATIONS ON CART ROAD........................................... 129
TABLE 12.14 DETAILS OF PARKING LOTS IN M.C. SHIMLA ...................................................................... 131
TABLE 12.15 EXISTING FEE FOR VEHICULAR PARKING AT DESIGNATED PARKING LOTS ........................ 133
TABLE 12.16 PROPOSED LOCATIONS OF THE MULTILEVEL PARKING LOTS.............................................. 134
TABLE 12.17 FUTURE PARKING DEMAND TO BE HANDLED BY SMC ....................................................... 134
TABLE 12.18 NUMBER OF ROAD ACCIDENTS WITHIN SHIMLA PLANNING AREA IN YEAR 2003 ............... 137
TABLE 12.19 ESTIMATED COST OF SHIFTING OF ACTIVITY CENTRES ...................................................... 140
TABLE 12.20 ESTIMATED COST OF PROPOSED BYPASSES FOR SHIMLA CITY .......................................... 141
TABLE 12.21 ESTIMATED COST OF STANDARDIZATION OF CART ROAD .................................................. 142
TABLE 12.22 ESTIMATED COST OF STANDARDIZATION OF MUNICIPAL ROADS ...................................... 142
TABLE 12.23 ESTIMATED PROJECT COST FOR NEW LINKS ...................................................................... 143
            INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                         vii
            CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan


TABLE 12.24 ESTIMATED COST FOR PROPOSED TUNNELS IN SHIMLA CITY ............................................ 143
TABLE 12.25 ESTIMATED COST OF PARALLEL ROAD FOR HIGH OPERATING CAPACITY SYSTEMS ......... 144
TABLE 12.26 ESTIMATED COST OF PROPOSED PARKING PROJECTS ......................................................... 145
TABLE 12.27 ESTIMATED COST OF LIFTS AND ESCALATORS ................................................................... 145
TABLE 12.28 ESTIMATED COST OF PROPOSED ROPEWAYS FOR SHIMLA CITY......................................... 146
TABLE 12.29 ESTIMATED COST OF PROVISION AND IMPROVEMENT OF PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES ............. 146
TABLE 13.1 GROWTH OF TOURIST INFLOW TO SHIMLA ........................................................................... 165
TABLE 13.2 SNAPSHOT OF TOURISM INDUSTRY IN SHIMLA ..................................................................... 166
TABLE 14.1 PERMISSIBLE LEVEL OF POLLUTION IN SHIMLA .................................................................... 180
TABLE 14.2 COMPLIANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ACTS/RULES ................................................................. 181
TABLE 14.3 CLASSIFICATION OF PROJECTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE ..................................... 182
TABLE 14.4 ENCROACHMENTS OF FORESTS IN SHIMLA ........................................................................... 184
TABLE 15.1 NUMBER OF FIRE ACCIDENTS IN SHIMLA .............................................................................. 190
TABLE 15.2 INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES AT FIRE STATIONS IN SHIMLA ............................................... 191
TABLE 17.1 HOUSING DEMAND HISTORY ................................................................................................. 203
TABLE 17.2 URBAN POOR IDENTIFIED BY SMC ....................................................................................... 208
TABLE 17.3 INTERVENTIONS REQUIRING RESETTLEMENT & REHABILITATION OF THE POOR .................. 213
TABLE 17.4 INTERVENTIONS REQUIRING RESETTLEMENT & REHABILITATION OF THE POOR .................. 214
TABLE 18.1 SNAPSHOT OF POWER INFRASTRUCTURE IN SHIMLA ............................................................ 222
TABLE 18.2 DEMAND AND SUPPLY DURING PEAK TIME .......................................................................... 223
TABLE 18.3 SNAPSHOT OF HEALTH AND EDUCATION INFRASTRUCTURE IN SHIMLA ............................... 225
TABLE 19.1 SUMMARIES OF MUNICIPAL FINANCES................................................................................. 228
TABLE 19.2 SOURCE-WISE REVENUE ACCOUNT INCOME ........................................................................ 229
TABLE 19.3 VARIOUS TAXES LEVIED BY SMC AND ITS RATES ............................................................... 230
TABLE 19.4 TAX SLAB DETAILS .............................................................................................................. 230
TABLE 19.5 PROPERTY AND SEWERAGE TAX DATA ................................................................................ 231
TABLE 19.6 NON-TAX INCOME DETAILS .................................................................................................. 232
TABLE 19.7 WATER CHARGES ................................................................................................................ 232
TABLE 19.8 OCTROI GRANT .................................................................................................................... 233
TABLE 19.9 SUMMARY OF THE REVENUE EXPENDITURE ......................................................................... 233
TABLE 19.10 DEPARTMENT WISE ESTABLISHMENT EXPENSES ................................................................ 234
TABLE 19.11 DEPARTMENT WISE CONTINGENCIES EXPENSES ................................................................ 235
TABLE 19.12 DETAILS OF THE MAINTENANCE EXPENSES ....................................................................... 235
TABLE 19.13 DETAILS OF THE OTHER EXPENSES .................................................................................... 236
TABLE 19.14 DETAILS OF THE CAPITAL INCOME ..................................................................................... 237
TABLE 19.15 DETAILS OF THE CAPITAL EXPENSES ................................................................................. 237
TABLE 19.16 MAJOR OUTSTANDING........................................................................................................ 238
TABLE 19.17 YEAR WISE MAJOR OUTSTANDING....................................................................................... 238
TABLE 19.18 KEY FINANCIAL INDICATORS ............................................................................................. 239
TABLE 20.1 STATUS OF MANDATORY REFORMS FOR ULB ..................................................................... 245
TABLE 20.2 STATUS OF MANDATORY REFORMS FOR STATE ................................................................... 245
TABLE 20.3 STATUS OF OPTIONAL REFORMS FOR ULB .......................................................................... 246
TABLE 21.1 SUMMARY OF SECTORAL INVESTMENTS .............................................................................. 248
TABLE 21.2 FUNDING SOURCES FOR CITY INVESTMENT PLAN ................................................................ 249
TABLE 21.3 YEAR WISE INVESTMENT NEED ............................................................................................. 249
TABLE 21.4 SUMMARY OF THE SECTORAL SOURCES OF FUNDS .............................................................. 250
TABLE 22.1 ACTION PLAN FOR JNNURM IMPLEMENTATION .................................................................. 266




           INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                    viii
           CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan


                                   List of Abbreviations

CDP             City Development Plan
DALC            Department of Art, Language and Culture
Dept            Various Himachal Pradesh State Government Departments
EPC             Engineering, Procurement, and Construction
Forest          Forest Department
GIS             Geographic Information System
GoHP            Government of Himachal Pradesh
GoI             Government of India
HIMUDA          Himachal Pradesh Urban Development Authority
HPBMDA          Himachal Pradesh Bus Stand Management and Development Authority
HPPCB           Himachal Pradesh Pollution Control Board
HPSEB           Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board
HPTDC           Himachal Pradesh Transport Development Corporation
HRTC            Himachal Pradesh Road Transport Corporation
IL&FS IDC       IL&FS Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited
I&PH            Irrigation and Public Health Department, Government of Himachal Pradesh
IT              Information Technology
JNNURM          Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
MLD             Million liters per day
O&M             Operation And Maintenance
PWD             Public Works Department
SLNA            State Level Nodal Agency
SMC             Shimla Municipal Corporation
SPA             Shimla Planning Area
SUPA            Shimla Urban Planning Authority
TCP             Department of Town & Country Planning, Government of Himachal Pradesh
Transport       Department of Transport, Government of Himachal Pradesh
ULB             Urban Local Body




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          ix
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan


                                  EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


 I   Introduction
     The urban India is going to play a bigger role in terms of socio-economic
     transformation and shall become engines of economic growth. But existing state of
     all Indian cities is very bad as compared to developed or developing countries
     counterparts and well below satisfactory in urban governance parameters. The
     major reasons are inefficiency and inability to mobilize funds for development

     In order to overcome this jinx of Indian cities, Government of India launched
     Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM) aiming at
     economically self-reliant, efficient, equitable and responsive cities with very high
     transparency and service levels. The mission aims at fast-track development of
     urban infrastructure and service delivery mechanisms, community participation,
     basic services to the poor and accountability of ULB‟s towards the citizens. But
     JNNURM demands eligible cities to formulate a medium term City Development
     Plan in accordance with citizen‟s interest and priorities and preparation of project
     proposals in accordance with CDP. Moreover the city has to draw up a timeline
     for implementing urban sector reforms. Shimla is one of the 63 eligible cities under
     JNNURM

     In view of the above, in order to develop infrastructure of Shimla city, GoHP has
     appointed IL&FS Infrastructure Development Corporation to facilitate SMC for
     preparation of CDP for Shimla


II   About Shimla
     Shimla has been primarily a tourist destination since its discovery in 1819. It was
     summer capital during British Raj and administrative capital of HP after it came to
     HP from Punjab during reorganization of territory. It is situated at an altitude of
     2130 m. above mean sea level. Population of Shimla Planning Area was 1,74,789
     and floating population was 56000 in 2001. 87% of population is below 45 years of
     age which has very high potential for economic growth. Around 38% of total
     population are workers and 98% of these workers are other workers involved in
     horticulture, trade & commerce, transport, storage and communication, and other
     service industries. Shimla, being traditional educational center since British days,
     has an average literacy rate of 84%, much higher than national average of 59.5%.
     Lower sex ratio of 767 against 896 of Shimla district is attributed to working males
     who keep their families at their native places. Five major functions that drive the
     city are identified as
      (a)        Tourist Center: Popular tourist destination
      (b)        Capital Function: Capital of Himachal Pradesh
      (c)        Administrative Center: Headquarter of Shimla District
     INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          1
     CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan


       (d)        Education Center: Having academic institutions at all levels
       (e)        Heritage City: Rich heritage created by British

      Potential economic growth drivers identified are tourism, health care, education,
      agri-processing & trading and IT

III   CDP Process for Shimla
      CDP Shimla has been developed over period of ten weeks. The consultative
      process consists of a stakeholders‟ workshop, departmental discussions, focus
      group discussions, a workshop with NGOs and a workshop with Urban Poor of
      the city. The issues and suggestion provided by the stakeholders during the
      workshops were assessed and considered while preparing the CDP. The Draft
      CDP was posted on the website of Shimla Municipal Corporation inviting
      suggestions from stakeholders for finalization. The suggestions were received from
      various stakeholders including citizens and departments. Draft City Development
      Plan was discussed and adopted in a summing up workshop held on November 3,
      2006. A separate workshop with the poor people was organized to understand and
      prioritize the need of the poor people. Suggestions received during the entire
      consultative process were considered while preparing CDP.

IV    Vision
      “Queen of Hills with Vibrant Economy, Rich Natural Heritage, Better Quality of
      Life through better planning, improved service delivery, transparent and efficient
      Governance in participatory manner”

      1.       Sectoral Vision
               Sector-wise vision were discussed and derived from the discussions during
               the consultative process. These vision statements are shown in the Table
               E.1
               Table E. 1 Secor-wise vision
                 Sector                        Vision Statement
                 Governance &                  Urban Governance with accessibility,
                 institutional framework       accountability, transparency and efficiency
                 Water Supply                  Provision of Adequate Quantity of Safe
                                               Water to all
                 Sewerage                      To achieve environmentally sustainable,
                                               recycling-oriented waste water
                                               management
                 Storm Water Drainage          Provision of long lasting Clean Natural and
                                               Road Side Drains
                 Solid Waste Management        Clean & Green Shimla through
                                               environmentally sustainable waste
                                               management practice
                 Traffic & Transportation      Providing Mobility with Choice, Comfort,
                                               Convenience, Frequency, Safety &
                                               Minimum Environment Effects
      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         2
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                            Shimla City Development Plan


               Tourism                      Engine of sustainable economic growth
                                            for Shimla
               Environment                  Commitment to Protection and
                                            Continuous Improvement of Environment
               Forests, Gardens and         Commitment to create healthy ecosystem
               Open Space                   and value and care is as an essential
                                            environmental, economic and community
                                            asset
               Heritage Conservation        Conservation of Heritage for Present and
                                            Future Generation
               Housing and Urban Poor       City without Slum

V   Key sectors and Prioritization
    Priorities are identified based on consultative process as described in chapter 2 of
    CDP. Water supply, sewerage and sanitation, solid waste management,
    decongestion, transportation and urban poor are high priority sectors identified.
    Medium priority sectors are heritage conservation, environment & forest, and
    tourism. Priority sectors and required interventions are tabulated in Table E.2.
    Table E. 2 Key Sector Priory Interventions
     Sector        Priority Interventions
     Decongestion   Renewal of core areas by relocation of
                       o Timber Market
                       o Transport hub
                       o Wholesale grain market
                       o Wholesale vegetable market
                       o Bus stand
                       o Government offices in heritage buildings
                    Develop satellite township in peripheral area
                    Construction of bypasses to the city
     Water          Increase the water supply to the public by
                       o Sourcing water from Pabbar & Giri
                       o Rehabilitating the water distribution network
                    Encourage rain water harvesting
     Sewerage       Rehabilitate sewerage network
                    Provision of new sewerage network for all Special Areas
                     including 7 STPs
                    Provision linkage between new and old sewerage network
     Storm Water  Restore, rehabilitate and clean natural drainage system
     Drainage
     Solid   Waste  Expansion of D2D services to have 100% coverage
     Management     Development of integrated solid waste management facility
                    Augment transportation infrastructure for waste
                     management
                    Upgradation of biodegradable waste treatment facility
                    Improvement in secondary collection and street sweeping

    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                        3
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                       Shimla City Development Plan


 Traffic      &  Improve mobility within city by following
 Transportation     o Standardization of Municipal Roads
                    o Standardization of the Cart Road
                    o Construction of MRTS, New Links, tunnels, HOCS
                        with new ROW, ropeways, parking facilities, lifts and
                        escalators,
                    o Improvement in junctions, pedestrian facilities
                 Provision of adequate street lighting & bus shelters
 Tourism         Improve basic infrastructure like transportation, water
                  supply, parking facility and increase vertical accessibility by
                  ropeways, lifts
                 Improve transportation linkages especially air connectivity
                 Promote activity based tourism
                 Upgrade existing Tourist Information Centers and provide
                  24X7 offline and online services
 Environment     Conservation of soil erosion
                 Create open spaces and parks
 Disaster        Prepare Disaster Management Plan
 Management      Prevention of landslides
                 Upgradation of fire station infrastructure and fire hydrant
                  network
 Heritage        Shifting of government offices from heritage buildings
                 Restoration of Heritage buildings
 Housing and  Relocation, resettlement and rehabilitation of urban slums in
 Urban Poor       untenable areas by providing housing at affordable cost
                 Provision of all basic amenities likes water supply, sanitation,
                  primary education, primary health services and power in
                  case of situ upgradation
                 Construct night shelters/hostels for migrant laborers,
                  working women, destitute children




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                       4
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


VI   City Investment Plan
     The estimated capital investment required for development of Shimla and
     provision of basic services to current and future population of Shimla Planning
     Area is around Rs. 3678 crore. Details with sectoral contribution are shown in
     Table E.3. More than 88 % of total funds are allocated to sectors like housing &
     urban poor, water supply, traffic & transportation and heritage.
     Table E. 3 Sector wise City Investment Need

                                                    Sectoral     Sources of Funds(Rs. Crores)
                                    Total Rs.
                Sector                            Contribution
                                    (Crores)                                                Pvt.
                                                      (%)        GoI      GoHP     SMC
                                                                                           Sector
     Traffic & Transportation          969.0            24.9%     702.0    191.3     2.5       73.2
     Decongestion                       41.7             1.1%      33.3      6.5     1.8         0.0
     Storm Water                        14.1             0.4%      11.3      2.3     0.5         0.0
     Water Supply                      655.6            16.8%     524.5    124.0     7.1         0.0
     Sewerage                          178.6             4.6%     142.8     23.5    12.2         0.0
     Governance                         30.5             0.8%      24.4      6.1     0.0         0.0
     Planning                           10.0             0.3%       8.0      2.0     0.0         0.0
     Said Waste                         29.8             0.8%      23.8      3.3     2.6         0.0
     Tourism                            66.0             1.7%      40.8      9.2     1.0       15.0
     Environment & Urban
                                        22.0                       17.6      3.4     1.0          0.0
     Forest                                              0.6%
     Disaster Management                25.1             0.6%      20.0      5.0     0.0       0.0
     Heritage                          229.0             5.9%      93.2     23.3     0.0     112.5
     Housing                          1000.0            25.7%       0.0      0.0     0.0    1000.0
     Urban Poor                        627.0            16.1%     501.6    125.4     0.0          0.0
                Total                    3898.2       100.00%    2143.4    525.4    28.7     1200.7
     Total investment needed shall be divided in to GoI, GoHP, SMC and private
     sector. Out of Rs. 3898 crore needed, Rs. 2143 crores shall be given by GoI, Rs.
     525 crores will be invested by GoHP, Rs. 1201 crores shall be invested by private
     sector and approximately Rs. 29 crores shall be invested by SMC

     Year on year need for the investment is shown in the Table E.4
              Table E. 4 Year wise Investment Need
                    Year          Investment Need (Rs. Lakh)
                   2007                    24349.0
                   2008                    66432.6
                   2009                   114834.3
                   2010                    78631.2
                   2011                    59267.8
                   2012                    46305.0
                   Total                  389819.8


     INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               5
     CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan




VII   Mobilization of Funds
      Shimla Municipal Corporation shall have to mobilize its share of needed
      investment. This fund can be mobilized through though following methods
      (a)      Reduction in expenses of municipal corporation
               (i)   Improving efficiency through improvement in service delivery by
                     computerization
               (ii)       Outsourcing non-core activities to private sector


      (b)      Revenue enhancement by
               (i)   Implementation of unit area assessment for property tax
               (ii)       Revision in water charges in order to recover at least O&M cost
               (iii)      Improvement in collection efficiency
               (iv)       Enforcement of sewerage charges
               (v)        Enforcement of other taxes
               (vi)       Collection of taxes in SADA areas after two years
               (vii)      Conservancy fee on all hotels
               (viii)     Levy of Green fees and its sharing
               (ix)       Leverage the SMC owned properties to enhance the revenues


      (c)      Mobilization of resources
              The major source of funding for mobilization of resources by SMC may
              include:
               (i)        Internal resources of SMC raised through leveraging of SMC
                          property
               (ii)        State grant
               (iii)      Loan from Banks and Financial Institutions
              The raising resources from financial institutions and capital market would
              require implementation of reform agenda on fast track and implementation
              of following facilitating actions
                        Credit rating of the SMC

                        Setting up Urban Development Fund for leveraging grants received
                         from GoI and GoHP under JNNURM




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             6
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                             Shimla City Development Plan


VIII   Proposed Implementation Framework
       Implementation framework for interventions identified under various sectors are
       tabulated in Table E.5
       Table E. 5 Suggested framework for implementation
                                                                       Suggested
                                                    Implementation
        Project Name                                                   Implementation
                                                    Agency
                                                                       Framework
        Solid Waste
                                                                       EPC & Service
           Door to door Collection                  SMC
                                                                       Contract
           Street Sweeping                          SMC                EPC
                                                                       EPC & Service
           Storage and transportation               SMC
                                                                       Contract
          Integrated Waste Treatment & Disposal
                                                    SMC                DBO
        Facility
          Upgradation of bio-medical facility       SMC                -
        Tourism
          Upgradation of Naldhera Golf Course       Tourism Dept       EPC
          Development of Nature Park at Craignano   Forest Dept        EPC
                                                    Tourism
           Development of Theme Park                                   BOT
                                                    Dept/Pvt. Sector
                                                                       EPC & O&M
           Development of Skating Ring              Tourism Dept
                                                                       Contract
           Beautification of Shimla                  SMC               EPC
           Eco-tourism Projects                      Forest Dept       BOT
           Upgradation of Tourist Information Center Tourism Dept      EPC
        Environment , Disaster Management & Forest
           Network of Fire Hydrants and upgradation
                                                     SMC & Fire Dept   EPC
        of Fire Station
                                                     Forest
           Prevention & Control of Land Slide                          EPC
                                                     Dept/PWD
           Conservation of Soil Erosion              Forest Dept       EPC
                                                                       EPC & O&M
           Upgradation of existing Parks            SMC
                                                                       Contract
        Heritage
          Restoration & Conservation of stage
                                                    Heritage Board     EPC & BOT
        government owned buildings
        Housing & Urban Poor
          Resettlement & Rehabilitation of slums    HIMUDA             EPC
          In situ upgradation of slums              SMC                EPC
          Construction of labour hostels            SMC                EPC
          Construction of working women's hostels   SMC                EPC
          Development of Satellite townships        HIMUDA             BOT
        Planning
          Renewal of core area                      SMC                EPC
          Development GIS Based spatial database    SMC                -
          Capacity Building on GIS based Planning   SMC                -

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                      7
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                            Shimla City Development Plan


 Governance
    Computerization & Establishment of
                                                   SMC                EPC
 information system
    Implementation of BPR Plan & E-
                                                   SMC                -
 Governance
 Rainwater harvesting
    Rainwater harvesting and water
                                                   SMC                EPC
 conservation
     Augmentation of Water Supply Scheme for                          EPC & O&M
                                                   I&PH
     Shimla City from River PABBAR                                    through SPV
     Rehabilitation of water supply transmission
     and distribution network and
                                                   I&PH               EPC
     augmentation/extension of distribution
     network
 Sewerage
    Rehabilitation of the main sewerage
                                                   I&PH               EPC
 network
     Provision of sewerage network for areas of
     Dhalli, Tutu, New Shimla and special areas    SMC, I&PH          EPC
     of Ghanahatti, Kufri and Shoghi
     Provision of missing links to connect the
     refurbished old sewerage network with new     I&PH               EPC
     sewerage network.
 Storm water drainage
    Renovation of Identified Natural Drains        SMC                EPC
    Renovation of Open Drains                      SMC                EPC
    Construction of roadside drains as per
                                                   PWD                EPC
 drainage design
 Traffic & Transportation
    Standardization of the Cart Road               HPPWD              EPC
    Standardization of Municipal Roads             SMC                EPC
    New Links                                      HPPWD              EPC
                                                   HPPWD &
    Parallel Roads                                                    EPC
                                                   Transport Dept
    Junction Improvements                          HPPWD              EPC
    Parking Facilities                             SMC                VGF
                                                   HPPWD &
    Lifts and Escalators                                              EPC
                                                   Transport Dept
    Tunnels                                        HPPWD              EPC
                                                                      EPC & O&M
    Mass Rapid Transport System                    Transport Dept
                                                                      through SPV
  Bus shelters and local terminals                 Transport Dept     EPC
  Ropeways                                         Transport Dept     EPC
  Pedestrian Facilities                            SMC, HPPWD         EPC
  Street Lighting                                  SMC                EPC
 Decongestion
  Shifting of Commercial Activity Centers          SMC                EPC
  Bypasses to the City                             HPPWD              EPC



INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            8
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan


IX   Action Plan for implementation
     It is recommended that in order to coordinate efforts for project development and
     other preparatory work, SLNA should establish Project Development and
     Management Unit (PDMU) having representation from various departments. A
     dedicated project development fund may be established for financing of project
     development activities.

           PD Advisor                          SLNA                      Project Development
                                                                                 Fund



                                              PDMU



                                        Project Development

                       DPRs                 Procurement             Financial Close




X    Reform Agenda Status
     Various mandatory and optional reforms have been adopted by SMC and a few are
     under process. Following reforms have been undertaken by SMC
     (a)      Adoption of modern accrual based double entry account system
     (b)      Under E-governance System
              (i)       A website has been launched and contains majority of information
              (ii)      Public Grievance Redressal System has been incorporated
              (iii)     All the departments have already been computerized and
                        networking of the same is under process
              (iv)      Computerization of billing of property tax and water charges is
                        under process
              (v)       SMC is going to provide various services online including payments
                        of various taxes
              (vi)      GIS based Infrastructure Information System is approved by house
                        and will be used of planning and property tax assessment



     INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          9
     CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                     Shimla City Development Plan


(c)      Property Tax Reforms have been adopted and will be start using ARV
         method from April 2007
(d)      SMC has modified bylaws and the same has been put up to the house for
         approval. All the functions of Schedule 12 of 74th CAA have been
         transferred to SMC except fire services




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                    10
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan



1     INTRODUCTION
1.1   BACKGROUND
      In order to encourage planned development of the urban sectors across the
      country, the Government of India (GoI) has launched Jawaharlal Nehru National
      Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). The Mission aims at bringing out fast track
      planned development of identified cities with a clear focus on efficiency in urban
      infrastructure and service delivery mechanisms, community participation, and
      accountability of ULBs/Parastatal agencies towards citizens.

      Shimla is one of the 63 cities, which has been identified under the JNNURM
      eligible for the fast track development. The City Development Plan (CDP) is the
      prerequisite milestone for the eligibility under the JNNURM. In view of above,
      Government of Himachal Pradesh (GoHP) has taken up the programme for urban
      infrastructure improvement of Shimla and its extended areas under JNNURM
      scheme. As a first step towards this, GoHP has retained IL&FS Infrastructure
      Development Corporation Limited (IL&FS IDC) as a consultant for preparation
      of City Development Plan for Shimla.


1.2   OBJECTIVES AND GOALS OF JNNURM
      The objectives of JNNURM is to assist cities achieve

      (1)      Integrated development of infrastructure services and meet the deficiencies
               in infrastructure projects;
      (2)      Long term sustainability of projects by establishing linkages between asset
               creation and management through reforms;
      (3)      Planned development of cities including the extended urban areas leading
               to dispersed urbanization;
      (4)      Provision of basic services to urban poor; and
      (5)      Renewal of old city areas to reduce congestions


      The duration of mission is seven years starting from the year 2005-06 and on its
      completion, it is expected that City would have achieved

      (1)      Modern and transparent budgeting, accounting, financial management
               systems, designed and adopted for all urban service and governance
               functions;
      (2)      City wide framework for planning and governance will be established and
               become operational;
      (3)      All urban residents will be able to obtain access to a basic level of urban
               services;
      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          11
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan


      (4)      Financially self sustaining agencies for urban governance and service
               delivery will be established through reforms to major revenue instruments;
      (5)      Local services and governance will be conducted in a manner that is
               transparent and accountable to citizens; and
      (6)      E-governance applications will be introduced in core functions of
               ULB/parastatal resulting in reduced cost and time of service delivery

      The Mission encourages leveraging of funds available under JNNURM assistance
      by enhancing the resource availability with ULBs/parastatal, commercial viability
      of projects and bankability of the projects and incorporating private sector
      efficiencies in development, financing, implementation and management of
      projects.


1.3   OBJECTIVES AND GOALS OF SHIMLA CDP
      The key objective of the CDP is to formulate a development strategy for meeting
      emerging challenges of infrastructure and create enabling environment for the
      growth of economy. The CDP of Shimla attempts to highlight the role of each and
      every sector of development in bringing economic benefits to the region and in
      maintaining vital ecological balance by coordinating various economic and social
      activities in space through creation of a systematic and functional settlement
      system.

      It is expected that the CDP of Shimla would provide a strategic platform to
      facilitate development, decision-making, investment programming, efficient
      allocation of resources and achieving financial sustainability.


1.4   SCOPE OF CDP
      The CDP outlines the strategic policy and investment interventions to achieve the
      vision of Shimla including formulation of sectoral plans for the identified sectors.
      The scope of work is to:

      (a)      Assess the current situation in respect of demographic and economic
               growth, infrastructure services, municipal finances, etc;
      (b)      Identify the gaps in service delivery;
      (c)      Prepare a vision and sectoral strategic framework outlining goals, strategies,
               interventions and projects to achieve the vision;
      (d)      Formulate a city investment plan with appropriate financing strategies and
               an implementation action plan; and
      (e)      Focus on the reforms to be carried out at state and local levels in
               consonance with the vision and strategic plan outlined to sustain planned
               interventions

      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         12
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan


1.5   APPROACH
      The JNNURM for Shimla should be rolled out in two distinct phases. The Phase 1
      focuses on preparation CDP for Shimla, which included following activities

      (a)      Diagnostic study conducted for Shimla leading to identification of
               strategies leading to programmes and projects critical for sustainability of
               the City. A structured diagnostic and participatory approach was adopted
               for identification of infrastructure deficiencies, vision & goal for the city
               and interventions required for achieving the vision. The programmes and
               projects identified, as an outcome of this study were prioritized on the
               basis of stakeholder consultations, their relevance to the city, criticality
               from sustainability point of view, potential of providing larger benefits and
               their amenability to commercial implementation
      (b)      Detailing of project in terms of concept, configuration, cost estimates,
               financing mechanism, and implementation structure

      Phase 2 would involve implementation of CDP in terms of achieving technical and
      financial closure of the projects and its implementation.



1.6   STATE COMMITMENT
      Government of Himachal Pradesh has constituted State Level Steering Committee
      under chairmanship of Chief Minister and nominated Himachal Pradesh Housing
      and Urban Development Authority (HIMUDA) as State Level Nodal Agency
      (SLNA) for implementation of JNNURM in Shimla. The department of Urban
      Development of the state government is mandated to prepare a City Development
      Plan for Shimla under JNNURM.

      State Government and Urban Local Bodies in Shimla Planning Area are
      committed to implementation of JNNURM and shall enter into tripartite
      agreement with GoI for implementation of urban reform agenda.




1.7   STRUCTURE OF CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN
      Chapter 1 of the report introduces to the objective of the JNNURM along with the
      background that led to initiation of study.

      Chapter 2 explains the consultative process and vision of the city

      Chapter 3 presents the overview of the city.

      Chapter 4 and 5 presents demographic profile and economic base of the city.

      Chapter 6 provides overview of governance and institutional framework.
      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         13
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                               Shimla City Development Plan


             Chapter 7 to Chapter 18 detail out the planning aspects of various sectors in terms
             of current assessment of infrastructure and service provisions, issues and concerns,
             vision for the sector, strategies and interventions required, and investment plan
             along with the project information sheets.

             Chapter 19 presents financial profile of Shimla Municipal Corporation.

             Chapter 20 provides the current status on reform agenda.

             Chapter 21 presents the consolidated project requirements and implementation
             arrangement in form of City Investment Plan.



1.8          DATA LIMITATIONS
             The assessment of existing infrastructure and services, and projections of
             infrastructure requirements are based on the secondary data provided by the SMC,
             government agencies and consultation with the interested group. The data is
             collected from a variety of sources and for a variety of periods of time. Each
             source of data has its limitations.

             The project costs estimated and presented in the CDP are based on preliminary
             assessment of base engineering cost excluding land cost and would need to be
             ascertained through the detailed feasibility studies. Certain projects may require
             land acquisition and same needs to be internalized in project cost while designing
             the projects1. The implementation structures suggested in Project Information
             Sheets are also based on preliminary assessment and may vary based on feasibility
             of the project. The costing is based on base year 2006. The scheduling of finances
             during mission period is on current cost and does not take into account the
             escalations.




1
    The State of Himachal Pradesh is eligible for financing of land acquisition cost under JNNURM
             INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                 14
             CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan



2     CONSULTATIVE PROCESS & VISION
2.1   INTRODUCTION
      In order to identify and prioritize the issues in the programme region, IL&FS IDC
      initiated consultative process including Focus Group Discussions (FGDs),
      Departmental Discussions and Consultation Workshops involving various
      stakeholders at different levels. The consultation discussions revolved around the
      city‟s strengths, current issues, concerns, problems and the areas/interventions that
      need to be focused to achieve the desired results.



2.2   THE CONSULTATIVE PROCESS
      As part of the consultative process a workshop was conducted on 6th September
      2006, involving various stakeholders including government agencies, local bodies,
      academic/research institutions, citizens groups, elected members, and prominent
      persons in the region. A special session with NGOs in the city was conducted on
      7th September 2006. The issues and suggestion provided by the stakeholders have
      been assessed and considered while preparing the CDP. The Draft CDP was
      posted on the website of Shimla Municipal Corporation inviting suggestions from
      stakeholders for finalization. The suggestions were received from various
      stakeholders including citizens and departments. Draft City Development Plan was
      discussed and adopted in a summing up workshop held on November 3, 2006. A
      separate workshop with the poor people was organized to understand and
      prioritize the need of the poor people. Suggestions received during the entire
      consultative process as tabulated in Annexure 23.4 have been considered while
      preparing CDP


2.3   DEPARTMENTAL DISCUSSIONS
      Various Departments of the GoHP were consulted for data collection,
      understanding of the existing situation of the city and formulation of vision and
      identification of interventions for the development of the draft City Development
      Plan. Shimla Municipal Corporation, Department of Forest, Department of
      Irrigation and Public Health, Department of Transport, Department of Tourism,
      Public Works Department, HP Environment & Pollution Control Board,
      Department of Economic & Statistics, HIMUDA, District Industries Centre,
      Deputy Commissioner's Office, were consulted at various levels and various times
      during the consultative process.




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                        15
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


2.4       FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS
          Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were carried out to understand the needs,
          problems and recommendation of particular section of the society like Shimla
          Hotels and Restaurant‟s Association, Mall Road Trader‟s Association etc. The
          discussions with various focus groups are discussed in following paragraphs.

  2.4.1     Shimla Hotels & Restaurants Association
             Tourism is one of the major contributors to the economy of Shimla. FGD
             with Shimla Hotels & Restaurants‟ Association was conducted on 6th August
             2006 to understand the issues, needs & interventions required to sustain the
             tourism industry. The issues related to the hotel industry are:
                    Lack of adequate parking
                    Lack of adequate water supply
                    High cost of water
                    Short lease period for ecotourism projects
                    Lack of GoHP initiative to use Central Government schemes like
                     “Atithi Devo Bhavah”, “Incredible India” to attract tourists
                    Unsuitable timings of garbage collection service provided by SMC

  2.4.2     Mall Road Traders’ Association
             The Mall Road is heart of the city and largest open shopping mall in the city.
             To understand the requirement of the traders a meeting was organized with
             Mall Road Traders‟ Association on 7th August, 2006. The issues were
             highlighted by traders during the discussion are:
                    Market on the Mall Road is the heart of the economy of Shimla and it
                     is mainly dependent on the tourists visiting Shimla. The better law and
                     order conditions in neighbouring state like J&K affect the tourist flow
                     and the mall road business.
                    The suggestions were provided regarding the sustenance of tourism
                     industry which will also help in sustenance of the business and
                     economy of traders on Mall Road. The suggestions were as follows :
                         o       Provision of adequate water
                         o       Improvement in basic infrastructure like roads, parking
                         o       Encourage tourism activities
                         o       Decongestion of the core area
                         o       Preservation of heritage character of the Mall Road

2.5       STAKEHOLDERS’ CONSULTATION WORKSHOP
          The objective of the first workshop was to understand the current status of Shimla
          city and to formulate the vision by benchmarking characteristics of acceptable
          performance indicators for sustainable infrastructure development and to explore

      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          16
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                           Shimla City Development Plan


the nature and priority of interventions and identification of resources for
development of Shimla City. The workshop was attended by Minister of State for
Urban Development, local MLAs, Mayor and Councilors of the city, Government
officials, NGOs, representatives from Chamber of Commerce and Associations,
academicians and eminent citizens.

Honorable Minister Shri Kaul Singh Thakur inaugurated the workshop by lighting
the lamp. He stressed upon de-congested, clean and better tourist destination. He
emphasized the need of adequate drinking water, basic sanitation services,
widening of the roads, construction of tunnels for decongestion, more parking
facilities and housing for the poor people for the growth of Shimla He also
requested all participants to provide the suggestions which will help in preparation
of CDP.

Panel discussions were held for various sectors like planning, water, transport,
tourism, basic services, environment etc. The panel comprised of the concerned
representatives of Government Departments, NGOs/Citizens‟ forum and elected
members. Major issues came out during the workshop were following:
             Insufficient water supply
             Traffic Congestion
             Lack of basic amenities in SADA areas
             Low duration of tourist stay 1-2 days
             Low-end tourism that creates additional strain on infrastructure
             Irregular and unauthorized construction activities
             Insufficient parking facilities
             Poor conservation of rich heritage
Major recommendations received during the workshop are as follows:
             Augmentation of bulk water supply by tapping water from Pabbar and
              Giri
             Single authority for entire region for implementation of town plan on
              line of Haryana mode
             Shifting of activities from core areas, construction of Parking facilities
              are various places
             Regularize rain water harvesting
             Improve solid waste management
             Construction of tunnels, new roads and ropeways
             Widening of Cart Road
             Mass Rapid Transit System like monorail, sky bus or metro
             High end tourism development by augmenting various high end tourist
              activities like upgradation of Naldhera Golf Course


INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          17
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan




                                   Figure 2.1 Stakeholders’ Consultation


      As a part of workshop, an exercise was carried out to understand the general
      perception of stakeholders and citizens about their city. A questionnaire requesting
      following were circulated during workshop to all participants:
               1. What I like about Shimla;
               2. What I dislike about Shimla; and
               3. What is my dream for Shimla City
      Though the response was not very satisfactory, the analysis of the questionnaire
      and feedback received are summarized below:
                   Majority of the people liked weather and beauty, pedestrian
                    characteristics of Mall Road
                   Dislikes expressed were mainly related to congestion, poor sanitation
                    services and poor parking facilities.
                   The dream people have about the city is well planned, congestion-free,
                    clean and green city with adequate parking facility

2.6   NGO WORKSHOP
      The NGO consultation workshop was organized on 7th September, 2006 at Palika
      Bhavan, Shimla to understand the perceptions of NGOs from Shimla about the
      issues & possible solutions for the development. Various NGO‟s representing
      various interest groups like Decongestion & Beautification Group, Residents‟
      Welfare Association, Himachal Gyan Vigyan Samiti, Himachal Vigyan Manch
      participated in the workshop.

      The priorities unanimously decided during the workshop in descending order of
      priority are
                   Water supply
                   Sewerage & Solid Waste
                   Transportation
                   Decongestion of core areas

      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           18
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


                   Necessary public amenities in localities
      The issues discussed during the workshops are:
                   Infrequent supply timings like for 1 hour daily in some areas and on
                    alternate days in others, very low pressure at consumer end.
                   Lack of connectivity of septic tanks with sewerage lines in SADA
                   Poor collection efficiency of the solid waste,
                   Various problems with compost plant like poor functioning due to
                    unsuitable temperature of Shimla for entire year and its closeness to the
                    city area.
                   Congestion due to long buses
                   Overloaded public transport system
                   Non-adherence to the time-table by private transporters


2.7   WEB-BASED FEEDBACK

      The draft CDP was submitted to various departments of GOHP and uploaded on
      the website of SMC on 16th October, 2006 inviting suggestions from stakeholders
      and citizens. An advertisement regarding the uploading of the report on the
      website was published in local newspaper including the vernacular.

2.8   FINALIZATION WORKSHOP

      All the suggestions received before the final workshop were incorporated in the
      CDP and presented in the final workshop which was organized for finalization and
      adoption of draft CDP. Majority of the suggestions were already addressed in the
      daft CDP and a few of them were incorporated while preparing the final report.

2.9   URBAN POOR WORKSHOP

      The workshop was organized to understand current status of the dwelling places of
      the poor in Shimla, their requirements in terms of basic services and prioritize
      them. The poor locations are very scattered across the city except Krishna Nagar
      where a large number of people reside. The major issues related to the Urban Poor
      of the city are lack of proper housing, lack of other basic services like water, roads,
      toilets, electricity, schools, and street-lighting. The issues were prioritized in
      descending order of priorities as water, roads, toilets, electricity, schools, lighting
      etc




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          19
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


2.10   KEY PRIORITIES IN THE CIY
       The priorities identified during the consultative process is tabulated in Table 2.1
       Table 2.1 Key Priorities of Shimla
        Sector         Priority Interventions
        Decongestion    Renewal of core areas by relocation of
                           o Timber Market
                           o Transport hub
                           o Wholesale grain market
                           o Wholesale vegetable market
                           o Bus stand
                           o Government offices in heritage buildings
                        Develop satellite township in peripheral area
                        Construction of bypasses to the city
        Water           Increase the water supply to the public by
                           o Sourcing water from Pabbar & Giri
                           o Rehabilitating the water distribution network
                        Encourage rain water harvesting
        Sewerage        Rehabilitate sewerage network
                        Provision of new sewerage network for all Special Areas
                         including 7 STPs
                        Provision linkage between new and old sewerage network
        Storm Water  Restore, rehabilitate and clean natural drainage system
        Drainage
        Solid   Waste  Expansion of D2D services to have 100% coverage
        Management      Development of integrated solid waste management facility
                        Augment transportation infrastructure for waste
                         management
                        Upgradation of biodegradable waste treatment facility
                        Improvement in secondary collection and street sweeping
        Traffic      &  Improve mobility within city by following
        Transportation     o Standardization of Municipal Roads
                           o Standardization of the Cart Road
                           o Construction of MRTS, New Links, tunnels, HOCS
                                with new ROW, ropeways, parking facilities, lifts and
                                escalators,
                           o Improvement in junctions, pedestrian facilities
                        Provision of adequate street lighting & bus shelters
        Tourism         Improve basic infrastructure like transportation, water
                         supply, parking facility and increase vertical accessibility by
                         ropeways, lifts
                        Improve transportation linkages especially air connectivity
                        Promote activity based tourism
                        Upgrade existing Tourist Information Centers and provide
                         24X7 offline and online services
        Environment     Conservation of soil erosion
       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            20
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                        Shimla City Development Plan


                                   Create open spaces and parks
        Disaster                   Prepare Disaster Management Plan
        Management                 Prevention of landslides
                                   Upgradation of fire station infrastructure and fire hydrant
                                    network
        Heritage                   Shifting of government offices from heritage buildings
                                   Restoration of Heritage buildings
        Housing and                Relocation, resettlement and rehabilitation of urban slums in
        Urban Poor                  untenable areas by providing housing at affordable cost
                                   Provision of all basic amenities likes water supply, sanitation,
                                    primary education, primary health services and power in
                                    case of situ upgradation
                                   Construct night shelters/hostels for migrant laborers,
                                    working women, destitute children


2.11   FORMULATION OF VISION FOR SHIMLA
       The vision for Shimla city was developed through the consultative process. During
       entire consultative process people were asked about their liking, disliking and
       dream about the city. As mentioned earlier a form containing questions like “What
       I like about Shimla, What I dislike about Shimla and What I dream for Shimla city”
       was given to all the participants of the First Stakeholders‟ Consultation Workshop.
       Several vision statements were suggested by the stakeholders, which reflect the
       interests and dream of the stakeholders for the city. These include

             Green Shimla Clean Shimla
             Queen of Hills
             Decongested Shimla
             Best Planned City
             Best Tourist Town

       Based on the above inputs and study of the other cities vision statements, the
       vision statement is “Queen of hills with vibrant economy, rich natural
       heritage, better quality of life through better planning, improved service
       delivery, transparent and efficient governance in participatory manner”

        In order to achieve this, Shimla needs to be distinctive on the dimension of
       economic growth leveraged through its rich natural and built heritage and above
       average quality of life.




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                21
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan


2.12   SECTOR VISION
       Sector wise mission statements were formulated by the citizens of Shimla. These
       sectoral vision statements were considered while formulating the vision statement.
       These vision statements are shown in the Table 2.2. The vision can be achieved by
       formulating the goals and trying the steps to achieve the goals. Sector-wise goals
       are shown in the Table 2.3.
       Table 2.2 Sector wise Vision Statement
        Sector                      Vision Statement
        Governance &                Urban Governance with accessibility, accountability,
        institutional framework     transparency and efficiency

        Water Supply                Provision of Adequate Quantity of Safe Water to all
        Sewerage                    To achieve environmentally sustainable, recycling-
                                    oriented waste water management
        Storm Water Drainage        Provision of long lasting Clean Natural and Road
                                    Side Drains
        Solid Waste                 Clean & Green Shimla through environmentally
        Management                  sustainable waste management practice
        Traffic &                   Providing Mobility with Choice, Comfort,
        Transportation              Convenience, Frequency, Safety & Minimum
                                    Environment Effects
        Tourism                     Engine of sustainable economic growth for Shimla
        Environment                 Commitment to Protection and Continuous
                                    Improvement of Environment
        Forests, Gardens and        Commitment to create healthy ecosystem and value
        Open Space                  and care is as an essential environmental, economic
                                    and community asset
        Heritage Conservation       Conservation of Heritage for Present and Future
                                    Generation
        Housing and Urban           City without Slum
        Poor




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                      22
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                       Shimla City Development Plan


Table 2.3 Sector-wise Goals
  DESCRIPTION                    GOALS                   2006 2011 2016 2021
  Water Supply   Water supply liters per capita per
                 day (Average)                           100     150     150   150
                 Transmission and distribution losses
                 (%)                                     >30     20       10   10
                 % Population Covered                     90     100     100   100
                 % Area Covered                           90     100     100   100
                 Total supply/ storage capacity          1.23    >1      >1    >1
                 No. of hours of supply (Lean Period)    0.75     1      1.5    2
                 Treatment capacity                      100     100     100   100
     Sewerage    % of Population covered                  80     90       95   100
                 % of Area covered                        90     95      100   100
                 % of Sewage treated                      10     50      100   100
                 % of reuse of treated waste water         0     10       25   50
   Storm Water   % Road side drains to length of
     Drainage    road network                             10     50       75   100
                 % Lining of natural drains                0     90      100   100
                 % Conservation of rain water by check
                 dams                                     0    90 100 100
   Solid Waste   Total Waste Generated per day              87 101 118 137
   Management D2D Services Provided                       30% 80% 100% 100%
                 % of Waste Collected                     40% 80% 100% 100%
                 % of Waste Processed, Treated and
                 Disposed                                 40%     80%    100% 100%
                 Trips/Vehicle                               6     10*      10    10
                 Dumper Container/Dumper Placer           14.2    10.0     10.0 10.0
     Traffic &   % Paved road to total road length          50      65      80    95
  Transportation % Area under roads                       3.75       4      4.3 4.87
                         % Of road have street lights       60      90      95 100
                         Vehicular Parking (no of bays)  1376    3500     7000 10000
      Tourism            High End Tourism (in Lakhs)     0.6     2.64     8.0 24.6
                         Duration of Stay (in Days)      1.35    2.5      3.5 3.5
        Forest           Removal of Encroachments from
                                                          15% 100% 100% 100%
                         Forest Land
                         Removal of Forest Blanks through
                                                           0% 100% 100% 100%
                         Plantation
      Heritage           No. of Heritage Buildings to be 1      5   15
                         restored and conserved




     INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                  23
     CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                             Shimla City Development Plan



3     OVERVIEW OF SHIMLA
3.1   EVOLUTION OF CITY
      Shimla was discovered by the British in 1819, and became favorite destination of
      British officials in summer as a hill station and convalescent centre. Shimla was
      accessed by two-wheel carts drawn by ponies under the auspices of the “Mountain
      Car Company”. Municipal Committee came into existence in 1851 and was
      responsible for establishment of Town Hall and Gaiety Theatre. Shimla was
      declared the Summer Capital of Government of India in 1864. This paved a way to
      Grand Hindustan-Tibet road. Peter Hoff and Vice Regal became official residence
      of Viceroy.

      In 1871, the Government of Punjab also decided to use Shimla as its summer
      capital. In 1904, the Kalka-Shimla railway line was commissioned. After Partition
      in 1947, offices of Punjab Government were shifted from Lahore in Pakistan to
      Shimla. In 1966, with reorganization of territory into Punjab, Haryana and
      Himachal Pradesh, Shimla became capital of Himachal Pradesh.

      Since then Shimla became a popular hill station and most preferred tourist
      destinations in Himachal Pradesh.


3.2   GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING
      Shimla district is a part of northwestern Himalayan Agro climatic region of
      Himachal Pradesh. It is located in the south of the Himachal Pradesh at an altitude
      of 2130 m. On North East side it is surrounded by Kullu and Kinnaur district, on
      Southeast and West by Sirmour district and Dehradun district of Uttranchal and
      North West by Solan and Mandi districts.




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                      24
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan




                                   Figure 3.1 Himachal Pradesh Map

      Shimla is situated on the last Traverse spur of the Central Himalayas, south of river
      Satluj at 31004' North to 31010' North latitude and 77005' East to 77015'
      longitude, at an altitude of 2130 m. above mean sea level.

      Heavy monsoon, cold winter, rugged topography, steep slopes, deep valleys and
      elongated spur characterize geoclimatic setting of Shimla.

3.3   HILLY AREA
      For delineating hill regions, Planning Commission, in 1981 accepted that any area
      above 600 m. in height from mean sea level be classified as hilly, however, in 1985,
      any area with average slope of 30 percent and above was classified as hilly. As per
      the above classification, Shimla town is classified as hilly town.

3.4   GEOLOGY
      Shimla town is situated on the rocks of Jutogh Group and Shimla Group. Jutogh
      group occupies main Shimla area and extends from Annadale-Chura Bazaar-
      Prospect Hill-Jakhoo-US Club and highland area. Shimla Group comprising of
      earlier Chail Formation and Shimla Series represented by shale, slate, quartzite
      greywacke and local conglomerate is well exposed in Sanjauli-Dhalli area.
3.5   CLIMATE
      Chilly winds from the upper Himalayas make winters in Shimla cold. Around
      Christmas or last week of December Shimla gets snowfall. Temperature varies
      from 15 ~20ºC in summers and in winters its in the range 0~13ºC. The average
      annual rainfall in the region is 900mm.


      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                        25
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                                             Shimla City Development Plan


3.6   REGIONAL LINKAGES
      Shimla is connected by road, rail and air. Shimla is connected by road with Delhi
      (30 km), Chandigarh (117 km) and Kalka (90 km). Shimla is connected by narrow
      gauge railway line from Kalka (90 km). Shimla Airport at Jubbarhatti, 23 km from
      city is connected to Chandigarh, Kullu and Delhi.

3.7   DEFINING THE PROGRAMME REGION
      A key step in the development of the CDP is the delineation of its limits - the
      geographic extent to be considered in the Plan.

      The spatial limits considered for developing the CDP include local bodies, which
      fall within the Shimla Planning Area (SPA). Department of Town & Country
      Planning, Government of Himachal Pradesh has delineated this region, which
      comprises the urban area of Shimla and 3 Special Area Development Authorities
      (SADA), as a definitive planning area. Some of the interventions may however
      extend beyond SPA, in the watershed areas of rivers flowing in the region to
      achieve the programme objectives.

      Figure 3.2 explains these various planning areas, and the administrative limits
      included in them. The Programme region thus has as its core the urban area of
      Shimla town, and neighbouring SADAs.

           ADMINISTRATIVE BOUNDARIES - SHIMLA PLANNING AREA




                                          Special Area Ghanahatt i



                                                                       Municipal Corporation Area   Dhalli    Special Area Kufri

                                                            Tutu

                    Special Area Shoghi

                                                                                       New Shimla



                                           Cantonment Area
                                                                     Special Area Shoghi




                                                                                                                                   1   0   1   2   3   4   5   6 kms




                                   CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN - SHIMLA

                                                    Figure 3.2 Shimla Planning Area

      The SPA represents an area of potential urbanization, comprising the core urban
      area of Shimla, its peri-urban fringe and the rural hinterland that is expected to
      urbanize in due course, with the development of the urban core.
      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                                       26
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan


      The JNNURM implementation programme will consider the entire SPA as its
      focus region, and develop a CDP that addresses issues of infrastructural,
      environmental, social and economic consequence within this limit.


3.8   CITY FUNCTIONS
      As per 2001 census, Shimla is the only Class I town in entire State of Himachal
      Pradesh with majority of towns falling under Class IV category. This explains the
      dominance of this town in the State in terms of facilities, amenities and
      opportunities.

      Shimla is a multifunctional city with dominance in tourism, administration and
      institutional activities. Apart from being the administrative center and capital of
      Himachal Pradesh, Shimla is also the nerve center for all social, cultural,
      educational and tourism activities. The multifunctional activities are putting heavy
      stress on development activities leading to unregulated development and
      congestion in the core area.




                           Floating                                   Demand for
                          Population/                                    better
                            better                                   infrastructure
                           facilities




                      Ecology, Hilly                                       Opportunities/
                      characteristics                                       migration/
                                                                             improved
                                                                           quality of life




                                        Figure 3.3 Shimla City Functions




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             27
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                           Shimla City Development Plan




Capital Function
Being state capital of a young state, it is pulsating with tremendous pressure of
activities, due to numerous departmental and administrative functions of the
capital, there by resulting in fast growth of population.

Administrative Centre
Shimla is the district headquarter of Shimla district. Besides, capital function it
also houses a number of district administrative functions.

Education Centre
Shimla is known for better schooling facilities and is hub of schools. It is the base
of the Himachal Pradesh University. Shimla is also home to the Institute of
Advanced Study (IIAS). Set up in 1965, the IIAS carries out academic pursuits in
areas of Indian Culture, Religion and the Social and Natural Sciences.

Tourist Centre
Shimla is the most famous hill station of India and is an important tourist
destination, accounting for almost a quarter of all tourists arriving in Himachal.

Heritage City
Shimla has inherited enormous wealth of built environment created over 180
years of existence. The British created many admirable buildings such as the
Auckland House, Chapslee, the Christ Church, the GPO and the Kirk, Gorton
Castle, Ravenswood, etc. which form part of Heritage Plan.




 INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         28
 CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                             Shimla City Development Plan



4     DEMOGRAPHY
4.1   POPULATION
      The development of a particular city, town or a region depends upon natural,
      physical and socio-economic factors. Among these factors the population assumes
      significance in determining the future pattern of progress and development.

      Shimla Planning Area (SPA), the only Class I city in the Himachal Pradesh, has a
      population of 1,74,789 persons (2001 census), which accounts for 24% population
      of the Shimla district. The population of SPA has increased from 1,29,827 persons
      in 1991 to 1,74,789 in 2001, recording a decadal growth rate of 34.63 percent.
      During the past few decades, the city's population has grown at a faster pace than
      the corresponding state average. The settlement-wise description of population as
      per 2001 Census is presented in Table 4.1.
      Table 4.1 Settlement wise population of Shimla
       Settlement                     No. of HH         Population          % of Total
       Shimla Municipal
       Corporation including Tutu,      37756             142555               82%
       New Shimla & Dhalli
       SA Ghanahatti                    2651               10185                6%
       SA Kufri                         2426               10720                6%
       SA Shoghi                        2330               11329                6%
       Total SPA Area                   45163             174789              100%
      Source: Census of India, 2001


      About 82% of whole population of SPA lives in Municipal Corporation, Shimla
      including Dhalli, Tutu, and New Shimla. As per the Census 2001, Dhalli, Tutu and
      New Shimla urban agglomerations were part of Municipal Corporation and later
      notified under Special Areas having a total population of 13.83 % of the total
      population of Municipal Corporation. In August 2006, these Special Areas were
      again merged back into Municipal Corporation. Besides, 12% population of total
      SPA Area lives in Kufri and Shoghi Special Areas and 6 % population lives in
      newly constituted Ghanahatti Special Area.


4.2   FLOATING POPULATION
      As per Census analysis (Refer Table 4.2), it has been observed that the growth rate
      of floating population has shown a little downward trend, while the total number
      of floating population has increased due to Shimla being a service city as well as
      tourist destination.




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                      29
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                             Shimla City Development Plan


      Table 4.2 Floating Population of Shimla- Existing and Projected
                    Year              Floating Population                % Decadal Growth Rate
                    1971                      23459                               36.00
                    1981                      30000                               31.74
                    1991                      40000                               31.70
                    2001*                     56000                               40.00
                    2011*                     76000                               35.00
                    2021*                    100000                               31.00
      * Projected     Source: Town and Country Planning Department, Shimla

4.3   LITERACY, SEX RATIO AND AGE COMPOSITION
      Shimla, being the traditional educational centre since the British days, has an
      average literacy rate of 84%, higher than the national average of 59.5%.

      The sex ratio of SPA is 767 as against 896 of the Shimla district. Being a service
      city, males are involved in service sector and majority of them keep their families at
      their native places. The Age composition of SPA is given in Table 4.3.
      Table 4.3 Age composition of population of Shimla
       SL.NO. AGE GROUP                                        % OF TOTAL POPULATION
            1           Below 5 Years                                                 8
            2           6 – 15 years                                                20
            3           16 – 45 Years                                               55
            4           45 – 59 Years                                               11
            5           60 – above                                                    6
      Source: Town and Country Planning Department, Shimla

4.4   OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE
      The capacity of a city to provide employment opportunities and absorb the
      workforce in various sector of economy is an index of prosperity.




                                        Figure 4.1 Occupational Structure




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                      30
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                          Shimla City Development Plan


      The participation ratio gives an idea of the share of gainfully employed population
      against the dependent and non-working population. As per 2001 census, there are
      54404 workers. Out of total workforce, there are 52209 main workers and 1595
      marginal workers. The category wise workforce is given in Figure 4.1.


4.5   POPULATION PROJECTION
      It is assumed that population of SPA is anticipated to increase at the rate of 35 %
      during the decades of 2011 and 2021, which is likely to be 2,35,970 and 3,18,560
      respectively. The major assumptions for population projections are:

                      Being an administrative and tourist city, it is anticipated that the tertiary
                       sector shall continue to function as a dominant sector of economy by year
                       2021. As a result the workforce participation in this sector will increase
                      Changing socio-economic scenario and better amenities will act as a pull
                       factor for rural population migrating to the city


                       350000
                                                                                                    318560
                       300000

                       250000
                                                                                    235970
          Population




                       200000
                                                                    174789
                       150000
                                                      129827
                                         95851
                       100000

                       50000     72870
                                                   Census Data                                 Projected

                             0
                             1971           1981            1991           2001            2011            2021
                                                                   Year



                            Figure 4.2 Shimla Planning Area – Population Projections




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                    31
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan



5     ECONOMIC BASE
5.1   OVERVIEW OF ECONOMIC SITUATION IN HIMACHAL PRADESH
      Overall economic growth in total State Domestic Product during 2004-05 was
      7.6%. The GSDP during 2004-05 was estimated at Rs. 20093 Cr. Per capita income
      was Rs. 27486. Percentage contribution of primary sectors to total SDP is 25.40%,
      while that of secondary sector is 35.59 % and tertiary sector is 39.01%.

5.2   OVERVIEW OF SHIMLA ECONOMICS
      Shimla being state & administrative capital of Himachal Pradesh, majority of
      economic activities are concentrated in Shimla. Natural resources play a key role in
      economic survival of the town and hinterland, as tourism and agriculture, are the
      mainstays of the economy. The shift from agriculture to horticulture has changed
      the economic pattern of the region, as Shimla has become major center for
      collection and distribution.


5.3   WORK FORCE PARTICIPATION
      Shimla houses major state level and district level government offices. A
      considerable proportion of the city‟s workforce is engaged in these establishments
      and tourism sector.
      Table 5.1 Work Force Participation
                                                             % of
                                      No. of     No. of               No. of      No. of
                                                            Total
               Types of work         persons    persons               Males      Females
                                                           Workers
                                       1991                       2001
        Total Population              82054     142555                 81186       61369
        Total Working Population      33699      54404                 44611       9793
        Total Main Workers            31965      52809      97.1%      43514       9295
        Total Marginal Workers        1734       1595       2.9%       1097         498
        Total Non Workers             48355      88151                 36575       51576
        Cultivators                    363        439       0.8%        310         129
        Agriculturalists                62        149       0.3%        120         29
        Household Industries           147        504       0.9%        392         112
        Other Workers                 31392      53312      98.0%      43789       9523

      Table 5.1 indicates the total working population has decreased from 41 % in 1991
      to 38 % in 2001. The female working population is about 15% in comparison to
      55% male working population. This may be attributed to normal Indian family
      structure. About 98% of workers in 2001 are other workers involved in
      horticulture, trade & commerce, transport, storage and communication, and all


      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                       32
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


          other service industries.About 48% of the other workers are contributed by
          government office employees

5.4       INDUSTRIES
          The industries are not well developed in and around Shimla like any other hill
          station because of the unavailability of proper infrastructure, hilly region, long
          distance from other cities and exorbitant cost of transportation. Traditional small-
          scale industries like wool spinning and weaving, basket making, metal work, that
          use local resources are still alive without much progress. Apart from this, wood
          working, black-smithy, dying and manufacturing works, oil crushing, leather works,
          pottery, gold smithy, food processing are other small scale industries practiced in
          the town. The drivers for the majority of these industries are tourists and local
          people. Single largest industry of Shimla, tourism gained momentum pursuant to
          declaration of status of Industry by Union Government. Incentives and subsidies
          offered by the Government encouraged private entrepreneurs to involve in
          establishment of tourism related infrastructures that ultimately provided impetus to
          the growth of tourism industry in State, and Shimla in particular.


  5.4.1      Tourism
             Tourism is considered and accepted major growth driver for Himachal Pradesh
             and for Shimla. It has been engine for the growth of the economy of the state
             including Shimla. Tourism provides direct employment opportunity in hotel
             and guesthouses, bars and restaurants, guides, travel agents, photographers etc
             and also generates large indirect employment. The details of number of people
             working directly in the tourism industries are shown in Table 5.2.
             Table 5.2 Employment in Tourism Industry
               Profession                          2001     2002      2003      2004        2005
               People working in Hotel/ Guest
                                                   2934     2973      3130      3192        3268
               House
               People working in Bars and
                                                   246      249       276        298         348
               Restaurants
               Guides                              218      223       235        246         270
               Travel Agents                       182      182       188        196         208
               Photographers                       212      212       220        226         257
                                          Total    3792     3839      4049      4158        4351




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            33
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan


5.4.2   Small Scale Industries
         There are around 259 registered small scale industries in Shimla and can be
         classified in sectors as shown in Table 5.3.
        Table 5.3 Small Scale Industries in Shimla
                                                    No. of No. of % of Total
         Category of Industry
                                                    Units  Workers Workers
         Food based Industries                         30   123      15%
         Textile                                       16    39       5%
         Leather                                       6      5       1%
         Wood and Wood Works                           40   137      16%
         Paper & Paper products.                       22    80       9%
         Other Manufacturing and            Service   145   460      55%
         Industry
         TOTAL                                           259         844         100%
         As shown in Table 5.3, 55% of the workers are engaged in category of „Other
         Manufacturing and Service Industry‟ that includes auto repairs, dry cleaners,
         steel fabricators, steel metal products etc.


    5.4.2.1     Food based Industries
                With the development of well-planned orchards and agriculture in the
                district and surrounding areas of Shimla town, the food based industries
                assumed greater importance. Though the horticultural products and
                export has increased over the years but the food-based industries have
                not considerably increased. There are only 30 units registered with a
                total number of 123 people engaged in various food-based industries like,
                bakeries, Juice and Jam, Mushroom, Honey Processing etc.


    5.4.2.2     Wood and Wood Products
                Around 40 units and 137 workers are engaged in making of wooden toys,
                wooden baskets, walking sticks, fancy wooden, rulers, baton etc.
                Wooden toys are mainly manufactured from waste wood and packing
                cases as well as from other wood. The products find ready market
                mostly during the summer season when tourists‟ inflow is at peak.
                „Lakkar Craft Bazaar‟ is the market dealing in wood works. The sawmills
                are located at different parts of Shimla and occupy a total area of 0.31 sq.
                km of total developed land within the municipal limits.


    5.4.2.3     Mining & Related Industries
                A few brick kilns are working which makes bricks from the clay obtained
                through mining. There are no medium or large-scale industries in Shimla.

    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          34
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan


  5.4.3     Horticulture
            The geo-climatic features are favorable for the development of horticulture
            activities especially for temperate fruits. Various fruits like apple, plum, peach,
            apricot, pear, citrus, green-almonds and walnuts are produced in Shimla district.
            Apple is the biggest export item for the state as well as the district.
            Table 5.4 Production of Apple
             Production of Apple (in MT)              2002-03        2003-04       2004-05
             Shimla district                           229030        294402        318450
             HP                                       348260         459492        527600

            As shown in Table 5.4, more than half of the apple production of state is
            attributed to Shimla district. Apple export is one of the major contributors to
            the growth of state economy. Shimla is major center for collection and
            distribution.


  5.4.4     Trading

            Shimla town is vibrating with trade and commercial activities including retail
            and wholesale. The existing main trading areas are concentrated in and around
            Mall, Middle Bazar, Lower Bazar, Lakkar Bazar and Chhota Shimla. As per the
            survey conducted by TCP in 1997, there are about 3000 commercial
            establishments in Shimla Planning Area



5.5       ECONOMIC POTENTIAL, STRATEGY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      The key sectors have been identified as key economic drivers for economic growth
      of Shimla Planning Area. These include tourism, healthcare, education, agri-
      processing and trading hub and IT. The section also provides the strategies and
      recommendations for the economic development of Shimla.


  5.5.1     Tourism:
            Tourism has been driver for overall economy of the State. These would also be
            a consequent need to sustain and hence focus on entertainment and city
            beautification through development of entertainment/tourism zone, heritage
            precinct and parks/gardens. The strategies to sustain the tourism sector have
            been separately presented in section 13.7 of the report.




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           35
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan


5.5.2   Healthcare:
        Historically, Shimla has been convalescence center. It has witnessed limited
        development in this sector. With a focused approach Shimla can be directed to
        promote development of health tourism. Following strategy is recommended

                 GoHP should develop the State Health Policy on improving the
                  infrastructure, services and financing for the health tourism. The policy
                  should encourage the private sector participation in establishment of
                  convalescence centers, medical education facilities like nursing
                  institutions etc in the Shimla Planning Area


                 A task force having representation from Health Department, Tourism
                  Department, Industry Department, the medical educational
                  institutions, pharmaceutical companies, health care providers, and
                  insurance company be established to take the initiative forward

                 Strengthening of Telemedicine System for establishment of referral
                  links between convalescence health centers and tertiary health centre


5.5.3   Education:
        Shimla is historically known for educational institutions like Auckland School,
        Chapslee School and Edward School. Shimla has potential to become hub for
        educational institutions. GoHP has promulgated the Himachal Pradesh Private
        Universities (Establishment and Regulation) Act 2006 for establishment of
        private universities in the State for higher education. It is recommended that for
        promotion of the quality education infrastructure in the state, the education hub
        offering a rich spectrum of academic and specialty courses from secondary
        school to university levels may be established in Shimla Planning Area


5.5.4   Agri-Processing and Trading Centre :
        Shimla district in Himachal Pradesh is designated as Agro Economic Zone
        (AEZ) for Apples. Shimla being a major collection and distribution center for
        horticulture products, has potential for food processing and providing backward
        linkage in agriproduce retailing chain. Looking towards the potential, major
        challenge lies in providing infrastructure for its sustainability. Integrated food
        parks with cold chains, ware houses, post harvest handling and grading, sorting,
        waxing, precooling, packaging center, processing units etc transport nagars,
        vegetable and fruit market would address the needs of the sector.

        GoHP has entered into MoA with Government of India for development
        AEZs in 2002. GOHP has estimated an investment of Rs 57 Cr with about Rs


    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          36
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                           Shimla City Development Plan


        27.5 Cr to be contributed by GoI and GoHP and balance to be raised through
        private sector investments. So far no investment has come through.

        It is recommended that GoHP undertake development of food park in Shimla
        Planning Area on PPP leveraging the financial assistance available from GoI
        under the scheme. GoHP may initiate the development of Food Park through a
        Special Purpose Vehicle and later on induct the private sector partner through
        competitive bidding process at appropriate time. This would improve the
        marketability of project for private sector to walk-in and smooth transfer of
        project to implementing agency.


5.5.5   IT Park :
        NASSCOM has projected Rs 20, 000 Crore IT potential for state by year 2009-
        10. GoHP has formulated the State IT Policy and is envisaging establishment of
        IT Park at Waknaghat in Shimla District. With extension of special industrial
        package to state upto 2010, the sector has potential to provide fillip to the
        economy of the region. It is recommended that the project should be taken up
        on the fast track for development in order to realize the potential.




    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                      37
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan



6     GOVERNANCE                              &             INSTITUTIONAL
      FRAMEWORK
6.1   INTRODUCTION
      Good urban governance is characterized by transparent decision making, sound
      financial management, public accountability, equitable resource allocation and
      probity, and should lead to sustainable improvements in most urban indicators.

      The governance has direct and immediate effect on the quality of life of the city.
      The improvement in governance can improve quality of life is successfully
      witnessed in cities like Surat, Nagpur and Thane. Implementation of projects having
      visible impacts and committed leadership are underlying features of these successes.
      This Chapter outlines present governance structure and institutional framework in
      management of city.


6.2   74TH CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT ACT
      The effective local government is critical to improving access to social and
      infrastructure services and to mobilizing local resources. The 74th Constitution
      Amendment Act, 1992 (CAA) emphasis on governance, decentralization and
      empowerment of cities as third governmental tier through delegation of powers and
      functions to the city corporations. It also provides framework for reforms and
      building new systems in the structural, functional and planning areas of municipal
      management and capacity building. The highlights of 74th CAA are

       Urban local governance as constitutional obligation constituted through
        elections and reservation for women and SC/ST. It provides for regular and
        fair conduct of elections through State Election Commission

       Constitution of ward committees

       Constitution of district planning committees mandatory for integration of
        urban plans in district area

       Constitution of State Finance Commission for review financial position of
        ULBs and making recommendations for their financial health

       Assignment of functions or duties of ULBs as defined in Twelfth Schedule and
        their transfer from State government to ULBs

      The GoHP adopted the notification and amended the HP Municipal Corporation
      Act, 1994.




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                       38
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


6.3       GOVERNANCE STRUCTURE FOR SHIMLA
      Various types of institutions are involved in providing planning, development and
      management of urban services in Shimla Planning Area. These include local bodies
      like Municipal Corporation, Special Area Development Authorities and
      Cantonment Board, statutory authorities and government departments.


6.4       LOCAL BODIES
  6.4.1      Shimla Municipal Corporation

          6.4.1.1   History of Shimla Municipal Corporation
                    Shimla was first constituted as Municipal Committee in 1851 and became
                    class I Municipality in 1871. In 1874, it was brought under Punjab
                    Municipal Act, 1873. After Shimla becoming part of Himachal Pradesh
                    on reorganization of Punjab, pursuant to Himachal Pradesh
                    (Development and Regulation) Act 1968, Shimla Municipal Committee
                    was converted into Corporation in 1969. With promulgation of Himachal
                    Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act, 1994, the government revised
                    delimitation of wards into 21 and conducted election.


          6.4.1.2   Delineation of SMC Territory
                    Recently Special Areas Dhalli, Tutu and New Shimla (Kasumpti) under
                    respective SADA have been merged into Shimla Municipal Corporation.
                    The delineation of wards for these areas is being undertaken.


          6.4.1.3   Organization Structure of Shimla Municipal Corporation
                    Governance of Shimla Municipal Corporation is through Elected Body
                    comprising of elected councilors headed by Mayor and Administrative
                    Body headed by Commissioner. Administrative body is responsible for
                    strategic and operational planning and management of Corporation.


              6.4.1.3.1 Elected Body
                    The elected body of Shimla Municipal Corporation has 27 councilors out
                    of which 24 are directly elected and 3 are nominated by GoHP. 33%
                    seats reserved for women are represented by 10 woman councilors. Each
                    ward has one elected Councilor.

                    The tenure of the corporation is five years. Last elections were held in
                    year of 2002 and next elections are due in May 2007. The elected
                    councilors elect Mayor and Deputy Mayor amongst themselves for
                    tenure of two and half years.

      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          39
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan


             The House comprising of elected and nominated members takes all
             policy decisions. The House meets at least once every month.

             The Corporation has several statutory and non-statutory functional
             committees represented by councilors to set out the obligatory and
             discretionary functions bestowed upon the corporation by the 74th CAA.
             Each committee consists of not less than three and not more than five
             Councilors including Mayor or Deputy Mayor.

             The organization structure of elected body and functions of various
             committees are presented in following Figure 6.1 and Table 6.1.


                                                Mayor




                                                Dept
                                                Mayor



                                              Standing
                                             Committees




                         Finance, Contract
     General Function                        Social Justice       Vigilance        Councilors
                           and Planning
       Committee                              Committee          Committee
                            Committee




                  Figure 6.1 Elected Body of Shimla Municipal Corporation


Table 6.1 Functions of Various Committees
 S.N Committee                   Chairman         Functions
 1   General                     Mayor            Establishment                   matters,
     Function                                     communications, construction of
     Committee                                    buildings and roads, urban housing,
                                                  relief against natural calamities, water
                                                  supply, sewerage disposal, health and
                                                  sanitation and all miscellaneous
                                                  residuary matters
 2        Finance,      Mayor                     Preparation of budget, scrutinizing
          Contracts and                           proposals for increase of revenue
          Planning                                including taxes, examination of
          Committee                               receipts and expenditure statement,
                                                  sales and leases of Corporation
                                                  properties, recovery of loans,
                                                  examination of schedule of rates,
                                                  consideration of all proposals
                                                  affecting the finances of the
                                                  Corporation and general supervision
INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             40
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                        Shimla City Development Plan


 S.N Committee               Chairman       Functions
                                            of the revenue and expenditure of the
                                            Corporation
 3       Social   Justice Deputy            Promotion of education, economic,
         Committee        Mayor             social, cultural and other interests of
                                            the Scheduled Caste, Scheduled
                                            Tribes, Backward Classes and weaker
                                            sections of the society; protection
                                            from social injustice and all other
                                            forms of exploitation; amelioration of
                                            the Schedules Castes, Scheduled
                                            Tribes and Backward Classes
                                            including other weaker sections of the
                                            society
 4       Vigilance           Deputy         Supervision       of    developmental
         Committee           Mayor          activities, matters related to the
                                            misappropriation of the corporation
                                            funds, and all other matters involving
                                            loss to MC revenues

     6.4.1.3.2 Administrative Body
            The Commissioner MC Shimla appointed by State Government is
            administrative head of the Corporation. The organization structure of
            administrative body is presented in Figure 6.2.




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                       41
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                Shimla City Development Plan



                                                                    Commissioner



         Joint/Asst.
        Commissioner




                           Municipal
                                                  Architect        Exe. Eng (Roads            Law           Corporation Health
                        Engineer (Water
                                                  Planner            & Buildings)            Officer             Officer
                       Supply & Sewerage)



                        2 Asst. Engineers                          2 Asst. Engineers                            Inspectors
                       2 Superintendents       1 Jr. Engineer       9 Jr. Engineers      11 lawyers and      Superintendents
                         5 Jr. Engineers     Technical Staff and    Technical Staff        Other staff          Jamadars
                       Technical Staff and       Other Staff              and                               Safai Karmachaari
                           Other Staff                                Other Staff                              Other Staff




                        Tax                       General                       Estate                       Accounts
                       Branch                  Establishment                    Branch                        Branch




                     Secretary                                                                             Dy. Controller
                                               Superintendent               Superintendent
                   Asst Secretary                                                                         Accounts Officer
                                             6 Senior Assistants             4 Inspectors
                    7 Inspectors                                                                          Senior Assistants
                                                 Other Staff                  Other Staff
                     Other Staff                                                                            Other Staff




                Figure 6.2 Administrative Body of Shimla Municipal Corporation


         6.4.1.3.3 Financial Powers
                Delegation of financial powers in SMC is provided in Table 6.2.
                Table 6.2 Delegation of Financial Powers
                  S.N.                    Powers vested with                                Limit
                     1              Assistant Commissioner                               Up to 20,000
                     2              Commissioner                                         Up to 1 Lakh
                     3              House                                                Up to 5 Lakh
                     4              State Government                                      > 5 Lakh


6.4.2   Special Area Development Authorities
        GoHP has notified Ganahatti, Kufri, and Shoghi as Special Areas under Town
        and Country Planning Act 1977. The Special Area Development Authority
        (SADA) for respective special area is responsible for planning, implementation
        of development plan and provision of municipal services in notified special
        areas. Deputy Commissioner, Shimla is the chairman and Town and Country
        Planner is Member Secretary of three notified SADAs in Shimla Planning Area.
        The other members include SDM, Executive Engineers and village panchayat


    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                      42
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


            heads. TCP staff provides operational support to the SADA. Provision of
            services is actually done by SMC and parastatal agencies.


  6.4.3     Cantonment Board
            In 1924 the Government in Council declared Jutogh as a Cantonment Board
            under Section 2, clause XV of the Cantonment Act, 1924. The cantonment
            board is spread over an area of 1.41 Sq. Km. The Cantonment was originally
            built for and occupied by Gurkha Troops but after 1857 revolt a mountain
            battery was quartered and thereafter a detachment of British Infantry was
            stationed. The Board served a population of 1396 in 1981 in civil area. Number
            of houses in the Board area is 109. Present population according to 1991 census
            is 1636. Board obtains its water supply in bulk from military station and re-
            distributes it in the Board area. Cantonment Board provides basic amenities in
            cantonment area.


6.5       STATE GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS
      Various departments of State Government are involved in urban city management
      functions. The details of those agencies and their responsibilities are discussed
      hereunder


  6.5.1     Department of Urban Development
            The Directorate of Urban Development was established in 1985 to direct,
            control and monitor activities of 53 Municipalities, 1 Municipal Corporation, 20
            Municipal Councils and 32 Nagar Panchayats in the state of Himachal Pradesh.

            Till 1994, the Directorate was performing nominal regulatory functions of
            coordination of development works, release of grants and passing of municipal
            budgets. Pursuant to 74th CAA and enactment of H.P. Municipal Corporation
            Act, 1994, Directorate is directing, supervising and controlling authority, which
            acts as a bridge between government and urban local bodies.

            Main functions performed by the Directorate are:

                   Recommendation for amendments in Acts Rules/Regulations and Bye-
                    Laws of the Urban Local Bodies;
                   Implementation of centrally sponsored schemes; and
                   Inspection and monitoring

            Department of Urban Development is mandated to prepare a City development
            Plan for Shimla.



      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          43
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan


6.5.2   Town and Country Planning
        For planning, development and use of land and execution of town and country
        development plan, Government of Himachal Pradesh established Directorate of
        Town and Country Planning (TCP) under the Himachal Pradesh Town and
        Country Planning Act 1977. The functions of Town and Country Planning
        include

                 Constitution of planning/special areas;
                 Preparation of existing landuse, development plan for planning area;
                 Implementation of approved/notified development plan or interim
                  development plan; and
                 Preparation of sectoral plans and town planning schemes

        TCP is regulatory authority for implementation of Interim Development Plan
        1979. It has prepared draft development plan of Shimla Planning Area, which is
        awaiting approval and notification from GoHP.

        TCP does not have infrastructure and capability for GIS based planning and is
        dependent on external resource.


6.5.3   Irrigation and Public Health
        Irrigation and Public Health Department is responsible for development of
        drinking water scheme for various towns, development of water related urban
        infrastructure, operation and management of water system like water
        abstraction, treatment, conveyance, storage and distribution to various ULBs,
        and operation and management of main sewerage line, treatment and disposal
        of sewage. I&PH is providing these services in all towns in the State including
        Shimla.


6.5.4   Public Works Department
        Public Works Department is responsible for planning, construction and
        operation and maintenance of main road network in Shimla Planning Area.


6.5.5   Fire Department
        The Fire Stations in the state functioned under the control of Municipal
        Committees till 1972, but thereafter GoHP took over the control of fire stations
        at various places in the State. The Himachal Fire Fighting Services Act came
        into force in 1984. Now Fire Service Department comes under Home
        Department of the State.

        The prime duty of the organization is to protect life and property from fire. The
        fire department is responsible for
    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           44
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan


                   Prevention and combating of fire incidences
                   Issue of fire safety guide lines
                   Issue of no objection certificate from fire safety

6.6       STATUTORY BODIES

  6.6.1     HP Housing and Urban Development Authority
            HP Housing and Urban Development Authority (HIMUDA) was established
            under Himachal Pradesh Housing and Urban Development Authority Act,
            2004. HIMUDA is entrusted with framing and execution of housing and
            development schemes including land development, city/town/village
            development, housing, industrial area, commercial/tourism, infrastructure
            development. The Act also authorizes HIMUDA to grant licenses to develop
            the housing projects.

            HIMUDA is designated as SLNA for implementation of JNNURM and
            UIDSSMT in Himachal Pradesh.


  6.6.2     HP State Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board
            HP State Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board is a regulatory
            body constituted in 1974 under provision of Water (Prevention & Control of
            Pollution) Act 1974. The main function of HP State Environment Protection
            and Pollution Control Board is to plan a comprehensive program for
            prevention, control and abatement of pollution.


  6.6.3     Himachal Road Transport Corporation
            Transport in Himachal Pradesh came into existence as a Himachal Government
            Transport in July, 1949 and continued to function as such till 1974. In 1958, the
            Govt. of Punjab, Government of Himachal Pradesh and Railways under Road
            Transport Corporation Act, 1950 floated a Corporation jointly in a name and
            style as “Mandi Kullu Road Transport Corporation” to operate the joint routes
            in the States of Punjab and Himachal. With the re-organization of Punjab State
            in 1966 certain hilly areas of Punjab were merged in Himachal and operational
            areas of Mandi Kullu Road Transport Corporation came entirely under GoHP.
            In 1974 Himachal Government Transport was merged with Mandi Kullu Road
            Transport Corporation and was renamed as Himachal Road Transport
            Corporation under Road Transport Corporation Act, 1950.

            The HRTC is responsible for provision of regional and local transport services
            including city bus services in Shimla.


      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           45
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                            Shimla City Development Plan


6.6.4   HP Bus Stand Management and Development Authority
        GoHP has constituted HP Bus Stand Management and Development Authority
        (HPBMDA) under HP Bus Stand Management and Development Authority
        Act 1999. HPBMDA is responsible for planning, development, construction
        and operation and maintenance of Bus Stands in Himachal Pradesh. The Act
        provides for revenue streams comprising of Adda Fees, parking charges and
        other user charges for passenger amenities for HPBMDA for its sustainability.


6.6.5   HP State Electricity Board
        HP State Electricity Board constituted in 1971 is responsible for planning and
        execution, generation, transmission and distribution of power in the State.
        Though unbundling of board is still pending, the generation wing has been
        made independent with setting up of two subsidiaries, Pabbar Valley Power
        Corporation and Himachal Jal Vidyut Vikas Nigam, and the accounts of
        transmission and distribution have been separated.


6.6.6   HP Tourism Development Corporation
        HP Tourism Development Corporation (HPTDC) was established in 1972 to
        facilitate development of tourism in the State. Besides operating hotels in
        Shimla, HPTDC manages Tourist Information Centre and passenger lift
        between Cart road and Mall Road.



6.6.7   HP Infrastructure Development Board
        HP Infrastructure Development Board has been constituted in January 2002
        under HP Infrastructure Development Act 2001, which provides framework for
        private sector participation in financing, construction, operation and
        maintenance of infrastructure projects and to raise resources on behalf of State
        Government for infrastructure projects development.

        The Chief Secretary heads the HPIDB and Finance Secretary is Chief Executive
        Officer (CEO) of the Board. The Board does not have any independent funding
        source and is dependent on GoHP budgetary allocation and borrowing through
        issue of bonds, debentures, loans or such other instruments.

        In FY 2005-06, HPIDB has raised Rs. 616 Cr from Infrastructure Bonds issues
        through private placement and Rs. 530 Crores through term loan from financial
        institutions/ banks. The investments raised is used for financing the
        expenditure under State Plan against the unconditional and irrevocable State
        Government Guarantee.



    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                       46
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan


         The role of HPPIDB is limited to raising finances for GoHP and its role as a
         nodal agency for private sector involvement in infrastructure projects so far is
         negligible.


6.7   INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES
      The functional domain of SMC is derived from HP Municipal Corporation Act
      1994 which lists obligatory and discretionary functions for SMC and functions
      entrusted by GoHP to SMC as per the 12th Schedule of the 74th Constitution
      Amendment Act.

      Except for fire services all functions have been transferred to SMC. Recently urban
      forestry function has been recalled from SMC and transferred to Forest
      Department. Though these functions were transferred to SMC, the transfers
      remained on paper only due to lack of statutory basis, adequate institutional
      capacity with SMC and non-transfer of resources. In practice, the parastatal
      agencies continued with the functional responsibility with SMC having no role.


        Table 6.3 Institutional Framework For Planning & Design, Construction and
                    Operation & Maintenance
        SN             Services        Planning &         Implementing Agency
                                         Design        Construction     O&M
         1      Bulk Water Supply    I&PH              I&PH         I&PH
         2      Water Supply and SMC                   SMC          SMC
                Distribution
         3      Sewerage             I&PH/SMC          I&PH/SMC          I&PH/SMC
         4      Drainage             I&PH/SMC          I&PH/SMC          SMC
         5      Storm          Water I&PH/SMC          I&PH/SMC          SMC
                Drainage
         5      Solid          Waste SMC               SMC               SMC
                Management
         6      Main Roads and PWD                     PWD               PWD
                Bypasses
         7      Internal Roads       SMC               SMC               SMC
         8      Street Lighting      HPSEB/SMC         HPSEB/SMC         SMC
         9      Fire Services        SMC/Fire Dept     SMC/Fire          SMC/Fire
                                                       Dept              Dept
         10     Open Spaces/Parks      TCP             SMC               SMC
         11     Transportation         HRTC/HPBM       HRTC/             HRTC/
                                       DA              HPBMDA            HPBMDA
         12     Vertical     Transport PWD             PWD               Tourism Dept
                (Elevator)
         13     Housing           HIMUDA               HIMUDA            HIMUDA
         14     Basic Services to DoUD/SMC             SMC               SMC
                Urban Poor
         15     Urban Forest      Forest Dept          Forest Dept       Forest Dept
         16     Public            I&PH/SMC             NGO               NGO
                Conveniences
      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                       47
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan


6.8   PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
      GoHP embarked on Public-Private-Partnership in 2003 with successful execution
      of concession agreement with private sector developer for design, finance,
      construction, operation and maintenance of Solang Nalah Ropeway. Subsequently,
      GoHP had taken up Jakhoo Ropeway project and Tutikandi Inter State Bus
      Terminal on PPP format in Shimla. These projects were developed for private
      sector participation by respective departments. The government has also opened
      doors to private builders and decided to develop a new township with private sector
      investment.

      The role of private sector in urban infrastructure provision is presented in Table 6.4
      Table 6.4 Role of Private Sector in Urban Infrastructure Provision
      Urban Infrastructure                        Role of the Private Sector
      Water Supply                                Nil
      Sewerage                                    Operation and maintenance of 6
                                                  Sewage Treatment Plant
      Drainage                                    Nil
      Storm water Drainage                        Nil
      Solid Waste Management                      D2D collection and Waste processing
                                                  (Composting)
      Public Conveniences                         Construction,      operation   and
                                                  maintenance by NGO
      Municipal roads                             Nil
      Street Lighting                             Nil
      Bus stands                                  ISBT on BOT
      Transport                                   License for Stage Carriers

6.9   ISSUES AND CONCERNS
      The governance and institutional framework for Shimla city is marked by poor
      planning, poor service delivery, inefficient tax collection, poor information systems,
      nontransparent and inefficient accounting and financial management, low
      engagement of private sector and low access to capital market, lack of IT-based
      municipal services and grievance redressal systems. Underlying issues are

       Multiplicity of agencies with overlapping and fragmented responsibilities, lack
        of coordination and understanding between the institutions due to different
        priorities of each institution which may not be in conformation with the SMC
       Information system with SMC is also poor. Due to lack of proper information
        system and accounting system the SMC is unable to satisfy the information
        needs of both internal and external users. Near absence of records and
        information system on SADA area is major constraint in planning
       Inadequate capacity in term of infrastructure, financial, and human resource of
        SMC. Absence of institutional capability of SADA and TCP in provision of
        services to SADA areas

      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         48
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan


6.10   VISION AND STRATEGY


               “Urban Governance with Accessibility, Accountability,
                         Transparency and Efficiency”

       In order to evolve suitable urban governance strategies it is essential to enhance
       institutional and human capacities and bring about good urban governance.
       Following strategies are recommended and majority of these strategies shall be
       implemented during the mission period as a part of reform agenda implementation.

       Institutional Responsibility
                 Establishment of effective institutional arrangements including clear
                  determination of roles, rights and responsibilities of various
                  institutions, their scope and jurisdiction, framework for involvement of
                  private sector and citizens

       Information System
                 Establishment of city information system using computerization and
                  IT application including GIS which would help in improving efficiency
                  and productivity

       e-Governance
                 Establishment of e-governance would need business process
                  reengineering along with capacity building. Business process
                  reengineering shall aim at enhancing competencies of people through
                  well designed processes leading to higher customer value at lower cost

       Capacity Building
                 Capacity building strategy should aim at effective institutionalization
                  and sustainability of the program. This would include:
                              Training need assessment to identify areas of improvement
                              Establishment of Local Government Training Institution,
                               which would enable ULBs in the state for capacity building of,
                               elected representatives and officials to understand financial
                               management, development and preparation of bankable
                               projects, civic engagement and improved service delivery.
                               Capacity building facilities should cover political,
                               administrative, functional and operative grass root level
                               functionaries including NGOs, CBOs, and Private Sector etc

       Citizen’s Participation
                 Citizens' participation in improving delivery of civic services and
                  improving urban environment should be encouraged through

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          49
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                Shimla City Development Plan


                                    Constitution of citizen‟s committees having representatives of
                                     civil societies
                                    Regular government-citizen interactions
                                    Promotion of programmes                   like    Advanced          Locality
                                     Management (ALM)

             Private Sector Participation
                         Encouraging more private sector participation in urban infrastructure
                          provisioning and service delivery. The options available for PPP range
                          from simple service contract to Concessions and BOT wherein private
                          sector take responsibility for capital investment, financing, operation
                          and maintenance, and commercial risk. The PPP options and allocation
                          of key responsibilities are presented in Table 6.5.
             Table 6.5 PPP – Options and Allocation
                                   Asset                       Capital                Commercial
                   Option                          O&M                                                    Duration
                                 Ownership                   Investment                  Risk
                Service                           Public &
                                     Public                       Public                    Public        1-2 years
               Contract                            Private
              Management
                                     Public        Private        Public                    Public        3-5 years
               Contract
                 Lease               Public        Private        Public                Shared           8-15 years
              Concession             Public        Private        Private               Private          25-30 years
                                    Private &
               BOT/BOO                             Private        Private               Private          20-30 years
                                     Public

6.11         SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN
             S.N Project                         Project      Investment Schedule (Rs. Lakhs)
                                                 Cost2   2007    2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
               1       Business      Process
                       Reengineering Study           50      50            -            -            -     -          -
               2       Computerization
                       and establishment of
                       information system          1000       -      500              500            -     -          -
               3       Implementation of
                       business      process
                       reengineering plan
                       and e-Governance            1000       -      250              500      250         -          -
               4       Establishment      of
                       Training Institution         500       -      250              250            -     -          -
               5       Training of SMC
                       and         Parastatal
                       agencies staff               500       -       100          100         100       100        100
                                         Total     3050      50      1100         1350         350       100        100

2
    at current price
            INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                         50
            CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan



7     PLANNING
7.1   OVERVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT OF TOWN
      Till 1815, Shimla was merely a small-sized village. During the Gurkha War of 1816,
      British retained a small patch of land for their residence. The physical infrastructure
      in the town was negligible till 1830, when British Government decided to acquire
      land comprising of present Central Shimla from Maharaja of Patiala and Raja of
      Keonthal State.

      The shifting of summer capital of Government of Punjab to Shimla in 1850
      accelerated the pace of development and increased the local population. To
      augment the infrastructure, Municipal Corporation was established in 1851. With
      provision of infrastructure for population of 25,000 and development of new road
      network, national highway and a narrow gauge line, further led to growth of the
      town.

      After independence, Shimla became permanent capital of Punjab and started
      growing along east-west axis. The Mall became a CBD for the city. Due to limited
      accessibility and primarily pedestrian traffic, development took place between Cart
      Road and Mall Road.

      With relocation of capital of Punjab to Chandigarh, the town served as a district
      head quarter and later became capital of the State of Himachal Pradesh. The
      increasing importance of the town in administration, trade and commerce, and
      tourism led to increasing migration from the region. Presently, Shimla and its
      adjoining areas are fastest growing towns in the State.


7.2   SHIMLA PLANNING AREA
      In order to ensure planned and regulated growth, GoHP constituted Shimla
      Planning Area through notification in November 1977. Shimla Planning Area (SPA)
      comprise of following:

      (1)      Shimla Municipal Corporation (SMC)
      (2)      Recently merged Special Areas of Dhalli, New Shimla, and Tutu
      (3)      Special Areas of Kufri, Shoghi and Ghanahatti

      The geographical spread of SPA is roughly 100 sq. km as presented in Table 7.1.




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         51
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                            Shimla City Development Plan


         Table 7.1 Area details of Shimla Planning Area
                    Settlement                         Area (in Hectare).        % of Total
         Shimla Municipal Corporation                                  1367            13.74
         New Shimla3                                                    388             3.90
         Dhalli3                                                        253             2.54
         Tutu3                                                          199             2.00
         SADA Ghanahatti4                                              1647            16.55
         SADA Kufri5                                                   3173            31.89
         SADA Shoghi5                                                  2923            29.38
         Total SPA Area                                                9950           100.00
         Source: Shimla Municipal Corporation

7.3      POLICY, LEGAL, AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
        The HP Town and Country Planning Act, 1977 provides the legal framework for
        planning process for Shimla Planning Area. Following the constitution of Shimla
        Planning Area under HP Town and Country Planning Act, 1977, existing landuse
        was frozen through notification in March 1978, whereby change of landuse became
        mandatory requirement.

        Interim Development Plan (IDP) notified in 1979 provided the blue print for
        planning and development of Shimla till date. During this time IDP has been
        amended and total 37 amendments were introduced. Regularization of unauthorized
        constructions & landuse has largely affected the plans proposed in IDP.

        For implementation of the development plan, GoHP constituted Shimla
        Development Authority (SDA) in late 1980. The primary function of the Authority
        was to ensure planned development of the city. The SDA, however, confined itself
        to building and construction activities. In 1995, SDA was upgraded to Himachal
        Nagar Vikas Pradhikaran, which also remained as construction agency. In 2000,
        SDA was merged into Housing Board. In 2004, Housing Board was restructured as
        Himachal Pradesh Housing and Urban Development Authority (HIMUDA) under
        HP Housing and Urban Development Authority Act 2004. However, HIMUDA is
        involved in construction rather than regulating growth and ensuring planned
        development.

        TCP has prepared the Development Plan for Shimla, which has been submitted, to
        GoHP for approval and notification.

        The SMC is the competent authority for providing planning permissions for
        buildings and regulation of constructions in the Municipal Areas. It is also nodal
        agency for recommending planning permissions for Restricted Areas, Core Areas
        and Heritage Zones to Town and Country Planning for approvals. The building

3
  Notified as Special Area Development Authority in 2003 and merged in SMC in August 2006
4
  Notified as Special Area Development Authority in 2004
5
  Notified as Special Area Development Authority in 2000
         INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                  52
         CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan


      permission cases falling in Core Area are processed and thereafter referred to the
      State Govt. for approval.


7.4       PHYSICAL PLANNING
      The physical aspects of land relate to availability of land, land usage pattern, extent
      of open spaces, etc. Land management is the most important aspect of city
      development; it has potential to be the biggest facilitator or the most critical
      constraint for development. Land development principles of the city should be
      closely aligned with the economic and infrastructure base of the city.


  7.4.1     Existing Landuse
            Of the total area of 9950 hectares of Shimla Planning Area, about 1475 hectares
            which accounts for 15% of the total SPA is under urban use. The existing
            landuse of SPA is presented in Figure 7.1.
                                                          Existing Land Use of Shimla Planning Area
                                                                                                    (Map prepared for Town and Country Planning Department, GoHP)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Nal de h ra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LEGEND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Du rg ap u r



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Existing Land Use
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Agriculture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Bal de yan                                                     Residential

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Institutional

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Commercial

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Forest
                                                         Gha nn a ha ti
                                                                                                                                                                Ner i
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Cantonment Board
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Ta rap ur


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Planning Area Boundary
                                                                                                                                                                              Naw ag
                                                                                                                                                                                          Kav i                                                                                                                Mas ho b ra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Roads Networks
                                                                                      Ban u ti

                                                                                                                                                              San h og
                                                                                                                                                                                      Gol ch a


                                                                                                                                              San g ti                                                    Ku fta Dh ar
                                                                                  Hira N ag ar

                                                                                                                                                                        An na da le                                          Kel esto n
                                                                                                                                          Sum m e r H ill                                 Kai th u                                                                                                     HIP A


                                                                                 Can to nm e nt A rea J uto g h


                                                                                                                   To tu                                                                                                                                                             Dh all i
                                                                                                                                                          Ch au ra Mai da n
                                                                                                                           Bo ile au ga n j
                                                                                                                                                                                                                La lp an i                                 San jau li

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Jakh u                                           Bad a h
                                                                                                                                                                                      Pha g li
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ku fri
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Nav B ah ar
                                                                                                                           Gho ra Ch aw ki
                                                 Jat h ia D evi                                                                                                                                                                                                             Bh atta K uff ar
                               Ju bb er Ha tti                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Mah as u Pea k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ch h ota Sh im la
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Gallu
                                                                                                                                     San kat M o ch an                                        Kh ali ni
                 Sairy                                                                                                                              Bad h ai
                                                                                                                                                                                                  New Sh im la
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Mal an a                                                                                                                               Fa gu
                                                                                                                                  Ta ra D evi                                                                    Vika s N ag ar
                                                                                                                                                                          Neh ra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Des u Pea k
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kas u m pti

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Bar ag ao n


                                                                                                                                                                           Raj ha n a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Pan th a gh ati
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Meh li

                                                                                                                                          Shi lg ao n
                                                                                                                                                                                          Shy ar


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 N


                                                                                                                                                         Pat iu d                                                 Beo li




                                                                                                       Sho g h i

                                                                          Kh aw ar C h au ki




                                                                                                                                        1                      0                      1                   2                     3                   4                   5                6             7 Kilo me ters


                (Source: Town and Country Planning Department, GoHP)                                                                                                                                                                             (M ap pre pare d b y H .P . S tat e E nv ironm en t P rote ction & P ollution Co ntrol B oa rd, G o HP )




                         Figure 7.1 Existing Landuse Pattern of Shimla Planning Area




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               53
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan


Table 7.2 Area details of Shimla Planning Area
                                                                                                                            % of
                                                                         Area (in                % of urban
  S. N.                            Land Use                                                                               Planning
                                                                         Hectare)                   area
                                                                                                                            Area
 1         Residential                                                            903.13                   61.19                9.07
 2         Commercial                                                                 25.22                  1.71                       0.25
 3         Industrial                                                                  9.00                  0.62                       0.09
 4         Tourism                                                                    21.70                  1.47                       0.22
 5         Public & semi- public                                                  138.78                     9.40                       1.39
 6         Parks & open spaces                                                         6.00                  0.41                       0.06
 7         Traffic and Transportation                                             371.93                   25.20                        3.75
                                                     Sub total                   1475.76                 100.00
 8         Agriculture                                                           2174.75                                            21.85
 9         Forest                                                                6080.15                                            61.12
 10        Water bodies and undevelopable                                         219.34                                                2.20
           land
                             Grand Total                                         9950.00                                          100.00



 7.4.2    Shimla Development Plan
          For planned and regulated development of Shimla Planning Area, Shimla
          Development Plan 2021 has been prepared and is awaiting notification from
          GoHP. The proposed landuse as per Shimla Development Plan is as follows

                                                               Landuse - Existing and Proposed


                       2500

                                                                                                                  2006
                                   2124
                                                                                                                  2021
                       2000




                       1500
            Hectares




                       1000   903.13



                                                                                                                               484.93
                       500                                                                                                371.93
                                                                                               274.28
                                                                                          138.78
                                                                                 88
                                            25.2256.13    9    17         21.7                              6   32
                         0
                              Residential   Commercial   Industrial       Tourism        Public & Semi   Parks & Open      Traffic and
                                                                                            Public           Areas       Transportation
                                                                          Landuse



                              Figure 7.2 Proposed Landuse Pattern of Shimla Planning Area




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                               54
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                         Shimla City Development Plan


                                                       Landuse - Existing and Proposed

                             7000
                                                            6080.15    6038.62
                             6000

                             5000

          Area in Hectares   4000
                                                                                                                2006
                                                                                                                2021
                             3000
                                     2174.75
                             2000

                             1000              615.7
                                                                                            219.34 219.34
                                0
                                       Agriculture                  Forest                Water Bodies and
                                                                                         Undevelopable Land
                                                                   Landuse
                                Figure 7.3 Proposed Landuse Pattern of Shimla Planning Area

        To regulate future urban development and consequent growth, the Shimla
        Development Plan proposes:

                    Development of nodes on the periphery of the city on Chandigarh,
                     Rampur and Bilaspur Highways
                    Development of commercial activity centers at Ganahatti, Mehli, Kufri,
                     Fagu and Mashobra area
                    Encouragement to industrial activities restricted only to green industries
                    Interconnection to proposed nodes and activity centers through well-laid
                     networks of road and city bus service

7.4.3   Zoning Regulations
        The IDP and Draft Shimla Development Plan specifies zoning regulations
        applicable to landuse zone, uses permitted, non conforming use of land and
        structures, maximum size of plot, plot coverage, maximum number of storeys,
        set backs and density of development. The salient features of zoning regulations
        are as follows:

                    The minimum area of residential plot is 150sqm, where new subdivision
                     of land is effected
                    The maximum numbers of storeys permitted are four except Jakhoo
                     Complex and sinking/sliding zone. In Jakhoo complex, three storeyed
                     constructions is permitted; where as single storey construction is
                     permitted in sinking/sliding zones




    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                    55
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan


7.5   PLANNING ISSUES IN DEVELOPMENT OF HILL AREA
       Development pattern of Shimla is governed by its topographical constraints
        like steep slopes, elongated hilly spurs, forest areas, and zones of perpetual
        sunshades. Due to extremely limited vehicular accessibility and dependence on
        pedestrian movement, development of Shimla is concentrated in limited area
       The Ridge and southern slopes are more amenable for development due to
        gradual slopes and sunny side. Thus all major landuses are located on southern
        slopes of Shimla
       Shimla is facing the problems typically faced by any hilly region like soil
        erosion, flooding of foothills, scarcity of buildable land, emergence of linear
        urban corridors, inaccessibility of certain areas, uneven development of urban
        system
       The high growth of population coupled with the floating population is exerting
        heavy pressure on existing infrastructure and also leading to encroachments,
        unauthorized constructions, construction activities not incompatible with
        traditional culture and heritage of the city
       Poor enforcement of zoning regulations


7.6   VISION AND STRATEGY
      Because of natural endowment, Shimla is ecologically rich and has large economic
      potential, which needs to be utilized in sustainable manner. For hill town like
      Shimla, a conservation oriented integrated development approach is more suitable
      for planning and development, which can protect the hill ecosystem and promote
      development in environmentally sustainable manner.

      Development approach for Shimla hill area should emphasize on
          Planned development of tourism activities for sustainable economy
          Rational urban settlement system for efficient functioning of capital city
          Optimal utilization and development of resources in ecologically sustainable
           manner




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         56
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                            Shimla City Development Plan




       Service sector                     Economy                            Ecology
         (Administrative &                 (Tourism)                    (Hilly Characteristics)
         Capital Function)




        Decentralize                    Capitalize                     Retain


          Shifting of capital          Increase duration of            Retain green cover
           functions                     stay
                                                                         Protection of natural
          Relocation of non            Implement heritage               drains
           conforming                    master plan
                                                                         Protection for
           activities
                                        Better tourist                   landslides
          Development       of          infrastructure
                                                                         Improved SWM
           nodes
           Towns)
                     (Satellite
                                        Improved public
                                         transport system
          Access to basic
           infrastructure

                 Figure 7.4 Planning Strategies for Shimla Planning Area


The identified interventions include:
 Renewal of Core Area

  The most important area of improvement for a rapidly growing city is its core
   area. Efforts should be made to decongest the core areas through selective
   relocation of non conforming activities like timber market, transport hub,
   wholesale grain market, wholesale vegetable market, bus stand. SMC/GoHP
   would need to identify land in the peripheral areas and provide space for re-
   location
  All the State Government offices and institutions in heritage buildings may be
   shifted to new location. The buildings and associated spaces presently holding
   the above activities can be effectively used for tourism activities and earn
   sizable income to the state revenue
  This would require Preparation of Area Development Plans with urban
   renewal as the main theme and development of new guidelines for the Core
   Area for the future development


 Decentralized Planning

  Development of growth centers/development nodes like township in
   periurban area




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             57
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                       Shimla City Development Plan


 Better Landuse Planning

  The boundary of Shimla Municipal Corporation was demarcated three
   decades back and areas outside municipal limits had rapidly grown and have
   become part of urban development. These areas have grown in haphazard
   manner without adequate infrastructure. Recently municipal boundary has
   been revised to include three SADA areas. The boundary should be revised
   every ten years to keep pace with development of Shimla Planning Area
  For integrated area development, District Planning Committee as required
   under 74th CAA should be constituted. The DPC should consolidate the
   plans prepared for SPA with other plans prepared by panchayats in the district
   taking into consideration common interests of various stakeholders including
   spatial planning, sharing of water and other physical and natural resources,
   and the integrated development of infrastructure and environmental
   conservation
  Shimla Urban Planning Authority (SUPA) may be constituted for Shimla
   Planning Area. SUPA should prepare regional Master Plan/Detailed
   Development Plan for Shimla Planning Area. This agency should be well
   equipped with necessary capacity, in terms of both skills and supporting
   legislations, for effective planning and management. The efforts of this agency
   must be systematically coordinated with those of SMC
  Unified Traffic and Transport Authority (UTTA) may be constituted for the
   Shimla Planning Area. UTTA should prepare and implement Comprehensive
   Traffic and Transportation Plan for Shimla Planning Area. This agency shall
   act as nodal agency for effective planning development and management of
   transportation plan
  Institutional Capacity Building in terms of using GIS and remote sensing tools
   in mapping and planning


 Information Base

  It is recommended to generate a spatial database for SPA and this database
   could be used as a tool for the sustainable land use planning




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                      58
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                            Shimla City Development Plan


7.7       SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN
                                                                                      (Rs. Lakhs)
          S.N Project                            Project               Investment Schedule
                                                 Cost6   2007       2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
            1      Renewal of Core
                   Area7                                  -     -       -         -       -        -          -
            2      Development        of
                                    8
                   nodes/townships                        -     -       -         -       -        -          -
            3      GIS based spatial
                   database                            500      -    250       250        -        -          -
            4      Capacity Building on
                   GIS based planning                 500       -    100       100     100      100         100
                                  Total              1000       -    350       350     100      100         100




6
  at current price
7
  project cost considered separately under respective sector
8
  project cost considered under housing sector
         INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                    59
         CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


7.8   PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS
      Project Title: Renewal of Core Area

      Project Description: Renewal of Core Area is proposed to be implemented for entire
      Core Area. Core Area is defined as an area delimited by Cart Road. The renewal of Core
      Area shall include
             Shifting of non conforming activities like timber market, wholesale vegetable
              market, wholesale grain market, transport hub, bus stand, slaughter house and
              relocation of these activities in periurban areas
             Shifting and relocation of State Government Offices from Heritage Buildings in
              Mall area; revitalization of these buildings for appropriate adaptive reuse
             Reconstruction of Tibetan market with traditional Tibetan architect
             Rehabilitation and refurbishment of water supply and sewerage network
             Cleaning, rehabilitation and lining of drainage system
             Strengthening and upgradation of walkways and staircases
             Improvement in street lighting
             Construction, restoration and rehabilitation of retaining walls

      Project Benefits:
             Reduce congestion
             Improvement in service delivery
             Improvement in environmental conditions

      Project Cost : Project cost considered separately under respective sector

      Revenue Sources :

      Implementation Structure: SMC and GoHP shall implement the relocation and
      rehabilitation of non- conforming activities. Construction components related to urban
      renewal shall be implemented by SMC on EPC contract

      Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by the SMC and GoHP using funds
      to raised through grant under JNNURM and State and ULB contribution through
      budgetary source/loans; O&M cost to be recovered from user charges of service utilities
      and property tax

      Time Frame: March 2008

      Institutional Responsibility: SMC, GoHP and Private Operator

      Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
         Preparation of DPR
      Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
            Preparation of Area Development Plan for Core Area with urban renewal as the
             main theme
            Development of new guidelines for the Core Area for the future development
            Relocation and rehabilitation policy for the Project Affected People for each
             activity to be relocated
      Additional Studies:



      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            60
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                             Shimla City Development Plan



8     WATER SUPPLY
8.1   INTRODUCTION
      Water supply system of Shimla was established in 1875 to serve the population of
      20,000. The water supply system was designed on pumping from nearby stream
      with the help of engineering structures. Today, water supply is one of the major
      impediments in the growth and development of Shimla. This chapter provides
      overview of the water supply system, its delivery performance, issues and strategy
      for improvement in water supply.


8.2   POLICY, LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
      Shimla Municipal Corporation (SMC) and Department of Irrigation and Public
      Health (I&PH) are responsible for water supply to Shimla city. I&PH provides
      treated bulk water to SMC for local supply and distribution.

      The role of I&PH is development of water related infrastructures for drinking
      water supply schemes, sewerage systems, irrigation systems through source
      development, lifting water, boring of tube wells & providing distribution systems
      and flood protection works to protect life and property in the state.

      Presently, I&PH is involved in sourcing the water, treatment of water, and
      transmission of water through raising and gravity mains to storage reservoirs. The
      I&PH is also responsible for operation and maintenance of these systems.

      I&PH supplies bulk water to SMC, which in turns distributes the water to
      domestic and commercial connections. SMC is responsible for releasing water
      connections, reading of water m., billing and receipt posting besides collection of
      water charges, attending public grievances.

8.3   SOURCES OF WATER
      SMC meets its water demand for Shimla city from the bulk water supply from
      I&PH provided at subsidized rates. I&PH has set up pumping stations near five
      main sources of water with standby tube wells operated during lean period. The
      history of water source development for Shimla is presented in the box on next
      page. The details of the bulk water supply by I&PH for Shimla City are presented
      in Table 8.1.




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                      61
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                          Shimla City Development Plan




    HISTORY OF WATER SOURCE DEVELOPMENT OF SHIMLA

       First water supply scheme: 4.54 MLD, was implemented to utilize the
        water from the storage reservoir of 10.92 million liters (located at 12.85
        km. from Shimla), which stores water from spring sources from Dhalli
        Catchment Area, during 1875 to support a population of 16,000

       1st Augmentation (year 1914): Subsequently, to fulfill the growing
        need of the city and the tourists, the first augmentation of Shimla Water
        Supply Scheme by provision of pump sets near Cherot Nallah (year
        1889) and Jagroti Nallah (year 1914) to tap 4.80 MLD of water at source

       2nd Augmentation (year 1914): The second augmentation of Shimla
        Water Supply Scheme (year 1914) was implemented by installation of 2
        pump sets at Chair Nallah to tap 2.50 MLD of water at source

       3rd Augmentation (year 1924): The third augmentation of Shimla
        Water Supply Scheme was commissioned during the year 1924 to tap
        7.72 MLD of water from Nauti Khad with further upgradation of
        pumps at various stages.

       4th Augmentation (year 1981-82): The fourth augmentation of Shimla
        Water Supply Scheme was installation of pump sets at Gumma and
        Darabla to tap additional 16.34 MLD of water at source. Today, the
        system is designed to lift 24.06 MLD of water at source

       5th Augmentation (year 1992): The fifth augmentation of Shimla
        Water Supply Scheme was commissioned in April 1992 designed to
        pump 10.80 MLD of water at two stage lifting at Ashwani Khad and at
        Kawalag




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           62
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                            Shimla City Development Plan




Table 8.1 Details of Sources of Water for Shimla City
 S.N. Source      Transmis             Year    Installed   Quantity   Supply to SMC
      Name      / sion Type            of      Capacity    of Water   (MLD)
      River Name                       Start   (MLD)       Produce    Non     Lean
                                                           d          Lean    Period
                                                           (MLD)      Period
             Dhalli
  1        Catchment         Gravity   1875       4.54       1.80       0.23       0.20
              Area
            Cherot /                              4.80       3.86       3.86       2.65
  2                          Pumping   1914
         Jagroti Nallah
  3       Chair Nallah       Pumping   1914       2.50       3.00       2.50       1.42

                                       1924
          Nauti Khad
  4                          Pumping    &        24.06       19.75      24.06     16.80
           (Gumma)
                                       1982


  5      Ashwani Khad        Pumping   1992      10.06       10.80      10.80      6.30

          Sub Total                              36.62       33.55      37.36     24.52
        Tube Wells –10
  6                                                                                2.63
             no.
            Total                                                                 30.00


The combined design capacity of the sources is45.96 MLD, although the present
yield is limited to 39.21 MLD (from the five sources) due to technical problems.
Presently, 27.37 MLD of treated water from main sources is supplied to SMC and
2.63 MLD from tube wells during the lean period. The total water supplied to the
city is 33.00 MLD. Figure 8.1 shows the sources of water for Shimla city




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           63
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan

                                                                               Year of Start            1914
                                                                               Installed Capacity        2.50
                                                                               (MLD)
                                                                               Quantity Produced         3.00
                                                                               (MLD)
                                                                               Supply     Non Lean       2.50   Chair Nallah
                                                                               to         Period
                                                                               SMC
                                                                                          Lean Period    1.42
                             Year of Start            1914                     (MLD)

                             Installed Capacity        4.80
                             (MLD)
                             Quantity Produced         3.86                                                             Year of Start             1924
                             (MLD)
                             Supply     Non Lean       3.86                             Craignano                       Installed Capacity        24.06
                             to         Period                                                                          (MLD)
                                                                                                                        Quantity Produced         19.75
                             SMC
                                        Lean Period    2.65                                                             (MLD)
                             (MLD)                                                                                      Supply     Non Lean       24.06
                                                                                                                        to         Period
                                                                                                  Mashobra
                                                                                                                        SMC
                                                                                                                                   Lean Period    16.80
                                                                                                                        (MLD)



                                                      Mansfield                                                                 Nauti Khud
                                                                         Sanjauli
                                                                                               Cherot Nallah
                                                              Ridge

                                                                          Kasumpti

                                                                                                                Dhalli
                                                                              Ashwani Khud                      Year of Start            1875
                                                                                                                Installed Capacity         4.54
                                                                                                                (MLD)
                                                                                                                Quantity Produced          1.80
                                                                                                                (MLD)
                                                                                                                Supply     Non Lean        0.23
                                                              Year of Start              1992                   to         Period
                                                                                                                SMC
                                                              Installed Capacity         10.06                             Lean Period     0.20
                                                                                                                (MLD)
                                                              (MLD)
                                                              Quantity Produced          10.80
                                                              (MLD)                                                              Sources
                                                              Supply     Non Lean        10.80
                                                              to         Period                                                 Reservoir
                                                              SMC
                                                                         Lean Period       6.30
                                                              (MLD)
                                                        Figure 8.1 Sources of water for Shimla Planning Area

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                                                    64
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                         Shimla City Development Plan


8.4   TREATMENT OF WATER
      The water lifted from the five main sources is treated at the source itself using rapid
      sand filters and chlorination before transmission by I&PH. The treated water
      sample test indicates that the physicochemical quality of water is safe for drinking
      purposes.


8.5   PRESENT TRANSMISSION AND STORAGE CAPACITIES
      The treated water is conveyed to storage reservoirs by pumping at various stages
      though raising and gravity mains. Figure 8.2 shows the existing water supply system
      in Shimla. The details of the pump-sets, raising and gravity mains are presented in
      Table No. 8.2.
      Table 8.2 Details of Pumps, Raising & Gravity mains of Bulk Water Supply
        S.N   Source Name /         Name of the          Total   Head      Details of Pumps and
        .     River Name            Head Works           Head    (m)       year of Installation
                                                         (m)
        1     Dhalli Catchment      17 Sources                              No pumps due to gravity
              Area
        2     Cherot / Jagroti      Cherot Pumping                 400               265 BHP (1928)
              Nallah                Station                                          495 BHP (1963)
                                                                                      600 HP (1983)
                                                           800
                                                                                      600 HP (1998)
                                    Jagroti Pumping                400      2 no. of 350 BHP (1974)
                                    Station
        3     Chair Nallah          Chair Nallah           950     950             165 HP (1913-14)
                                                                              2 no. of 670 HP (1996)
        4     Nauti          Khad   Gumma        Stage    1440    1440              1850 BHP (1963)
              (Gumma)               Pumping                                   3 no. 1850 BHP (1994-
                                                                                                 99)
                                    1st   Stage     at    1440     720      4 no. of 925 BHP (1981-
                                    Gumma                                                        82)
                                    2nd   Stage     at             720      4 no. of 925 BHP (1981-
                                    Darabla                                                      82)
        5     Ashwani Khad          1st   Stage     at             403      4 no. of 575 BHP (1992)
                                    Ashwani Khad
                                    2nd   stage     at             407      4 no. of 575 BHP (1992)
                                                           965
                                    Kawalag
                                    3rd   stage     at             155         2 no. 350 BHP (1992)
                                    Kasumpti




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                   65
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan




                             Figure 8.2 Existing Water Supply system of Shimla




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                66
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan




      Storage Reservoirs: The SMC is being served water from 11 major reservoirs
      having a total capacity of 36.95 ML. In addition to the above 11 major reservoirs,
      28 minor reservoirs having a total capacity of 5.8 ML are also available for
      distribution of water. The details of the storage reservoirs and its distribution
      network are presented in Table No. 8.3.
      Table 8.3 Details of Storage Reservoirs and Distribution Network
          S.N              NAME OF THE STORAGE                       CAPACITY (ML)
                                   RESERVOIR
           1         Craignano                                           3.00
           2         Sanjauli                                            8.78
           3         Ridge                                               4.63
           4         Mansfield                                           3.63
           5         Mashobra                                            3.00
           6         Seog                                               10.90
           7         Kasumpti                                            2.00
           8         Kasumpti                                            0.22
           9         Vice Regal Lodge                                    0.23
           10        Jakhoo                                              0.32
           11        Boileauganj                                         0.24
           12                                        Total              36.95

8.6   LOCAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM:
      The city is divided into 16 water supply distribution zones and the details of the
      zones are presented in Table 8.4.
      Table 8.4 Details of the Zones and Areas covered under the local distribution
                system
          NAME OF                                   AREA COVERED
         THE ZONE
        Sanjauli          Sanjauli Bazaar, Engine Ghar, Nav Bahar, Snowdown, Jakhoo,
                          Pumping Station, Grand Hotel, Shankli, Scandal, Sangti
        Bharari           Bharari, Harvington, Kuftu, Anu, Bermu, etc
        Ridge             Telegraph office, Krishna Nagar, Sabzi Mandi, Ripon, Lalpani, Western
                          Command, Ram Bazaar, Middle bazaar
        High-court        Lower High Court area, Parades Garden, Kalong, Talland
        BCS               BCS, Khalini, Forest Colony
        Mansfield         Mansfield to Marina, Secretariat, Chhota Shimla bazaar, Brock Hurst
                          upto Govt. School
        Kasumpti          Kasumpti Colony, Lower Brock Hurst, Patti Rehana, Patina Mehli,
                          Pantha Ghati, Patelog
        A G Office        Kaithu, Annandale, Kavi, AG Office, Ram nagar Vidhan Sabha,
                          Chaura Maidan, Tuti Kandi, Kumar House, Raj Bhavan, Ava Lodge,
                          Labour Bureau, Kenndy House, Win Gate
        Viceregal         Institute of Advanced Studies, Tilak Nagar, Ghora Chowk, Hanuman
        Lodge             Temple
        University        University Complex, Summer Hill, Govt. Quarters, Shiva Mandir
        Kamna Devi        Hill Spur of Kamna Devi, Forest Colony

      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            67
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


          NAME OF                                   AREA COVERED
         THE ZONE
        Chakkar           Sandal Hill, Tara Devi, Shoghi
        Tutu              Tutu Bazaar, Jutogh, Dhamida, Fatenchi
        Kufri             Kufri bazaar, Holiday Resort Complex, Wild Flower, Chinni
                          Bungalow, ITBP Colony, Fair Lawns
        Mashobra          Mashobra Bazaar, Craignano, Retreat, Jungle Mashobra Sipur
        Dhalli            Dhalli Bazaar, HRTC workshop, Dhingu Devi, Pumping Station for
                          higher belt of Sanjauli area


      The local distribution system of core area of Shimla is more than 100 years old. The
      new network system laid is not well interconnected to old network in absence of
      information on the layout of old network. The network is also characterized by
      heavy leakages, multiple pipes along the same alignment, network passing through
      natural drainages and road side drainages, crossing of network with sewerage
      network.




                                   Figure 8.3 Water Supply Pipelines


8.7   SERVICE COVERAGE:
      Total 41060 taps connections are provided. About 63% of the connections are
      private while the rest account for public connections. Water is supplied for around
      60 to 90 minutes everyday in non-lean period and for around 45 minutes on
      alternate days during lean period. The details of water supply consumer connections
      are presented in Table 8.5. The details of performance indicators are tabulated in
      Table 8.6.
      Table 8.5 Details of Consumer Connections
            S.N                 Head                 Number of Taps             %
             1          Private                          25800                95.70%
             2          Public                             200                 0.74%
             3          Hand Pumps                          38                 0.14%
             4          Tank & Others                      920                 3.41%
                                            Total        26958               100.00%

      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             68
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                       Shimla City Development Plan


          Table 8.6 Water Supply Performance Indicators
           S.N. Indicator                                              Current Situation
             1  Per Capita Supply at production end during lean period            94
                (LPCD)
             2  Per Capital Supply at consumer end during lean period             47
                (LPCD)
             3  T & D losses/ Total Supply                                      >30%
             4  Supply Frequency                                            45 minutes on
                                                                        alternate days in lean
                                                                       period and 90 minutes
                                                                          daily on non-lean
                                                                                period
             5  Storage Capacity Adequacy ratio (% of Net supply)               123%


8.8       WATER DEMAND AND DEFICIT
  8.8.1     Present Water Demand
            The present water requirement per day for Shimla City during peak tourist
            season for a total population of 2,84,635 @ 140 lpcd is 39.85 MLD as against
            the supply of 33 MLD. Thus, there is deficit of water supply of about 7 MLD,
            which increases to 17 MLD during summer due to shortfall because of failure
            of snow or rain in previous winter. Therefore, the average shortfall in water
            supply is 12 MLD as on today.


  8.8.2     Future Water Demand
            At current growth of existing and floating population, the water requirement of
            Shimla City and its surrounding areas is expected to be 105.66 MLD for the
            horizon year 2037, which creates a huge gap between present supply and
            expected demand. To bridge this gap between the future water demand of
            105.66 MLD and present water supply of 33 MLD, 72.66 MLD of water has to
            be sourced. The estimation of water requirement is presented in Table 8.7.
          Table 8.7 Estimation of Future Water Demand
                                                                                         Water
                                                          Total          Rate of
                                                                                     Requirement
                      Nature of Population            Population consumption
                                                                                        Million
                                                          (no.)       (liters/day)
                                                                                     (liters/day)
          Permanent Population                              415497               150         62.32
          Floating Population                               239398               100         23.94
          General requirement for various purposes other than residents.
          a) Schools 48 no. @ 450 students / school          21600                45          0.97
          b) Community Centres 21 no. @ 200 each              4200                45          0.19
          c) 3 Service Industries @ 100 vehicles each           300               45          0.01
          d) Zonal Commercial Centres 3 no. @ 1500
          each                                                4500                45          0.20
          e) Hospitals 9 no. with 100 bed each                  900              450          0.41
          f) Colleges 6 no. with average strength 800         4800                45          0.22

      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                 69
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


                                                                                  Water
                                                       Total        Rate of
                                                                              Requirement
                  Nature of Population               Population consumption
                                                                                 Million
                                                       (no.)     (liters/day)
                                                                              (liters/day)
       students each
       g) Special Public Institutions 8 no. @ 1000
       each                                                8000             45           0.36
       h) Cantonment area                                  3000            150           0.41
       i) Multipurpose Cultural complexes                   250             45           0.01
       j) Railway stations 3 no. for 1st-6000, II-
       2000 & III-1000                                     9000              45          0.41
       k) Parking-cum-commercial areas 5 no. @
       50 each                                              250             45           0.01
       l) University Complex 1No.                          5000            150           0.75
       m) Milk processing plant optimum capacity
       100001st. Milk. (Complex Processing)               10000           10             0.10
                                                                    Sub Total           90.30
       Adding for wastage @ 2% for backwashing
       of filter beds                                                                    1.81
       Adding 15% on account of losses in
       conveyance mains etc                                                             13.55
                                                                  Grand Total          105.66
       Water available from existing schemes                                               33
       Net water requirement for the year 2037                                          72.66
      Source: I&PH Department


8.9   WATER CHARGES
      The water charges notified by SMC for domestic and commercial connections are
      classified based on the quantity of water consumed under different slabs. Table 8.8
      presents the water charges in Shimla City. In 2003, the water charges were revised
      from flat rates to slab rates and since then, the charges are revised annually over
      past three years. One time connection fee of Rs. 2,000/-and Rs. 5,000/- are
      collected for new domestic, and commercial connections respectively.
      Table 8.8 Municipal Water Charges
                      Usage                 Charges (Rs. per 1000 litre)
        Type       of
                      1000      2003-04              2004-05              2005-06
        Connection
                      Liter per Upto      After      upto       After
                      month     06.10.03 06.10.03    06.10.04 06.10.04 Till date
                         0-30        2.50       3.50      3.50       3.85      3.85
         Residential    30-75        2.50       5.00      5.00       5.50      5.50
                         >75         2.50       7.50      7.50       8.25      8.25
                         0-30       10.50     15.00      15.00      16.50     16.50
        Commercial      30-75       10.50     20.00      20.00      22.00     22.00
                         >75        10.50     27.50      27.50      30.25     30.25
        Construction      >0          NA        NA        NA        30.25     30.25




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             70
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                         Shimla City Development Plan


8.10   COST OF WATER AND SUBSIDY ON WATER
       The main source of funding for urban water supplies is by charging the end user of
       water. I&PH, which produces water at Rs. 35 per KL, supplies SMC bulk water at
       the rate of Rs. 8.80 per KL. SMC is charging Rs. 3.85 per KL of water for
       domestic purposes even though SMC incurs an additional cost of Rs. 6.50 per KL
       towards operation and maintenance costs. Table 8.9 indicates that there is subsidy
       of the 90.72 % in urban water supply of Shimla.
       Table 8.9 Water Cost and Water Charges
        S. N.      Description                                             Cost (Rs. per 1000 L)
            1      Production cost of water incurred by I&PH                          35.00
                   department
            2      Supply of Bulk water to SMC                                         8.80
            3      Subsidy rate for Bulk Water Supply (Item 1- Item 2)                26.20
            4      Operation and Maintenance Costs incurred by SMC                     6.50
            5      Water Charges for domestic water supply                             3.85
            6      Cost Incurred by SMC (Item 2 + Item 4)                             15.30
            7      Subsidy rate for domestic water supply (Item 6 –                   11.45
                   Item 5)
            8      Total Cost of Production of Water (Item 1+ Item                    41.50
                   4)
            9      Total Subsidy (Item 3 + Item 7)                                    37.65
                   % Subsidy                                                        90.72%



8.11   UNACCOUNTED FOR WATER
       Unaccounted for Water (UFW) due to
       physical and administrative losses in the
       system, lead to loss of revenue. Physical
       losses are due to leakage from old,
       damaged, corroded pipe lines/ connections
       and leaking joints and overflow at
       overhead tanks. Public taps also cause
       significant waste of treated water.
       Administrative losses are due to theft,
       illegal tapping of water-unregistered
       connections, faulty m. and unrecorded
       supply due to poor records and billing
       errors. The study conducted by National
       Environmental Engineering Research
       Institute (NEERI) in 1986 established the
       leakages more than 45%.


       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                  71
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan


       In order to reduce leakages and improve performance of existing system, there is a
       need to conduct a leak detection study of the water supply network and develop
       sufficient and reliable database regarding the water supply systems. Good
       information base, willingness to follow-up on systematic replacement of leaking
       pipes, defective meters and connections as well as tariff revisions, etc are critical to
       the success of the water supply scheme.

       Water Supply through tanker Lorries: The
       hotels and restaurants in Shimla City have
       engaged private tanker lorries to tap spring
       water or water from nallahs in neighbouring
       areas. The consultation with hoteliers
       engaged in such practice, indicated that the
       cost for availing such water is about Rs.
       3000 per month to meet their water
       requirements. This shows the affordability to pay for water.


8.12   ISSUES AND ASPECTS
           Inadequate Water Sources: The available water sources as listed in Table 8.1
            have been tapped to the maximum extent possible. All water sources available
            nearby have been utilized and present water sources are inadequate. One of the
            water sources available in abundance nearby is River Satluj, which is found to
            be not suitable due to heavy silt content. Therefore, there is need to explore
            and develop additional water sources to meet the current and future water
            demand

           Leakage of Water: Physical and administrative losses to the extent of more
            than 35% causes revenue loss, and it is one of the reason for inadequate water
            supply at tail end in certain areas

           Service delivery: Only 57% of the households in Shimla Planning Area have
            private water supply pipe connections. The distribution time is only 45 to 90
            minutes and depends upon the water pressure in the network. The supply is
            also characterized by low pressure

           Cost of Production of Water: The cost of production of water incurred by
            I&PH is Rs. 35 per 1000 litre is very high. This is due to high energy cost to
            raise water to head of about 1470 m.

           Heavy subsidy on Water Supply: The cost of production of water and water
            charges from end users in Shimla does not match. The water supply has been
            highly subsidized to the extent of 90.72 % for domestic water. The subsidy is
            very high for urban water supply. Also, the water charge of SMC is not
            commensurate with operation and maintenance cost of water supply systems


       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             72
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan


           Loss of Revenue due to merger of Special Area: SMC used to collect Rs. 13
            per KL for water supply to areas outside municipal limits. With merger of three
            special areas of Dhalli, Tutu, New Shimla in municipal limits, the SMC will
            have to charge notified rates as result causing loss of revenue from water
            supply
8.13   VISION AND GOALS


                 “Provision of Adequate Quantity of Safe Water to all”


                           DESCRIPTION                     2006     2011     2016     2021
        Water supply liters per capita per day (Average)   100      150      150      150
        Transmission and distribution losses (%)           >30       20       10       10
        % Population Covered                                90      100      100      100
        % Area Covered                                      90      100      100      100
        Total supply/ storage capacity                     1.23     >1        >1       >1
        No. of hours of supply (Lean Period)               0.75      1        1.5       2
        Treatment capacity                                 100      100      100      100

8.14   STRATEGY AND IDENTIFICATION OF INTERVENTIONS
            The water supply system for Shimla is unbundled system as:

             Bulk Water Supply: Bulk Water Supply would comprise of abstraction of
              water from source, treatment and transmission to the bulk consumers

             Local Supply: Local supply would comprise of distribution, supply of
              water to end consumer, billing and collection of revenue

       A phased approach is to be implemented simultaneously to remove the operational
       efficiencies and meet the water demand. The Phase 1 shall provide short-term
       solution of augmenting water supply through realization of additional water through
       reduction in losses. The Phase 1 would involve improving the performance of
       existing system through rehabilitation and upgradation. The Phase II shall address
       the augmentation of water supply through exploration of new sources like river
       Pabbar to meet medium and long-term requirements.

       Rehabilitation and Upgradation of main water distribution network of
       Shimla Planning Area
       Rehabilitation of entire water production, transmission and distribution system is
       warranted with an objective of reducing losses, improving water quality and
       pressure. It would also include enhancing coverage to slum areas, public standposts
       and conversion of un-authorized connections to authorized connections.
       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            73
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan


       The incremental revenue generation due to efficiency gain can offset the revenue
       loss from merger of special areas and may be leveraged to raise the investment
       required for expansion and augmentation.

       Augmentation of water supply distribution system for SADA Areas
       Augmentation of water supply and distribution system is required for provision of
       water supply to newly merged areas of Dhalli, New Shimla and Tutu and special
       areas of Ghanahatti, Kufri, and Shoghi. This shall include provision of water
       storage system and laying of new distribution pipelines.

       Augmentation of Water Sources
       The water demand of Shimla for year 2021 and 2037 is 62.78 MLD and 105.66
       MLD respectively. To meet the water demand of Shimla city, the following
       interventions are identified:

                a. Augmentation of existing water source from Nauti Khad
                b. Augmentation of water supply scheme for Shimla city from river Giri
                c. Sourcing of water from river Pabbar

       GoHP has undertaken augmentation scheme for Nauti Khad and River Giri for
       implementation as an immediate and short-term measure.

       Rainwater Harvesting
       In order to tackle the water scarcity problem of Shimla, the strategy should aim at
       conservation of water through rooftop rainwater harvesting and creation of water
       bodies/storage tanks at suitable locations along the hill slopes through
       construction of check dams. Roof top rainwater has been made mandatory in new
       buildings and hotel through local bylaws.

       Water Monitoring Cell
       I&PH and SMC shall have a specialized wing for monitoring of water supply that
       shall carry out regular undertake water loss monitoring through leak detections and
       surveillance of administrative losses. This shall go a long way in prevention of loss
       of water. Water monitoring cell should be provided with automation system
       including conducting GIS survey and mapping, digital control panels, electronic
       bulk m., sluice valves, digital display system etc.
8.15   PROPOSED IMPLEMENTATION FRAMEWORK


       In order to improve efficiency and attract private investment, it is recommended
       that GoHP and SMC implement water management programme for Shimla on
       Public Private Partnership format through Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV).

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           74
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                         Shimla City Development Plan


The SPV shall develop and implement projects by entering through separate EPC
and O&M contracts/Management Contract/ Service Contract with private sector.


The Phase 1 related to rehabilitation of existing system may be implemented on
the short-term management contract of 5 years for management with rehabilitation
investment from SPV with eligible grant-in-aid support from GoI and GoHP. The
management contract shall address the following:

      Identifying short-term measures to improve efficiency

      Undertake condition assessment

      Formulate and implement programme for improvement of service levels

      Training of staff in operation and maintenance of the water supply system

      Oversight EPC contractor appointed for undertaking rehabilitation and
       expansion programme

Subsequently, SPV can induct operator on long-term contract for management,
operation and maintenance of the system.

The Pabbar River Based Bulk Water Supply Scheme can be structured on Separate
EPC and O&M Contract.

The SPV should be responsible for project development and induction of private
sector contractors and/or operators for implementation, supervision and
monitoring of project.




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         75
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan




8.16   SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN
       The investment plan for Integrated Water Supply Project for Shimla Planning Area
       to meet the mid term (year 2021) demand and to be sufficient enough to cater to
       the long term (year 2036) need is tabulated below. The cost for each of the
       interventions is based on the preliminary cost estimates prepared by various
       engineering departments, which does not include land acquisition cost. The land
       acquisition requirement and costs shall be finalized based on the Detailed Project
       Reports and the investment plan shall be suitably finalized.
                                                                                     (in Rs. Lakhs)
                                          Total
        S.N.     Project                          2007    2008     2009       2010       2011        2012
                                          Cost
          1      Technical     Studies:
                 Master Plans, DPRs
                 and Energy Audit
                 Studies                    500      50     200       100       100             50        -
          2      Rainwater harvesting
                 and             water
                 conservation               240     120     120           -          -           -        -
          3      Augmentation       of
                 water supply scheme
                 for Shimla City from
                 River Pabbar             57954            5797     15000     25000      12157            -
          4      Rehabilitation     of
                 water          supply
                 transmission      and
                 distribution network
                 and
                 augmentation/extens
                 ion of distribution
                 network                   6563     700    2200      2700       963             -         -
          8      Water      Monitoring      300     100      100      100          -             -         -
                 Cell
                 Total                    65557     970    8417     17900     26063       12207           -




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                    76
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                      Shimla City Development Plan


8.17   PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS

        Project Title: Rain Water Harvesting through Roof Top and Check Dams

        Project Description: Rain Water Harvesting is proposed through rooftop measures
        for buildings and creation of water for storages by checkdams along the nallahs. The
        rooftop measures shall be implemented for government and other public buildings in
        Shimla Municipal Corporation and Special Areas The components of the project shall
        include construction of storage tanks and related piping work

        Project Benefits:
               Increases water availability
               Provides control over water source
               Stored rain water from roof tops can be used directly for flushing wash rooms
                and gardening
               Can be source for water for fire hydrants in building premises

        Project Cost: Rs. 240 Lakhs

        Implementation Structure:

        The project shall be implemented by GoHP through I&PH and PWD with financing
        from GoI under JNNURM

        Preparatory Activity for Implementation:


        Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

        Need to create awareness through awareness generation and commitment campaign
        for ensuring effective implementation and long-term sustenance of the initiative.

        Additional Studies:

        Assessment of sites for creation of water bodies, the usage and distribution system




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               77
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan



Project Title: Augmentation of Water Supply Scheme for Shimla City from River
Pabbar

Project Description: To source 52 MLD of water from river Pabbar by I&PH. The
project shall include construction of intake weir, sedimentation tank, sump well, pump
house, treatment plant, filtration plant, pumping stations, rising and gravity mains etc.

Project Benefits:
       Increases water availability

Project Cost: Rs. 57954 Lakhs

Revenue Sources: Water user charges collected by SMC

Implementation Structure: I&PH/SPV shall be responsible for execution of the
required works through EPC contract

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by I&PH/SPV using funds to be
raised through grant under JNNURM

Time Frame:
Project Development: 2007-2008
Implementation: 2008-2011

Institutional Responsibility: I&PH/SPV

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Project development including preparation of detailed feasibility and detailed project
report.

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Revision in water tariff would be required in order to make water supply provisioning
sustainable.

Additional Studies:
      Detailed Project Report for augmentation of water source from river Pabbar




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              78
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan



Project Title: Rehabilitation of water transmission and distribution network and
augmentation/extension of distribution network

Project Description: The project components shall include
(1) Metering: Installation of flow/ bulk m. and m. at consumers end (existing and new
    areas as covered above), and their maintenance for specified number of years (say 5
    years)
(2) Leakage Reduction: Detection and reduction of physical water leakages through
    repair or replacements of network pipelines and ferrules and pipelines for consumer
    connections
(3) Un-authorized Connections: Assessment of numbers of un-authorized connections,
    their location and volume of water consumed; replacing unauthorized connections
    with authorized connections, where required
(4) Connections to Slums: Provide individual or shared connections to slums (slum
    population is around 10% of total population), public stand-posts, etc. as required
(5) Water Treatment Plant Rehabilitation: Rehabilitation of existing WTPs including
    repair/ replacement of pumps, motors, electrical equipment, inlet works, treatment
    works, civil works, etc.
(6) Replacement of the internal water pipe line of the distribution system
(7) Provision for additional service reservoir extension of distribution network to
    periurban areas

Project Benefits:
       Reduces transmission and distribution losses
       Increases coverage of the distribution network
       Increases the capacity of the distribution network
       Improves the credibility of the water charges collection system
Project Cost: Rs. 6863 Lakhs

Revenue Sources: Revenue from increased water realized through leakage reduction

Implementation Structure: SMC/SPV shall be responsible for the execution of the
required works through EPC contract

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by the SMC/SPV using funds to
be raised through grant under JNNURM; O&M cost to be borne by SMC/SPV

Time Frame: Project Development : 2006 ; Implementation :2007- 2010

Institutional Responsibility: I&PH and SMC/SPV

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Project development including preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:
      Preparation of the Comprehensive Water Supply Master Plan for Shimla
       Planning Area which shall include:
        Non revenue water assessment using of flow m. to assess volume of water
           produced and consumed/ lost at various points in the system
        Assessment of numbers of un-authorized connections
        Energy audit studies
INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                79
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan



9     SEWERAGE SYSTEM
9.1   INTRODUCTION
      Sewerage system is as important as the water supply system and forms an integral
      part of environmental character of a city. Sewage treatment facilities of Shimla
      have been substantially improved over the years to cater to future demand.

9.2   POLICY, REGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK


      I&PH and SMC are responsible for provision of sewerage system and related
      services in SPA. I&PH is involved in planning, construction, operation &
      maintenance of sewerage collection, treatment and disposal system. SMC maintains
      domestic and commercial connections from the door end to the main sewer lines,
      billing and collection and attending to citizen‟s grievances.

9.3   SEWERAGE SYSTEM
      Shimla Municipal Area has a well-laid underground sewerage system and is
      maintained by I&PH. The first sewerage network was laid in the year 1880 to serve
      a population of 18000. In year 2005, under the assistance from OPEC and state
      funding, a new sewerage network for Shimla was designed and implemented to
      cater the demand for year 2031. Figure 9.1 shows the sewerage system of Shimla


9.4   NETWORK COVERAGE
      The network of new sewerage system in Shimla is about 179 km and diameter of
      sewer pipes ranges from 150 mm to 800 mm. The new network of main sewer
      lines are shown in Figure 9.1. The network covers 90% of municipal area serving
      upto 80% of population. Special Areas, which are now merged in SMC, are
      without any sewerage network. Table 9.1 presents the performance indicators of
      the sewerage system.
      Table 9.1 Performance Indicators
                                                                          Special Areas of
                                            SMC     Dhalli, Tutu,
       S. N.     Indicator                                                Ghanahatti,
                                            Area    New Shimla
                                                                          Kufri, and Shoghi
       1         Network Coverage           90%     No coverage           No coverage
       2         Access to Sewerage         80%     No access             No access
                 Total Quantity             4.80    Information Not       Information Not
       3
                 Collected                  MLD     Available             Available
                 Capacity of Treatment      35.63
       4                                            -                     -
                 Plants                     MLD
                 Utilization of treatment
       5                                    13.5%   Septic Tanks          Septic Tanks
                 and disposal plants
       6         Recycling / Reuse          Nil     Nil                   Nil




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              80
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                             Shimla City Development Plan




                             Figure 9.1 Existing Sewerage System of Shimla
INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                            81
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan


9.5   SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS
      I&PH has constructed 6 Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) with total capacity of
      35.63 MLD through OPEC funding. I&PH has given operation & maintenance of
      these STPs on management contract. The details of Treatment plants are
      presented in Table 9.2. Plate 9.1 to 9.3 show pictures of STPs in Shimla Planning
      Area. The total sewage received by six plants is only about 4.8 MLD for treatment.
      The treated effluents from STPs are disposed in adjoining Nallahs.
      Table 9.2 Details of Sewerage Treatment Plant
       S.    Name of Sewage        Capacity                                     Technology
                                              Locations
       N     Treatment Plant       (MLD)                                        Used
       1     Lalpani               19.35      Near Baragaon on Shoghi Bypass    UASB
                                              Below Malyana Village on Shoghi
       2     Sanjauli Malyana      4.44
                                              Sanjauli Bypass
       3     Dhalli                0.76       Below Dhalli Churat Road          Extended
                                              Near Barmoo Village below         Aeration
       4     Snowdown              1.35
                                              Snowdown                          System
       5     North Disposal        5.80       At Golcha below Annadale
       6     Summer Hill           3.93       At Gadog Village Summer Hill




                      Plate 9.1: Sewerage Treatment Plant at Lalpani




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         82
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                        Shimla City Development Plan




     Plate 9.2: Sewerage Treatment Plant at Malyana near Sanjauli




                Plate 9.3: Sewerage Treatment Plant at Dhalli

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                        83
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan




9.6   RECYCLING AND REUSE OF TREATED WATER
      Presently, the treated sewage disposed in nallahs is used by downstream people for
      cultivation. The recycling and reuse of treated sewage for non potable purpose in
      the city is not feasible due to requirement of separate distribution network and
      pumping requirement as all STPs are located down hill side.
9.7   TARIFF NOTIFICATION
      Sewer connection and monthly sewerage charges for domestic and commercial are
      tabulated in Table 9.3.
      Table 9.3 Tariff Notification of Sewerage
       S. N.       Description              Commercial per         Domestic per Seat
                                                Seat
           1       One             Time
                   Connection Charges –      Rs. 800/-            Rs. 400/-
                   Non refundable
           2       Monthly Charges      50% of Water billing 50% of Water billing
                                        per month            per month


      Though SMC has notified tariff for sewerage, it has not yet charged to the water
      users.


9.8   ISSUES AND ASPECTS
          Interconnectivity between old and new sewer system: The new sewerage
           system is connected to the STPs, whereas the connectivity between the old
           network and new sewerage network is not well established. This is due to lack
           of adequate information regarding the layout of old sewerage network. Even
           though, the present sewerage coverage as per records is 90% of Municipal
           Area, the amount of treatment is only 10% and remaining 90% goes untreated
           Also, due to lack of connectivity of old network with transmission lines,
           requisite quantity of sewage does not reach the STPs and the STPs are not fully
           utilized to its design capacity

          Absence of sewerage network coverage: All the Special Areas including
           those recently included in Shimla Municipal Corporation like Dhalli, Tutu,
           New Shimla, and Special Areas of Ghanahatti, Kufri and Shoghi is surviving
           on private septic tanks for sewage disposal. No planned sewerage network has
           been provided in these areas

          Revenue Loss: SMC is incurring revenue loss due to non-enforcement of
           sewerage tariff notifications. The loss is to the extent of Rs. 280 Lakhs




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          84
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan


9.9    VISION AND GOALS

                      “To Achieve Environmentally Sustainable
                    Recycling-Oriented Waste Water Management”
             Description                      2006*        2011**       2016          2021
             % of Population covered            80           90          95           100
             % of Area covered                  90           95         100           100
             % of Sewage treated                10           50         100           100
             % of reuse of treated waste         0           10          25            50
             water
            * Shimla Municipal Area, ** Shimla Planning Area

9.10   STRATEGY AND IDENTIFICATION OF INTERVENTIONS
       Considering existing issues and available data on the sewerage, to achieve the
       sewerage disposal vision for Shimla City, following are the strategies recommended
       for Integrated Sewerage Disposal Project for Shimla Planning Area.

       Rehabilitation of sewerage network

       The rehabilitation of sewerage network including main line is required in order to
       prevent leakages and providing linkages to the new network and main transmission
       line leading to STPs

       Augmentation of sewerage network for areas of Dhalli, Tutu, New Shimla
       and Special Areas of Ghanahatti, Kufri and Shoghi

       Provision of new sewerage network for the areas of Dhalli, Tutu, New Shimla and
       Special Areas of Ghanahatti, Kufri and Shoghi should be done. This shall include
       construction of 7 STPs to serve the proposed sewerage network. I&PH
       department has prepared a preliminary project report for provision of new
       sewerage network

       Enforcement of tariff notification on sewerage

       SMC is losing revenue of Rs. 280 Lakhs annually due to non-enforcement of
       sewerage charges on user. It is recommended that the same should be made
       applicable in line with reform requirement




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             85
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                            Shimla City Development Plan




9.11   SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN
                                                                                        (in Rs. Lakhs)
       S.N Project                    Total         2007        2008        2009        2010        2011         2012
                                      Cost
         1     Technical Studies:
               Master Plans and
               DPRs                     200.00             20          50          50          50          30           -
         2     Rehabilitation of
               the main sewerage
               network                    4899         500        1000        2000        1399              -           -
         3     Provision         of
               sewerage network
               for areas of Dhalli,
               Tutu, New Shimla
               and special areas of
               Ghanahatti, Kufri
               and Shoghi                12180             -      1218        4872        4854        1236              -
         4     Provision         of
               missing links to
               connect          the
               refurbished      old
               sewerage network
               with new sewerage
               network.                       576      100        300         176            -           -              -
                             Total        17856        620        2568        7098        6303        1266              -




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                           86
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


9.12   PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS

       Project Title: Rehabilitation of Sewerage Network

       Project Description: The project shall involve rehabilitation of main sewerage network
       secondary network within MC area and providing interconnectivity between old and new
       network

       Project Benefits:
               o Reduces leakage
               o Improves environmental and hygienic conditions
               o Improves connectivity
               o STPs receives the requisite sewage
               o Stops contamination of open nallahs
               o Removes leakage and stagnation
               o Improves the health indicators

       Project Cost: Rs. 5475.35 Lakhs

       Revenue Sources: Sewerage user charges collected by SMC

       Implementation Structure: I&PH/SMC shall be responsible for the execution of the
       required works through EPC contract.

       Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by I&PH/SMC using funds to be
       raised through grant under JNNURM; O&M cost may be recovered from recovery
       sewerage charges & property tax

       Time Frame: Project Development : 2006 ; Implementation : 2007-2010

       Institutional Responsibility: I&PH and SMC

       Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
       Preparation of Detailed Project Report

       Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
       Enforcement of sewerage tariff notification

       Additional Studies:
       Comprehensive Master Plan for sewerage system of SPA




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               87
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                            Shimla City Development Plan



Project Title: Augmentation of sewerage network in Dhalli, Tutu, New Shimla
and Special Areas of Ghanahatti, Kufri and Shoghi Areas

Project Description: The Special Areas and other left out areas, which has no sewerage
connection, shall be provided with new network taking into considerations existing and
future demand with proper planning tools

Project Benefits:
Expansion of population coverage of sewerage
Better environmental and hygienic conditions

Project Cost: Rs. 12180.30 Lakhs

Revenue Sources: New sewer connection charges and user charges to be collected by
SMC and SADAs

Implementation Structure: I&PH/SMC shall be responsible for execution of required
works through EPC contract. O&M of STPs may be through private sector participation
on O&M contract

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by I&PH using funds to be raised
through grant under JNNURM; O&M cost to be recovered from sewerage charges and
property tax

Time Frame: Project Development : 2007 Implementation 2008-2011

Institutional Responsibility: SMC and I&PH department

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Project development including preparation of Detailed Project Report and induction of
private sector

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
Enforcement of sewerage tariff notification

Additional Studies: Comprehensive Master Plan for sewerage system of Shimla
Planning Area




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               88
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan



10 STORM WATER DRAINAGE
10.1   INTRODUCTION
       The average annual rainfall over Shimla is about 1650 mm. The hilly terrain of
       Shimla has gifted itself with a good natural drainage pattern by the open streams or
       nallahs. The rainwater runoff finds its own course to open streams or nallahs.


10.2   INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITY
       Public Works Department (PWD) is responsible for construction of side storm
       water drains on the either of PWD road network in Shimla City. Cross drainage
       works in form of culverts and bridges on the PWD road network is also under
       PWD, which also is responsible for its maintenance.

       The open streams or nallahs within Shimla city is under the control of Shimla
       Municipal Corporation.


10.3   NATURAL DRAINS
       The Kufri-Dhalli-Sanjauli-Ridge-Tutu spinal is a drainage divide of Shimla city.
       The tributaries on southern side go to Yamuna and those on northern side to
       Satluj. Shimla has 13 major nallahs and number of minor nallahs, which are natural
       drains for rain water and off late for waste water too. Some lining is visible along
       these major nallahs but is not effectively coursing the storm water. Most of the
       natural drains (nallahs) are encroached upon and disposal or debris is a common
       view of the nallah.




                                    Plate 10.1 Natural Drains of Shimla

10.4   ROAD SIDE DRAINS
       KSC road and Motor Round Road have roadside open drains on the hilly side,
       which functions mainly for the water draining from the rocks and small water
       springs. These drains are further connected to near by natural drains (nallahs). At
       some locations, they are provided with cross drainage works on the roads for the
       water to drain from the hilly side to the valley side. Roadside drains are provided
       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             89
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan


on the hillside of the municipal roads, which are basically a shyaway type of drain
as shown in Plate 10.1 to Plate 10.3. Even though storm water drains are
constructed by SMC, PWD and respective SADA while upgrading roads, the
maintenance of storm water drains are least attended with only response during
excessive damage to the drains.




                             Plate 10.2 Road Side Drains in Shimla




       Plate 10.3 Encroachment of Road Side Drains in all possible ways

It may be not a misnomer to call these roadsides drains as utility ducts cum drains,
as most of the roadside drains have become a common right of way for water pipe
lines, electric cables, telecommunication cables, TV cables and a few locations as
waste water sewerage disposal nodes.



INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              90
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan


10.5   ISSUES AND ASPECTS

           Choking of Nallahs due to disposal of debris and garbage into the drains
           Silting of drains due to constant blockages
           Dislocated and damaged old lining of the drains
           Encroachment of Nallahs
           Free access to dispose wastewater from nearby habitation and establishments
            into the natural drains
           No cleaning of natural drains and no clearance of excess floral growth on the
            drains
           Unpleasant odour of dirty water flowing in the drains
           Absence of check dams to conserve rain water
           Low coverage of road side drains
           Irregular and insufficient roadside drains sizes causes overflow of run off
            water, which is very detrimental to black top roads
           Poor maintenance of road side drains
           Indiscriminate laying of services pipes and lines along the drains by other
            department and agencies
           Absence of comprehensive data on storm water drainage network

10.6   VISION AND GOALS

           “Provision of long lasting Clean Natural and Road Side Drains”

                           DESCRIPTION                     2006       2011     2016     2021
       % Road side drains to length of road network           10       50       75      100
       % Lining of natural drains                             0        90      100      100
       % Conservation of rain water by check dams             0        90      100      100




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              91
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan


10.7   STRATEGY AND IDENTIFICATION OF INTERVENTIONS

       To build a robust storm water drainage network and to achieve the storm water
       drainage vision for Shimla City, following are strategies for Integrated Drainage
       Project for Shimla Planning Area:
       Rehabilitation of natural drains
       The Municipal Corporation has undertaken a reconnaissance survey of the natural
       drains and has prepared a block cost estimate for restoration, rehabilitation,
       training and cleaning natural drainage system. The list of identified natural drains,
       which are to be taken up for renovation in the first instance, is given in Annexure
       23.5 and Annexure 23.6
       Removal of unauthorized structures and encroachment on natural drains
       Regulatory framework for removal of unauthorized structures and encroachment
       of natural drains should be included under municipal acts as a policy to prevent
       further encroachment and usage of natural drainage for other purposes
       Construction of rainwater harvesting structures
       Rainwater harvesting as covered under the proposed Integrated Water Supply
       Project should be done to decrease water demand of Shimla
       Construction of roadside drains as per drainage design
       Roadside drains should be as per the design requirements with specifications to
       handle the run off water and to provide cross drainage works for effective draining
       of rainwater into natural drains
       Increase in frequency of cleaning of drains to avoid silting
       Frequency of cleaning of drains should be increased which will help in avoiding
       silting and desilting of drains and eventually improve the efficiency of the drain
       capacity




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           92
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                       Shimla City Development Plan


10.8   SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN

        S.N.      Project                Total   2007       2008       2009       2010       2011       2012
                                         Cost
                                         (Lakhs)
           1      Technical Studies:
                  Master Plans and
                  DPRs                      100     100            -          -          -          -        -
           2      Renovation        of
                  Identified Natural
                  Drains                  413.76        -   413.76            -          -          -        -
           3      Renovation        of
                  Open Drains              84.50        -    84.50            -          -          -        -
           4      Construction      of
                  roadside drains as
                  per drainage design     810.00        - 810.00              -          -          -        -
                  Total                  1408.26   100.00 1308.26             -          -          -        -




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                       93
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


10.9   PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS

        Project Title: Renovation of Identified Natural Drains

        Project Description: Renovation of 22 natural drains, which are within the corporation
        limits by lining of the drains, removal of debris and garbage, desilting, removal of
        excessive vegetation

        Project Benefits:
               Restoration of natural drains
               Increased drainage capacity
               Prevention of pollution of storm water
               Improvement the aesthetics of drains

        Project Cost: Rs. 413.76 Lakhs

        Implementation Structure: SMC shall be responsible for the execution of the required
        works through EPC contract.

        Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by the SMC using funds to raised
        through grant under JNNURM

        Time Frame: 12 months

        Institutional Responsibility: SMC

        Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
        Preparation of Detailed Project Report

        Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

        Additional Studies:
        Preparation of Integrated Storm Water Drainage Plan for Shimla Planning Area.




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            94
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan



 Project Title: Construction of roadside drains as per drainage design

 Project Description: SMC and PWD shall construct roadside drains for length of 54
 km. as per drainage design specifications. The drains shall be of a composite drain that
 have conduits for all cables ducts and provision for pipes and other utility services

 Project Benefits:
        Improved capacity of road side drains
        Improvement in aesthetics of road
        Delineation of service for utility services

 Project Cost: Rs. 810 Lakhs

 Implementation Structure: SMC and PWD shall implement the integrated storm water
 drainage plan under respective roads through EPC contract, O&M cost may be
 recovered from utility users

 Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by SMC and PWD using funds to
 raised through grant under JNNURM; O&M cost to be borne by SMC & PWD

 Time Frame: In synchronous with development of roads and utility services

 Institutional Responsibility: SMC and PWD

 Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
 Preparation of Detailed Project Report

 Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

 Additional Studies:

 Preparation of Drainage Master Plan for Shimla Planning Area




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              95
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                        Shimla City Development Plan



11 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
11.1    INTRODUCTION
        All cities in India are faced with environmental degradation and visual pollution
        from increasing generation of solid wastes and its inadequate management due to
        population growth and rapid urbanization. Shimla is not different from other cities
        in this aspect. With increasing urbanization and influx of tourists, solid waste
        management is daunting task.


11.2    POLICY, LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
        Shimla Municipal Corporation is responsible for collection, transportation,
        treatment and disposal of solid waste in SMC limits, while SADA is responsible for
        SWM services in their respective special areas. However, SMC is providing
        collection and transportation services is few SADA areas.

        SMC has introduced bylaws on Door-to-Door Garbage collection vide notification
        UD-A(3)-2/2006, dated August 2006 following the directions issued by Hon.
        High Court. The Municipal Corporation Shimla Door to Door Garbage Collection
        Bylaws, 2006 prohibits littering and promotes participation of community and
        private sector in collection of waste.

11.3    GENERATION
        The average generation in Shimla Planning Area is estimated to be 87 MT per day
        @ average of 0.43 kg per day9 per capita generation. The generation is
        characterized by high level of seasonal variations with 30% increase in peak season.
        The solid waste projections for planning horizon are presented in Table 11.1 and
        Figure 11.1. The characterization of solid waste from Shimla indicates that 65% of
        the waste is organic waste. Balance constitute paper, metals, glass, textiles, plastics
        and polythene and other debris.
        Table 11.1 Solid waste generation and projection
                                                                      Solid Waste Generation
           S.N               Year               Population
                                                                           (MT per day)
            1                2001                  174789                       75
            2                2006                  203091                       87
            3                2011                  235970                      101
            4                2016                  274185                      118
            5                2021                  318560                      137




9
 Source: “Analytical & Financial Study on Solid Waste Management for Shimla”, World Bank SASES Unit,
October 2005; Based on the survey conducted by a NGO in few locations in Jakhoo locality in Shimla
        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                 96
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan




                            Figure 11.1 Solid waste generation and projection


11.4   COLLECTION
       The Solid Waste collection is about 35-40 MT/day amounting to collection
       efficiency of about 40 to 46%. The collection of solid waste is primarily through
       community bin system comprising of 142 dumper containers and 209 concrete
       dustbins. Frequency of clearing of bin varies from daily to alternate day to twice in
       week depending on area. Bin: Population ratio varies between 1:132 and 1: 898.

       Collection is also carried out through street sweeping. SMC area has 142 km length
       of road. Street sweeping in SMC is
       carried out through 405 sanitation
       workers of SMC. The road length
       covered per sweeper is about 350m as
       against the national average of 1-1.5 km.
       The collection is carried out using Suphli
       and baskets and transportation of street
       sweepings to nearest community bin is
       carried out using nylon bags. Sweeping is
       also carried out through private sweepers on Sundays and holidays in the heart of
       the city i.e. Mall Road, Lower Bazaar, Sabji Mandi, Lakkar Bazaar etc.

       Recently Shimla Municipal Corporation has introduced Door-to-door collection
       (D2D) scheme under HP Municipal Corporation Act 1994 in selected areas
       through Private Sector Participation. Shimla Municipal Corporation has introduced
       a bylaw on D2D collection in August 2006. About 30-35% population within SMC
       is covered under D2D scheme. SMC has notified the tariff for D2D solid waste
       collection for contracted areas and is envisaging to select D2D Operators for
       remaining based on tariff based bidding process.

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            97
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan


11.5   TRANSPORTATION
       Transportation of waste is carried out mainly through dumper placers and tipper
       trucks. About 14 vehicles are utilized for transportation of waste, which includes
       10 dumper placers, 3 tippers and 1 truck. The average distance to be traveled to
       disposal site by transport vehicles is 14
       km. Of the 14 vehicles available with
       SMC for transportation, 4 vehicles are
       more than 10 years old and 6 vehicles are
       more than 8 years old. Transportation of
       waste is done in single shift with dumper
       placer making 6-8 trips and tipper only
       making 1 trip in a shift. The ratio of
       number of dumper containers to number
       of dumper placers is 14. Only 25% of the dumper containers are lifted in day. The
       cost of transportation is estimated to be Rs. 250 /T excluding manpower cost.


11.6   PROCESSING AND TREATMENT
       SMC has commissioned a solid waste processing and treatment plant of 100
       Mt/day capacity at the cost 3.72 Cr in 2001 at Darni-ka-Bagicha in Lalpani. The
       treatment is based on Excel aerobic composting technology. The plant receives
       about 912 MT per month wastes during normal season and 1266 MT per month
       wastes during peak season amounting to 30-45 Mt/day. The amount of compost
       produced is about 15-20 MT per month.


       SMC has established common biomedical waste treatment facility comprising of
       incinerator for treatment and disposal of biomedical wastes. In absence of
       autoclave shredder and burial pits, the facility is not able to provide a complete
       treatment and disposal for all types of biomedical wastes.


11.7   DISPOSAL
       The disposal is carried out through open landfilling along the hill slopes near the
       processing and treatment plant. About 1200 sq.m. area is being used for
       landfilling. About 170-300 MT per month of inert material from processing plant
       (which amounts to 18%-22% of total waste received) is disposed at landfill site.
       The construction wastes and debris which is collected separately and disposed off
       at the landfill site is used as cover material.


11.8   ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE
       The department of solid waste management is under the administrative control of
       health officer who is assisted by chief sanitary inspector, program coordinator,

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         98
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


       sanitary inspectors, sanitary jamadars and safai karamcharis. Total 592 employees
       including permanent, daily wagers and contract workers are engaged in providing
       SWM services. Shimla is divided into six sanitary wards and the market area for
       providing SWM services. Each sanitary ward is divided into beats supervised by
       sanitary inspectors.



11.9   FINANCIALS
       SMC spends about Rs. 533 Lakhs per annum on solid waste management, which
       constitutes about 27% of total municipal annual budget. About 82% of
       expenditure is on manpower and balance 18% is on fuel, vehicle maintenance,
       materials and others. While the major cost component (77%) is sweeping
       operation, the transportation contributes to 12% cost. Presently no costs are
       incurred towards processing and disposal. The cost of solid waste management is
       estimated to be Rs. 2800 per MT. The capital cost towards SWM services is met
       from current revenues and borrowings.


11.10 ROLE OF PRIVATE SECTOR
       Presently, role of private sector is limited to provision of D2D services in limited
       areas and construction, operation and maintenance of processing and treatment
       plant.




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          99
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


11.11 ISSUES AND CONCERNS

  11.11.1 Collection
              Due to hilly terrain of Shimla, there are topographic constraints in D2D
               collection and transportation
              Collection efficiency is very poor. Balance waste remains uncollected and
               disposed indiscriminately on the valley slopes
              Unwillingness of citizen and commercial establishments to participate in
               D2D collection services. Presently collection services are provided in
               morning hours which are not consistent with checkout timings of hotels
               and office working hours
              Presently about 592 employees are involved in provision of SWM services
               with about 350 m road length per sweeper, the sweeping operations is
               overstaffed. In view of expansion of D2D services on PPP format to entire
               town and merger of 3 SADA areas in SMC area, there is need for
               redeployment of the employees involved in the sweeping operations

  11.11.2 Transportation
              The existing transportation infrastructure and resources are inadequate
               resulting in lower collection efficiency
              The useful life of more than 70% of existing transportation vehicle is over
              With shifting of treatment and disposal facility outside the town, the lead
               distance shall increase by 13 km and therefore number trips per vehicle will
               reduce

  11.11.3 Treatment
              Existing location of plant is within 1km from residential area. High Court
               ruling in Public Interest Litigation filed against the location and operation
               of existing plant has order to curb the odour emissions from the existing
               plant or shift the plant outside the town. SMC has identified an alternate
               site at Banahatti for locating an integrated facility comprising of processing,
               treatment and disposal facility
              Presently only 30% capacity of the treatment plant is utilized
              The processing and treatment plant was structured with revenue model
               based on sale of compost. The quality of compost produced in the plant is
               not in conformation with the standards, thus restricting demand and sale
               of the compost and financial viability of the project with regards to not
               only full cost recovery but also operational cost


      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             100
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


            Plant is based on aerobic composting technology. It is suggested that the
             suitability of aerobic composting technology for processing and treatment
             should be assessed and suitable modifications and/or alternate technology
             if any required should be selected while shifting the plant to new location
            The tenure of the agreement with private sector developer of existing
             processing and treatment plant is till December 2006. On expiry of the
             agreement, existing plant shall be returned to SMC and SMC shall be
             responsible for processing, treatment and disposal of waste. The technical
             and financial capability of the SMC is limited to operate the plant during
             the phasing period till the alternate facility is commissioned


11.11.4 Disposal
            Open landfilling and noncompliance with MSW Rules
            Location of landfill site within 1km distance of residential area
            Inadequate landfill site

11.11.5 Biomedical Treatment
            Existing facility is not able to provide treatment and disposal for all types
             of biomedical wastes in conformation with Biomedical (Handling and
             Management) Rules


11.11.6 Financials
            Currently, the cost of solid waste management is about Rs. 2800 per tones
             of waste, which is very high compared to national average (Rs. 1000-1300
             per MT in plains)




    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            101
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                         Shimla City Development Plan


11.12 VISION AND GOALS


                 “Clean & Green Shimla through Environmentally
                    Sustainable Waste Management Practice”

       Indicator                                                 2006             2011            2016             2021
       Total Waste Generated per day                                   87             101              118             137
       D2D Services Provided                                        30%              80%            100%            100%
       % of Waste Collected                                         40%              80%            100%            100%
       % of Waste Processed, Treated
       and Disposed                                                 40%              80%            100%            100%
       Trips/Vehicle                                                     6            10*               10               10
       Dumper                 Container/Dumper
       Placer                                                        14.2            10.0             10.0            10.0
      *in view of alternate site for integrated facility at Banahatti, increasing the lead distance by 13 km and extending the
      operations in two shifts

11.13 STRATEGY AND IDENTIFICATION OF INTERVENTIONS

  11.13.1 Approach for Strategy
            Strategy for Solid Waste Management is developed based on seven directives
            endorsed by the Municipal Solid Waste (Handling and Management) Rules
            2000. These are as follows:
      (1)        Prohibit littering on the streets by ensuring storage of waste at source in
                 two bins; one for biodegradable waste and another for recyclable material
      (2)        Primary collection of biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste from the
                 doorstep, (including slums and squatter areas) at pre-informed timings on a
                 day-to-day basis using containerized tricycle/handcarts/pick up vans
      (3)        Street sweeping covering all the residential and commercial areas on all the
                 days of the year irrespective of Sundays and public holidays
      (4)        Abolition of open waste storage depots and provision of covered
                 containers or closed body waste storage depots
      (5)        Transportation of waste in covered vehicles on a day to day basis
      (6)        Treatment of biodegradable waste using composting or waste to energy
                 technologies meeting the standards laid down
      (7)        Minimize the waste going to the land fill and dispose of only rejects from
                 the treatment plants and inert material at the landfills as per the standards
                 laid down in the rules



      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                            102
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                            Shimla City Development Plan


11.13.1.1 Planning
             Preparation of Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan for
              Shimla Planning Area

11.13.1.2 Collection
             Expansion of D2D collection to entire Shimla Planning Area and
              improvement in collection efficiency. There is need to institutionalize
              and integrate rag pickers in the primary collection
             Segregation of waste at collection point to reduce transportation
              requirement. SMC should encourage citizen participation in source
              segregation through awareness campaigns or introduction of penalty
              fees
             Improving efficiency of street sweeping operations and secondary
              collection

11.13.1.3 Transport
             Augmentation of transportation infrastructure to ensure better
              secondary collection and transportation

11.13.1.4 Treatment and Disposal
             Capacity building of SMC to operate existing facility during transition
              period
             Technology assessment for processing and treatment of solid waste
             Identification of alternate site for integrated municipal solid waste
              processing, treatment and disposal facility in view of High Court
              Orders
             Detailed feasibility study for development of integrated solid waste
              management facility at identified location
             Shifting/Phasing of existing treatment facility and remediation of
              existing disposal site
             Design, construction and operation of integrated solid waste
              management facility including processing and treatment plant and
              sanitary landfill site in compliance with MSW rules

11.13.1.5 Biomedical Treatment Facility
             Upgradation of existing biomedical treatment facility




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           103
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


11.13.2 Scope and Options of Private Sector Participation
       Role of private sector in SWM is growing in India. Surat, Ahmedabad, Nagpur,
       Hyderabad, Chennai are successful examples of PPP participation in India. The
       outsourcing to private sector should be encouraged in order to improve the
       financial viability. The scope of private sector participation in various activities
       related to solid waste management is presented in Table 11.2 and 11.3.
   Table 11.2 PPP Options in Solid Waste Management
     S.N                Activity            SMC    Private         Implementation
                                                   Sector               Options
       1      D2D Collection                          X             Service Contract
       2      Street Sweeping               X                       Service Contract
       3      Construction           and              X               BOT and its
              Maintenance              of                     variance/Separate EPC and
              Community Bins                                        O&M Contract
       4      Transportation of waste       X         X       Concession/O&M Contract
              to integrated facility
       5      Design,        development,             X          BOT and its variance/
              operation              and                        Separate EPC and O&M
              maintenance of processing                                 Contract
              and treatment plant for
              solid waste including
              special       wastes   like
              vegetable market waste,
              abattoir waste
       6      Design,        development,             X               BOT and its
              operation              and                     variance/DBO/Separate EPC
              maintenance of sanitary                             and O&M Contract
              landfill site


   Table 11.3 Examples of PPP in Solid Waste Management in India
     S.N             Services on PPP                              Examples
      1        D2D Collection                      Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Nagpur, Jaipur,
                                                   North Dumdum, New
                                                   Barrackpore (West Bengal), Gandhinagar,
                                                   Vejalpur (Gujarat)

       2       Street Sweeping                     Surat, Hyderabad
       3       Storage and Transportation          Surat, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Delhi
       4       Integrated Treatment and Disposal   Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata,
                                                   Chennai, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad


       5       Integrated primary collection, Chennai
               street sweeping, storage and
               transportation




    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            104
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                              Shimla City Development Plan


11.14 SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN
                                                                                         (in Rs. Lakhs)
             S.N        Project                   Project                 Investment Schedule
                                                  Cost10 2007        2008    2009    2010 2011       2012
               1        D2D Collection              200     100        100        -       -        -           -
               2        Street Sweeping             200     100          -        -       -        -         100
               3        Storage             and
                        Transportation              675     100        300        -       -        -         275
               4        Integrated        Waste
                        Treatment           and
                        Disposal Facility           1500    300        700     500        -        -           -
               5        Upgradation          of
                        Biomedical Facility          50         50       -        -       -        -           -
               6        Technical Studies            50         50       -        -       -        -           -
               7        Transaction Advisory        100         50      50
               8        Capacity       Building
                        (Community
                        Awareness)                   100     20         20      20      20       10           10
               9        Training                     100     20         20      20      20       10           10
                                          Total     2975    790       1190     540      40       20          395




10
     at current price
            INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                 105
            CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                      Shimla City Development Plan


11.15   PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS

Project Title: Expansion of Door-to-Door Collection of Waste

Project Description: Door-to-door collection is proposed to be implemented for entire
residential and commercial areas in Shimla Municipal Corporation and SADA. . This would include
        Delineation of zones for D2D services
        Designing and procurement of equipments for waste collection and conveyance suitable
         for hilly areas
        Procurement of containerized carts and collection bins

Project Benefits:
       Improvement in collection efficiency
       The vehicular access problems due to terrain constraint can be eliminated
       Facilitates segregation of the waste at source
       Cleanliness can be achieved easily

Project Cost :    Rs. 200 Lakhs (Capital cost towards tools & equipments)

Revenue Sources : User charges for Door-to-Door collection. Shimla Municipal Corporation
shall notify the tariff notification for door-to-door collection based on bidding

Implementation Structure: The door-to-door collection system shall be implemented on service
contract (with/without equipment of contractors) through Private Sector Participation (may
include private operators, Resident Welfare Association, NGOs, CBOs)

Financing Mechanism : Project cost to be financed by the SMC using funds to raised through
grant under JNNURM; O&M Cost to be recovered by private sector operator from user charges
Time Frame: Project Development : 2007 ; Implementation : March 2008

Institutional Responsibility: SMC and Private Operator
       SMC to undertake procurement process for selection of private sector operator. Private
        sector operator to organize rag pickers, if necessary for primary collection
       SMC to re-deploy the municipal staff
       SMC to carry out awareness programme and campaigns by involving NGO‟s, Citizens‟
        Committees, and HP Environment and Pollution Control Board

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
      SMC to undertake the project development process for procurement of private sector
       operator

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
      Notification on prohibition of littering
      Need to create awareness through awareness generation and commitment campaign and
       ensure effective implementation and long term sustenance of the initiative
      Need to promote segregation of waste at source

Additional Studies:
Assessment of ward-wise solid waste generation and collection is required for preparation of
Project Information Memorandum and Bid document. SMC has appointed National Productivity
Council for undertaking detailed feasibility study of Solid Waste Management




        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             106
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                      Shimla City Development Plan



Project Title: Improvement in Secondary Collection (Street Sweeping)

Project Description: Improvement in secondary collection is proposed to be implemented in
entire area of Shimla Municipal Corporation and SADA. This would include
        Delineation of zones/areas for sweeping operation
        Designing and procurement of equipments for waste collection and conveyance suitable
         for hilly areas
        Procurement of containerized carts and collection bins
        Replacement of concrete collection bins with containers to avoid manual handling and
         augmentation of dumper containers

Project Benefits:
       Improve the operational efficiency
       Cleanliness can be achieved easily

Project Cost : Rs. 200 Lakhs( Capital cost towards tools & equipments)

Revenue Sources : Nil;

Implementation Structure : Initially sweeping operation shall continue to be responsibility of
SMC with involvement of private contractor limited to existing level (due to overstaffing) and may
gradually induct the service contractor for street sweeping operations

Financing Mechanism : Project cost to be financed by the SMC using funds to raised through
grant under JNNURM; O&M Cost to be recovered from property tax

Time Frame: Project Development : 2007; Implementation : March 2008

Institutional Responsibility: SMC
       SMC to re-deploy redundant municipal staff to the newly merged areas of SMC

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:




        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              107
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                      Shimla City Development Plan



Project Title: Improvement in Transportation of Waste to Treatment and/or Disposal
Facility

Project Description: The proposed project for improvement in transportation of waste in Shimla
Planning Area includes optimization, improvement and modernization of fleet. This would include
       Improving vehicle productivity by extending waste collection to two shifts which is
        presently operated in single shift
       Replacement and strengthening of vehicle fleet through procurement of dumper placers
       Identification and selection of workshop for long term service contract for maintenance of
        fleet

Project Benefits:
       Improve the collection efficiency
       Efficient transportation of waste

Project Cost : Rs. 675 Lakhs

Revenue Sources : Nil ; Tipping Fees is potential revenue source for private operator

Implementation Structure : The transportation system shall be implemented by SMC on Service
Contract/O&M Contract (transportation of waste including maintenance of fleet) through Private
Operator on pilot scale to start with and then replicate the same to other areas

Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by the SMC using funds to raised through
grant under JNNURM (It is expected that capital funding by SMC through grant would reduce the
tipping fees substantially) ; O&M Cost to be recovered through property tax

Time Frame: Project Development 2007; Implementation : March 2008

Institutional Responsibility:
       Shimla Municipal Corporation and Private Operator

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
      SMC to undertake the project development process for procurement of private sector
       operator /workshop service provider

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:
Optimization of transportation routes and time schedule. SMC has appointed National
Productivity Council for undertaking detailed feasibility study of Solid Waste Management




        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              108
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                        Shimla City Development Plan



Project Title: Integrated Waste Processing, Treatment and Disposal Facility

Project Description: The integrated processing, treatment and disposal facility is proposed to be
implemented for Shimla Planning Area. This would include
       Remediation/shifting of existing processing and treatment facility
       Remediation of existing disposal site
       Design, construction, operation and maintenance of new integrated processing, treatment
        and disposal facility

Project Benefits:
       Improvement in quality of environment
       Compliance of Municipal Solid Waste (Handling and Regulation) Rules and High Court
        Orders

Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 1000 Lakhs

Revenue Sources : Sale of compost (if composting is selected as preferred technology); Tipping
fees is also a potential revenue source for private operator

Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by SMC through Private Sector
Participation. The PSP options available could be BOT and its variance (with capital subsidy
provided by SMC) and Separate EPC and O&M contract

Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by the SMC using funds to raised through
grant under JNNURM and/or Private Operator (the capital subsidy by SMC shall reduce the
tipping fee considerably); O&M Cost to be recovered by private operator from tipping fees payable
by SMC to private operator from property tax revenue

Time Frame: Project Development : 2007; Implementation : March 2008

Institutional Responsibility: SMC and Private Operator
       SMC/SLNA to undertake DPR for the project
       SMC to undertake procurement process for selection of private sector operator

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
      SMC to undertake the project development process for procurement of private sector
       operator
      The project would require prior environmental clearance from State Environment Impact
       Assessment Authority

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
    
Additional Studies:
      Feasibility study for selection of technology for treatment and viability of integrated waste
       management facility.
      Preparation of Detailed Project report (DPR) Study for integrated waste management
       facility (SMC has appointed National Productivity Council for undertaking detailed
       feasibility study of Solid Waste Management)
      Formation of policy measures for promotion of compost (in case composting is the
       preferred technology)




        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                109
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Upgradation of Biomedical Treatment Facility

Project Description: SMC has established common biomedical treatment facility in Shimla with
NORAD funding. The existing facility comprise of only incinerator and needs upgradation to
provide whole range of treatment envisaged under Biomedical (Handling and Management) Rules.
The proposed upgradation would include
       Installation of autoclave, shredders, etc
       Provision of pollution control equipments for incinerator
       Construction of burial pits

Project Benefits:
       Compliance with Biomedical (Handling and Management) Rules

Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 50 Lakhs

Revenue Sources : Disposal charges from hospitals and clinics

Implementation Structure : Project shall be implemented by SMC with O&M through private
sector participation

Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by the SMC using funds to raised through
grant and loan and/or Private Sector Operator; O&M Cost to be recovered by private operator
from disposal charges payable by users to private operator

Time Frame: Project Development : 2007; Implementation : March 2008

Institutional Responsibility: SMC and Private Operator

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
      Need to create awareness through awareness generation and commitment campaign to
       ensure effective implementation and long term sustenance of the initiative
      Need to promote segregation of waste at source

Additional Studies:
      Feasibility study for installation of rendering plant




        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         110
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                      Shimla City Development Plan



12 TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION
12.1   INTRODUCTION
       Efficient transportation system is a pre-requisite for development of every aspect
       of society be it agriculture, education, health care, industries. Shimla, being a major
       tourist destination, movement of people within the city and the turnover of people
       in Shimla has always been higher comparatively. Road transportation caters to both
       long and short distance trips made in Shimla City.

       A number of transportation issues have been discussed in this chapter with traffic
       and its impacts being the major issues in Shimla including pedestrians, bus transit
       riders, parking and travel safety concerns. One important aspect as identified in the
       Vision document is the people choice of adopting public transport for travel.
       Therefore, High Operating Capacity System (HOCS) should be the priority where
       public transport should be upgraded to State of Art facility. If such a project is
       successfully completed, Shimla will not only have more to offer as a tourist
       destination but will also improve the quality of life in Shimla.



12.2   POLICY, REGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK

  12.2.1 Regional Connectivity

       12.2.1.1 Northern Railways -Indian Railways
                   A narrow gauge line from Kalka to Shimla is the only rail route
                   connectivity to Shimla and is a tourist attraction as a heritage railway line.
                   The rail route was commissioned in year 1906, and is still considered as
                   one of the most spectacular narrow gauge rail lines in the world because
                   of its hilly route having 919 curves, 103 tunnels and number of bridges.
                   Presently, Northern Railways of the Indian Railways is responsible for
                   rail transportation to and from Shimla Railway Station.




       Northern Railway Station Shimla                Northern Railway Building in Shimla
                   Plate 12.1 Northern Railway in Shimla

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               111
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan




    12.2.1.2 Airport Authority of India
                Airport Authority of India is controlling air connectivity to Shimla, is
                located at Jubbarhatti, which is 12 km. from Shimla city situated at an
                altitude of 5000 feet above mean sea level. Jubbarhatti Airport is spread
                in an area of about 140 acres and presently has one runway of 3800 feet
                length catering to flying of small aircrafts. Jagson Airlines operates three
                flights in a week from Shimla Airport to New Delhi and Kullu. The air
                traffic is poor owing to insufficient length of runway for Airbus to
                takeoff and landing and poor flight frequency. Besides the connectivity
                from Jubbarhatti to Shimla City is not well developed.


    12.2.1.3 National Highways HPPWD
                Himachal Pradesh Public Works Department (HPPWD) is maintaining
                the regional corridor roads of National Highways viz. NH 22 and NH
                88. National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) is envisaging four-
                laning of NH22, which is one of the regional road connectivity to Shimla
                City. NHAI has recently sanctioned four-laning from Zirakpur to Solan
                and upgradation of existing two-lane road between Solan and Shimla.
                National Highway NH 88 provides connectivity to the Kangra Valley
                and contributes significantly to the tourist circuit of Himachal Pradesh.


12.2.2 Local Connectivity
    12.2.2.1 Himachal Pradesh Public Works Department:
                HPPWD is responsible for operation and maintenance of the Cart road,
                which is a portion of National Highway NH 22 within Shimla City. It is
                also responsible for the maintenance of State Highways within Shimla
                Planning Area.


    12.2.2.2 Shimla Municipal Corporation:
                Municipal Road network under Shimla Municipal Corporation can be
                classified as Motorable roads, Jeepable roads and Paths. SMC is
                responsible for repair, maintenance and upgradation of municipal road
                network and pedestrian pathways and staircases connecting the Mall road
                and Cart road and other minor roads.


    12.2.2.3 Department of Transport
                Himachal Pradesh Road Transport Corporation & Regional Transport
                Authority under Department of Transport are responsible for operation

    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            112
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan


                   and maintenance of public transport within Shimla city, providing
                   regional connectivity, maintenance of bus terminal facilities, registration
                   of vehicles, and planning of public transport systems for Shimla.


       12.2.2.4 Himachal Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation:
                   Due to hilly terrain and restricted road network for vehicular movement,
                   the Himachal Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation presently
                   operates a lift connecting Cart road to the Mall Road. The lift provides
                   the vertical accessibility to the Ridge.


       12.2.2.5 Traffic Police Division:
                   Due to high restrictions for private vehicles to use the road connecting
                   Cart Road and Mall Road, Traffic Police Division of Shimla City Police
                   Department is engaged to regulate the traffic on the Cart road and other
                   locations, where deemed necessary.


       12.2.2.6    Himachal Pradesh Bus Stands Management and Development
                   Authority:
                   GoHP has enacted the Himachal Pradesh Bus Stands Management and
                   Development Authority Act, 1999 providing framework for development
                   and management of bus stands in the state. Authority has developed the
                   new Inter State Bus Terminal under construction on the Shimla Bypass
                   on PPP format.


12.3   REGIONAL ROAD NETWORK
  12.3.1 National Highway 22
          The portion of National Highway 22 connecting Ambala to Shipkila passing
          through Shimla City is known as Cart Road. The total length of the National
          Highway within Shimla Planning Area is about 40 km. of which the length of
          Cart Road is about 18 km. The configuration of the road is a two-lane road with
          crash barriers on the valley side of the road. The width of the National Highway
          ranges between 10 m. to 12 m. within the Shimla Planning Area except in the
          city portion; where the width is 5 to 8 m.


  12.3.2 Shimla Bypass Road:
          Bypass for Shimla City on National Highway 22 from Barrier point on Ambala
          route to the Tunnel near Dhalli is known as Tutikandi Dhalli Shimla Bypass
          road. The length of the bypass is about 25 km. within Shimla Planning Area
          and its width varies from 9 m to 12 m.

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            113
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan


          The road is primarily for bypass able traffic of Shimla City and for heavy motor
          vehicles for moving during the daytime (restricted hours for heavy vehicle
          movement on the Cart Road). The major activity centers presently on this
          bypass are Bio Compost Plant for Solid Waste Management for Shimla City and
          Inter State Bus Terminal at Tutikandi. Proposals are in place for construction
          of timber market, wholesale vegetable market, wholesale grain market, transport
          hubs and major activity centers in future along this bypass.


  12.3.3 National Highway NH 88:
          The road that connects Shimla City with Mataur via places of Ghagas,
          Hamirpur, Jawla Ji, Kangra and destines at Mataur on National Highway 20
          (Pathankot Mandi Highway) is known as National Highway NH 88. The length
          of NH88 is about 13 Km. from Shimla to Special Area Ghanahatti and the
          configuration of the road is intermediate lane to a two-lane road within Shimla
          Planning Area.


  12.3.4 State Highway No. 12:
          The road deviating at Taradevi from National Highway NH 88 to Shimla
          Airport in Jubbarhatti and further leads to Kunihar is State Highways (SH 12).
          SH 12 is one of the main roads emanating from Shimla City, which not only
          gives connectivity to the airport terminal but also has significance in terms of
          regional connectivity. The configuration of SH 12 is intermediate to two-lane
          road.

  12.3.5 State Highway No. 13:
          The road from Dhalli towards Tatapani from National Highway NH 22 is
          known as State Highway SH 13. Tatapani is part of the tourism circuit of
          Shimla. SH 13 has a configuration of an intermediate lane.

  12.3.6 Kasumpti-Junga Road:
          This is the major district road from Shimla and the configuration varies between
          single to intermediate lane.

  12.3.7 Kufri-Chail road:
          The village road from Shimla to Chail is known as the Kufri-Chail road. The
          road gains importance due to direct link from Shimla to Kufri. The width of the
          road varies from 5 to 7 m.


12.4   MOBILITY IN SHIMLA
       Mobility in Shimla is unique in every way than any other city. The hilly terrain of
       Shimla warrants the horizontal as well as vertical movement. With “Fine Roads”
       (roads restricted for general entry), horizontal and vertical movements are
       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                        114
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan


    compelled within limited space for vehicles to move. While horizontal movement
    is primarily by arterial roads that are open to traffic movement, vertical mobility
    options are limited to a lift between Mall road and Cart Road and
    pathways/staircases connecting various streets.


12.4.1 Horizontal Mobility in Shimla
    12.4.1.1 Main Arterial Road Network
                Cart Road / Circular Road / Motor Round Road: This is main arterial
                road of Shimla and the only road open for city traffic movement without
                much restriction. The Cart road also known as Circular road or Motor
                Round Road is part of NH 22 starting from Railway Tunnel No. 103 to
                Dhalli Tunnel and traversing round the Shimla Hill. The name Cart Road
                itself implies that the road was initially designed for carts. Over the time,
                development has led the same road to be used by Motor vehicles naming
                it has a Motor Round Road.
                Even today, the width of Cart road at few locations is restricted to only 5
                m. owing to non-availability of land space. An average road width is
                about 8 m. The length of Cart road is 18 km. delimiting Core Area.
                Cart Road is the only option for traffic movement and is functioning
                beyond its capacity as per IRC specifications.
                PWD is maintaining the Cart Road along with side drains and cross
                drainage works, traffic signages and other road furniture. Though crash
                barriers are placed on the edge of the road on the valley side of Cart
                road, these are broken and missing at many places. Footpaths for
                pedestrians is built at critical locations on Cart Road on the valley side in
                form of cantilever structures that hold the footpaths with hand railings.
                Traffic for heavy motor and goods vehicles on Cart Road through Shimla
                is restricted from 7.00 AM to 9.00 PM. Traffic signals have been
                installed at Victory tunnel junction, Sanjauli Chowk and Dhalli Tunnel to
                regulate the traffic. The details of the Cart road is tabulated in Table 12.1




    Restricted Road for Vehicles                   Improper Placement of Sign Boards
                Plate 12.2 Restricted Roads in Shimla
    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             115
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


Table 12.1 Road Inventory Details of the Configuration of Cart Road
                                                                         Shoulder      Footpath
                                   Right      No. of Carriageway                       Width
 S.N      Location                                                       Width
                                   of Way     Lanes Width (m)
                                                                         (m)           Left   Right
          Near Crystal Palace
   1                                 11.67       2          8.67               -        2.37        -
          Hotel
   2      Bridge near the Lift       11.40       2          9.00               -        1.20      1.20
          In front of Parking
   3                                 11.40       2         11.00               -          -         -
          access near ISBT
          Below the Bus stand
   4                                 9.20        2          6.00               -        1.30      1.30
          Building
          Near Car Parking                                                 0.5 left
   5                                 10.70       2          8.20                        1.50        -
          after Bus Stand                                                    side
   6      Victory Tunnel             12.50       3         10.20               -        1.50        -
          Below Victory
   7      Tunnel (Lakkar             7.50        2          5.10               -        0.70      0.70
          Bazaar Arm)
                                                                           0.6 left
   8      After Tunnel               6.40        2          5.20                          -         -
                                                                             side

            The Cart Road provides intersection to minor roads on both uphill and
            downhill sides at about 66 locations. On-street parking of vehicle is
            witnessed on all sections of Cart Road. Even at locations where no-
            parking signages are in force, there is no control over parking
            restrictions.
            Municipal Roads
            All the roads connecting to Cart Road are municipal roads that are
            maintained by Shimla Municipal Corporation. The total length of roads
            for vehicle movement under the Municipal Corporation as per data
            available with the SMC is 74.585 km. The break up of ward-wise roads
            for vehicle movement under each type is tabulated in Table 12.2.
Table 12.2 Ward Wise Details of Municipal Roads
                                                                                   Ward wise
                                 Motorable road         Jeepable roads
 Ward         Name of                                                              (Length in
                                 (Length in Km.)        Length in Km.)
 No.           Ward                                                                  Km.)
                             Blacktop        Kucha    Blacktop      Kucha                Total
    1      Bharari                   -            -       6.464            -             6.464
    2      Rudlu Bhatta              -            -       0.555            -             0.555
    3      Kaithu                0.150            -       0.750            -             0.900
    4      Annadale             10.000        0.700       4.770        0.690            16.160
    5      Summer hill           9.630            -       2.100            -            11.730
    6      Tutu                      -            -           -            -             0.000
    7      Boileauganj           1.600            -       0.350            -             1.950
    8      Tutikandi                 -            -       3.740        0.360             4.100
    9      Nabha                 0.390            -       1.410            -             1.800
   10      Phagli                    -            -       0.200        0.200             0.400
   11      Krishnanagar              -            -       0.800            -             0.800
   12      Rambazar              2.255            -       1.915            -             4.170
INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                    116
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                            Shimla City Development Plan


   13      Mall road            2.155        -          -           -            2.155
   14      Jakhoo               1.565        -      0.520           -            2.085
   15      Banmore              1.088        -      3.289           -            4.377
   16      Engineghar               -        -      0.434           -            0.434
   17      Sanjauli             1.600        -      0.515           -            2.115
   18      Dhalli                   -        -      1.665           -            1.665
   19      Chamyana                 -        -      0.600       0.500            1.100
   20      Sangti               0.600        -          -           -            0.600
   21      Kasumpti             0.300        -      0.150       0.100            0.550
   22      Chhota Shimla            -        -      1.250       0.200            1.450
   23      Patyog                   -        -      0.500       0.300            0.800
   24      Khalini              0.675        -      1.955       0.200            2.830
   25      Kamlog               1.900        -      3.495           -            5.395
                    Total      33.908    0.700     37.427       2.550           74.585


            The length of road having a width of 40 feet (12 m.) is about 10 km and
            the rest 64 km of the roads are having a width of 20 feet (6 m.).

            Mall Road:
            The Mall is the central market place in the core area and houses a
            number of heritage sites and buildings. The major tourist attraction of
            Shimla is the Mall. The road from Boileauganj to Scandal point and from
            Scandal point to Secretariat and from Scandal Point to Sanjauli Chowk
            forms the Mall road. The road along the Mall is basically for pedestrian
            movement and entry is restricted for vehicles except for vehicles with
            permits and emergency vehicles.
            The existing road network of Shimla is presented in Figure 12.1.




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           117
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                               Shimla City Development Plan




•       Main Arterial Road
        •       Mall Road
        •       KSC Road
        •       Motor Round Road
        •       Bypass Road




                                   Figure 12.1 Existing Road Network of Shimla Planning Area



    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                         118
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


12.4.2 Vertical Mobility in Shimla
             The vertical movement between the Mall road and Cart Road is limited to
             pedestrian movement using municipal pathways/staircases and lift.

    12.4.2.1 Municipal Pathways/Staircases
                Municipal paths are in form of blacktop streets along with stairs for
                pedestrian movement.      These paths/stairs are used for manual
                transportation of goods/payloads by porters. The total length of walk
                paths under SMC is 73.128 km. Ward-wise details of paths under MC are
                tabulated in Table 12.3.
    Table 12.3 Ward Wise Details of Municipal Paths
     Ward       Name of Ward             Paths (Length in Km.)
     No.                                 Blacktop/Stairs Kucha             Ward wise
         1      Bharari                         1.642                -         1.642
         2      Rudlu Bhatta                    5.758                -         5.758
         3      Kaithu                          4.405            1.930         6.335
         4      Annandale                       2.425            1.600         4.025
         5      Summer hill                     1.925                -         1.925
         6      Tutu                            2.405                -         2.405
         7      Boileauganj                     3.320            1.200         4.520
         8      Tutikandi                       3.830            1.565         5.395
         9      Nabha                           1.750            1.000         2.750
        10      Phagli                          4.010                -         4.010
        11      Krishnanagar                    2.370            0.280         2.650
        12      Rambazar                        1.572                -         1.572
        13      Mall road                       1.204                -         1.204
        14      Jakhoo                          3.736                -         3.736
        15      Banmore                         2.003                -         2.003
        16      Engineghar                      2.014                -         2.014
        17      Sanjauli                        2.450                -         2.450
        18      Dhalli                          2.856            0.370         3.226
        19      Chamyana                        1.169            1.194         2.363
        20      Sangti                          2.800                -         2.800
        21      Kasumpti                        2.400                -         2.400
        22      Chhota Shimla                   2.675                -         2.675
        23      Patyog                          0.340            0.810         1.150
        24      Khalini                         0.200            0.310         0.510
        25      Kamlog                          1.740            1.870         3.610
                                 Total        60.999         12.129             73.128

    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            119
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan


12.4.2.2 Lift
            The Mall road and the Ridge are restricted to pedestrian movement. The
            accessibility to these areas is only through pathways/staircases and the lift.
            The lift is the only mechanized vertical transport system available to
            vertical mobility between Cart Road and Mall Road. The lift constructed by
            PWD is operational since June 1977. Presently the lift is being operated
            and maintained by HPTDC. The lift is the preferred mode of transport
            between Cart R and Mall Road for tourists, senior citizens, and disabled
            persons. The patronage for lift is estimated from the tickets sold and is
            presented in Table 12.4.
         Table 12.4 Number of Daily Tickets (Up and Down
            S.N.             Month      2003        2004        2005        2006
              1      January              76900       82700     76571        80500
              2      February             58700       77100     60700        62271
              3      March                83500       89400     81700        92114
              4      April              106900      103000      90000       111014
              5      May                152000      164600     155700       170014
              6      June               201600      196300     195400       214000
              7      July               116900      129400      99200
              8      August               92100       86700     88200
              9      September            94000       76157     82100
              10     October            115400        87100    102000
              11     November             87900       76600     81900
              12     December           118800        90214     97000




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             120
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan



                                                       Patronage to Lift

            230000
            210000                                                                                         2003
                                                                                                           2004
            190000
                                                                                                           2005
            170000                                                                                         2006
            150000
            130000
            110000
             90000
             70000
             50000



                                                ay




                                                                                                           r
                           ry




                                                                  ly




                                                                                                                     r
                 ry




                                  ch




                                                        e




                                                                                       r
                                          ril




                                                                              t




                                                                                                 r
                                                                            s




                                                                                                         be



                                                                                                                    be
                                                                                    be



                                                                                               be
                                                         n


                                                               Ju
                                        Ap




                                                                          gu
                        ua
               ua




                                                M
                                 ar




                                                      Ju




                                                                                                       em



                                                                                                                  em
                                                                                  em



                                                                                               o
                                                                        Au
                        br
                n




                                M




                                                                                            ct
             Ja




                                                                                           O


                                                                                                      ov
                      Fe




                                                                                                                ec
                                                                                  pt
                                                                                Se




                                                                                                     N



                                                                                                               D
                                                              Month

                                Figure 12.2 Number of Tickets sold for usage of Lift




         Paths/Stairs                                        Lift Connecting Cart Road – Mall Road
                                          Plate 11.3 Vertical Mobility in Shimla
12.5     REGISTERED VEHICLES: COMPOSITION AND GROWTH
         The total number of registered vehicles during 2005 in Shimla Planning Area is
         tabulated in Table 12.5.
  Table 12.5 Details of Registered Vehicles in Shimla Planning Area
                                                                                                      Number
                                                              Private           Government
                       Vehicle Category                                                                  of
                                                              Vehicles           Vehicles
                                                                                                      Vehicles
       Heavy Motor Vehicle                                             3139                 528          3667
       Light Commercial Vehicle                                        7979                2118         10097
       Two Wheelers, Fire Brigade, Ambulances,
                                                                       8100                157             8257
       Trolleys
                                                     Total        19218                    2803            22021

         INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                  121
         CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                       Shimla City Development Plan


                                       Vehicle Registration


                                                       Heavy Motor
                                                         Vehicle
                                                          17%
                             Two Wheelers,
                              Fire Brigade,
                              Ambulances,
                                Trolleys,
                                   37%




                                                       Light Commercial
                                                            Vehicle
                                                              46%


       Figure 12.3 Composition of Registered Vehicles in Shimla Planning Area

The number of registered vehicles in Shimla Planning Area in the last decade has
increased at decadal growth rate of 34%. The number of registered vehicles in
Shimla in last 5 years is presented in Table 12.6. The increase in number of
registrations of cars has grown at the rate of 14.82% annually. Details of past growth
and projections of registered vehicles are presented in Table 12.7.
Table 12.6 Registered Vehicles in the Shimla
  Vehicle Category                   2001            2002            2003         2004      2005
  Two wheelers                            3841              4026      4225          4445           4696
  Cars/Jeeps                              3048              3722      4234          4953           5298
  Buses                                       374             417      437           440           450
  Trucks                                  1076              1103      1133          1168           1170
  Taxis                                   8123              8228      8231          8231           8235
  Total                                  16462              17496    18260         19237          19849


Table 12.7 Growth of Registered Vehicles and Future Projections
                                        Annual Growth Rate
  Vehicle Category            2005                                          2011           2021
                                          (year 2001-2005)
  Two wheelers               4696             5.15%                       6348           10492
  Cars/Jeeps                 5298               14.82%                  12141            48362
  Buses                      450                    4.73%                   594           943
  Trucks                     1170                   2.12%                 1327           1636
  Taxis                      8235                   0.34%                 8406           8699
  Total                      19849                                      28816            70131




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                           122
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


                 Based on past trend of vehicle registration growth, the number of vehicle registration
                 is expected to be about 28816 in year 2011 and 70131 in the year 2021 as projected
                 in Table 12.7.


12.6             TRAFFIC FLOWS AND TRAFFIC DEMAND
                 The volume count done during lean tourist period (October, 2004) at various
                 locations in Shimla City is presented in Figure 12.4.

                                              Peak Hour Traffic Volume - 2004

               3500

               3000
                                                                     3018

               2500
 PCUs / Hour




               2000

                                              1422                                   1380             1619
               1500          1175

               1000
                                               Capacity of Two Lane Road - 750 PCUs/Hour
               500

                 0
                       Near Bypass        Lakkar Bazaar           ISBT            Taland        Secretariat
                                                          Location on Cart Road

                                 Figure 12.4 Peak Hour Traffic Volume in Shimla City –2004

                 The capacity of two lane road as per Table 12.4 of IRC:86-1983 is 750 PCUs/ hour
                 for urban roads between intersections on road with free frontage access, parked
                 vehicle and heavy cross traffic. From the above figure, it is evident that Cart Road is
                 servicing more than its capacity. Traffic volume at ISBT and Secretariat is
                 comparatively higher compared to other locations being main activity centers in
                 Shimla city.

                 Considering the lean tourist period, the traffic volume depicts the existing status of
                 city traffic demand. The traffic volume on these links is assumed to increase at 3%
                 per annum and the traffic demand for year 2021 is tabulated in Table 12.8.




                 INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                   123
                 CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                      Shimla City Development Plan


       Table 12.8 Traffic Demand Forecasting for Shimla City – PCUs/ Hour
              Locations             2004                2021*
         Chakkar                    1349                 2230
         Near Bypass                1175                 1943
         Lakkar Bazaar              1422                 2350
         ISBT                       3018                 4988
         Talland                    1380                 2282
         Secretariat                1619                 2675
       * Projected traffic
       The capacity of two lane road (one-way traffic movement) as per Table 12.8 of
       IRC:86-1983 is 2400 PCUs/ hour. Four laning and six laning of these links besides
       shifting of ISBT and other wholesale activity centers shall meet the traffic demand
       till year 2021.


12.7   SETTLEMENT WISE WORK FORCE PARTICIPATION AND TRIP DISTANCE
       The workforce in Shimla Planning Area is mostly concentrated in MC Shimla
       (including Tutu, Dhalli and New Shimla). Figure 12.5 depicts that about 79% of the
       workforce is from MC Shimla. The Special Areas of Ghanahatti, Kufri and Shoghi
       contribute the remaining workforce at 6%, 8% and 7% respectively. About 56% of
       the Government Departments are concentrated in Mall and Kasumpti Area.

                                                     S ho ghi
                                                       7%
                                               K ufri
                                                8%
                                    G ha na ha tti
                                        6%


                                                                     M .C . S himla
                                                                   (Inc luding Ne w
                                                                S himla , D ha lli, Tutu
                                                                          79%



                             Figure 12.5 Settlement wise Workforce participation


       Trip distance of work trips of residents of Shimla is tabulated in Table 12.9.




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                              124
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                              Shimla City Development Plan


        Table 12.9 Trip Distance of Work Trips
               Work Trip Distance                        Percentage
         Less than a 1 km.                                       5
         Between 1 and 2 km.                                    20
         More than 2 km.                                        75

12.8   MODE AND MODAL SPLIT
       Mode choice and modal split of work trips is presented in Figure 12.6. 62% of the
       work trips are served by buses which from 27% percent of the traffic volume. Only
       30% of the work trips are by private four wheelers, which form 65% of the traffic
       volume. All the forms of work trips are not accessible by vehicles because of the
       restricted roads. Therefore all forms of work trips includes walk as the important
       mode of work trip.

                                           Mode and Modal Split



                                                  8%

                                                    8%                  27%



                                         30%

                                                                  62%


                                          65%


                                                Bus / HMV
                                                Four Wheeler / LMV
                                                Two Wheelers & Cycles

                         Figure 12.6 Mode Choice and Modal Split of Work Trips

       From Figure 12.5, Table 12.9 and Figure 12.6, it is evident that the 75% of the work
       trip is more than 2 km. and 62% of the work trip is by bus, which means that walk
       and public transport (bus) are major mode of transportation for residents of Shimla.


12.9   PUBLIC TRANSPORT

  12.9.1 Local Bus Services
          Public transport in Shimla Planning Area is only through bus transport provided
          by HRTC and mini buses operated on selected routes by the licensed private
          operators. 62% of the work trip is by public transport catered by 27 % of the bus
          trips within Shimla City. The local bus routes as identified by the Department of
          Transport are tabulated in Table 12.10.

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                      125
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan


    Table 12.10 Public Transport Trips per day on Selected Routes in Shimla City
                                                             Private
                        Routes                 HPRTC                          Total
                                                            Operators
      ISBT (Cart Road) - Shoghi                      28              35            63
      ISBT (Cart Road) – Lalpani                     17                5           22
      ISBT (Cart Road) – Jutogh                      26              98           124
      ISBT (Cart Road) – Summerhill                  26             195           221
      ISBT (Cart Road) – Kasumpti /
                                                     76             241           317
      Panthaghati
      ISBT (Cart Road) – Sanjauli / Dhalli           66             102           168
      ISBT (Cart Road) – Sanjauli / Mudrika           7              66            73
      Lakkar Bazaar – Paobo /Bharari                 18                4           22
                                       Total        264             746          1010


             HRTC Service

             Currently 83 buses are operated by HRTC on eight local routes making a
             total of 264 trips in a day.

             Private Operators Service

             Mini Buses are shuttled by licensed private operators on the same eight local
             routes with a total bus fleet of 95 making a total of 76 trips in a day. The
             frequency of trips varies to match the peak hour and non-peak hour traffic.




    Private Bus Service                         HRTC Service
                Plate 12.4 Public Transport Services for Shimla City


12.9.2 Regional Bus Services
       Regional bus transports are operated from 2 ISBTs on Cart Road. Department of
       Transport has identified routes for regional bus services as tabulated in Table
       12.11.
    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          126
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


       Table 12.11 Regional Bus Service on Selected Routes to and from Shimla City
        Routes                               HRTC        Private Operators       Total
        ISBT (Cart Road) – Manali             114                64               178
        ISBT (Cart Road) – Chandigarh                    312                      312
        ISBT (Cart Road) – Dhammi             122                50               172
        ISBT (Cart Road) – Paontasahib         22               120               142
        ISBT (Cart Road) – Karsog              76                48               124
        ISBT (Lakkar Bazaar) – Pubbal          96                34               130
        ISBT (Lakkar Bazaar) – Rampur         122                56               178
         The total number of regional bus services is 1236 of which 928 services are
         catered at ISBT on Cart Road and remaining 308 services are catered from Lakkar
         Bazaar.




Regional Bus Services from Cart Road          Regional Bus Rain Shelter
                  Plate 12.5 Regional Bus Services / Facilities to Shimla

  12.9.3 Bus Terminal Facilities
       12.9.3.1 Regional Bus Services
               ISBT on Cart Road: The total area of ISBT on Cart Road is 1165 sq.m. only
               and there area 7 departure bays and 9 arrival bays at ISBT on Cart Road.
               Official Vehicles of Department of Transport have been using space adjacent
               to the ISBT for parking.

       12.9.3.2 ISBT at Lakkar Bazar:
               The total area of ISBT at Lakkar Bazar is 250 sq.m. only and there is no
               provision of bus bays. The space within the bus terminal is used for
               unauthorized car parking.

       12.9.3.3 Local Bus Services
               The provisions of local bus stops with rain shelters are made along the local
               bus service routes at various locations. Most of these stops are located close

      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          127
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan


             to the road intersections adding to the traffic congestion. Numbers of bus
             stops are in state of neglect and needs upgradation and relocation to
             appropriate location to prevent the congestion.




    ISBT Cart Road                             ISBT Lakkar Bazaar




    Local Bus Stops                            Rain Shelter
                Plate 12.6 Bus Terminal Facilities at Shimla


12.9.4 Bus Depot Facilities
       Department of Transport has established three bus depots for Shimla City at
       Taradevi and 2 depots at Dhalli presently handling 82 buses and 182 buses at
       Dhalli.


12.9.5 Advantage Public Transport
       With the present population of Shimla Planning Area at 174789, and the modal
       share of public transport of about 62% is higher compared to the desired share of
       public transport as per Table 12.12.




    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          128
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


       Table 12.12 Share of Public Transport
           S.N.       Population of City (Millions)              Desired share - public transport (%)
             1                   0.5 – 1.0                                           25
             2                   1.0 – 2.0                                        30-40
             3                   2.0 – 3.0                                        50-60
             4                   3.0 – 5.0                                        60-70
             5                   5.0 plus                                         70-85
      Source: Traffic & Transportation Policies & Strategies in Urban Areas in India – Ministry of Urban Development,
      Govt. of India - 1998


         Having known that public transport is the most preferred mode of travel, there is
         need of providing an efficient public transport for Shimla based on Mass Rapid
         Transit System (MRTS) and/or High Operating Capacity System (HOCS). The
         options of a with exclusive two lane road with high end information technology
         system in the buses besides facility for modern bus stops at requisite locations.


12.10 PEDESTRIAN FACILITIES
  12.10.1 Pedestrian Footpaths
         The hilly terrain and restricted vehicular movements have made walking a must in
         Shimla. About 50% of the work trips and 40% of the school trips in Shimla are
         on foot. Some of the prominent locations where pedestrians are prone to
         accidents due to the moving vehicular traffic on Cart Road are Victory Tunnel,
         ISBT and Lift. Pedestrian flows at these locations as tabulated in Table 12.13
         indicate that the footpaths need widening to cater to future pedestrian volume
         and increase pedestrian safety.
         Table 12.13 Pedestrian Flows at various locations on Cart Road
         S                                                                                        Peak
         o Location                                                  Availability of           Pedestrian
                                        Link Name
                                                                       footpath                Volume per
         u
                                                                                                  hour
         r
                                                                  1.0 meter on valley
         c                                  ISBT                                                    785
                                                                          side
         e Near Victory                                           1.0 meter on valley
         :                                   Tutu                                                   601
             Tunnel                                                       side
                                                                  0.5 meter on either
         B                             Lakkar Bazaar                                                234
                                                                          side
         u                         Victory Tunnel to Lift              1.0 meter                    594
         s ISBT building
                                   Lift to Victory Tunnel              1.0 meter                    655
         TLift (on bridge)
                                      Bemloi to ISBT                   1.0 meter                    199
         e                            ISBT to Bemloi                   1.0 meter                    184
         rminal Projects, ISBT at Tutikandi, Shimla - EPC, Primary Survey 2002

      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                129
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan




Footpath – Cantilevering on Valley Side          Railings for Pedestrian Safety




           Absence of Footpath                       Absence of Footpath
                Plate 12.7 Pedestrian Facilities in Shimla

12.10.2 Pedestrian Crossings
       As explained earlier, public transport and pedestrian trips make about 80 % of the
       trips in Shimla, which are mainly concentrated on Cart Road and roads leading to
       Cart Road. Therefore pedestrian mobility in the city needs municipal paths/stairs
       for vertical movement, municipal footpaths and crossing for horizontal
       movement. Most of the pedestrian crossings on the Cart Road are zebra
       crossings while crossings near Lift, ISBT, Victory Tunnel and Secretariat are also
       provided with a Police Beats.

       In order to increase safety, the existing pedestrian crossings near schools, bus
       stops and other vulnerable locations should be upgraded with an overhead foot
       over bridges.




    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         130
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan




      At level zebra crossing                      Foot Over Bridge - St Edwards School
                                   Plate 12.8 Pedestrian Crossing Facilities

12.11 PARKING

  12.11.1 Off Street Parking Lots
         To meet present city parking demand, SMC has designated 11 off-street parking
         lots having a total capacity of 782 cars. The details of each of the parking lots are
         tabulated in Table 12.14. Most of the off-street parking lots are working at full
         capacity.
      Table 12.14 Details of Parking Lots in M.C. Shimla
         S.N.                  Location                       Capacity (no.)
           1       Lift Area                                         60
           2       High Court                                        75
           3       Cart Road                                       165
           4       Main Bus Stand                                    80
           5       Near Holiday Home Hotel                           20
           6       Sanjauli                                          75
           7       Lakkar Bazaar                                     32
           8       Tara Hall School                                  15
           9       Kasumpti                                          90
          10       Chinni Bungalow                                 165
          11       Shoghi                                             5
                                        Total                      782




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          131
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan




       Parking near Lift                         Parking in dilapidated condition

                                   Plate 12.9 Off-Street Parking in Shimla


  12.11.2 On-street Parking
         On-street parking is witnessed all along the roads in Shimla and mainly on the
         Cart Road. These are authorized on-street parking areas, being delineated by
         yellow color paint on the road. The Shimla Bypass is used for parking of buses.
         Parking of vehicles on roads is one of the major reasons for under performance
         of the already over loaded Cart Road and other road network.




Yellow Line demarcation for On-street Sub-standard Sign Boards
parking on Cart Road
                  Plate 12.10 Authorized On-street Parking in Shimla




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         132
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan




                Plate 12.11 Unauthorized On-street Parking in Shimla

12.11.3 Existing Parking Fee
       The parking fees prevalent in Shimla for various categories are tabulated in Table
       12.15.
    Table 12.15 Existing Fee for Vehicular Parking at Designated Parking Lots
         Parking Duration        Cars/Vans/Jeeps  Big Cars (Tata Sumo and Esteem)
             0-6 hours                  20                        30
             6-12 hours                 25                        35
            12-24 hours                 35                        45
              Monthly                  600                       800
         Parking Duration                         Two Wheelers
             0-1 hours                                  3/-
             1-2 hours                                  4/-
             2-6 hours                                  5/-
             6-12 hours                                 7/-
           12 –24 hours                                12/-
              Monthly                                  300/-
             Location                         Night Parking for Buses
       Main Bus Stand Shimla                             60/-
            Lakkar Bazaar                                40/-

    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           133
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan


12.11.4 Existing Parking Demand
       The existing demand as assessed by SMC and PWD to eliminate on-street parking
       is 1500 no. It is proposed to construct nine multilevel parking lots at various
       locations as detailed out in Table 12.16.
       Table 12.16 Proposed Locations of the Multilevel Parking Lots
           S.N.                     Location                      Parking Capacity
             1       Near Senior Secondary School, Sanjauli                 250
             2       Below IGMC                                             151
             3       M.C Car parking near High Court Shimla                 350
             4       Chhota Shimla                                          250
             5       Below Cancer Hospital                                  300
             6       MC. Office Chhota Shimla                                75
             7       RMKV College                                           625
             8       Taradevi                                              1000
             9       Chartered Bus Parking                                   40
                                                       Total               3041


12.11.5 Future Parking Demand
       The growth of vehicles, increase in trip frequency by local people and increasing
       number of tourist shall have critical effect on future parking demand.

12.11.6 Tourists Parking Demand
       Tourism parking demand for horizon period has been determined based on the
       tourism inflow projections and it has been presented in Table 12.17. The
       estimated peak parking demand for year 2021 due to tourism is about 10,000 car
       spaces.
    Table 12.17 Future Parking Demand to be handled by SMC
        Year      Number of tourists per day during peak season     Parking Demand*
        2006                          13,821                                1,399
        2011                          19,385                                3,635
        2016                          27,188                                7,137
        2021                          38,133                               10,010
    * Estimated Demand based on Tourism Projections




   INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           134
   CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                             Shimla City Development Plan


12.12 JUNCTIONS
      All the junctions, which are open to vehicular movement, are sub standard and are
      operating more than its capacity. These are major places of traffic congestion
      because of less capacity besides roadside developments forming bottlenecks.




                 Plate 12.12 Junctions/Intersections in Shimla

12.13 BOTTLENECKS
      The most congested places on Cart Road form a serious of bottlenecks. The
      following are identified as major bottle-necks on Cart Road:
                 a.     Parking Complex of Hotel Cecil
                 b.     ISBT on Cart Road
                 c.     Gurudwara to Veterinary Hospital
                 d.     St. Edward School
                 e.     Chhota Shimla Bazaar
                 f.     Kasumpti Bazaar
                 g.     Sanjauli Bazaar
                 h.     Kaithu
                 i.     Lakkar Bazaar
                 j.     Boileauganj
                 k.     Tutu


     INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                       135
     CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan


      The reasons for bottlenecks are manifold, but the prominent reason is presence of
      activity centers along Cart Road or having access to Cart Road:
                  a.     Unloading area for goods along the Cart Road
                  b.     Warehousing facilities located in the central area
                  c.     Coal depots within the central area
                  d.     Vegetable and fruit market, grain market are located in Lower Bazaar
                         having access from only from Cart Road
                  e.     Lakkar Bazaar or Timber Market
                  f.     Narrow width of road at above locations




                              Plate 12.13 Wholesale markets within Shimla Core Area


12.14 TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORT SAFETY
      With roads functioning more than its capacity, on-street parking causing congestion,
      walk being the predominant mode of travel, and increasing number of tourists,
      transport safety should be the top priority in the year to come in Traffic and
      Transportation System for Shimla. The identified black spots in Shimla town are
      tabulated in Table 12.18.




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           136
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


      Table 12.18 Number of Road Accidents within Shimla Planning Area in Year 2003
                                                                               Number of
        S.N.                         Name of the Road
                                                                               Accidents
          1       Circular road / Cart Road                                        34
          2       Bypass road                                                      22
          3       Sanjauli to Lakkar Bazaar                                        16
          4       Shimla Kalka Highway                                             22
          5       Shimla Mandi Road                                                10
          6       Dhalli to Mashobra                                               16
          7       Dhalli to Kufri                                                  14
          8       Lakkar bazaar to Bharari                                          3
          9       Chhota Shimla to Kasumpti                                         3
          10      Mall road, US Club, Kaithu, Chaura Maidan and Boileauganj         9
                                                                      Total       149



12.15 ISSUES AND ASPECTS
      Multiple organizations involved in development and management of Traffic &
      Transportation facilities in Shimla City. The registration of vehicles is done at
      Regional Transport Authority, road planning and construction is handled by PWD,
      the regulation of traffic and its safety is with the traffic police division, operation of
      public transport and other private operating buses is monitored by Department of
      Transport, the terminal facilities is being developed by HPSMDA, lift facility is
      handled by HPTDC, other facilities like municipal road, paths/stairs and parking are
      maintained by SMC and all these are being interacted at every moment involving
      public. With the increasing urbanization and tourism as economic driver, many more
      modes of transportation which can cater to vertical and horizontal mobility like
      ropeways, escalators, BRTS (Bus Rapid Transport System), MRTS (Mass Rapid
      Transport System) will become an option for mobility in Shimla. Absence of
      multimodal transfer facilities and non-existence of Unified Traffic and Transport
      Authority for Shimla is reason for the traffic and transport problems.

      All roads lead to Shimla but only one road in Shimla is open for traffic:
      Knowing the fact that Shimla attracts the maximum number of visitors/tourists in
      Himachal Pradesh, it has tremendous tourism potential. With the regional roads
      getting upgraded (e.g. four laning of Zirakpur – Parwanoo – Solan – Shimla by
      NHAI) to cater to projected traffic and increase the level of service, it is imperative
      that the only road in Shimla open for traffic – the Cart road needs strengthening and
      widening.



      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            137
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                            Shimla City Development Plan


Traffic Growth vis-à-vis growth of transportation network: The increase in
number of registered vehicles in Shimla has resulted in high traffic volumes on road
in Shimla. Besides increase in number of visitors/tourists using personal modes of
vehicles has exploded the traffic into multiple proportions. Past traffic has grown at
a decadal growth rate of 35%, where as the road network in the Shimla for
circulation has not been substantiated on par with the traffic growth. The reason for
non augmentation of roads is due to non availability of right of way, dislocation of
people, cutting of trees which are under forest area, high cost of construction and
budgetary constraints.

Traffic Congestion is the most significant issue that Shimla is facing today. The
coverage of road network for vehicular movement is low and existing roads are
operating more than its desired capacity. The width of roads have become narrow
for ever increasing traffic volume and increase in activity centers along the roads
impairing traffic movement and creating bottlenecks.

There are about 782 parking spaces in Shimla, which are inadequate for present city
parking as well as the demand due to visiting tourists. Due to shortage of off-street
parking, on-street parking is the only option that has converted wider roads into
narrow lanes causing distress to traffic movement. The existing parking demand is
estimated to be approximately 1399 car spaces and SMC has a proposal for provision
of 1376 parking car spaces at six locations within the MC area. There is no parking
policy for Shimla, which is deemed necessary for implementation of parking projects
in a binding frame work and fasten the process to meet parking demands of Shimla.

Public Transport in Shimla is limited to Cart Road and roads below Cart Road,
which is highly inadequate due to the following reasons:

   a.       Inadequate space for movement of buses

   b.       Absence of dedicated busbays causes buses to stop on Cart Road for
            boarding and alighting of passengers thereby causing traffic congestion on
            Cart Road

   c.       Unregulated stopping of buses at any location other than designated bus
            stops

   d.       Increase in travel time of buses during peak hours

   e.       Absence of timings and information on routes of buses at terminals and
            bus stops



INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           138
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


      Pedestrians Facilities: Shimla, being a 50% pedestrians‟ city is without proper
      pedestrian facilities on roads where interaction with moving traffic is involved. The
      pedestrian footpaths are not continuous and are not as per standards. Absence of
      proper footpaths and absence of crossing facilities for uninterrupted movement of
      pedestrians is a safety concern in Shimla.



12.16 VISION AND GOALS

              “Providing Mobility with Choice, Comfort, Convenience,
              Frequency, Safety & Minimum Environmental Effects”

                   Description                2006        2011         2016        2021
       % Paved road to total road length           50         65           80           95
       % Area under roads                        3.75          4           4.3        4.87
       % Of road have street lights                60         90           95         100
       Vehicular Parking (no of bays)           1376        3500         7000       10000


12.17 STRATEGY AND IDENTIFICATION OF INTERVENTIONS

  12.17.1 Unified Traffic and Transportation Authority for Shimla Planning Area
         A Unified Traffic and Transportation Authority (UTTA) for Shimla Planning
         Area is recommended where all the functions related to traffic and transportation
         with respect to Shimla Planning Area can be domiciled. The authority should be
         nodal agency to plan, develop and implement the policies and interventions
         related to traffic and transportation.


  12.17.2 Comprehensive Traffic and Transportation Study for SPA
         At the outset, a Comprehensive Traffic and Transportation Study (CTTS) for
         Shimla Planning Area should be carried out in order to assess present traffic flow
         pattern and transport demand in Shimla Planning Area. CTTS for Shimla
         Planning Area shall forecast future traffic and transportation demand, which will
         suggest various stages of upgradation of the transportation system for Shimla in
         sustainable manner. Recently, MoUD has appointed consultant to prepare the
         traffic and transportation plan of various cities across the country and Shimla is
         one of the city identified.

         To reduce congestion and enhance present level of service of traffic in Shimla, a
         two-way complementing solution is proposed. The first is to prevent any further
      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          139
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


       congestion of Shimla Planning Area, to divert unnecessary traffic coming to
       Shimla Planning Area, complimented by upgradation of the existing facilities and
       introduction of other multimodal alternatives to increase mobility in Shimla
       Planning Area.


12.17.3 Decongesting Shimla City
       For decongestion of Shimla city, following are the interventions suggested for
       implementation in a phased manner.


    12.17.3.1 Shifting of Commercial Activity Centres
                There is an immediate need to shift activity centers like wholesale vegetable
                market, grain market, timber market, transport hub etc. Land has been
                identified along Shimla Bypass and is proposed for shifting all major
                commercial activity centers to cater for loading and unloading facilities.
                The details of interventions are tabulated in Table 12.19.
    Table 12.19 Estimated Cost of Shifting of Activity Centres
       S.N.            Details          Area in Hectares       Total Cost (Rs. Lakhs)
         1       Grain Market                 5.00                       605
         2       Timber Market                5.00                       605
         3       Warehouses                   3.50                    423.50
         4       Vegetable Market             1.00                    121.00
         5       Godown                       0.80                     44.00
         6       Transport Terminal            NA                    1000.00
                                Total                                 2798.5

    12.17.3.2 Bypasses to the City
                Shimla Bypass has been effective in diverting unnecessary traffic including
                trucks there by reducing a commendable amount of congestion in Shimla
                City. A list of bypasses has been identified as tabulated in Table 12.20, to
                divert other through traffic. As a priority, GoHP has undertaken Sanjauli -
                Dhalli Bypass and Panthghati to Taradevi Bypass for construction.




    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            140
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan


                Table 12.20 Estimated Cost of Proposed Bypasses for Shimla City
                                                                              Estimated
                                                                Distance
                  S.N.                  Details                                 Cost
                                                                 (Km.)
                                                                             (Rs. Lakhs)
                    1      Sanjauli Bypass u/c                   4.075        800.00
                    2      Kufri Bypass                           0.70         24.50
                           Panthagathi to Taradevi Bypass
                    3                                            22.00        600.00
                           u/c
                    4      Tutu to Kufta Dhar Naldhera           12.00        420.00
                           Ghanahatti to Jubbarhatti to
                    5                                            15.00        525.00
                           Shoghi Bypass
                                                        Total                2369.50

   12.17.3.3 New Satellite Towns
                New satellite townships are recommended on periphery along regional
                transport corridors of Shimla, which can act as development nodes and
                decongest the town. The cost for new towns is included in the Housing
                component of CDP Shimla.


12.17.4 Improving Mobility within City
       Further to capitalize on decongestion plan and to increase mobility within the city,
       the following are interventions identified for implementation in a phased manner.


   12.17.4.1 Construction of Footpaths and Standardization of Cart Road for
             pedestrian safety
                Cart Road should be standardized to have footpath as per design standards
                with carriageway width of a two-lane road. PWD has conducted detailed
                engineering studies for standardization of Cart Road which includes land
                acquisition, construction of foot path, retaining walls, widening of cross
                drainage works, etc. The details of standardization of Cart Road is
                presented in Table 12.21 .The estimated cost is Rs. 5225 Lakhs and is
                estimated to be completed by January 2008.




    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             141
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan


            Table 12.21 Estimated Cost of Standardization of Cart Road
                                                                          Total     Estimated
               S.N.                          Details                     Length     Cost (Rs.
                                                                          (km)       Lakhs)
                             Construction of pedestrian paths for road
                 1           safety along Circular road (Victory          4.84       2600
                             Tunnel to Sanjauli Junction)
                             Construction of pedestrian paths for road
                 2           safety along Circular road (portion NH       5.14       2625
                             Bypass junction to Bemloe)
                                                                 Total    9.98       5225


12.17.4.2 Standardization of Municipal Roads:
            Municipal roads have been identified for standardization wherever possible
            and these roads have been prioritized based on its connectivity to the main
            roads and availability of land for standardization. Standardization of
            municipal roads is to have a uniform width for each identified road besides
            other road furniture. Preliminary cost estimates for standardization of
            municipal roads is tabulated in Table 12.22. The project is proposed to be
            complete by end of year 2008.
Table 12.22 Estimated Cost of Standardization of Municipal Roads
 S.N.      Details                                 Estimated Cost (Rs. Lakhs)
 1         MC Area                                              735.00
 2         Dhalli Area                                          498.50
 3         New Shimla                                           145.50
 4         Tutu Area                                            136.98
                                             Total             1515.98

12.17.4.3 New Links:
            New Links in Shimla Planning Area are proposed connecting various
            locations to improve the connectivity, which can also ease the traffic
            congestions. Land acquisition is expected for provision of new links and
            the project is expected to complete by the December 2008.




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                   142
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                      Shimla City Development Plan


Table 12.23 Estimated Project Cost for New Links
                                                          Length             Estimated Cost
  S.N.                       Details
                                                          (Km.)              (Rs. in Lakhs)
            Bemloe to Tutikandi on Shimla
    1                                                      4.50                  1600.00
            bypass
            St Bedes College to Housing Board
    2                                                      4.50                  1200.00
            Colony
    3       Panthaghatti NH Junction to Beolia             NA                    1000.00
    4       Bemloe to Kanlog                               NA                    1200.00
    5       103 Tunnel to Fagli via Nabha                  NA                     600.00
                                            Total                                5600.00


12.17.4.4 Tunnels:
            Presently, the travel between southern and northern side of the spur
            requires traversing through the entire circular road thus increasing travel
            time as well causing to traffic congestion. The tunnels at appropriate
            locations connecting the circular road would mitigate the aforementioned
            issues. Three new tunnels, which shall improve the circulation and relieve
            traffic burden are proposed for two directional vehicular movements. It is
            also proposed to upgrade the existing pedestrian tunnel near Auckland
            School for vehicle movement. Preliminary cost for tunnels is tabulated in
            Table 12.24.
         Table 12.24 Estimated Cost for Proposed Tunnels in Shimla City
                                                           Distance          Estimated Cost
           S.N.                  Location
                                                            (Km.)             (Rs. Lakhs)
              1      Lift to Lakkar Bazaar                   0.35                1120.00
              2      Lift to Himfed Petrol Pump              0.95                3040.00
              3      Himfed to IGMC                          1.20                3840.00
                     Widening and Lowering the
              4                                                   -                925.00
                     existing pedestrian tunnel
                                                  Total                           8925.00


12.17.4.5 High Operating Capacity System:
            An exclusive two lane right of way is proposed parallel to the existing Cart
            Road as widening of Cart Road from two lane to four lane road involves
            cutting and filling with retaining and breast walls that may be vulnerable for
            stability of slopes. This new ROW should be integral part of the High
            Operating Capacity System (HOCS) exclusively for public transport
            system, which may include City Bus Services initially and could be

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                     143
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                            Shimla City Development Plan


            upgraded to BRTS, LRTS etc in future. Links between Cart Road and the
            HOCS alignment shall in terms of lifts and escalators wherever the grades
            do not permit paths/stairs for pedestrian movement. It is suggested that
            prefeasibility study be undertaken to ascertain its techno-economic
            feasibility.
            Table 12.25 Estimated Cost of Parallel Road for High Operating Capacity
                        Systems
                                                            Estimated Cost (Rs. in
             S.N.        Details
                                                            Lakhs)
                 1       Parallel road for HOCS                     12500
                         Global Positioning System with
                 2                                                      100
                         Modem for vehicle
                 3       Display Panel at Bus Stops                      40
                 4       Ticketing machines for vehicles                 20
                                          Total                       12660
                 5       GSM connectivity for vehicles          4 lakhs per month
                 6       O& M Cost                              4 lakhs per month
                                                              To be borne by private
                 7       Cost for vehicles
                                                                     operators

12.17.4.6 Junction Improvements:
             All critical junctions in Shimla Planning Areas should be improved with
            respect geometrics corrections, provision of pedestrian foot over bridges,
            subways, installation of traffic signal facilities, provision of medians and
            islands.


12.17.4.7 Parking Facilities:
            Nine parking lots as listed in Table 12.26 are proposed by SMC and PWD.
            The preliminary project report for all the parking lots has been prepared
            and it is proposed to implement the projects with private sector
            participation.




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             144
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan


            Table 12.26 Estimated Cost of Proposed Parking Projects
                                                              Estimated Cost (Rs.
              S.N.     Location
                                                              Lakhs)
                       Near Senior Secondary School,
              1                                                          400
                       Sanjauli
              2        Below IGMC                                        400
                       M.C Car parking near High Court
              3                                                         1000
                       Shimla
              4        Chhota Shimla                                     400
              5        Below Cancer Hospital                             700
              6        MC. Office Chhota Shimla                         1300
              7        RMKV College                                     2000
              8        Taradevi                                         3000
              9        Chartered Bus Parking                            3000
                                                    Total               12200

12.17.4.8 Lifts and Escalators:
            Presently only single lift is providing mechanized vertical mobility. To
            improve the vertical mobility in Shimla, additional lifts & escalators at
            various locations are required. Detailed feasibility study is suggested for
            identifying the alignment and selection of technology. The four escalators
            have been proposed for vertical movement with details and preliminary
            cost estimate provided in Table 12.27.
            Table 12.27 Estimated Cost of Lifts and Escalators
                                                            Height in    Estimated Cost
              S.N.                Location
                                                              M.          (Rs. Lakhs)
                      Lakkar bazaar bus terminal to the
                  1                                            66               410
                      Ridge
                      Snowdon on Cart Road to
                  2                                            50               310
                      Lakkar Bazaar
                  3   Bemloe on Cart Road to Mall              80               496
                      Bypass to Office Complex at
                  4                                            40               248
                      Kasumpti
                                                 Total                          1464

12.17.4.9 Ropeways:
            Ropeway is another mechanized option, which can provide the vertical
            movement along the hill as well as direct connectivity between the hills.
            The ropeways have been proposed connecting various locations as detailed
            out in Table 12.28.



INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                145
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


            Table 12.28 Estimated Cost of Proposed Ropeways for Shimla City
                                                                Distance Estimated Cost
              S.N.                    Details
                                                                 (Km.)       (Lakhs)
                     Taradevi Temple to Ridge via Kamna
                1                                                10.24           122.88
                     Devi Temple
                     Ridge to Bypass road via Jakhoo and
                2                                                 2.82            33.84
                     Dhingu Temple
                     Dhingu Temple to Galu via Mahasu
                3                                                 9.15            109.8
                     Peak
                     Rani Jhansi Park to Tutikandi via Bus
                4                                                 2.57            30.84
                     Stand and Railway Station
                     Tutikandi to Taradevi via Sankat
                5                                                 2.47            29.64
                     Mochan
                                                        Total    27.25           327.00

12.17.4.10 Pedestrian Facilities
            Rehabilitation and strengthening of existing pedestrian pathways/staircases
            and constructions of new pedestrian paths/staircases are recommended for
            the better pedestrian accessibility in vertical mode. The preliminary cost
            estimated for this intervention is presented in Table 12.29.
            Table 12.29 Estimated Cost of provision and improvement of pedestrian
                        Facilities
             S.N.       Details                       Estimated Cost (Rs. in Lakhs)
             1          MC Area                                         235.00
             2          Dhalli Area                                     191.50
             3          New Shimla                                        17.00
             4          Tutu Area                                         40.43
                                                Total                   483.93

12.17.4.11 Local Bus Shelters
            The local bus terminals at Summer Hill, Lakkar Bazar, Sanjauli and ISBT
            are in poor conditions and need upgradation to accommodate the
            necessary facilities. The upgradation these terminals is recommended.

12.17.4.12 Street Lighting:
            Street lighting for pedestrian pathways/staircases as well motorable road is
            proposed for safety purposes.


12.17.4.13 Mass Rapid Transit System
            A study has been initiated by Department of Transport to carryout a
            feasibility study for Mass Rapid Transit System for Shimla and has been

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                146
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


                  entrusted to Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. The feasibility report is
                  expected to bring out various modes of Mass Rapid Transit System that
                  will suitable for Shimla.

12.18 SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN

                                                                                (In Rs. Lakhs)
S.                          Total
    Project                           2007       2008      2009 2010 2011         2012
N                           Cost
Decongestion of Shimla City
    Shifting of Commercial
1                               1799        899       899       -     -         -       -
    Activity Centres
2   Bypasses to the City        2370       1185      1185       -     -         -       -
                  Sub Total     4168       2084      2084       -     -         -       -
                                                       Improving Mobility in Shimla City
                               Total
S.
    Project                     Cost       2007      2008 2009 2010         2011    2012
N
                             (Lakhs)
    Standardization of the
1
    Cart Road                    5225       1700      1700   1825     -         -       -
    Standardization of
2
    Municipal Roads              1516        500       500    516     -         -       -
3   New Links                    5600       1750      1750   2100     -         -       -
4   Parallel Roads              12660          -         -   3000  3000      3000    3660
5   Junction Improvements        1500        750       750      -     -         -       -
6   Parking Facilities          12200       4000      4000   4200     -         -       -
7   Lifts and Escalators         1464        500       500    464     -         -       -
8   Tunnels                      8925       4000      4000    925     -         -       -
    Mass Rapid Transport
9
    System                      45000          -         - 11250 11250     11250   11250
    Bus shelters and local
10
    terminals                     500        500         -      -     -         -       -
11 Ropeways                       327        100       100    127     -         -       -
12  Pedestrian Facilities         484        160       160    164     -         -       -
13  Street Lighting               500        250       250      -     -         -       -
                  Sub Total     96901      15210     13710  24571 14250     14250   14910
               Grand Total     101069      17294     15794  24571 14250     14250   14910




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            147
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan


12.19 PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION SHEETS

      Project Title: Shifting of Commercial Activity Centres

      Project Description: The project components shall include shifting of wholesale grain
      market, wholesale vegetable market, warehouses, timber market, godowns, transport hub
      from the core to periphery of the City. The project shall include land acquisition,
      construction of infrastructure at the proposed site and rehabilitation and relocation of
      affected people to new location

      Project Benefits:
             Decongestion of Core Area
             Reduces traffic congestion on Cart Road
             Reuse of existing locations for appropriate conforming activity

      Project Cost: Rs. 1798.50 Lakhs

      Revenue Sources: Rentals from the Commercial Activity Centres

      Implementation Structure: SMC shall be responsible for the execution of the required
      works through EPC contract

      Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by SMC using funds to be raised
      through grant under JNNURM and state contribution; O&M cost to be borne by SMC
      to be recovered from lease rentals

      Time Frame: Project Development: 2007; Implementation: December 2008

      Institutional Responsibility: SMC

      Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
      Project development including preparation of DPR

      Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

      Additional Studies:
         Preparation of Decongestion Plan for the Core Area




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              148
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Bypasses to the City

Project Description: The project envisages construction of bypasses to connect the
regional roads of Shimla city. These roads shall be developed in stage wise upgradation in
terms of configuration of road. Two bypass roads have been taken up for construction
on a priority basis

Project Benefits:
       Decongestion of Shimla Core Area
       Reduces traffic congestion on Cart Road
       Increases traffic circulation
       Better Connectivity

Project Cost: Rs. 2369.50 Lakhs

Revenue Sources: Appropriate road pricing techniques shall be implemented to recover
the operation and maintenance cost

Implementation Structure: HPPWD shall be responsible for the execution of the
required works through EPC contract

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by the PWB using funds to be
raised through grant under JNNURM and state contribution; O&M contract may involve
private sector participant

Time Frame: Project Development: 2007; Implementation: December 2008

Institutional Responsibility: HPPWD

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Project development including preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
Road pricing strategies should be formulated within existing legal framework

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               149
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Mass Rapid Transit System

Project Description: Based on recommendation of IIT, the proposal for Mass Rapid
Transit System shall be taken up. The project shall include land acquisition for right of
way and construction of transport infrastructure

Project Benefits:
       Increases transport options for daily commuters
       Increases mobility within Shimla
       Reduces travel time
       Provides option for upgradation in future

Project Cost: Rs. 45000 Lakhs

Revenue Sources: User charges through tickets and advertisement rights

Implementation Structure: Department of Transportation may implement the project
through SPV with separate EPC and O&M contracts

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by the Department of Transport
with funds to be raised through grant under JNNURM and state contribution

Time Frame: Prefeasibility: 2006; Project Development : 2007; Implementation :2008-
2012

Institutional Responsibility: Department of Transport

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Detailed Project Reports for the MRTS

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
Incorporation of Unified Traffic and Transport Authority for Shimla Planning Area

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              150
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Standardization of Cart Road

Project Description: The existing cart road shall be standardized to have uniform road
width of two-lane road with adequate pedestrian facilities. The project shall include
removal of encroachment, land acquisition, construction of roadside drains along with
sufficient cross drainages, utility ducts, and pedestrian foot paths

Project Benefits:
       Improves capacity and traffic circulation of Cart Road
       Reduces traffic congestion on Cart road
       Improves pedestrian safety
       Improves drainage system

Project Cost: Rs. 4000 Lakhs

Revenue Sources: Right of Way charges from utility service providers

Implementation Structure: HPPWD shall be responsible for the execution of the
required works through EPC contract

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by the HPPWD using funds to be
raised through grant under JNNURM and state contribution; O&M contract may be
given to private sector participant

Time Frame: Project Development: 2006; Implementation: 2007- 2009

Institutional Responsibility: HPPWD

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
Road pricing strategies shall be formulated within the existing legal frame work

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                151
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Standardization of Municipal roads

Project Description: Standardization of municipal road network is proposed involving
geometrics corrections, road side drains with cross drainages, utility duct and pedestrian
foot paths

Project Benefits:
       Improves municipal road network
       Improves capacity of roads
       Reduces traffic congestion on municipal road network
       Improves pedestrian safety
       Improves drainage system

Project Cost: Rs. 1515.98 Lakhs

Revenue Sources: Road charges from utility service provider, Property tax

Implementation Structure: SMC shall be responsible for execution of project through
EPC contract

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by SMC using funds to be raised
through grant under JNNURM and state contribution; O&M contract shall be given
involving private sector participant

Time Frame: Project Development : 2006; Implementation :2007- 2009

Institutional Responsibility: SMC

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               152
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                             Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Construction of New Links

Project Description: The project components include development of new roads to
connecting Cart Road with other roads

Project Benefits:
       Increases connectivity between Cart road and Shimla bypass
       Traffic can disperse out to the bypass at regular intervals

Project Cost: Rs. 5600 Lakhs

Revenue Sources:

Implementation Structure: HPPWD shall be responsible for execution of the project
through EPC contract

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by HPPWD using funds to be
raised through grant under JNNURM and state contribution; O&M contract shall be
given involving private sector participant

Time Frame: Project Development: 2007; Implementation :2007- 2009

Institutional Responsibility: HPPWD

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            153
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: High Operating Capacity System -Parallel Circular ROW/Road

Project Description: Parallel circular road exclusively for public transportation is
envisaged. The project shall include land acquisition, construction of two lane road and
public transport system with GPS installation, local bus stops, dynamic information
systems at bus stops, mobile ticketing and other state of art facilities including central
monitoring complex
Project Benefits:
     Improve efficiency of the system
     Increase in capacity

Project Cost: Rs. 12660 lakhs

Revenue Sources: Revenue from license fee from transit operators and advertisement
rights

Implementation Structure: The project may be implemented through SPV through
EPC contract. High Operating Capacity System may be implemented through
independent private sector operators of buses

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by SPV using funds to be raised
through grant under JNNURM and state contribution; O&M contract shall be given
involving private sector participant

Time Frame: Project Development: 2007-2008; Implementation :2009- 2012

Institutional Responsibility: Dept. of Transport and SPV

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               154
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                          Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Junction Improvements

Project Description: The proposed project shall include improvement in junctions as
per standards

Project Benefits:
     Improves the capacity of the junctions
     Improves pedestrian safety
     Reduces pollution

Project Cost: Rs. 1500 Lakhs

Revenue Sources:

Implementation Structure: HPPWD shall be responsible for the execution of the
required works through EPC contract

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by HPPWD using funds to be
raised through grant under JNNURM and state contribution; O&M contract shall be
given involving private sector participant

Time Frame: Project Development: 2006; Implementation :2007-2008

Institutional Responsibility: HPPWD

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         155
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                          Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Parking Facilities

Project Description: The project envisages construction of nine parking lots within
Shimla Planning Area with private sector participation

Project Benefits:
     Improves the capacity of the parking
     Improves mobility within the city
     Parking gets systemized

Project Cost: Rs. 12200 Lakhs

Revenue Sources: User fee

Implementation Structure: SMC should implement the project on PPP format. The
project may be structured on viability gap funding

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by SMC using funds to be raised
through grant under JNNURM and state contribution; O&M contract shall be given
involving private sector participant

Time Frame: Project Development: 2006; Implementation :2007- 2009

Institutional Responsibility: SMC

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
Parking policy for Shimla Planning Area should be formulated within the existing
framework

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         156
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Lifts and Escalators

Project Description: Lifts and escalators shall be provided at four locations with state
of art facilities including back up facility for uninterrupted operations

Project Benefits:
     Improves the vertical mobility of the city
     Improves pedestrian safety
     Improves connectivity between the Cart Road and Mall Road

Project Cost: Rs. 1464 Lakhs

Revenue Sources: User fee

Implementation Structure: The project shall be implemented through separate EPC
and O&M contract

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by HPTDC using funds to be raised
through grant under JNNURM and state contribution; O&M contract shall be given
involving private sector participant

Time Frame: Project Development: 2006; Implementation :2007- 2009

Institutional Responsibility: HPTDC

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             157
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                          Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Tunnels

Project Description: Three tunnels shall be constructed as per design standards
connecting the opposite ends of the Cart road by shorter network

Project Benefits:
     Improves the capacity of Cart Road
     Reduces travel time
     Reduces pollution

Project Cost: Rs. 8925 Lakhs

Revenue Sources:

Implementation Structure: The project shall be implemented through EPC contract.

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by HPPWD using funds to be
raised through grant under JNNURM and state contribution

Time Frame: Project Development: 2006; Implementation :2007- 2009

Institutional Responsibility: HPPWD

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         158
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Ropeways

Project Description: Five ropeways connecting various peak and valley points of
Shimla to provide choice of travel. These ropeways shall have cables and mass cable
cars to cater for passengers. Pedestrian facilities shall be provided adequately for entry
and exit

Project Benefits:
     Improves the vertical mobility
     Reduces travel time
     Reduces pollution extensively
     Increase the transportation capacity of Shimla

Project Cost: Rs. 327 Lakhs

Revenue Sources: User fee

Implementation Structure: Department of Transport shall be responsible for the
execution of the required works through separate EPC and O&M contract

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by Department of Transport using
funds to be raised through grant under JNNURM and state contribution; O&M
contract shall involve private sector participation

Time Frame: Project Development: 2006; Implementation :2007- 2009

Institutional Responsibility: Department of Transport

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                   159
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                            Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Pedestrian Facilities

Project Description: All pedestrian facilities for Shimla Planning Area shall be
improved as per design standards. The project components shall include paths, railing,
retaining structures, etc

Project Benefits:
     Improves pedestrian safety

Project Cost: Rs. 484 Lakhs

Revenue Sources:

Implementation Structure: SMC shall be responsible for the execution of the required
works through EPC contract

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by SMC using funds to be raised
through grant under JNNURM and state contribution

Time Frame: Project Development: 2006; Implementation :2007- 2009

Institutional Responsibility: SMC

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           160
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                            Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Street Lighting

Project Description: Street lighting for Shimla Planning Area shall be improved as per
design standards shall include lamp posts, underground cabling and protection works

Project Benefits:
     Improves vision during the night
     Improves pedestrian safety
     Improvement in aesthetics and ambience

Project Cost: Rs. 500 Lakhs

Revenue Sources:

Implementation Structure: SMC shall be responsible for the execution of the required
works through EPC contract

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by SMC using funds to be raised
through grant under JNNURM and state contribution

Time Frame: Project Development: 2006; Implementation :2007- 2008

Institutional Responsibility: SMC

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               161
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan



13 TOURISM
13.1   TOURISM IN INDIA- AN OVERVIEW
       Tourism in India has registered significant growth in recent years. The upward trend
       is expected to remain firm in coming years. Tourism is the third largest net earner of
       foreign exchange for the country recording earnings of USD 5731 million in 2005, a
       growth of 20% over 2004. It is also one of the sectors, which employs largest
       number of manpower. The first ever Tourism Satellite Account for India compiled
       by NCAER for year 2002-03 showed that tourism employed 38.8 million persons
       directly or indirectly, which was 8.3% of total employment in the country, and it
       contributed 5.8% of the GDP. The World Travel and Tourism Council has identified
       India as one of the foremost growth center in the world in the coming decade.


13.2   TOURISM IN HIMACHAL PRADESH - AN OVERVIEW
       Himachal Pradesh is endowed with resources like mountains, forests, undulating
       landscape, lakes, rivers, sacred shrines, and historic monuments for thriving tourism.
       Himachal Pradesh has one of the greatest adventure tourism assets in the world in
       form Himalayas and its mighty rivers. Tourism has always been a growth industry in
       Himachal Pradesh.

       Tourism contributes nearly 8% of the State Domestic Product. In 2005-06, the
       investment in Tourism sector in Himachal Pradesh was about 102.32 Cr of which
       about 16.54 Cr was in Shimla.

       Though tourism is the economic driver for the State, it is predominantly the
       domestic tourism and its performance in comparison with other states in attracting
       foreign tourist is abysmal.




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         162
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan




                             14000000

                             12000000


    No of Tourist per Year
                             10000000                                                         Himachal
                              8000000                                                         Uttranchal
                                                                                              Kerala
                              6000000
                                                                                              Rajasthan
                              4000000                                                         Goa
                              2000000

                                    0
                                          1996      1997     1998     1999   2000
                                                             Years


                                    Figure 13.1 Domestic Tourist Patronage in various states




   700000

   600000

   500000                                                                                     Himachal
   400000                                                                                     Uttranchal
                                                                                              Kerala
   300000                                                                                     Rajasthan
   200000                                                                                     Goa

   100000

                              0
                                   1996          1997      1998      1999    2000


                                    Figure 13.2 Foreign Tourist Patronage in various states




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                   163
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan




                                Tourist Circuits in Himachal Pradesh

          Sutlej Voyage:
          Rohru-Rampur-Narkanda, Naldhera-Tattapani-Shimla-Kiarighat-Delhi

          Beas Circuit:
          Shimla-Mandi-Rewalsari-Kullu-Manali-Rohtang-Naggar-Manikaran-Delhi

          Dhauladhar Circuit:
          Chintpurni-Jwalamukhi-Kangra-Dalhousie-Khajjar-Chamba-
          Dharamshala-Chamunda-Palampur-Jogindernaagr-Delhi

          Tribal Circuit:
          Delhi-Shimla-Narkanda-Sarahan-Sangla-Kalpa-Pooh-Nako-Dhankar-
          Kaza-Losar-Kinzum-Koksar-Sisu-Keylong-Udaipur-Trilokpur-Rohtang-
          Manali-Delhi

          Buddhist Circuit:
           Dharamshala-Tabo Monastry



13.3   SITUATION ANALYSIS
       The places of tourist attraction in Shimla include The Ridge, The Mall, Jakhoo
       Temple, Sankat Mochan Temple and Kufri Ski Slopes. About 1822059 tourists
       traveled to Shimla in Year 2005, of which about 3.4% constituted foreign tourists.
       The strategic location and natural setting of Shimla attracts huge domestic tourists.
       The average stay of tourist in Shimla is about 1.35 days.




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           164
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                        Shimla City Development Plan




The trend of tourist inflow to Shimla is presented in Figure 13.3
Table 13.1 Growth of Tourist Inflow to Shimla
                                 No. of Tourists                  % Growth
        Year
                              Domestic      Foreign         Domestic     Foreign
         1998                     898993            13515
         1999                     943503            19188      5%                 42%
         2000                    1038975            24225     10%                 26%
         2001                    1136063            31022      9%                 28%
         2002                    1227710            37860      8%                 22%
         2003                    1309635            44400      7%                 17%
         2004                    1597246            55382     22%                 25%



                    1800000                                         60000
                    1600000                                                        Domestic
                                                                    50000          Foreign
                    1400000
    No.of Tourits




                    1200000                                         40000
                    1000000
                                                                    30000
                    800000
                    600000                                          20000
                    400000
                                                                    10000
                    200000
                         0                                          0
                              1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
                                             Year


                                     Figure 13.3 Tourist Inflow to Shimla


April- July is the peak tourist season with about 55 % of total tourists visiting the
city. From December onwards tourist inflow again accelerates due to coming up of
snow and related winter adventure sports.




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                       165
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan



                                                            Monthwise Tourist Inflow

                                   400000                                                   9000



       No.of Tourists (Domestic)
                                   350000                                                   8000




                                                                                                   No of Tourist (Foreign)
                                   300000                                                   7000
                                                                                            6000
                                   250000
                                                                                            5000                             Domestic
                                   200000
                                                                                            4000                             Foreign
                                   150000
                                                                                            3000
                                   100000                                                   2000
                                   50000                                                    1000
                                       0                                                    0
                                            J   F   M   A   M   J   J   A   S   O   N   D
                                                                Month



                                                Figure 13.4 Seasonal variation of tourist in Shimla


Table 13.2 Snapshot of Tourism Industry in Shimla
 Description                                                                            Quantity
 No. of Hotels and Guest Houses                                                             350*
 No. of Restaurants                                                                            68
 No. of Rooms                                                                               3699
 Bed Capacity                                                                               7599
 Travel Agencies                                                                             208
 Tourist Guides                                                                              270
*The 90% of the hotels and guest houses are located in Central Shimla


                                     14000
     No of Tourist Per Day in Peak




                                     12000
                                     10000
                Season




                                       8000                                                        No of Tourist per day
                                       6000                                                        Bed Capacity

                                       4000
                                       2000
                                            0
                                               98

                                               99

                                               00

                                               01

                                               02

                                               03

                                               04
                                            19

                                            19

                                            20

                                            20

                                            20

                                            20

                                            20




                                                                Year


                                                    Figure 13.5 Bed Capacity Vs. Tourist Inflow

Tourist inflow is projected at the rate of 7% per annum and is presented in Figure
13.6.
INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                              166
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                           Shimla City Development Plan




                                             Tourist Inflow Projection

                            6000000
                            5000000
           No of Tourists
                            4000000
                            3000000
                            2000000
                            1000000
                                 0
                                      2001        2004        2011        2016        2021
                                                              Year


                                             Figure 13.6 Projection of Tourists


13.4   POLICY, LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
       Realizing the potential that tourism offers, the State government has striven to
       develop this sector as a major source of employment generation without disturbing
       ecology and environment. The State government seeks to transform the State into a
       "destination for all seasons and all reasons" and increase the share of Tourism in the
       State Domestic Product to 15% by 2020.

       GoHP has formulated “Tourism Policy of Himachal Pradesh 2000” which has been
       revised in 2005 and “Policy on Development of Ecotourism, 2001” to promote
       economically, culturally and ecologically sustainable tourism in Himachal Pradesh
       and generation of employment opportunities. The policy also endorses private sector
       participation in tourism to generate employment and providing new infrastructure.
       The objectives of the policy are:

             To establish HP as a leading tourist destination in the country and abroad;
             To make tourism a prime engine for economic development;
             To encourage sustainable private sector participation in creation of tourism
              infrastructure;
             To promote environmentally sustainable tourism;
             To attract quality tourist and increase their stay;
             To safeguard natural and manmade heritage; and
             To position HP as a one stop destination for adventure tourism


       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                   167
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan




GoHP has enacted Himachal Pradesh Tourism Development and Registration Act
2002 to promote tourism and regulate tourism activity. Under the Act, every tourism
unit including hotels, resorts, motels, restaurants and bars, amusement parks, golf
courses etc, travel agent or a guide, adventure sports operator are required to have
registration with Tourism Department.

GoHP has established Himachal Pradesh Tourism Development Board under
Himachal Pradesh Tourism Development and Registration Act, 2002. The Board is
chaired by Chief Minister of Himachal Pradesh. The functions of the Board include:

(i)      Formulate policies and guidelines for development and promotion of
         tourism industries in the state;
(ii)     Development of new tourist destinations and undertake improvement in the
         tourist areas;
(iii)    Promote private sector participation; and
(iv)     Mobilize investments for development of infrastructure and destination


GoHP has constituted Tourism Development Council for Shimla and Manali under
Himachal Pradesh Tourism Development and Registration Act, 2002. The functions
of Tourism Development Council are


(i)      Provide and maintain tourism related services;
(ii)     Assist the local body in maintaining infrastructural facilities at tourist spots;
(iii)    Build and maintain tourism and recreational facilities which may enhance the
         tourism value of the area;
(iv)     Prepare tourism master plan for area; and
(v)      Maintain and operate a tourism destination fund

The Council can also raise the resources for development of infrastructure and
facilities by way of fees, cess etc. However, Tourism Destination Fund has yet not
been established for Shimla

Himachal Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation (HPTDC) established in
1972 has been mandated to develop tourism infrastructure and extending tourists
facilities in state of Himachal Pradesh. It provides tourism services including



INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               168
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                      Shimla City Development Plan


       accommodation with on line booking facility, catering, transport etc. In Shimla,
       HPTDC is responsible for

       (i)        Development of Tourism Infrastructure;
       (ii)       Operation and Maintenance of Lift; and
       (iii)      Information Kiosk

13.5   ISSUES AND CONCERNS
             Shimla has become more of a weekend tourism destination with bag packers
              adding stress to existing strained infrastructure without contributing much to the
              economy. The origin survey conducted by Tourist Economic Survey Report
              2002 indicates that more than 38% tourist origin from neighboring Punjab,
              Haryana and Delhi
             Due to lack of adequate air connectivity, international quality tourism
              infrastructure and tourism activities, Shimla lacks high-end tourism with higher
              revenue potential. The foreign tourist constitutes only 3.4% of the total tourist
              flow to Shimla
             Presently, the duration of stay is very low limited to 1.35 days. This is due to lack
              of enough tourism activities/options for various category of tourists
             Except for road connectivity, Shimla lacks adequate rail and air connectivity for
              promotion of tourism
             About 80% of the tourists coming to Shimla are using own vehicles demanding
              parking facilities. The survey conducted with tourists indicated that the locating
              parking facility for vehicles is the major hassle in the town. The inadequate
              parking and water supply are major constraints faced by the tourism service
              providers in attracting tourists
             Lack of basic infrastructure especially water supply is the constraint in giving
              permissions for development of new tourism infrastructure like theme parks,
              resorts etc
             Limited vertical accessibility to Mall area due to restricted roads for old and
              disabled tourist
             Lack of trained tourist guides who can promote history, culture and heritage of
              Shimla
             Tourism economy in Himachal Pradesh shows fluctuation and depends on the
              law and order situation in neighboring Jammu and Kashmir. Also, competing
              facilities in neighboring Uttranchal is threat to tourism in HP
       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              169
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                    Shimla City Development Plan




13.6   VISION AND GOALS

                                                  Shimla” 2021
       “Engine of Sustainable Economic Growth for2016
       Indicator                 2006   2011
                 Description          2006   2011   2016        2021
        High End Tourism (in Lakhs)    0.6   2.64    8.0        24.6
        Duration of Stay (in Days)    1.35    2.5    3.5         3.5




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                            170
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


13.7   STRATEGY


       In order to sustain tourism economy in Shimla, it is essential to focus at attracting
       high-end tourist and increasing duration of tourist stay. The strategy should aim at:

       (1)      Improving basic infrastructure of the city like provision of adequate water
                supply, parking facility, transportation, decongestion etc will improve service
                delivery and shall provide impetus to the tourism
       (2)      Improvement in transportation linkages especially with respect to air
                connectivity is essential to attract high-end tourism. Promoting tourism by
                improving accessibility and connectivity with various parts of Himachal
                Pradesh is essential. Promotion of railway between Kalka and Shimla
                commissioned in 1904, as Heritage Railway Line packaged with tourism
                products will provide an alternate transportation. The limited air connectivity
                of Himachal Pradesh may be addressed by taking up Air Taxi and Heli Taxi
                Services in the State with Private Sector Participation. This would also
                necessitate upgradation of airport at Jubbarhatti and rehabilitation and
                upgradation of helipads
       (3)      In order to attract high-end tourism and also ensure protection of ecology, it
                is essential to promote ecotourism projects. There is a need for replicating
                the success of Potter‟s Hill ecotourism project conceptualized and developed
                by GoHP. For promoting ecotourism, it is proposed to upgrade existing
                forest rest houses and inspection huts of Forest Department and develop
                eco-trails. These projects are amenable for private sector participation and
                may be taken on PPP format
       (4)      In order to enhance duration of stay and sustain tourism economy, there is
                need to add activity based tourism like international golf course, theme parks,
                nature park/botanical garden etc which can cater to different category of
                tourists like foreign tourists, senior citizens, children etc. Some of the
                interventions identified are as follows
                      Upgradation of Naldhera Golf Course to international standards
                      Development of Nature Park at Craignano
                      Development of Theme Parks
                      Upgradation of existing parks
                      Upgradation of Ice Skating Rink
                      Redevelopment of horticulture museum at Navbahar

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           171
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                            Shimla City Development Plan


               Heritage Train ride for sight seeing From Shimla to Kanoh with
                activity based tourism at Kanoh
               Beautification of Mall area

(5)      The concept of Shimla by evening/night may be introduced to explore the
         cultural and heritage aspects of the city at night with light and sound shows
         at suitable location
(6)      The elevators, lifts, ropeways, ecofriendly golf carts at appropriate locations
         may be some of the options for improving vertical accessibility. A
         Comprehensive Transportation Study is suggested to assess locations, routes,
         mode, and feasibility. The proposed strategy and options for vertical
         transport is presented in “Traffic and Transportation” Chapter
(7)      Upgradation of Tourists Information Centre providing online as well as
         24X7 offline services
(8)      Developing and promoting mountain based soft and hard adventure
         activities creating “Himalayas” as the brand and icon of Indian adventure
         tourism
(9)      Establishment of Tourism Destination Fund for Shimla for channelising the
         investments and funds for development, operation and maintenance of
         tourism infrastructure as well as basic infrastructure at tourism spots. It is
         recommended that a green fee concept implemented in Manali should be
         replicated in Shimla




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           172
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                             Shimla City Development Plan




13.8         SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN
                                                                                             (Rs. Lakhs)
             S.N        Projects                  Project                 Investment Schedule
                                                  Cost11  2007       2008    2009   2010 2011         2012

               1        Upgradation          of
                        Naldhera Golf Course         500         -     500      -        -        -           -
               2        Development          of
                        Nature       Park    at
                        Craignano                   1500         -    1000    500        -        -           -
               3        Development          of
                        Theme Park                   500         -     500      -        -        -           -
               4        Upgradation of Skating
                        Rink                        1000         -    1000      -        -        -           -
               5        Beautification       of
                        Shimla                      1000         -     200    200     200      200          200
               6        Ecotourism Projects         1000         -     200    200     200      200          200
               7        Upgradation          of
                        Tourists Information
                        Centre                       500    100        200    200       -         -           -
               8        Promotion                    200     50         50     50      50         -           -
               9        Studies and Project
                        Development                  400    200        200      -       -        -            -
                                          Total     6600    350       3850   1150     450      400          400




11
     at current price

            INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                173
            CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan


13.9    PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS

 Project Title: Development of Nature Park at Craignano

 Project Description: GoHP has proposed the Nature Park at Craignano. The 40 bigha land
 available with GoHP has been transferred to Forest Department for the proposed project. The
 project shall include
         Arboretum
         Nursery
         Vermi-composting Demonstration Plant
         Open air amphitheatre
         Greenhouses
         Garden Café
         Picnic pavilion
         Administration and education building

 Project Benefits:
        Ex-situ conservation of endangered and rare species of Himalayan flora
        Awareness generation, education, research
        Recreation and tourism

 Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 1500 Lakhs

 Revenue Sources : Entrance Fee, Souvenir Sale, Nursery

 Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by Forest Department

 Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by Forest Department using funds to raised
 through grant under JNNURM and loan; O&M Cost to be recovered from revenue stream of
 Nature Park

 Time Frame: Project Development : 2007-2008; Implementation 2008-2009

 Institutional Responsibility: GoHP

 Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
 Preparation of DPR

 Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

 Additional Studies:




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             174
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Upgradation of Naldhera Golf Course to International Standard

Project Description: Naldhera Golf Course established by Lord Curzon 1905 is a heritage
property managed by HPTDC. The golf course is located at an altitude of 2200 m. is unique
Himalayan golf course with huge natural glade surrounded by a thick cedar forest. The golf
course characterized by undulating fairways, elevated tees, greens nestled between massive trees
has potential to become major international golfing destination. In order to attract high end
tourist, GoHP intends to upgrade the golf course to international standards The upgradation of
golf course shall include
        Extension to 18 holes
        Development of additional greens and fairways

Project Benefits:
       Attraction for high end tourism
       Improvement of economy of the city

Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 500 Lakhs

Revenue Sources : Green Fees/Membership Fees

Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by Tourism Department and
HPTDC

Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by HPTDC using funds to raised through
grant under JNNURM and loan; O&M Cost to be recovered from revenue stream of Golf Club

Time Frame: Project Development : 2007; Implementation : 2008

Institutional Responsibility: GoHP and HPTDC

Preparatory Activity for Implementation: Preparation of layout                 plan   by   Golf
Designer/Architect and Preparation of Detailed Project Report (DPR)

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
       Promotion and marketing of the Golf Course in international market

Additional Studies:




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              175
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                           Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Development of Theme Park

Project Description: The theme park which will promote Himachali culture is envisaged on line
of Choki Dhani in Rajasthan

Project Benefits:
       Promotion of Himachali culture and art
       Helps in sustenance of tourism economy

Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 500 Lakhs

Revenue Sources : Entrance Fee, Souvenir Sale, Food and Beverage

Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by Tourism Department through
Private Sector Participation

Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by Private Sector while GoHP may provide
the land on lease; O&M Cost to be recovered from revenue stream of Theme Park

Time Frame: Project Development : 2007; Implementation : 2008

Institutional Responsibility: GoHP and Private Sector

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Project Development for inviting private sector

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:
      Identification of land for project and detailed feasibility study




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                   176
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                        Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Upgradation of Ice Skating Rink

Project Description: Shimla has the only natural ice-skating rink in India, which was established
by British in 1920. The ice-skating rink is one of the major tourist attractions in Shimla. An Ice-
skating Carnival arranged every year in January by Ice-skating Club is famous for fancy dress
competition and ice hockey. GoHP has proposed to upgrade the Ice Skating Rink

Project Benefits:
       Recreation and tourism
       International quality skating rink facility for promotion of winter sports

Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 1000 Lakhs

Revenue Sources : Entrance Fee, Skate Rentals, Coaching Fee

Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by HPTDC

Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by the GoHP and HPTDC using funds to
raised through grant under JNNURM and loan; O&M Cost to be recovered from revenue stream

Time Frame: Project Development : 2007; Implementation :2008

Institutional Responsibility: GoHP and HPTDC

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                177
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Upgradation of Information Centre

Project Description: Presently HPTDC is operating two tourists information centers on Cart
Road and Mall Road and also provides online system for information and accommodation
booking. It is proposed to upgrade the Tourist Information Centre which shall include
       Upgradation of information system
       Provision of helpline
       Upgradation of Tourist Information Centre on Cart Road to 24X7
       Establishment of Tourist Information Centre at new ISBT

Project Benefits:
    
Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 500 Lakhs

Revenue Sources: advertisement rights

Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by HPTDC

Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by the GoHP and HPTDC using funds to
raised through grant and loan; O&M Cost to be recovered advertisement rights
Time Frame: 2009

Institutional Responsibility: GoHP and HPTDC

Preparatory Activity for Implementation: Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:




        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                       178
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Beautification of Shimla
Project Description: The proposed beautification of Shimla shall include
       Lighting of heritage buildings
       Establishment of water fountains, seating benches etc

Project Benefits:
       Improvement in aesthetics of the city
       Impetus to tourism

Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 1000 Lakhs

Revenue Sources: advertisement rights

Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by HPTDC

Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by GoHP and HPTDC using funds to
raised through grant under JNNURM and loan; O&M Cost to be recovered advertisement rights

Time Frame: 2012

Institutional Responsibility: GoHP and HPTDC

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:
      Preparation of Master Plan for beautification




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            179
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan



14 ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS
14.1   INTRODUCTION
       The Cities can have substantial impact on regional carrying capacity thresholds
       through their concentration of activity. The environmental implications are diverse
       and manifest themselves in a number of different ways. The quality of life in city is
       determined by its natural resources and environmental quality.


14.2   ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION STATUS
  14.2.1 Policy, Legal and Institutional Framework
          HP State Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board is the regulatory
          body constituted under the provision of Water (Prevention & Control of
          Pollution) Act 1974. The main function of HP State Environment Protection and
          Pollution Control Board is to plan a comprehensive program for prevention,
          control and abatement of pollution and authorize, regulate and monitor the
          enforcement of various environment related rules.


  14.2.2 Air Quality
          Air quality is being monitored at two stations viz. Takka Bench on Ridge and
          ISBT by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) under National Air Quality
          Monitoring Programme. The annual average values of the four pollutants
          monitored are presented in Table 14.1. The levels of the pollutants are below the
          maximum permissible limits.
          Table 14.1 Permissible level of Pollution in Shimla
                                          CPCB                   Annual                                 Annual
                                                                                 CPCB
                                          Standard               Average                                Average
                                                                                 Standard for
            S.N.      Pollutant           for                    for 2004-                              for 2004-
                                                                                 Residential
                                          Sensitive              05 at                                  05 at
                                                                                 Area
                                          Area                   Ridge                                  ISBT
              1       Sulfur      Dioxide 15 µg/m3               3.1 µg/m3       60 µg/m3               4.6 µg/m3
                      (SO2)
              2       Oxides           of 15 µg/m3               9.4 µg/m3       60 µg/m3               15.1
                      Nitrogen (NOx)                                                                    µg/m3
              3       Suspended           70 µg/m3               40.7 µg/m3      140 µg/m3              53.5
                      Particulate Matter                                                                µg/m3
                      (SPM)
              4       Respirable          50 µg/m3               8.8 µg/m3       60 µg/m3               13.6
                      Particulate Matter                                                                µg/m3
           Source: Annual Report 2004-05, HP State Environment Protection and Pollution Control Board



       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                               180
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan


14.2.3 Noise Levels
         HP State Environmental Protection and Pollution Control Board had carried out
         noise monitoring in 2004 to monitor noise levels during Diwali festive period.
         This data may not be representative of ambient noise levels in Shimla. In absence
         of any latest representative data, it is difficult to ascertain noise pollution levels in
         Shimla.


14.2.4 Water Pollution
         The Shimla being on hill town, natural drains carries the water to valleys into
         Khads, which are used as source of water supply for Shimla. There are no major
         surface water bodies both natural and artificial within Shimla Planning Area.

         Though exact data is not available, it has been observed that the water bodies are
         not so polluted.


14.2.5 Solid Waste Management
         Details of the solid waste generation and management are separately covered in
         chapter 11.


14.2.6 Status on Compliance
         The present status on compliance of various rules in context of Shimla is
         presented in Table 14.2
    Table 14.2 Compliance of Environmental Acts/Rules

     S.N. Act/Rule                                 Status on Compliance
     1        Water (Prevention & Control of  Irrigation and Public Health Department
              Pollution) Act 1974 (Consent to has constructed 7 Sewage Treatment Plants
              Shimla Municipal Corporation forfor treatment of sewage in conformation
              Disposal of domestic sewage)    with disposal standards
     2        Bio-medical Wastes (Management  Common Bio Medical Waste Treatment
              and handling) Rules 1998        Facility of 170 kg/Dc capacity established
                                              by Shimla Municipal Corporation
     3        Municipal      Solid     Wastes Shimla Municipal Corporation has installed
              (Management and Handling) waste processing plant based composting.
              Rules 2000                      No disposal facility as per the requirement
                                              of MSW rules
     4        Hazardous Waste (Management No Hazardous waste generating industries
              and Handling) Rules 1989        in Shimla
     5        Water Harvesting in New Hotels  Capacity of 12 lakhs litre created till date



    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                181
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


14.2.7 Issues and Concerns
            The projects requiring environmental clearances will have to follow new EIA
             notification dated 14th September 2006. As per new notification, the projects
             falling in Category A and Category B shall require prior environmental
             clearance from MoEF and State Environment Impact Assessment Authority
             (SEIAA) to be constituted by MoEF. The SEIAA is not yet constituted for
             Himachal Pradesh. The delay in constitution of institutional framework and
             conformation requirement to new notification would require additional
             project development time. The projects which would require prior
             environmental clearance are indicated in following Table 14.3.
             Table 14.3 Classification of Projects for Environmental Clearance
                S.N         Projects                        Category as per new EIA
                1           Integrated Municipal     Solid Category B
                            Waste Facility
                2           Aerial Ropeways                 Category B
                3           Township Projects               Category B
                4           Building and Construction Category B
                            Projects with > 20,000 sq.m.
                            built-up area



14.2.8 Vision and Goals


         “Commitment to Protection and Continuous Improvement of
                             Environment”


14.2.9 Strategy and Interventions

       The strategy for environmental management is based on integrating
       environmental and social concerns in the economic development by way of

       (1)       Protection of water, soil and air quality from urban pollution
       (2)       Minimizing urban impact on natural resources
       (3)       Preventing and mitigating urban impacts on natural disaster occurrence


    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            182
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                       Shimla City Development Plan


   The intervention identified for protection of environmental quality from urban
   pollution and minimizing impacts on natural resources are as follows:


 It would be desirable to prepare Comprehensive Environmental Management
  Plan for Shimla Planning Area on Regional Environmental Assessment (REA)
  approach. The REA approach allows for comprehensive and cumulative
  assessment of environmental issues and impacts arising from multiple projects
  and activities that are planned and expected to be implemented during the
  Mission period, and can be used to establish environmentally sound development
  policy
 TCP should identify and demarcate critical locations with respect to
  environmental sensitivity
 74th CAA requires preparation of annual environmental status report by ULBs.
  It is therefore suggested that periodic environmental monitoring be carried out
  and annual environmental status report be prepared by SMC to inform public of
  major environment issues and trends as well as actions, policies and programs
  being implemented in response to these issues. To create awareness amongst user
  groups, the status of air pollution may be revealed through display systems
  instituted at major locations in the city
 It would be desirable that SMC adopt and maintain ISO 18000 based
  environmental management system, which provides framework and mechanism
  for improvement in environmental performance and reduce negative impacts. It
  also provides basis for monitoring environmental performance of the city
 Ensure that Environmental Impact Assessment studies are undertaken for all
  major projects as required under the new EIA notification and Environmental
  Management Plan prepared for the projects are implemented in order to avoid
  and minimize the impacts on the environment. It is expected that the
  environmental clearance conforming to new notification would require additional
  3-4 months time. It is therefore recommended that the time frame for
  development and implementation of the projects which requires environmental
  clearance should factor this additional time frame




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                      183
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan


14.3   GARDENS, OPEN SPACES AND URBAN FORESTS

  14.3.1 Open Spaces and Gardens
          There are about 9 parks/gardens and 8 open space/grounds in the city covering
          about 6 ha. SMC develops and maintains the open spaces through its Garden
          Department.

  14.3.2 Urban Forests
          Shimla is known for its City/Urban Forest. It is last surviving urban forest in the
          country. The urban forests contribute to value of Shimla by absorbing storm
          water and improving air and water quality. Urban forest is part of the fabric of
          Shimla bringing nature into urban landscape.
          Table 14.4 Encroachments of forests in Shimla
                                             Forest Area   Quality of      No. of
            S.N     Administrative Area
                                             (in Hectare)  Forest          Encroachments
                                                           Reserved Forest
                                                           (21%)
            1       SMC Area                        832.40                        916
                                                           Un-classed
                                                           Forest (79%)
                    SADA Area (Tutu,
                    New Shimla, Dhalli,
            2                                      4680.00 “C” Category               77
                    Ganahatti, Kufri and
                    Shoghi)
                                     Total         5512.40                           993

          The forests constitute about 55% of the Shimla Planning Area. The predominant
          species in the forest are Deodar, Pine, Oak, Kail, Rai and Rhodendron. The wild
          life has migrated towards deeper forests and is limited to Pheasants.
          The forest within SMC area was managed by SMC till recently under Himachal
          Pradesh Municipal Corporation Act 1994 and now has been transferred to
          Department of Forest for better and efficient management.
          In addition to forestlands, 1000 ha of land is under estate forest. GoHP in August
          2000 notified that all areas possessing substantial green cover but not classified as
          forest, whether public or private ownership shall be designated as Green Belts. 17
          such Green Belts covering 414 hectares were identified and notified in Core and
          Restricted zone.
          Overall, the dense forest cover provides environmental buffer for the city. Large
          areas under scrub forest also provide adequate scope for expansion.



       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          184
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan


14.3.3 Issues
       (1) Maturity of Deodar Trees: Deodar Trees in Shimla has reached maturity.
           GoHP has banned the green felling of trees and therefore limiting its
           regeneration. The regeneration of Deodar is through artificial regeneration
           on the forest blanks

       (2) Encroachment in forest area : About 993 encroachment on forest lands have
           been identified. GoHP under the order of High Court is executing
           evacuation of encroachments from forests lands.

       (3) Degradation of forest due to tree felling for construction activity and
           unregulated dumping of solid waste and debris along the hill slopes by
           people

       (4) Soil erosion and landslides especially along the natural drains is causing
           widening of drains especially during flash floods and exposing trees along the
           drain to felling



14.3.4 Vision and Goals

             “Commitment to create healthy ecosystem and value and
               care is as an essential environmental, economic and
                                 community asset”

          Indicator                        2006      2011       2016          2021
          Removal of Encroachments
                                           15%       100%       100%         100%
          from Forest Land
          Removal of Forest Blanks
                                           0%        100%       100%         100%
          through Plantation

14.3.5 Strategy
         A strategy for urban forest in Shimla, which not only improve aesthetics of the
         city but also is important factor for tourism, an engine for economic growth
         should be based on

         (a) Protection, preservation and maintenance of existing forests/open spaces
             and parks; and

         (b) Afforestation of forest blank areas



    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          185
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                             Shimla City Development Plan


         Based on aforementioned objectives, Green Shimla Yojna for urban forest of
         Shimla has been formulated involving following interventions:

         (1)       The Urban Forest within SMC limit does not have the Working Plan.
                   It is recommended that the Working Plan for the forests within SMC
                   limit be prepared. The forests land encroached should be evacuated
                   as per the High Court orders. Any further encroachments and
                   unauthorized developments on forestland should be restricted and
                   prevented. The public and private owners of green belts with large
                   mass of green space must be involved in the planning process
         (2)       Afforestation: Presently green felling of trees including diseased and
                   dry trees is completely banned. In order to facilitate natural
                   regeneration, the diseased and dry trees are proposed to be removed
                   in phased a manner. The artificial regeneration is proposed in
                   permanent blanks and blanks created by removal of encroachments.
                   Deodar, Ban, Phodendron and Asculus are proposed for artificial
                   regeneration. Total 200 hectares of forest area in Shimla and suburbs
                   shall be undertaken afforestation
         (3)       Establishment of permanent model nursery: A model nursery is
                   proposed to be established for Shimla Forest Division (Urban) in
                   order to facilitate regeneration of forest blanks
         (4)       Soil conservation: In order to overcome the problems of landslides,
                   sinking land, it is proposed to undertake soil conservation through
                   engineering and vegetative measures for stabilization of the problem
                   areas
         (5)       Improvement in drainage system: The improvement in drainage
                   system is proposed by providing solid embankment on existing
                   drainage and planting soil binding species of trees and shrubs
         (6)       Preservation of natural walking trails: To facilitate the promotion of
                   ecotourism in the city, natural walking trails will be identified,
                   developed and maintained
         (7)       Interlink chain fencing: Shimla and suburbs areas have some of finest
                   conifer grooves. These grooves are exposed to the risk of dumping
                   of wastes and other anthropogenic activities. It is proposed to fence
                   these groves with interlink chain to arrest the access
         (8)       Maintenance of parks: In order to keep the tourists and citizens
                   movement restricted to parks, it is proposed to upgrade and maintain
                   the public parks in Shimla for recreational purpose. For maintenance
INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            186
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan


                       of open space, a detailed inventory of the parks and open spaces
                       should be prepared and explore its probable multiple uses or forms
                       for recreation and visual pleasure. Possibilities to include private
                       sector for maintenance of these areas should be explored
             (9)       Awareness generation and community participation: In order to
                       increase people‟s participation in protecting and regenerating urban
                       forest, GoHP has proposed to undertake “Smiriti Van” and “Mera-
                       Shimla-Sunder Shimla” Scheme. Under Smiriti Van or Forest of
                       Memories, people will be encouraged to plant the tree towards the
                       memory the person wish to cherish. Under Mera Shimla Sunder
                       Shimla scheme, the institutional agencies and general people will be
                       encouraged to plant trees in open patches around the neighbourhood



14.3.6 Sectoral Investment Plan
                                                                               (Rs. Lakhs)
     S.N. Projects                    Project                Investment Schedule
                                      Cost    2007      2008     2009   2010 2011      2012
       1      Conservation of Soil
              Erosion                     500      50     200     200      50
       2      Upgradation       of
              Existing Parks             1000             200     200     200      200     200
       3      Community awareness         300      50      50      50      50       50      50
       4      Studies and Project
              Development                 400     100     300
                             Total       2200     200     750     450     300      250     250




    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           187
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


14.3.7 Project Information Sheets

     Project Title: Rehabilitation and Conservation of Soil Erosion

     Project Description: The rehabilitation and conservation of soil erosion is proposed to
     be implemented in both forest and non-forest area. The rehabilitation and conservation
     to prevent soil erosion and land slide shall include
            Afforestation
            Lining and embankment of natural drains
            Interlinking of chain fencing
            Engineering structures

     Project Benefits:
            Prevention of soil erosion and land slide hazards
            Protection of forest and its ecosystem

     Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 500 Lakhs

     Revenue Sources : Nil

     Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by GoHP

     Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by the GoHP using funds to raised
     through grant under JNNURM

     Time Frame: Project Development: 2007; Implementation : 2007-2010

     Institutional Responsibility: GoHP

     Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
     Preparation of DPR

     Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
            Awareness campaign and community participation for tree plantation

     Additional Studies:




    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            188
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Upgradation and Maintenance of Public Parks

Project Description: The public parks in Shimla are in highly neglected state and need
immediate attention for its upgradation and maintenance. It is proposed to upgrade the
following public parks in Shimla for recreational purpose
       Ladies Park
       Ridge Garden
       Daulat Singh Park
       Lala Lajpat Rai Park
       Keleston Park
       Sanjauli Children Park
       Bharai Park Near Government School
       Kotgarh House Park
       Park Nr Church
       Kufri Zoological Park
       Tutikandi Zoological Park

Project Benefits:
       Provide facility for recreational purpose
       Relieve anthropogenic stress on urban forest and protection of forest

Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 1000 Lakhs

Revenue Sources : Entrance Fee, Rentals from F&B outlets

Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by SMC and GoHP

Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by the SMC and GoHP using funds
to raised through grant under JNNURM

Time Frame: Project Development : 2007; Implementation 2008-2012

Institutional Responsibility: GoHP

Preparatory Activity for Implementation: Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              189
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan



15 DISASTER MANAGEMENT
15.1   NATURAL HAZARDS
       The North Western fringe of the Himalayas is bounded by two major thrusts namely
       Main Central Thrust and Main Boundary Fault running parallel to the axis. The
       entire Himachal Pradesh including Shimla Town falls under Seismic Zone
       Classification IV and V. The region is prone to natural hazards like earthquake,
       landslides, land sinking and cloudbursts.

       In areas like Cemetery, Sanjauli, Jinu Colony, Chakkar, Kachhi Ghati and Lower
       Bharari, earthquake can trigger cascading chain collapse of buildings on slopes down
       below. The study conducted by TCP for assessment of the havoc potential of
       various densely populated areas indicates that places like Sanjauli, Lakkar Bazar,
       Fingask and Ram Bazar are more prone to disasters. Majority of houses in these
       areas are old and in dilapidated condition which have less bearing capacity and
       structurally poor resistance. Areas like Kachhi Ghat, New Shimla Phase-III, Chakkar
       and Tutu are vulnerable to landslides and hill slips. The study also identified certain
       areas of Shimla as 'high sinking' zones where any further addition of building loads
       could be disastrous. These included northern slope of the Ridge extending upto
       Grand Hotel in the west, covering Lakkar Bazar, Central school, Auckland nursery
       school, dhobi ghat, idgah and Laddakhi Mohalla. About 500 m. of road from the
       Ridge to Lakkar Bazar had started sinking in early sixties and the process accelerated
       in 1971 when the road sunk by more than ten feet and several houses were
       endangered. Constructions in the area were banned and the entire area was declared
       unsafe.


15.2   FIRE HAZARDS
       Shimla Planning Area has three Fire Stations at Mall, Boluganj and Chhota Shimla.
       The number of fire accidents reported at each of fire station is presented in Table
       15.1.
       Table 15.1 Number of fire accidents in Shimla
                                                             Accidents
          S.N.      Fire Station
                                            2004            2005       2006 (Till Sep 2006)
            1       The Mall                 29              34                 22
            2       Bouluganj                75              45                 30
            3       Chhota Shimla            46              27                 22
                                    Total    150            106                 74



       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          190
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


       The fire services in Shimla Planning Area are provided in Fire Department of GoHP.
       The fire department is also involved in rescue operations during floods, road
       accidents etc. The infrastructure available at three Fire Stations is tabulated in Table
       15.2.
       Table 15.2 Infrastructure facilities at Fire Stations in Shimla
               S.N.            Infrastructure Items                          No. of Units
                 1             Water Tender (4500 Litre Capacity)                  4
                 2             Mini Water Tender (3000 Litre Capacity)             2
                 3             Crash Tender                                        1
                 4             Water Hozer (9000 Litre Capacity)                   1
                 5             Combined Foam CO2 Tender                            1
                 6             Jeep Fire Engine                                    2
       The dedicated fire hydrant network in Shimla was established by British with 900 fire
       hydrants. Presently only 560 fire hydrants are remaining and rest are missing. The
       fire hydrant network is owned and maintained by SMC.


15.3   ISSUES AND CONCERNS
               Densely populated areas like Sanjauli, Jiwanoo colony, New Shimla, Vikas
                Nagar, Kalini, Chhota Shimla, Central Shimla, Krishna Nagar, Bharari,
                Kaithu, Phagli, Chakkar, Katchighatti and Tutu located on hill slopes of
                more than 45º
               Majority of constructions in Shimla area is not conforming to the seismic
                building code and earthquake resistances measures and are prone to hazard
                risk
               Landslides due to steep slopes, presence of highly erosive nallahs, and large
                number of seepage zones
               Risk of fire due to rampant use of wood in house construction
               Inaccessibility due to hilly terrain and narrow congested areas for relief and
                rescue operations
               The responsibility of maintenance of fire hydrant line is with SMC, where as
                Fire Department of GoHP provides fire related services. Of the total 900 fire
                hydrant installed by British presently only 560 exist. The fire hydrants are
                missing due to inadequate attentions paid during construction and relaying
                work of roads
               SMC has provided water connections from fire hydrant lines; earlier which
                were separate lines, charged 24 hours. The fire rescue operation needs

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           191
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan


                coordination with SMC officials for release of water in the network. The dry
                lines of fire hydrant network and inadequate pressure results in delay in
                controlling the fire
15.4   STRATEGY
               Disaster Management Plan should be prepared to ensure preparedness for
                meeting any disasters. The urban planning and development in form of
                decentralized polycentric system should be encouraged to avoid
                concentration of activities
               In order to prevent landslides, following measures are required
                     o Planning for proper drainage of the slopes;
                     o Lining of nallahs to reduce the seepage down into body of slope;
                     o Construction of catch water drains in order to keep slopes dry;
                     o Construction of retaining walls along the affected stretch; and
                     o Afforestation and soil conservation measures of the affected slopes
               Only the core area of the city is equipped with fire hydrants. The adequate
                network of fire hydrants and upgradation of fire stations infrastructure is
                essential for meeting fire hazard risks
               Introduction in building bylaws provisions related to seismic building code
                and fire protection system like water storage and water riser for housing
                colonies, multistoried buildings and institutional buildings
               The Development Plan restricts construction on slope greater than 450. The
                hill slope regulation needs to be strictly enforced in order to avoid any
                disaster

15.5   SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN
                                                                                   (Rs. Lakhs)
        S.N. Projects                       Project              Investment Schedule
                                            Cost    2007    2008     2009   2010 2011      2012
          1      Network       of    Fire
                 Hydrants             and
                 upgradation of Fire
                 Station                       105                     55      50
          2      Prevention           and
                 controls of land slides      2000      -     500     500     500      500          -
          3      Community awareness           200     25     100      25      25       25          -
          4      Preparation of DMP,
                 Studies and Project           200    100     100        -       -        -         -

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             192
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


              Development
                                 Total   2505      125      700       580     575     525          0
15.5.1 Project Information Sheets

     Project Title: Prevention of Landslides

     Project Description: In order to prevent landslides, following measures are suggested

         Planning for proper drainage of the slopes
         Lining of nallahs to reduce the seepage down into body of slope
         Construction of catch water drains in order to keep slopes dry
         Construction of retaining walls along the affected stretch
         Vegetation turfing and soil conservation measures of the affected slopes

     Project Benefits:
            Prevention of soil erosion and land slide hazards
            Protection of forest and its ecosystem

     Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 2000 Lakhs

     Revenue Sources : Nil

     Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by GoHP and SMC

     Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by the GoHP/SMC using funds to
     raised through grant under JNNURM

     Time Frame: Project Development : 2007-2008; Implementation : 2008-2011

     Institutional Responsibility: GoHP and SMC

     Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
     Preparation of DPR

     Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
            Awareness campaign and community participation for tree plantation

     Additional Studies:




    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               193
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Upgradation of Fire Service Infrastructure

Project Description: The upgradation of fire service infrastructure proposed shall include
       Procurement of Water Hozer
       Extension of fire hydrant network in suburbs especially densely populated area

Project Benefits:
       Protection of life and property damages due to fire accidents

Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 105 Lakhs

Revenue Sources : Nil

Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by SMC and GoHP

Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by the GoHP using funds to raised
through grant under JNNURM

Time Frame: Project Development : 2007; Implementation 2008-2009

Institutional Responsibility: SMC and GoHP

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
Preparation of DPR

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
    
Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               194
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan



16 HERITAGE CONSERVATION
16.1   INTRODUCTION
       Shimla characterized by unique and
       distinct British Heritage is famous
       for built heritage such as Vice
       Regal Lodge (India Institute of
       Advanced Studies), Rothney Castle,
       Railway Board Building, Gaiety
       Theatre and Gorton Castle. The
       architectural heritage in Shimla
       shows eminence diversity including
       Tudor, Victorian, Edwardian style in such small geographical area. The colonial
       imperial space is manifest in Bandstand, the Mall and pedestrian dominance. These
       structures add to the beauty of the city and are very precious assets of Shimla‟s Built
       Fabric.



16.2   EXISTING STATUS
       Considering the importance of conserving Shimla Heritage, GoHP has undertaken
       following initiatives:

       (1)      Heritage Conservation in Shimla is responsibility of Shimla Municipal
                Corporation and Department of Town and Country Planning
       (2)      GoHP under Town and Country Planning Act has notified the 50m area
                around Mall Road possessing significant evidence of heritage as Heritage
                Zone
       (3)      GoHP has prepared an inventory of built
                heritage in Shimla, which include
                buildings and structures of architectural,
                historical and aesthetic importance. The
                list of heritage building within heritage
                zone and outside heritage zone is
                presented in Annexure 21.7
       (4)      Department of Town and Country
                Planning has prepared zoning regulations for the Heritage Zone and Heritage
                buildings. Heritage Conservation Advisory Sub-Committee is constituted


       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          195
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


          under the chairmanship of Director, Town and Country Planning for
          regulation of alteration in existing heritage building


 (5)      96.5 km Kalka- Shimla narrow gauge railway line commissioned in 1906 with
          919 curves and 103 tunnels is historically significant. National Rail Museum
          Ministry of Railways, Government of India has applied to UNESCO for
          declaration of this line as heritage railway line


                                 KALKA –SHIMLA RAILWAY
The idea of a railway line to Shimla dates back to the introduction of railways in India. It was
the most surveyed line. The earliest survey made in 1884 was made for 68 miles in length line
with a ruling gradient of 1 in 33.

On June 29, 1898, a contract was signed between the secretary of state and the Delhi-
Ambala-Kalka railway company for construction and working of a two feet gauge line from
Kalka to Shimla. As per the contract, the rail line was to be built without any pecuniary aid or
guarantee from the government. The land was, however, provided free of charge.

The military authorities were skeptic about the narrower gauge of two feet chosen for Kalka-
Shimla Railway. On recommendations of military authorities, for standard two feet by six
inches gauge for mountain and light strategic railways, Government of India in 1901, revised
the contract and two feet by six inches gauge was adopted for Kalka-Shimla Railway.

The line measuring 59.44 miles from Kalka to Shimla was opened for traffic on November 9,
1903. Because of peculiar working conditions, high capital cost coupled with high
maintenance cost-Kalka Shimla railway was allowed to charge higher rates and fare compared
to the then prevailing rates for other lines in the plains. By 1904, a total of Rs. 1,65,25,000
was spent by DUK and it went in to financial crisis. On representation of the company, the
Government of India purchased the line in January 1906.

The line running like twin threads of silver is flanked by towering hills and clinging perilously
to the sides of steep cliffs offers the scenic and magnificent retreat along the whole route.
Throughout its length of 60 miles, the line runs in a continuous succession of reverse curves
up to 120 feet radius along the valleys and spurs, flanking mountains rising to 6,800 feet
above sea level at Shimla railway with its extraordinary feat of engineering skill, more than
any other cause, contributed to the speedy development of Shimla.

An interesting feature of the Kalka-Shimla Railway is the almost complete absence of Girder
bridges. Multi arched galleries like ancient roman aqueducts being the commonest means of
carrying the line over the ravines between the hill spurs. Another special feature of the Kalka-
Shimla Railway is that as many as 27 cutovers serve as different gradient crossings. There are
20 intermediate stations, and all have crossing facilities. The line also has about 107 tunnels.


 INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                   196
 CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


16.3   RESTORATION OF GAIETY THEATRE
       (1)      In 1887, a grand structure of 64 feet, the Town Hall designed by architect
                Henry Irwin, a masterpiece of Gothic architecture was built as a crown on
                the Ridge
       (2)      Gaiety Theatre was an important part of the Town Hall. It was a marvel of
                architecture with perfect acoustics and theatre facilities. A hub of the
                performing arts, Gaiety Theatre saw legendary artists like Rudyard Kipling,
                Baten Powel, K.L. Sehgal, Prithvi Raj Kapoor, the Kendall‟s perform on this
                historical stage over a century
       (3)      The GoHP through its Department of Language, Art and Culture, purchased
                this building from Municipal Corporation, Shimla for an amount of Rs. 40
                lakhs to restore and conserve this grand structure to its original glory and to
                develop it as a cultural complex. GoHP intends to restore the Town Hall and
                Gaiety Theatre to its authentic status while adhering to international heritage
                norms of restoration and conservation. The building will house:


                 City Museum (to exhibit the memoirs of pre and post British Raj and
                  Freedom Struggle)
                 Art Gallery (for contemporary and traditional art)
                 Amphitheatre (for outdoor performances like folk dances, traditional
                  music, folk theatre and pavement entertainment)
                 Dance and Music Repertories
                 Multi purpose Hall (for conducing symposiums, seminars, dance and
                  drama)
                 Archives (for city records)
                 Library (for books on art, culture, history, traditional art and classic
                  literature)
                 Sculpture Court Yard

       (4)      The estimated cost of restoration is Rs. 10 Crores. Restoration is being
                carried out by HPPWD
       (5)      The project not only help conservation of historical and heritage property,
                but will also use the heritage building for promotion of art and establishment
                of Convention Centre, which the city currently lacks


       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           197
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan


16.4    POLICY, INSTITUTIONAL AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
        There is no separate state level policy on Heritage Conservation. Shimla Municipal
        Corporation is responsible for maintenance of heritage buildings. Department of
        Town and Country Planning is regulatory authority for any alterations in heritage
        buildings.


16.5    ISSUES AND CONCERNS
       (1)      Most of the heritage properties are occupied by Government Offices and have
                not been maintained properly due to inadequate funds and expertise. Also, in
                the absence of any regulatory mechanism till recently, a lot of incongruous
                interventions of extremely low architectural values have been introduced.
                These structures need immediate attention for comprehensive and careful
                repairs and restoration
       (2)      Most of the heritage properties are in a state of neglect due to lack of
                appropriate framework and funds for restoration and conservation and the
                inherent prioritization of public finances into other programs
       (3)      Involvement of multiple agencies like SMC, Department of Culture, TCP in
                heritage conservation

16.6    VISION AND GOALS
        Heritage Properties are places of cultural significance, which enrich people‟s lives,
        often providing a deep and inspirational sense of connection to community and
        landscape, to the past and to lived experiences. They are historical records that are
        important as tangible expressions of identity and experience. Therefore vision for
        heritage conservation is

             “Conservation of Heritage for Present and Future Generation”

         Indicator                                2006       2011          2016         2021
         No. of Heritage Buildings to be           1          5             15
         restored and conserved




        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             198
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan


16.7   STRATEGY

       (1)      It is recommended that a heritage conservation policy for the city be
                formulated. The policy should provide the strategy, institutional and
                implementation framework for heritage conservation
       (2)      GoHP has identified various heritage properties in Shimla. GoHP should
                prepare a detailed inventory of heritage property that would include listing
                and documentation of artifacts, structures, buildings, etc. This inventory
                should be updated periodically. GIS based tools may be used for
                inventorisation of such properties
       (3)      Heritage Zone Master Plan including development control should be
                developed specifying the bylaws related height of buildings, façade treatment,
                style of construction, usage of construction material etc
       (4)      Preparation of restoration implementation plan in terms of preliminary
                condition assessment, restoration cost estimation, commercial potential
                assessment, implementation timeframe, prioritization of project, budget
                requirement, financing mechanism, budget allocation etc.
       (5)      Redevelopment of Heritage Zone Area by shifting non-conforming activities
                outside. This would also help in decongestion of core area
       (6)      Shifting of government offices from heritage buildings in the core heritage
                zone and preparation of revitalization scheme including appropriate adaptive
                reuse plan for all heritage structures, which are archeologically significant due
                to its historic and cultural values, in order to make conservation self
                sustainable
       (7)      Restoration of the heritage properties to its original glory and its selective re-
                use holds enormous potential for attracting tourists. The strong affinity
                between tourism and heritage should be leveraged to promote conservation
                on heritage buildings. In order to provide sustainable means for conservation
                and maintenance of heritage properties, it is essential to harness their
                commercial potential
       (8)      Government of India and private persons own number heritage buildings in
                Shimla. It is recommended that a separate conservation cell should be
                created in CPWD for conservation and maintenance of buildings owned by
                Government of India and its agencies. It is suggested that GoHP act as
                facilitator for the heritage properties owned by the private persons/agencies.
                There is need for increased interaction with the heritage property owners


       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             199
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                           Shimla City Development Plan


(9)      For the buildings owned by the GoHP and its agencies, it is suggested that
         the projects be categorized into following two categories for implementation
         a.            Category I: Properties with adaptive reuse that have potential to
                       sustain, based on their own revenue streams and are therefore viable
                       either standalone or with viability gap funding for development
                       through Public Private Partnership
         b.            Category II: Properties with adaptive reuse that are unviable for
                       development and would need Public Sector funding
(10)     The scope of Himachal Pradesh Tourism Development Board and Shimla
         Tourism Development Council may be widened to include heritage for
         facilitating the heritage conservation and adaptive reuse. The tourism policy
         objectives of the state should also seek to revamp the heritage monuments,
         which have deteriorated with time, and promote private sector investments
         in heritage conservation.
(11)     The Tourism and Heritage Development Board/Council should empanel
         heritage experts, individuals and agencies for providing project management
         and consultancy on heritage conservation. Heritage Conservation Advisory
         Sub Committee will continue to act as regulatory body for enforcement of
         zoning plan and development control plan. A dedicated Heritage Fund for
         Shimla      may       be     established     for    co     financing    and
         routing/channelising/pooling the funds for restoration and maintenance
         from other sources for heritage conservation

                            Institutional Framework For Heritage Conservation

                                 GoI           GoHP             Multi/Bi Agn    NGOs

                                                      Shimla Heritage
                           TCP                             Fund


           Heritage Conservation                 HP Tourism and Heritage             Empanelment
          Advisory Sub Committee                     Board/ Council              of Heritage Consultant
                                                 Development
              Regulation
                                                 And Implementation




                   Project 1           Project 2        Project 3        Project 4    Project 5
                       PPP              PPP- Viability Gap Funding               Budgetary




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                           200
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                         Shimla City Development Plan


       (12)     Create awareness through promotion of heritage walks and tours. Promotion
                of heritage based tourism products like packaging the Kalka –Shimla railway
                line combined with Heritage Walk in Shimla



16.8   SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN
                                                                                         (Rs. Lakhs)
        S.N. Projects                         Project                 Investment Schedule
                                              Cost    2007       2008     2009   2010 2011        2012
          1      Restoration        and
                 conservation        of
                 Government owned
                 heritage buildings            22500         -    4500    4500    4500     4500    4500
          2      Studies and        Project
                 Development                     400    100        100     100     100        -       -
          3      Total                         22900    100       4600    4600    4600     4500    4500




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                 201
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                        Shimla City Development Plan


16.9    PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS
        Project Title: Restoration and Conservation of Heritage Buildings

        Project Description: GoHP intends to restore and conserve the heritage properties
        owned by State Government for adaptive reuse based on the potential of the heritage
        property. It is proposed that the properties shall be classified into three categories based
        its potential for adaptive reuse and public private partnership
       (a) Category I: Properties with adaptive reuse that have potential to sustain, based on their
           own revenue streams and are therefore viable either standalone or with viability gap
           funding for development through a Public Private Partnership

       (b) Category II: Properties with adaptive reuse that are unviable for development and would
           need Public Sector funding

        Project Benefits:
               Conservation of historical and heritage property with suitable adaptive reuse
               Promotion of heritage building for promotion of art

        Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 22500 Lakhs

        Revenue Sources : Project revenue stream for the properties of Category I

        Implementation Structure :
             The Category I projects shall be implemented by GoHP though Private Sector
              Participation
             The Category II projects shall be implemented by GoHP through Department of
              Culture/Tourism and Heritage Board

        Financing Mechanism :
              For Category I based on standalone viability, capital cost to be financed by private
               sector developer
              For Category I project based on Viability Gap Funding and Category II projects,
               capital cost to be financed by the GoHP using funds to raised through grant
               under JNNURM and loan
              O&M Cost to be recovered from user fee/rentals

        Time Frame:

        Institutional Responsibility: GoHP and/or Private Sector

        Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
        Preparation of restoration plan and categorization of properties and project development
        for the heritage projects

        Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
              Shimla Heritage Fund be established for restoration, conservation, and regular
               maintenance of the Heritage properties

        Additional Studies:
        Condition assessment of heritage properties and preparation of restoration, conservation
        and reuse plans including DPR for each heritage building

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                 202
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                           Shimla City Development Plan



17 HOUSING AND URBAN POOR

17.1    INTRODUCTION
       Shimla being capital and administrative center and major educational and tourist
       destination is the fastest growing hill town. There is increasing need and demand of
       land for housing in Shimla due to migration of both unskilled and skilled workforce.
       Land in Shimla for habitation purpose is a scarce resource due to topographical
       constraints. The land availability, affordable housing and services standards have not
       been able to keep pace with the influx. Moreover, severe cold climate of Shimla during
       winter threatens the survival of shelter less people


17.2    OVERVIEW OF EARLIER LAND SUPPLY FOR HOUSING
       Table 17.1 Housing demand History
        S.N      Period              Function of Town      Population        Housing Demand
        1        Till 1830           Village                                 By Villagers
                                     Holiday Resort for                      Big Bunglows of British
        2        1830-1850                                 320 (1842)
                                     Britishers                              Civil and Army Officers
                                     Summer Capital of     13960 (1901)      --do- and housing for
        3        1850-1910
                                     Punjab                19405 (1911)      employees
                                     Summer Capital of                       --do-- and housing for
        4        1910-1947                                 18348 (1951)
                                     British Empire                          employees and others
                                     District Head                           --do--, No. of employees
        5        1951-1971                                 42597 (1961)
                                     Quarters                                shifted to Chandigarh
                                                                             Administrative and
                                     Capital of Himachal
        6        1971-1981                                 55326 (1971)      education center
                                     Pradesh
                                                                             employees and others
                                                                             Administrative, education
        7        1981-Till Date --do--                     109860 (1991)
                                                                             and commercial centre

17.3    LAND AND HOUSING PROVISION IN SHIMLA
        With work centers and facilities concentrated along the Mall, and extremely limited
        vehicular accessibility, population tried to cluster around as close as possible to Mall.
        So the southern slope along the Mall being most favorable from climatic conditions
        became highly densified. Plot coverage in these areas increased to extent of 100%.
        More storeys were added. Houses along road levels got commercialized. All this led
        to unhealthy and unhygienic conditions.

        The ward-wise analysis of land availability per person carried out by HUDCO in
        1999 reflects the scarcity of land in areas around the CBD, with gross residential
        densities are as high as 800 pph where as town level gross residential density is 102
        pph.

        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                  203
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                            Shimla City Development Plan


       With growing need of land for housing, areas down the Cart Road, Chhota Shimla,
       Sanjauli started developing. Northern slopes of Mall, which are unsuitable for
       residential development, also started developing due to closeness to city center. With
       scarcity of land and high land values in central Shimla, areas like Tutu, Sanjauli,
       Dhalli, Kasumpti, Bharari started developing. Due to topographical constraints
       fragmented development took place.

       The main housing areas in Shimla are the core city, part of Kaithu, Shankli,
       Longwood, Chhota Shimla, Jakhoo, Kasumpti, Sanjauli, Summer Hill, Boileauganj
       and Tutikandi. The total number of housing units is about 0.45 lakhs. In Shimla
       Planning Area, the housing stock is increasing by decadal growth rate of 27.75%.

       Land available for development in Shimla is mainly private land. As the land supply
       from other sectors is very slow, the supply of land for housing from private
       landowners forms major share i.e more than 76%. The housing system through
       private supply does not have any provision of EWS and LIG housing, and lack
       facilities like open spaces, school and even adequate access in order to maximize the
       selling area. This has resulted in unplanned and haphazard growth.

       EWS housing in Shimla is limited in central Shimla housing area which is structurally
       in unsafe conditions on rental basis, settlement in areas unsuitable for human
       habitations like adjoining Nallahs and squatter settlements on public lands.



17.4   HOUSING PROJECTIONS

                                                  Housing Projections

                              100000
               No of Houses




                               80000
                               60000
                                                                                      No of Houses
                               40000
                               20000
                                   0
                                       1971 1981 1991 1997 2001 2011 2021
                                                        Year



                                               Figure 17.1 Housing Projections




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                    204
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


17.5   POLICY, REGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK : HOUSING
       To facilitate land supply for residents in the state and regulate housing and land
       pricing, GoHP promulgated the HP Tenancy and land Reforms Act 1972 barring
       non residents of HP to buy land in the state and transfer of land to non
       agriculturists. However, there is no restriction for buying the plot, flat or built house
       from Housing Board, Development Authorities or Corporation.

       HIMUDA is responsible for provision of housing infrastructure and SMC and
       SADAs are responsible for provision of basic services to urban poor. HIMUDA has
       so far implemented housing colony projects at Jakhoo Colony, Knolwood, Kelston,
       Starwberry Hills, New Shimla Phase 1, 2 and 3 and Sanjauli. These projects did not
       have any provision for EWS housing.


17.6   ISSUES AND CONCERNS: HOUSING
       The housing sector in Shimla is constrained by

       (1)      Land is scarce due to rigorous topography characterized by steep slopes,
                elongated hilly spurs, deep valleys, forested areas and zone of perpetual
                sunshade along northern slopes rendering them unsuitable for habitation
                purpose
       (2)      Sinking and sliding zones where housing development without special
                measures can endanger the safety of human lives
       (3)      Lack of water availability for taking up new housing projects
       (4)      Higher development and construction cost due to terrain constraint resulting
                in unaffordable housing for EWS and LIG
       (5)      Construction activities incompatible with surrounding traditional culture and
                heritage of the city
       (6)      No provision of EWS /LIG in the housing projects
       (7)      HIMUDA‟s role in land management is very limited due to its low financial
                base and inability to pool land




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           205
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


17.7   STRATEGY: HOUSING
       The strategy and interventions identified for housing are as follows:

       (1)       HIMUDA should act as agency to manage land supply for housing by
                 implementing the Development Plan, taking up development schemes,
                 enforcing zoning regulations, development controls and provision of
                 infrastructure
       (2)       Development of housing infrastructure in form of Satellite
                 Township/planned housing colonies in peripheral areas rather than small
                 housing colonies. This would also help in decongestion of town
       (3)       Provision of housing for EWS and LIG in all housing projects




17.8   SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN
                                                                                  (Rs. Lakhs)
        S.N. Projects                  Project                 Investment Schedule
                                       Cost    2007       2008    2009    2010   2011       2012
             1   Development of 3
                 Satellite Townships   100000         -   10000   30000 20000      20000 20000
                 Total                 100000         -   10000   30000 20000      20000 20000




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           206
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                          Shimla City Development Plan


17.9   URBAN POOR
       There are 53 slum pockets housing 1972 households/structures with 11874
       population identified by GoHP. The wardwise slum population in SMC area is
       presented in Figure 17.2. The details of locations of the Urban Poor identified by
       SMC are shown in Table 17.2.

                                      Wardwise Urban Poor Population

                2500
                2000
                1500                                                               Population
                1000                                                               No of Houses
                 500
                    0
                        1   2    3   4 6   7   8   9 10 12 14 16 17 18 21 22 25
                                                   Ward No



                                Figure 17.2 ward-wise slum population in Shimla

       In addition there are about 273 unathorised Dharas on government lands. These
       slums identified by SMC are not yet notified as required under the H.P. Slum Areas
       (Improvement and Clearance) Act 1979. The figure shows that the poor people are
       scatterred across the wards.

       The rugged topography and severe cold climate make the life harder and unattractive
       for homeless and shelterless and prevent the proliferation of beggars in Shimla.
       However, Shimla attracts migarnt beggars from plains during summer season.

       Shimla also attracts lots of migrant labours especially from Jammu and Kashmir
       looking for employment as porters (pitthu‟s) for carrying the payloads up and down
       the hills.




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                  207
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan


Table 17.2 Urban Poor Identified by SMC
                                                        Ward   Shed/houses
  S.N.                  Name of the Locality                                    Population
                                                        No.    in slum area
             Below Shankli Road near five house line
    1.                                                   2          30              180
             Lakkar Bazar Shimla
             Ruldu Bhatta Near M C Line building
    2.                                                   2          25              150
             Shimla
             Near Masjid Building Below Lakkar Bazar,
    3.                                                   2          50              300
             Shimla
             On the Valley Side of Cart Road below
    4.                                                   2          50              300
             Lakkar Bazar Bus Stand Shimla
             Below Cart Road Lakkar Bazar Bus Stand
    5.                                                   2          20              120
             Shimla
             Kot-Hill below P & T Colony Lakkar
    6.                                                   2          30              180
             Bazar Shimla
             Near Dill Shant Estate, Bharari Road
    7.                                                   1          33              210
             Shimla
    8.       On the hill Side of Cart Road IGMC          1          16              96
             Near Govt, Degree Boys College below
    9.                                                   24          8              48
             cart road, Sanjauli
             Tibetan Colony opposite Bus Stand
    10.                                                  24         55              330
             Sanjauli
             Engine Ghar Near Chotta Masjid
    11.                                                  22         30              180
             Gurudwara Road, Sanjauli
    12.      Bangla Colony Engine Ghar Sanjauli          22         70              420
             On the hill side petrol pump, Nav Bahar
    13.                                                  -          35              210
             Shimla
             On the valley side of Chhota Shimla
    14.      Sanjauli Road between HP Secretariat. &     21         25              150
             Petrol Pump

    15.      Below Tibetan Scholl Chhota Shimla          21         20              120

    16.      Near Gorkhu Lodge Kasumpti Shimla           21         35              210
    17.      Below Pantha Ghati Bus Stoppage Shimla      21         50              330
    18.      Kasumpti Main Bazar Shimla                  21         100             600
             On the up hill side of bye road near
    19.                                                  19         20              120
             Kinlog towards Khalini
             On the Valley side of bye pass road near
    20.      the proposed landfill site (opposite        19         30              180
             cremation ground)
             On the up hill side of the bye pass road
    21.                                                  19         50              300
             near HP State Forest Co-op. Sales Dept.
             Near Ram Nagar Dhobi Ghat below
    22.                                                  10         15              90
             Rippon building Shimla
             Opposite Govt. Primary School Ram
    23.                                                  10         40              240
             Nagar below bye pass road Lal Pani
    24.      Below Labour Hostel Lal Pani Shimla         11         50              300
             At Darni-ka-Bagicha below bye pass road
    25.                                                  11         35              210
             Lal Pani, Shimla
    26.      Near Bal Ram Niwas Sant Albance             11         35              210
         INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                       208
         CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                        Shimla City Development Plan


      Cottage Lal Pani Shimla
      Near Portmore School Chhota Shimla
27.                                                11       55              330
      between Cart road and Mall Road
28.   Dingu Dhar, Sanjauli Shimla                  23       27              162
      Maha Himalayan Colony Below Bus Stand
29.                                                10       30              180
      Phagli Road Shimla
      Vishal Kushat Asharam Below bus stand
30.                                                10       35              210
      Shimla
31.   Behind Lal Khoti Phagli Shimla               10       40              240
32.   Tuti Kandi Anath Ashram Shimla               8        10              60
      Below the bye pass road it is between the
      Tuti Kandi. Where is meets the Kalka
33.                                                8        18              108
      Shimla Road and near to it is a small
      temple. Tuti Kandi
34.   Near 35 block, Nabha, Shimla                 9        20              120
35.   Near Mandir, Nabha                           9        30              180
36.   Below Block No. 29, Nabha Shimla             9        10              60
37.   Dhobi Ghat Anadle, Shimla                    4        45              270
      Below kandhari Niwas on the Police Line
38.                                                4        60              360
      Road Kithu
39.   Near MC Building Police Line Kaithu          4        70              420
40.   Lalbagh, Near Tara Hall, Kaithu              3        35              210
      On the valley side of the road bifurcating
41.                                                3        35              210
      from near Ganga Hotel to Police Line
      MD Line Near Bilaspur House Near
42.                                                6        30              180
      Railway Station Summer Hill Shimla
43.   MC Line Near Pashu, Boileauganj Shimla       7        11              66
44.   Below Old barrier Boileauganj Shimla         7        40              240
      On the Hill side of the Kalka Shimla Road
45.                                                7         9              54
      near Petrol pump barrier Shimla
      On the valley side bye pass road between
46.                                                8        15              90
      Tuti Kandi and AG colony Phagli
      On the valley side of the hill near RTO
47.                                                8        50              300
      office
      Near Govt, Primary School Cholaunity
48.                                                24       30              180
      Sanjauli
49.   Satawer Hill near Jakhoo Mandir              16       20              120
50.   Krishna Nagar Shimla                         11       100             600




  INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                      209
  CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


17.10 BASIC SERVICES TO THE URBAN POOR
      SMC, SADA and GoHP are responsible for provision of basic services to urban
      poor within their respective jurisidiction. Following basic services are provided to
      Urban Poor:
              Municipal Water Supply through Standposts
              Sanitation through Public Toilets
              Primary education
              Primary health through Primary Health               Centres/Urban      Health
               Centres/Dispensaries
      While water and sanitation services are provided by SMC, GoHP is responsible for
      provision of health and education services.

      To assess the current condition of dwelling places of the poor, to understand their
      problems and requirements in terms of basic services and to prioritize their needs a
      separate workshop was organized. Poor people, their representatives, & NGOs
      dealing with the poor were invited.

      Basic amenities prioritized by the poor are water, roads, toilets, electricity, schools,
      lighting in descending order of priorities.

      Various dwelling locations for the poor are not equipped with all the basic services
      however the gap between the actual and desired services is not high at almost all the
      locations and almost all have some services already available. The basic services
      available to the poor are discussed in the following paragraphs.

  17.10.1 Water Supply:
         The water is distributed in the poor areas via standposts. Though the coverage of
         the standposts in these poor areas is satisfactory, the frequency & consistency of
         water distribution and pressure in these standposts depend upon the period of the
         year and availability of water then. The dire need of water in Shimla affects the
         poor very badly and augmentation of bulk water supply and improvement in
         distribution net1work are required with highest priority.

  17.10.2 Sanitation:
         Basic sanitation services are available through public toilets. Though these toilets
         are present in almost all poor locations, the conditions are not good due to poor
         maintenance or unavailability of water. It is necessary to improve the condition
         of these toilets by maintaining it properly and providing adequate water to these.
         In some areas even public toilets are not available and in these places, toilets
         should be constructed

      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          210
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan


17.10.3 Solid Waste Management:
       Collection of the solid waste is not available to most of the poor areas. Inadequate
       bins, lack of accessibility and lack of awareness are constraints for garbage
       collection from slums.



17.10.4 Sewerage:
       Most of the SADA areas in Shimla are not covered by proper sewerage network.
       Moreover the network in the city areas is not connected to the new sewerage
       links. These two sewerage networks should be connected.



17.10.5 Roads
       The slums are poorly covered by road network due to topographical constraints.



17.10.6 Education
       Shimla has 14 Anganwadis and 63 primary schools (including private schools).
       These schools are scattered at different locations and are also serving the urban
       poor.



17.10.7 Housing:
       Housing system in Shimla does not have any provision of EWS or LIG housing.
       EWS housing is mainly located in areas unsuitable for human habitation due to
       adjoining nallahs and squatters settlement on forest land and other public lands.
       As per the definition of the slum in Slum Area Act, large number of old,
       dilapidated buildings and structures also fall under slums and need to be
       rehabilitated or reconstructed. It is recommended that a detailed survey be
       conducted to identify such buildings/structures and notify them as slums



17.10.8 Shelters/ Accommodation to the Labours:
       SMC operates five labour hostels/shelter homes in Shimla viz Chalet Day School,
       Chaura Maidan, Phagli, Court Hill and Lakkar Bazar with total capacity of 455
       beds for providing night shelters to migrant labours on nominal rental of Rs. 20


    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          211
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


         per month. These hostels are not adequate enough to accommodate the migrants.
         Migrants are also using religious places like mosques for night shelters.



17.11 POLICY, REGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK: URBAN POOR
      In order to provide for improvement and clearance of the slum areas and for
      protection of tenants from such evictions, GoHP enacted The Himachal Pradesh
      Slum Areas (Improvement and Clearance) Act 1979. As per the Act, the slum area is
      defined as an area in any respect unfit for human habitation or area by reason of
      dilapidation, over crowding, faulty arrangements and design of such buildings,
      narrowness or faulty arrangement of streets, lack of ventilation, light or sanitation
      facilities or any combination of these factors, detrimental to safety, health or morals.

      SMC, Office of Deputy Commissioner, and other departments of GoHP are
      involved in slum identification, notification and provision of various services and
      implementation of schemes for urban poor and slums



17.12 SOCIAL IMPACTS OF THE PROJECTS ON URBAN POOR
      Majority of the projects like water supply, sewerage, solid waste management etc
      shall have overall positive and direct beneficial impacts on the urban poor as it is
      expected to improve the basic services and other service deliveries to the urban poor
      by way of improve availability of water and consequently improvement in their
      environmental, hygenic and living conditions

      The other projects which are related to improving the decongestion, mobility shall
      indirectly benefit urban poor

      Some of the projects and interventions identified as a of City Development Plan may
      need land acquisition and resettlement and rehabilitation of the project afftected
      people (PAP) including the urban poor. An indicative list of the projects which may
      require land acquisition and related R&R are shown in the Table 17.3.




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          212
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


      Table 17.3 Interventions requiring Resettlement & Rehabilitation of the Poor

                                   Project Name                            Sector
       Standardization of Cart Road                               Traffic & Transportation
       Standardization of Municipal Roads                         Traffic & Transportation
       New Links                                                  Traffic & Transportation
       HOCS                                                       Traffic & Transportation
       Junction Improvements                                      Traffic & Transportation
       Parking Facilities                                         Traffic & Transportation
       Lifts and Escalators                                       Traffic & Transportation
       Tunnels                                                    Traffic & Transportation
       MRTS                                                       Traffic & Transportation
       Ropeways                                                   Traffic & Transportation
       Bypasses to the City                                             Decongestion
       Renovation of Identified Natural Drains                          Storm Water
       Rehabilitation of water supply network                           Water Supply
       Rehabilitation of the main sewerage network                        Sewerage
       Renewal of core area                                               Planning
       Prevention & Control of Land Slide                          Disaster Management



      The extent of land acquisition requirement and related R&R can be only ascertained
      during detailed feasibility and preparation of detailed project reports. The project
      cost estimated does not include the land acquisition and R&R estimates. These shall
      be ascertained on project basis and capitalised to the respective project cost.

      Being hilly area, Shimla is eligible for land acquistion and R&R cost under
      JNNURM. The tentative provision of Rs 220 Cr is recommended for the R&R of
      the PAPs
17.13 ALLOCATION OF THE INVESTMENT PLAN TO THE URBAN POOR
      Due to lack of adequate information on the no of urban poor population and the
      slum wise provision of all basic services and the detailing of the projects in terms of
      its spatial and population coverage with respect to urban poor, it is difficult to
      ascertain the allocation of the investment to the urban poor. In absence of such
      information, the efforts are made to allocate the percentage of total investment in
      proportion to the urban population in the SPA. Of the total investment about Rs 45
      Cr share may be apportioned to the urban poor as presented in Table 17.4




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          213
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan


Table 17.4 Interventions requiring Resettlement & Rehabilitation of the Poor
Project                                                        Project Cost     Fund
                                                               (Lakh)           earmarked for
                                                                                the poor
                                                                                (Lakh)
Rehabilitation of water supply network & augmentation of                 6563
water supply                                                                               445.8
Rehabilitation of the main sewerage network                           4899.08              332.8
Provision of sewerage network for areas of Dhalli, Tutu, New          12180.3
Shimla and special areas of Ghanahatti, Kufri and Shoghi                                   827.4
Provision of missing links to connect the refurbished old              576.27
sewerage network with new sewerage network.                                                 39.1
Renovation of Identified Natural Drains                                413.76               28.1
Renovation of Open Drains                                                84.5                5.7
Construction of roadside drains as per drainage design                   810                55.0
Standardization of the Cart Road                                        5225               355.0
Standardization of Municipal Roads                                    1515.98              103.0
New Links                                                               5600               380.4
HOCS                                                                   12660               860.0
Junction Improvements                                                   1500               101.9
Lifts and Escalators                                                    1464                99.5
Tunnels                                                                 8925               606.3
Pedestrian Facilities                                                  483.93               32.9
Street Lighting                                                          500                34.0
D2D Collection                                                           200                13.6
Street Sweeping                                                          200                13.6
Storage and Transportation                                               675                45.9
Prevention and controls of land slides                                  2000               135.9
Conservation of Soil Erosion                                             500                34.0
                                                                        Total            4549.90




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            214
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan


17.14 ISSUES: URBAN POOR


            (1)      No systematic approach for identification of slums. Inadequate data on
                     provision of basic services in the slum area. Absence of planning and
                     budgetary provision for provision of services to slums
            (2)      Scattered slums situated on the land not owned by Shimla Municipal
                     Corporation
            (3)      Lack of some or all of basic services like water, sewerage, transport,
                     drainage, roads, education, health
            (4)      Poor condition of the houses of the poor



17.15 VISION AND GOALS

                                       “City without Slum “

       Indicator                                  2006           2011       2016        2021
       % Slums to be resettled and                 0%           100%        100%        100%
       rehabilitated
       % of Slum covered for in-situ               0%           100%        100%        100%
       upgradation
       No. of Labour Hostels/Shelter Homes          5            6            7           8


17.16 STRATEGY: URBAN POOR
      There is need to strengthen the urban planning process by integrating urban poor in
      city planning and development process in participatory manner and evolve citywide
      strategies to provide alternatives to slum formation. Strategies like making land
      available to the poor at affordable prices through reservation of land for EWS
      housing and ensuring the provision of housing, urban infrastructure, and transport
      services on the fringes of the cities, can provide alternatives that would restrict the
      formation of new slums. The strategy and interventions identified for urban poor is
      as follows:

      (1)         Comprehensive survey for identification of slums, their assessment with
                  respect to tenable/untenable and provision of basic services, and
                  notifications of areas/buildings as slum under the H.P Slum Areas
                  (Improvement and Clearance) Act 1979. This database may be created using
                  GIS based tools. This would include preparation of list of slum dwellers,


      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               215
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                            Shimla City Development Plan


         issue of proper identification. The survey should also assess the service level
         requirement based on citizen‟s need
(2)      The Development of Urban Slum R&R Policy addressing affordable
         housing, security of tenure, assurance of basic amenities, and community
         participation. The policy should address rehabilitation of slums from
         untenable areas and in-situ development of slum from tenable areas. The
         slum relocation and rehabilitation schemes could be structured with private
         sector participation. Wherever possible, community organizations should be
         supported and allowed to play an active role in preparing and executing plans
         for slum upgradation/redevelopment
(3)      Relocation, resettlement and rehabilitation of urban slums in untenable areas
         by providing the housing at new location at affordable cost. These houses
         should be constructed with basic amenities and other basic necessary services
         should be available in locality.
(4)      In some cases, the land on which the poor people have been staying belongs
         to Municipal Corporation and it is possible to upgrade the existing houses of
         the poor, in-situ upgradation should be done. In in-situ upgradation, the old
         and dilapidated houses should be rehabilitated/reconstructed either at
         reasonable cost or free depending upon the economic condition and
         provision of all basic amenities likes water supply, public toilet (in case of
         constraint of space), sanitation and electricity should be made. Management
         of community toilets should be with participation from community and
         NGO. SMC shall undertake reform related to internal earmarking for budget
         for basic services to the urban poor
(5)      Establishment of night shelters/hostels for migrant laborers and working
         women, destitute children homes. For the poor labours, existing labour
         hostels should be upgraded and few new labour hostels should be
         constructed. New hostels should be constructed for the poor working
         women and homeless children.




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           216
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan


17.17 SECTORAL INVESTMENT PLAN
                                                                                     (Rs. Lakhs)
       S.N. Projects                     Project                 Investment Schedule
                                         Cost    2007       2008    2009    2010   2011       2012
        1      R&R for the Project
               Affected People            22000   3650       3650    3750    3650     3650     3650
        2      R&R of slums to new
               location                   30000         -        -   10000 20000          -          -
        3      In-situ upgradation of
               Slums                      10000         -    2000    2000    2000     2000     2000
        4      Construction        of
               Labour Hostels               250         -        -    250        -        -          -
        5      Construction        of
               working        women
               hostel                       250         -        -    250        -        -          -
        6      Studies         (Social
               Assessment         and
               Preparation of R&R
               Policy; DPR for
               R&R)                         200    100        100        -     -         -        -
               Total                      62700   3750       5650    16250 25650      5650     5650




     INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               217
     CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                      Shimla City Development Plan


17.18 PROJECT INFORMATION SHEETS

      Project Title: Resettlement and Rehabilitation of Slums from Untenable Areas

      Project Description: The slums from untenable areas are proposed to be resettled and
      rehabilitated at new location. GoHP has identified the site for their relocation. The project
      shall include
       Acquisition of land
       Land development
       Provision of infrastructure and external connectivity
       Construction of tenements for urban poor family
       Evacuation from existing site and relocation to new housing
       Rehabilitation of existing site

      Project Benefits:
         Provision of safe housing with tenure security to urban poor
         Improvement in living conditions of urban poor

      Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 300 Crores (excluding land acquisition cost)

      Revenue Sources : maintenance charges and user fees

      Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by GoHP through private
      sector (either EPC/ BOT) and slum dweller participation

      Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by the GoHP using funds to raised
      through grant under JNNURM and loan with affordable contribution from beneficiaries
      cross subsidized through part of real estate development on commercial format; O&M
      Cost to be recovered from maintenance charges and user fee

      Time Frame: Project Development Time Frame 2007-2008; Implementation Time
      Frame 2009-2010

      Institutional Responsibility: GoHP and Private Sector

               Preparatory Activity for Implementation: Preparation of DPR
               The project would require prior environmental clearance from state EIA
                Authority. The
               Project development for selection of private sector partner

      Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
            Development of R&R policy for urban slums

      Additional Studies:




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                 218
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: In-situ Upgradation of Slums in Tenable Areas

Project Description: The slums from tenable area are proposed to be upgraded at same
site. Te upgradation may include redevelopment of slum
 Provision of basic services to slum
 Construction of tenements for urban poor family

Project Benefits:
       Improvement in living conditions of slums

Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 100 Crores

Revenue Sources : User Charges for water and public toilets

Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by SMC

Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by SMC using funds to be raised
through grant and loan. O&M cost to be recovered from user charges

Time Frame: Project Development Time Frame : 2007 ; Implementation Time Frame
2008-2012

Institutional Responsibility: SMC

Preparatory Activity for Implementation: Preparation of Detailed Project Report


Related Programme, Plan and Policies:
      Internal earmarking of budgets for basic services to urban poor

Additional Studies:
      Assessment of basic services in each slum pockets and preparation of DPR




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             219
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                          Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Construction of Labour Hostel

Project Description: The construction of labour hostel/shelter homes is proposed for
migrant labours in Shimla

Project Benefits:
       Provision of night shelter to migrant labours

Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 250 Lakhs

Revenue Sources : Rentals

Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by SMC

Financing Mechanism: Capital cost to be financed by SMC using funds to be raised
through grant under JNNURM and loan. O&M cost to be recovered from rentals

Time Frame: Project Development : 2008 Implementation :2009

Institutional Responsibility: SMC

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
DPR for the project

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         220
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                          Shimla City Development Plan




Project Title: Construction of Working Women Hostel

Project Description: A women hostel along the crèche is proposed in order to create
residential facility providing safe and secure environment for women workforce

Project Benefits:
Safe and secure working environment for women workforce

Approx. Project Cost : Rs. 250 lakhs

Revenue Sources : Rentals

Implementation Structure : The project shall be implemented by SMC

Financing Mechanism : Capital cost to be financed by SMC using funds to be raised
through grant under JNNURM and loan. O&M cost to be recovered from rentals

Time Frame: Project Development : 2008 Implementation :2009

Institutional Responsibility: SMC

Preparatory Activity for Implementation:
DPR for the project

Related Programme, Plan and Policies:

Additional Studies:




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         221
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                       Shimla City Development Plan



18 OTHER INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES
18.1        POWER
            State of Himachal Pradesh is power surplus state in India because of its vast
            potential of hydroelectric power. The power generation, transmission and supply is
            responsibility of HP State Electricity Board (HPSEB). GoHP is also exploring vast
            hydroelectric potential of the State through private sector participation.
            Table 18.1 Snapshot of Power Infrastructure in Shimla
              Description                                                         Details
              Length of 33 KV Line                                                 24.8 km
              33 KV Substations                                                           4
              Length of 15/11/2.2 KV lines12                                     752.61 km
              Length of LT lines                                                     1243.5
              No. of Transformers                                                      617
              Number of Consumers                                                    89001
              No. of Consumers with Electronic M.                                    21535
              Total Connected Load                                              375.72 MW
              Peak Load (Summer)                                                         53
              Peak Load (Winter)                                                         66
              T&D Losses                                                   47.95 MU (15%)

            The quality of power supply is not only dependent on power availability but also on
            distribution infrastructure of the City. Shimla being an administrative and service
            center, majority of electric supply amounting to more than 82% accounts for
            domestic and balance for commercial. The salient features of power infrastructure of
            Shimla is presented in Table 18.1.




12
     The HT line accounts for only 2.87% of total electric installations due to absence of heavy industries in SPA

            INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                               222
            CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                           Shimla City Development Plan




                                    Category Wise Consumers
                      Industrial           Bulk          Agriculture
                        1.04%             0.02%            0.40%
                                                                       P/Light
                   Commercial                                          0.07%
                     10.07%




                                                                       Domestic
                                                                        88.40%


                                   Figure 18.1 Details of Power Consumption


Table 18.2 Demand and Supply during Peak Time
 S.N.                       Year              Season           Demand (MW)          Supply (MW)
                                          Summer                   29                    29
   1               2003-04
                                          Winter                   40                    40
                                          Summer                   33                    33
   2               2004-05
                                          Winter                   44                    44
                                          Summer                   35                    35
   3               2005-06
                                          Winter                   46                    46




                                    Power Demand Projections

                   250.00

                   200.00
    Demand in MW




                                                                                         192.15
                   150.00
                                                                         119.31
                   100.00
                                                       74.08
                    50.00             46.00

                      -
                                   2006           2011             2016             2021
                                                           Year


                                    Figure 18.2 Projection of Power Demand


INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                          223
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                         Shimla City Development Plan


18.2   E-GOVERNANCE
       GoHP has taken several initiatives to implement e-Governance systems and
       procedures with the intention of improving service delivery and bringing out
       transparency in its functioning. The key initiatives under this area of reform are as
       under

       (1)       State has formulated IT Policy and SWAN implementation is under progress.
                 Local Area Network has been established in HP Secretariat. Majority of
                 Departments including Shimla Municipal Corporation have their websites
       (2)       Himbhoomi: Himbhoomi Land Records Software Application has been
                 developed by NIC. The data entry process of 104 Tehsils/Sub Tehsils is in
                 progress while 52 Tehsils have completed computerization process and
                 started issuing computerized copies of land records
       (3)       HimRIS: HimRIS Application developed by NIC is being used to register
                 property documents. The total time taken in registering a document has
                 reduced to less than 30 minutes. Prior to computerization, the registration
                 process used to take between 2 to 7 days
       (4)       VAHAN and SARATHI: VAHAN and SARATHI applications developed
                 by NIC are being used for issuance of computerized driving licenses,
                 registration of vehicle, transfer of ownership, issuance of NOC, permits,
                 taxes and traffic checking and challans
       (5)       e- Praman: e-Praman is a certificate issuance system The project has been
                 implemented by State NIC and Department of IT. The system delivers
                 certificates (bona fide certificate, rural area certificate, indigent certificate etc.)
                 that are issued by the District Administration


       It is recommended that e-governance cell established in SMC for implementation of
       e-governance agenda should be strengthened. The effective e-governance agenda
       would also require business process reengineering. The list of services to be covered
       through e-governance would include:
                Forms Registration of Birth and Death
                Public Grievance Redressal
                Computerization of Property Tax
                Municipal Accounting System
                e-Procurement with availability of tender documents on web site
                Billing Systems for property tax, utility bills
                Forms for building approvals


       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                   224
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


18.3   HEALTH AND EDUCATION
       GoHP through Department of Health and Family Welfare and Department of
       Education is responsible for provision of medical and educational infrastructure.
       Major health and education facilities in the State are only in Shimla, which cater to
       almost entire state population. The health and education infrastructure status in
       Shimla is highlighted in Table 18.3.

       In order to promote healthcare in Shimla, SMC shall provide following facilitating
       services
        Supply of clean and safe drinking water and sanitation facilities for maintaining
         hygienic conditions;
        Control of mosquito breeding;
        Control of stray dogs; and
        Regulation of hotels and roadside food vendors
       GoHP should encourage public private partnership in primary education for
       maintenance of buildings and infrastructure. It should take strong steps to ensure the
       quality of education in schools through standardization and performance incentives.
       Table 18.3 Snapshot of Health and Education Infrastructure in Shimla
        HEALTH INFRASTRUCTURE
        No. of Hospitals                                                      7
        No. of Primary Health Centres                                         3
        No. of Dispensaries                                                  21
        No. of Beds in Govt Hospitals                                      1021
        No. of Doctors                                                      343
        No. of Private Hospitals                                              3
        No. of Beds in Private Hospitals                                    155
        EDUCATION INFRASTRUCTURE
        No. of Aganwadis                                                     14
        No. of Primary Schools                                               63
        No. of Middle Schools                                                 7
        No. of High Schools                                                   9
        No. of Secondary Schools                                              7
        No. of Colleges                                                       7
        ITI and Polytechnics                                                  1
       Source: Economic and Statistics Department, 2002




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         225
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                              Shimla City Development Plan



19 FINANCIAL PROFILE
19.1   INTRODUCTION
       Shimla Municipal Corporation uses cash-based, single entry accounting system where
       income and expenditure heads are maintained on daily basis. The financial status of
       the Municipal Corporation has been reviewed for past five years. This section
       contains a description of the corporation finances, the sources and uses of funds,
       assessment of Corporation Finances based on important financial indicators. All the
       expenses towards regular maintenance are treated as revenue expenses, while
       expenses on new projects are treated as capital expenses.

       SMC proposes to implement an accrual based double entry accounting system and
       generate the balance sheet by March 31, 2007.

       Broadly, municipal finances can be classified into Revenue Account and Capital
       Account. All the day to day income and expenditure are under the Revenue Account
       and similarly one time expenditure and expenditure on infrastructure development
       are considered under the Capital Account.


                                                         Municipal
                                                         Finances




                          Revenue                                                   Capital
                          Account                                                   Account




           Revenue                         Revenue                    Capital                       Capital
            Income                        Expenditure                 Income                      Expenditure




       • Tax                           • Establishment           • Share of Land
                                                                                              • Development of
       • Non – Tax                     • Contingencies           • Loans
                                                                                                Infrastructure
       • Grants                        • Maintenance             • Grants




                                    Figure 19.1 Structure of Municipal Finances




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                        226
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan


19.2   REVENUE SOURCES
       The income of SMC is derived from

       (a)      Revenue Receipts like Tax Revenue, Non- Tax Revenue and Octroi Grant

                 Tax revenues are receipts from the operations of the Corporation in the
                  form of property taxes, sewerage taxes, water taxes, Show Tax, Animal
                  Tax, Stamp duty and other misc. taxes levied by SMC.

                 Non-Tax revenue comes in the form of various license fees, tehbazari
                  fees and various unclassified sources

                 Octroi Grant is the grant given by HP State Government in lieu of octroi
                  since the abolition of octroi in the city

       (b)      Capital Receipts includes sale of municipal properties, other grants from the
                State and Central Governments, loans taken for the projects


19.3   EXPENDITURE TREATMENT
       Expenses incurred towards establishment cost, operation and maintenance
       expenditure for provision of services and repayment of loans are treated as revenue
       expenditure and expenditure on asset creation, purchase of equipment and
       investments in new projects etc. are treated as capital expenditure.

       Advances and deposits and any items of income or expenditure of temporary nature
       are treated and accounted for under suspense account. These heads of this suspense
       account are not analyzed as they are transitory in nature and have no impact on the
       overall financial position of SMC.


19.4   FINANCIAL STATUS AT A GLANCE
       The income and expenditure pattern of SMC for last five years as presented in
       Figure 19.2 shows deficits in almost all the years analyzed. Total expenditure is
       always higher than the total income in all the years analyzed except 2001-01. Since
       the Municipal Accounting System is cash based, it does not reflect the arrears
       /liabilities, but we have considered these major expenses while analyzing the
       financials. Table 19.1 shows summary of municipal finances over five years. The
       revenue account and capital account are in deficit for all the years analyzed except
       2002-03 where capital account doesn‟t show deficit.



       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          227
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan




3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

 500

   0
           2001-02             2002-03        2003-04        2004-05           2005-06
                         Total Income               Total Expenditure

       Figure 19.2 Income Expenditure Details of Shimla Municipal Corporation


  Table 19.1 Summaries of Municipal Finances
                                    2001-02   2002-03 2003-04 2004-05           2005-06
            Items                                 Actuals in Lakhs Rs.                      CAGR
   Opening Balance                  194.04     257.88    173.89    204.32        256.95      (%)
   Revenue Account
     Revenue Income                 1274.76   1037.45   1288.58      1938.61    1973.97      11.55%
     Revenue Expenditure            1706.97   1816.03    1829.2      2027.98    2355.26       8.38%
     Surplus/Deficit                -432.21   -778.58   -540.62       -89.37    -381.29
   Capital Account
     Capital Income                   21.08     46.99      59.07      151.63       204.7     76.53%
     Capital Expenditure              60.74      41.2     184.72      234.77       226.2     38.92%
     Surplus/Deficit                 -39.66      5.79    -125.65      -83.14       -21.5
  Source: SMC Accounts Department

  The Revenue Income increases at Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of
  11.55 % while the Revenue Expenditure is increasing at CAGR of around 8.38 %
  which shows that the Corporation has not been able to manage its revenue accounts
  well over the years. Even Capital Account has deficit almost all the years. The deficit
  in one or the other account for all the years shows that SMC needs to improve the
  efficiency, enhance revenue sources and reduce expenditure.

  Next few sections provide an in-depth review of the revenue account, in order to
  assess the municipal fiscal status and to provide a base for determining the potential

  INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                228
  CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                               Shimla City Development Plan


       of each of the sources and the ability of SMC to sustain the extent of planned
       investments identified under the City Development Plan.


19.5   REVENUE ACCOUNT
  19.5.1 Revenue Income
          The source-wise income generated during the review period is presented in Table
          19.2 and the detailed income and expenditure statement, the sectoral contribution
          and growth rates of each of the items are presented in Annexure 23.8. From the
          above chart it quiet apparent that the share of Non-Tax revenues is increasing
          over the years and dependency on the Octroi Grant has been reducing over the
          five year period analyzed. From Table 19.2, we can figure it out that the No-Tax
          Revenues are increasing at a CAGR of 22% while the Octroi Grant is decreasing
          at a CAGR of 4.27 %.


                          100%

                           80%

                           60%

                           40%

                           20%

                            0%
                                    2001-02     2002-03    2003-04     2004-05     2005-06

                                Tax Revenue            Non Tax Revenue           Octroi Grant


                                     Figure 19.3 Details of Revenue Income


          Table 19.2 Source-wise Revenue Account Income
                                         2001-02       2002-03 2003-04 2004-05               2005-06     CAGR
            Items
                                                           Actuals in Lakhs Rs.                           (%)
              Tax Revenue                     375.25     393.58     409.43   644.13             593.22   12.13%
              Non Tax Revenue                  440.5     402.47     605.48   875.94             995.23   22.60%
              Octroi Grant                    459.01      241.4     273.67   418.54             385.52   -4.27%
            Total       Revenue
            Income                       1274.76       1037.45       1288.58     1938.61     1973.97     11.55%
          Source: SMC Accounts Department




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                        229
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan


19.5.1.1 Tax Revenue:
            Tax revenues are receipts from the operations of the Corporation in the
            form of property taxes, water tax, sewerage taxes, Show Tax, Animal Tax,
            Stamp duty and other misc. taxes levied by SMC. On an average 30% of
            the total revenue income comes from Tax revenue as shown in the graph
            above. General tax (tax levied on the commercial and residential
            properties) is the major tax revenue of the Corporation. In addition to the
            General Property Tax, Municipal Corporation Levies additional taxes listed
            in Table 19.3.
            Table 19.3 Various Taxes Levied by SMC and its rates

              SN              Type of Tax                     Rate
                     General/ Property Tax on
             1                                15% of the Annual Rateable Value
                     lands and Buildings
             2       Water Tax                2.5%of the annual readable value
             3       Sewerage Tax             15% on the amount of General Tax
             4       Show Tax                 Rs. 50 per Show


            Property Tax: The property related taxes are commonly referred as house
            tax and include a tax on building or lands situated within municipal limits.
            SMC levies property tax on residential, commercial and industrial buildings
            and lands that lie within its jurisdiction. The rules and procedures related to
            levy of property tax is governed by SMC HP Municipal Corporation Act
            1994.

            The property tax is based on the annual rateable value of the property. The
            tax slab rates are shown in Table 19.4.
            Table 19.4 Tax Slab Details
                  Area             Tariff (%of Annual
             S. N (in Sq.m.)        Rateable Value)            Type           Discount
               1     < 100               Exempt              Residential         0.00
                                                                             50 % on net
                 2       > 100            15.0%              Residential
                                                                             tax Amount
                 3           >0           15.0%             Commercial           0.00
            The details of the number of commercial and residential properties, tax
            assessed, arrears and collection efficiency are show in Table 17.5.

            The collection efficiency of the SMC is very low; almost 60 to 72 % of the
            billed amount is collected during that year. The highest collection efficiency
            was in 2004-05 where 72 % of the current demand and 33 % of the arrears
            were collected.

INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             230
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                              Shimla City Development Plan


            Sewerage tax is levied on the general tax amount. It is around 15 % of the
            general tax amount. The amount collected through sewerage tax is low
            compared to general property tax.
Table 19.5 Property and Sewerage Tax data
                                                     2001-02          2002-03 2003-04 2004-05                2005-06
                             Year
                                                                          Actuals in Lakhs Rs.
   Type of
    Tax          No. of residential buildings             NA            NA         NA       NA                    9762
                 No. of commercial
                                                          NA               NA            NA       NA              700
                 buildings
                 Current Demand( Tax
                                                         406.8         430.48           454.04   487.89           514.9
                 assessed)
                 Previous Demand                         392.43        456.62           518.21    604.36         559.98
  Property
                 Total Demand                            799.23        887.1            972.25   1092.25         1074.88
    Tax
                 Collection Total                         294.8        322.57           331.19    486.4          466.32
                 Collection Efficiency
                                                         36.9%         36.4%            34.1%    44.5%           43.4%
                 (Total)
                 Current Demand( Tax
                                                          33.2             35.25        38.45     41.93           45.48
                 assessed)
                 Previous Demand                         9.07              17.42        24.57     33.37           33.08
  Sewerage
                 Total Demand                            42.27             52.67        63.02      75.3           78.56
    Tax
                 Collection Total                        20.83             23.69        26.61     36.28           35.47
                 Collection Efficiency
                                                         49.3%         45.0%            42.2%    48.2%           45.2%
                 (Total)




19.5.1.2 Non-Tax Income:


                 100%
                  90%
                  80%
                  70%
                  60%
                  50%
                  40%
                  30%
                  20%
                  10%
                   0%
                         2001-02      2002-03    2003-04         2004-05      2005-06

                  Rent of Buildings      Sale of water      Other Fees and Revenues



                             Figure 19.4 Details of Non-Tax Income




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                 231
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                      Shimla City Development Plan


            Non-Tax Income is around 45 % of the total Income of SMC for last year
            and on a five year average it is around 41 % of the total Income. These
            revenue sources include fees and charges levied as per the legislation.
            Accordingly the income sources have been classified under the broad
            categories like water charges, rent of buildings, various license fees, forest
            income, tehbazari fee, other fees and various unclassified receipts.

            Major heads of non-tax income are shown in Table 19.6 along with CAGR
            details.
          Table 19.6 Non-tax Income details
                                  2001-02     2002-03 2003-04 2004-05                 2005-06       CAGR
            Items
                                                  Actuals in Lakhs Rs.                               (%)
            Rent          of
            Buildings               91.37      101.84        112.45       145.64        193.74      20.67%
            Sale of water          159.52      171.95        337.82       467.12        565.93      37.24%
            Other Fees and
            Revenues               189.61      128.68        155.21       263.18        235.56       5.57%
            Total      Non-
            Tax Income              440.5      402.47        605.48       875.94       995.23       22.60%

            We have considered water charges as non-tax revenue. Water charges are
            biggest contributor in non-tax revenue and second largest income source
            for SMC after general tax. Water income is around 20% of the total income
            while general tax income is around 24% of total income. Water charges are
            levied where the properties are metered. The details of the water slabs are
            shown in Table 19.7.
Table 19.7 Water Charges

                       Usage                2003-04                2004-05               2005-06
                        Kilo                          Charges(Rs. per Kilo litre)
  Type of User
                      Liter per
                                   upto          After         upto        After
                       month
                                   06.10.03      06.10.03      06.10.04    06.10.04     Till date
                         0-30          2.5          3.5           3.5        3.85           3.85
   Residential          30-75          2.5           5             5          5.5           5.5
                         >75           2.5          7.5           7.5        8.25           8.25
                         0-30         10.5          15            15         16.5           16.5
  Commercial            30-75         10.5          20            20          22             22
                         >75          10.5         27.5          27.5        30.25         30.25
  Construction            >0           NA          NA            NA          30.25         30.25




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                       232
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan


   19.5.1.3 Octroi Grant:
               The Octroi Grant is given by the state government in lieu of the octroi. It
               has been came in to existence since 1984 when the State Government
               decided to discontinue the octroi levied in the Shimla City and for
               compensation of the same the State Government will give a fixed amount
               to SMC . Even after various amendments and continuous request from
               SMC, the state Government increased this grant time to time, still the state
               Government is not paying it in full to SMC the total outstanding has
               reached to a very high level. Table 19.8 shows the grant received from State
               Government, apparently shows the irregularity of the payment from State
               Government.
      Table 19.8 Octroi Grant
                                2001-02   2002-03 2003-04 2004-05          2005-06       CAGR
        Items
                                              Actuals in Lakhs Rs.                        (%)
        Octroi Grant             459.01      241.4    273.67    418.54          385.52   -4.27%



19.5.2 Revenue Expenditure
      Revenue expenditure has been analyzed based on the expenditure heads, which
      are broadly classified into establishment expenses, contingencies and maintenance
      expenditure. Apparently major expenses are Establishment and Other Expenses.
      Over the period share of Establishment expenses in total expenditure has
      decreased and share of other expenses has been increased sharply. Summary of
      revenue expenditure account is shown in Table 19.9.
      Table 19.9 Summary of the revenue Expenditure
                                    2001-02    2002-03    2003-04     2004-05      2005-06   CAGR
                Items
                                                  Actuals in Lakhs Rs.                        (%)
        Establishment               956.59     1053.58    1098.56     1132.76      1272.95   7.40%
        Contingencies               114.17      122.3      103.75      140.5       143.67    5.91%
        Maintenance                 109.16     125.43      39.53       297.33      123.83    3.20%
        Other Expenses              527.05     514.72      587.36      457.39      814.81    16.55%
        Total Revenue
                                    1706.97    1816.03     1829.2     2027.98      2355.26   18.9%
        Expenditure
      As we can see from Table 19.9, the highest amount was spent on establishment
      expenses. More than 50 % of the total expenses are on establishment and in
      particular on salaries of various departments. And almost 33 % of the expenditure
      is on other expenses.


   INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                233
   CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                             Shimla City Development Plan


19.5.2.1 Establishment Expenditure:
            The establishment expenditure has increased from 959 lakhs in 2001 to
            1272 lakhs in 2006 with a CAGR of around 7 %. Department wise details
            of the Establishment expenses are shown in Table 19.10.
     Table 19.10 Department wise Establishment Expenses
                             2001-02   2002-03 2003-04 2004-05       2005-06    CAGR
      Items
                                           Actuals in Lakhs Rs.                  (%)
      Salary
      General Dept             98.62     111.7    112.05   123.43      142.63     9.66%
      Tax Dept                 31.53     31.19     34.73    35.55       43.41     8.32%
      Estate Branch            21.86     26.77     26.42    22.46       29.57     7.85%
      Forest Dept               40.2     43.73     51.35    55.54       62.27    11.56%
      Library                    0.2      0.22      0.12     0.12        0.12   -11.99%
      Public Health           422.02    454.48    463.18   514.51      574.17     8.00%
      Water Supply            150.53    175.48    183.11   189.36      209.38     8.60%
      Roads       and
      buildings               157.27    173.02    187.37   191.79       211.4     7.67%
      9-c Grant                34.36     36.99     40.23        0           0
      Total
      Establishment
      Expenses                956.59   1053.58   1098.56   1132.76    1272.95     7.40%

            It is quiet apparent from Table 19.9 that the highest salary expenses are
            from the Public Health department, followed by Roads and Buildings and
            Water Supply departments.


19.5.2.2 Contingencies Expenditure
            The Contingencies expenditure has increased from 114 lakhs in 2001 to
            143 lakhs in 2006 with a CAGR of around 6 %. Department wise details of
            the contingencies expenses are shown in Table 19.11.




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            234
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan


   Table 19.11 Department wise Contingencies Expenses
                             2001-02   2002-03 2003-04 2004-05         2005-06    CAGR
           Items
                                            Actuals in Lakhs Rs.                   (%)
     General Dept             36.3      42.54       28.49     41.35     51.48      9.13%
     Tax Dept                 0.38       9.99        5.76     1.99      1.47      40.24%
     Estate                    2.7       1.75        1.76     1.06      0.87      -24.66%
     Forest Dept               4.2       2.24        3.16     2.87      1.88      -18.20%
     Library                  0.23       0.29        0.28     0.16      0.07      -25.73%
     Public Health            39.47     27.39       32.58     49.73     41.31      1.15%
     Water Supply             27.87     35.65       29.13     39.48     43.41     11.72%
     Roads and
                              2.38      2.45       2.59      3.86       3.18      7.51%
     buildings
     Reserve                  0.64        0         0         0          0
     Total
     Contingencies           114.17     122.3     103.75    140.5      143.67     5.91%
     Expenses

  The highest expenses are incurred in Public Health department followed by
  General Department.


19.5.2.3 Maintenance Expenses:
            The Maintenance expenditure has increased from 109 lakhs in 2001 to 124
            lakhs in 2006 with a CAGR of around 3 %. Department wise details of the
            contingencies expenses are shown in Table 19.12.
Table 19.12 Details of the Maintenance Expenses
                             2001-02    2002-03    2003-04 2004-05      2005-06    CAGR
         Items
                                            Actuals in Lakhs Rs.                    (%)
 Roads & Buildings            90.98      97.08       6.96     259.56     89.86     -0.31%
 Water Supply                 17.35      26.07       30.98     36.23     32.8      17.26%
 Forest Dept                  0.83        2.28       1.59      1.54      1.17      8.96%
 Total
 Maintenance                  109.16    125.43      39.53    297.33      123.83    3.20%
 Expenses

            The highest amount was spent on maintenance of roads and buildings.




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              235
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


       19.5.2.4 Other Expenses:
                   Other Expenses are expenses that are incurred but not paid and therefore
                   not reflected in the cash based system. In order to include these expenses
                   in financial analysis of the Municipal Corporation, we have considered only
                   two major heads or major liabilities, which have not been paid i.e. expenses
                   towards the purchase of bulk water from I&PH department and expenses
                   towards consumption of electricity for street lights and other purposes due
                   to HPSEB. Bulk water is a huge expenses and increasing at a CAGR of 30
                   %, which is fairly high. On the other hand the electricity dues are going
                   down that is a positive sign.
                   Table 19.13 Details of the Other Expenses
                                       2001-02    2002-03    2003-04    2004-05    2005-06     CAGR
                    Items                             Actuals in Lakhs Rs.                      (%)
                    Amount due to
                    IP&H for water      399.86      340.21     473.24     407.25      752.4 23.46%
                    Amount due to                                                                 -
                    HPSEB for power     127.19      174.51     114.12      50.14      62.41 21.13%
                    Total     Other
                    Expenses            527.05      514.72     587.36    457.39      814.81    11.51%


19.6   CAPITAL ACCOUNT

  19.6.1 Capital Income
          Capital Account Income is income generated from the sale of municipal assets,
          loans from various institutions and grants given by state and central government
          for particular purpose. SMC doesn‟t have the capacity to repay the loan; it has not
          taken any kind of loan from any of the institutions. Moreover there is no grant for
          any purpose from state or central governments. Therefore the sole constituent of
          the Capital Account is sale of municipal assets and it has increased from 21.08
          lakhs to 204.7 lakhs with a massive CAGR of 76.53%. It shows that SMC has
          been heavily dependent on the disposing of its own properties for capital
          expansion, which is not sustainable for a long term. Table19.14 shows year-wise
          details of capital income along with the CAGR.




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             236
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                        Shimla City Development Plan


       Table 19.14 Details of the Capital Income
                                    2001-02      2002-03 2003-04 2004-05             2005-06       CAGR
                Items
                                                    Actuals in Lakhs Rs.                            (%)
         Sale of Municipal
                                     21.08         46.99       59.07      151.63      204.7       76.53%
         Assets
         Loans                         0                0        0          0             0
         Grants                        0                0        0          0             0
         Total Capital
                                     21.08         46.99       59.07      151.63      204.7       76.53%
         Income

19.6.2 Capital Expenditure
       Capital expenditure are normally contingent upon receipt of associated revenue.
       The capital expenditure of SMC includes all expenditure incurred on creation/
       acquisition of capital including construction of building, roads, nallahs, toilets,
       street lights and other related activities. The details of capital expenditure are
       shown in Table 19.15.
    Table 19.15 Details of the Capital Expenses
                                 2001-02     2002-03   2003-04    2004-05       2005-06       %of Total
     Items
                                                 Actuals in Lakhs Rs.                         Expenses
     Buildings                     45.45        24.08      40.88      33.59          3.94       2.1%
     Roads                             0            0      120.3    155.82         193.18       5.6%
     Forest Works                   1.98         1.71       2.37       2.38          1.09       0.1%
     Nallahs                        0.03         0.54       1.97        5.5           2.3       0.1%
     Toilets                       10.09          4.2       8.87       8.02         11.12       0.6%
     Street Lights                     0         3.98       3.47       9.22          9.77       0.3%
     Water Works                    3.19         6.69       6.86      20.24           4.8       0.5%
     Total       Capital
     Expenditure                   60.74         41.2       184.72     234.77      226.2        9.3%

       It is observed that the maximum expenditure incurred on construction of the
       roads. Total capital expenditure is around 9 % of the total expenditure. On an
       average, over the years, majority of the capital expenditure has been directed
       towards Buildings and Roads.




    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                     237
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                          Shimla City Development Plan


19.7   OUTSTANDING LIABILITIES AND ASSETS
       Outstanding assets and liabilities are shown in Table 19.16. Here we can see that
       total outstanding liabilities are Rs.2352 lakhs out of which SMC has to pay around
       1874 lakhs to IP&H.
       Table 19.16 Major outstanding
        Liabilities
                                                              Major Outstanding as on March 31,
          S N.                      Agency
                                                                     2006 ( in Lakhs Rs.)
            1                      IP&H                                     1874.09
            2                     HPSEB                                      404.10
            3             Pension & Gratuity Fund                             67.61
            4         Language and Culture Department                         6.29
                              Total                                         2352.09
        Assets
                                                              Major Outstanding as on March 31,
          S N.                      Agency
                                                                     2006 ( in Lakhs Rs.)
            1                State Government                               1325.62
            2          Various Taxes (To be collected)                       608.56
                              Total                                         1934.18


       The reason behind this mammoth outstanding is the difference between the charges
       levied to the citizens by SMC and charges levied by IP&H to SMC. Year on year
       details of the outstanding are given in Table 19.17.
       Table 19.17 Year wise major outstanding

                    Item               2001-02    2002-03       2003-04      2004-05     2005-06     Total
        Outstanding    Amount
        Payable to SMC by State
        Government                        53.85      287.76       346.89       264.01      365.38    1317.89
        Outstanding     Amount
        Payable by SMC to IP&H         1547.55      1887.76       714.44      1121.69     1874.09    1874.09
        Outstanding     Amount
        Payable by SMC to
        HPSEB                           632.27       806.78       291.55       341.69       404.1         404.1

       The outstanding payable by SMC to IP&H and HPSEB has been increasing due to
       inability of SMC to pay the amount. In 2003 State Government paid 1646.56 lakhs to
       IP&H and 623.35 to HPSEB on behalf of SMC in 2003.




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                   238
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan




19.8   KEY FINANCIAL INDICATORS
       Table 19.18 Key financial Indicators
                                                                         Value
                                                                                   Average
          SN                        Indicator       Unit                           or as on
                                                             Min        Max          31st
                                                                                   March,
                                                                                     2006
            A       Resource Mobilization
            1       Per Capita Income               Rupees                          1134.5
            2       Share of Taxes                           27.2%     36.3%        30.7%
            3       Share of Non-Taxes                       34.0%     45.8%        40.9%
            4       Share of Octroi Grant                    17.7%     35.4%        23.1%
            5       Share of Capital Income                  1.6%      9.4%          5.4%
            B       Expenditure Management
            1       Per Capita Expenses             Rupees                          1353.6
            2       Share of Establishment                   49.3%     56.7%        53.0%
            3       Share of contingencies                   5.2%      6.6%          6.0%
            4       Share of Maintenance                     2.0%      13.1%         6.6%
            5       Share of Other Expenses                  20.2%     31.6%        27.7%
            5       Share of Capital Expenditure             2.2%      10.4%         6.8%
            C       Performance
                    Operation Ratio                                                   1.2
                    Capital Utilization Ratio                                         1.1
            D       Efficiency
            1                Property Tax
                    Collection Performance                   34.1%     44.5%        39.0%
                    PT Arrears as % of Total
                                                             49.1%     55.3%        52.3%
                    Demand
            2                Sewerage Tax
                    Collection Performance                   42.2%     48.2%        46.0%
                    PT Arrears as % of Total
                                                             21.5%     44.3%        36.0%
                    Demand
            3                Water Supply
                    Collection Performance                   67.7%     72.9%        69.6%
                    Water Charges Arrears as % of
                                                             22.8%     25.1%        23.8%
                    Total Demand




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                       239
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


19.9   KEY ISSUES
        The current cash based accounting system and its financial reporting by the SMC
         is unable to show their true financial performance and position. The double
         entry based accounting system to be implemented as a part of reform process
         under JNNURM will overcome this issue

        High subsidy on water: The Corporation is supplying the water at Rs.3.85 per
         Kilo litre for domestic and Rs. 30.25 per Kilo litre for commercial while
         procuring the treated water from IP&H at Rs. 8 per Kilo litre. With heavy
         subsidy on water supply SMC is not able to recover its procurement and O&M
         costs

        The Energy bills towards HPSEB is increasing due to the interest levied by
         HPSEB to MC on the previous due amount. SMC has been paying the electricity
         charges regularly without any interest payments

        The collection efficiency is low in case of the property tax. SMC has been able to
         collect maximum 70 % of the billed amount for the current years and 45 % of
         the total amount if total arrears are considered.

        Due to recent merger or SADA area into Shimla Municipal Corporation, SMC
         shall be providing all the basic services to the residents of these areas without
         having income from property tax from these areas, which will increase the
         burden on municipal finances

        No diligence on the project viability, user-charge recovery for capital
         expenditure



19.10 VISION AND STRATEGY
       The strategy for improving the financial positions of the Shimla Municipal
       Corporation is based on reduction in the cost and revenue enhancement

       Reduction in cost

        o      Improvement in Efficiency

               Improvement in efficiency in service deliveries will lead to the reduction of
               costs. Computerization, e-governance, redeployment of staff redundant staff
               and implementation of other reform agenda is expected to improve the
               efficiency


       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         240
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                          Shimla City Development Plan


 o      Outsourcing

        Outsourcing and involvement of private sector, which can bring not only
        efficiency in service delivery but also professional management practices
        should be encouraged

Revenue enhancement
 o      Implementation of unit area assessment for property tax
        The implementation of unit area method for property tax assessment reform
        is expected to widen the base and eventually increase the revenue in long run

 o      Revision in water charges in order to recover at least O&M cost
        Proposed last two revisions in water charges are pending. It is recommended
        that the two pending revision be carried out. It is recommended that the water
        charges be revised to recover 50% of the O&M charges as prescribed in the
        JNNURM guidelines

 o      Improvement in collection efficiency
        Collection efficiency of SMC is almost 65% of the billed amount of property
        tax for current year and around 45 % if arrears are considered. It is
        recommended that automation in billing and collection should be
        implemented. Also, involvement of private sector in collection system be
        encouraged

 o      Enforcement of sewerage charges
        SMC has notified sewerage charges, which is 50% of the water charges.
        However it are not being charged and collected. It is recommended that the
        notification be enforced in true spirit

 o      Enforcement of other taxes
        SMC should increase revenues by enforcement of various other taxes like
        professional tax; moreover increase in various other tax rates wherever
        possible will improve the revenues of Municipal Corporation

 o      Collection of taxes in SADA areas after two years
        Currently, property tax in not levied to SADA areas. It is recommended that
        these areas should also brought under the property tax in order to enhance
        the revenues




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         241
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                           Shimla City Development Plan


 o      Conservancy fee on all hotels
        Shimla being a tourist center and more of weekend tourism, the sector is
        putting more stress on the infrastructure without significantly contributing to
        economy. Conservancy tax may be levied on tourists collected through hotels

 o      Levy of Green fees and its sharing

        It is recommended that green fee on line with Manali may be levied on
        vehicles entering Shimla with appropriate sharing between SMC and GoHP

 o      Leverage the SMC owned properties to enhance the revenues

        SMC owns large number properties in Shimla Planning Area. It is
        recommended that SMC should leverage these properties in order to enhance
        the revenue


Mobilization of resources
        The major source of funding for mobilization of resources by SMC may
        include:
               Internal resources of SMC raised through leveraging of SMC
                property

               State grant

               Loan from Banks and Financial Institutions

        The raising resources from financial institutions and capital market would
        require implementation of reform agenda on fast track and implementation of
        following facilitating actions
               Credit rating of the SMC

               Setting up Urban Development Fund for leveraging grants received
                from GoI and GoHP under JNNURM




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          242
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan



20 REFORM AGENDA STATUS

20.1   INTRODUCTION


       JNNURM is reform driven scheme prescribes the manadatory and optional reforms
       for ULB and State Government. This chapter presents the status of reforms
       prescribed under JNNURM. Based on the current status of reform agenda, SMC and
       GoHP has proposed to implement the reform agenda as delineated in the reform
       implementation plan appended separately.


20.2   ADOPTION OF MODERN ACCRUAL BASED DOUBLE ENTRY ACCOUNT SYSTEM
       The accounting method used by SMC was setup by the British Government in 1814
       and it has been used since then. It is a cash based single entry accounting system and
       done in a primitive way. The Shimla Municipal Corporation has now appointed a
       consultant for implementation of double accounting methods. The system shall be in
       place by beginning of next financial year. All the official working of all accounts
       under this system are going to be computerized.


20.3   INTRODUCTION OF E-GOVERNANCE SYSTEM
       SMC has take several steps towards the implementation of e-Governance system
       with the intention of improved service delivery and bringing about the transparency.
       The key initiatives under this reform are:


  20.3.1 Launch of website
          SMC has launched its website www.shimlamc.org and it contains Acts and By
          laws of MC, downloadable forms, helpline, information about citizen services,
          heritage list of the town, RTI related information related to EOIs and tenders has
          been loaded.

  20.3.2 Computerization and networking of all the departments
          Working of all the departments of SMC is also being computerized. All the
          departments have already been brought on LAN. The customization of the
          modules provided by Microsoft is in progress. SMC is likely to switch over to
          complete computerization by beginning of next financial year. In Phase III, MC is
          planning to provide online services to the citizens and its also planning to give a



       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         243
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan


          unique identification number to each house hold and with the help of that one
          can access all the information.

  20.3.3 Computerization of billing of property tax and water charges
          Municipal Corporation has planned to computerize billing of property tax and
          billing charges, which will increase the transparency and collection efficiency.


  20.3.4 Other online services
          Municipal Corporation has planned to online various services like application
          filing and payments for various services.


  20.3.5 GIS based Infrastructure Information System
          The corporation is planning to have GIS Survey for the entire Shimla Planning
          Area for better planning and use it for the property tax collection and the house
          has approved it.

  20.3.6 Public Grievance Redressal System
          Public grievance redressal system has been incorporated under E-Governance.


20.4   PROPERTY TAX REFORM
       The method to calculate the tax of the property is based on Annual Rental Value
       method which has its own set of problems. It is the most outmoded method having
       may loopholes. Shimla Municipal Corporation is envisaging to implement Unit Area
       Method which is based Delhi model.


20.5   BY LAWS
       SMC has modified the bylaws and are put up to the house for the approval. All the
       functions of Schedule 12 of 74th CAA have been transferred to SMC except Fire
       Services.




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                        244
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                        Shimla City Development Plan


Table 20.1 Status of Mandatory Reforms for ULB
                 Mandatory Reforms (ULB)                                        Status
Adoption of modern, accrual-based double entry system of
                                                                            Under Process
accounting
Introduction of system of e-governance using IT applications
                                                                            Under Process
like, GIS and MIS for various services
Reform of property tax with GIS and arrangements for its
effective implementation to increase collection efficiency to 85%           Under Process
at least within next seven years
                                                                      Shall be implemented as per
Levy of reasonable user charges to recover atleast 50% of
                                                                       Reform Implementation
operation & maintenance charges initially.
                                                                       Plan proposed separately
                                                                      Shall be implemented as per
Internal earmarking within local body, budgets for basic services
                                                                       Reform Implementation
to the urban poor
                                                                       Plan proposed separately
Provision of basic services to urban poor including security of
tenure at affordable prices, improved housing, water supply,          Presently basic services are
sanitation and ensuing delivery of other already existing universal   provided; gaps in services
services of the Government for education, health and social               shall be provided
security


Table 20.2 Status of Mandatory Reforms for State
       Mandatory Reforms (State Level Reforms)                                  Status
Implementation of decentralization measures as envisaged in
                                                                             Implemented
74th CAA

Repeal of Urban Land Ceiling and Regulation Act.                         ULCRA not enacted

Reform of Rent Control Laws balancing the interests of
                                                                         Shall be implemented
landlords and tenants
                                                                      Presently the Stamp-Duty is
Rationalisation of Stamp Duty to bring it down to no more than        8%. Shall be implemented as
5% within next seven years                                            per Reform Implementation
                                                                                  Plan
Enactment of Public Disclosure Law to ensure preparation of
medium term fiscal plan of ULBs/Parastatals and release of                  Under Process
quarterly performance information to all stakeholders.
Enactment of Community Participation Law to institutionalize
citizen participation and introducing the concept of Area Sabha          Shall be implemented
in urban areas.
Assigning or associating elected ULBs with “city planning
function”. Transferring all special agencies that deliver civic
                                                                             Implemented
services in urban areas to ULBs and creating accountability
platforms for all urban civic service providers in transition.




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                    245
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan


Table 20.3 Status of Optional Reforms for ULB
                        Optional Reforms                                      Status
Revision of bye-laws to streamline the approval process for
                                                                           Implemented
construction of buildings, development of sites etc.
Simplification of legal and procedural frameworks for conversion
                                                                       Shall be implemented
of agricultural land for non-agricultural purposes.
Introduction of Property Title Certification System in ULBs.               Not necessary
Earmarking at least 20-25% of developed land in all housing
                                                                       Not existing; Shall be
projects (both Public and Private Agencies) for EWS/LIG
                                                                          implemented
category with a system of cross subsidization.
Introduction of computerized process of registration of land and
                                                                          Under Process
property.
Revision of bye-laws to make rain water harvesting mandatory in
                                                                           Implemented
all buildings and adoption of water conservation measures.
                                                                           Water reused by
                                                                        downstream users for
                                                                     irrigation; Not Feasible as
Bye-laws for reuse of recycled water.                                  implementation would
                                                                        require pumping and
                                                                         separate distribution
                                                                               system;
Administrative reforms i.e. reduction in establishment by bringing
out voluntary retirement schemes, non-filling up of posts falling
                                                                       Shall be implemented
vacant due to retirement etc., and achieving specified milestones
in this regard.
Structural reforms                                                     Shall be implemented
                                                                     Legal Framework HPIDB
Encouraging Public Private Partnership
                                                                              existing




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                  246
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan



21 CITY INVESTMENT PLAN
21.1   INTRODUCTION
       The City Investment Plan is developed after an assessment of the existing
       infrastructure and service delivery gaps and various stakeholder consultation. While
       identifying the sector specific strategies and implementation actions, available
       proposals and Detailed Projects Reports were reviewed. The strategies identified for
       improvement in service delivery include the policies, programmes, reforms and
       creation of infrastructure assets. This chapter summarises the sectoral capital
       investment requirements and consolidates the overall invstment requirement for the
       city.

21.2   CAVEATS FOR CITY INVESTMENT PLAN
       The caveats for the city investment plan are highlighted hereunder

               The cost estimation is indicative based on preliminary estimation

               The project costs and its scheduling are at current prices and escalations are
                not considered

               The cost of land and restoration & rehabilitation of Projects Affected People
                are not considered in the project cost estimated. Some projects may require
                land acquisition and these costs need to be accounted while preparing the
                DPR. The GoHP is eligible for financing of land acquisition cost for private
                land under JNNURM

               For public projects, funding is assumed based on eligible 80% grant from
                GoI under JNNURM and balance 20% to be contributed by GoHP for
                projects to be implemented by GoHP and its agencies and 10% each by SMC
                and GoHP for projects to be implemented by SMC

               The projects amenable for private sector investment like parking, tourism,
                satellite township are structured on private sector financing

               For projects to be structured on PPP like parking projects, the funding is
                assumed based on viability gap funding with eligible 20% grant from GoI
                and balance 80% investment to be brought in by the private sector. For
                projects structured on BOT or its variants, 100% funding assumed from
                private sector



       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          247
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                       Shimla City Development Plan


                 The project structures and implementation framework recommended are
                  indicative and may vary based on detailed feasibility

                 While structuring the project, it is assumed that the availability of
                  government support is critical for the project

                 Certain interventions/projects identified like tunnels, pedestrain staircases,
                  elevators etc may not strictly fall under eligible project but are critical for
                  survival and development of Shimla, it is suggested that MoUD take
                  cognizance of the special needs of the hill city



21.3   SUMMARY OF INVESTMENTS WITH IDENTIFIED PROJECTS
       The estimated capital investment required for the city development and providing
       services to the current and future population under the SPA is around Rs. 3898
       Crore. The details with sectoral contribution are shown in Table 21.1.
       Table 21.1 Summary of Sectoral Investments
                                                        Total Investment
                                                                                     Sectoral
         S. N                       Sector               Need at Current
                                                                                 Contribution (%)
                                                        Prices (Rs. Lakhs)
                1 Traffic & Transportation                   96900.9                    24.9%
             2     Decongestion                              4168.0                      1.1%
             3     Storm Water                               1408.3                      0.4%
             4     Water Supply                             65557.0                     16.8%
             5     Sewerage                                 17855.7                      4.6%
             6     Governance                                3050.0                      0.8%
             7     Planning                                  1000.0                      0.3%
             8     Soid Waste                                2975.0                      0.8%
             9     Tourism                                   6600.0                      1.7%
            10     Environment & Urban Forest                2200.0                      0.6%
            11     Disaster Management                       2505.0                      0.6%
            12     Heritage                                 22900.0                      5.9%
            13     Housing                                 100000.0                     25.7%
            14     Urban Poor                               62700.0                     16.1%
                                                Total       389819.8                    100%



       The highest allocation goes to Housing & Traffic and Transportation which
       accounts for about 25% each followed by water supply and urban poor



       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               248
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


       approximately 16 % each and addresses two most important issue of decongestion
       and water scarcity of the town.

       The funding sources identified for the total investment requirement of Rs. 3678
       crore include GoI Grant under JNNURM, budgetary sources and loans raised by
       GoHP and SMC and investments from private sector. The fund allocation proposed
       is summarised in Table 21.2.
                Table 21.2 Funding Sources for City Investment Plan
                      Agency              Rs. Crore
                        GoI                2143.4
                       GoHP                 525.4
                       SMC                   28.7
                     Pvt. Sector           1200.7
                              Total        3898.2

       Total outgo of funds on year on year basis is shown in Table 21.3

                Table 21.3 Year wise investment need
                      Year          Investment Need (Rs. Lakh)
                     2007                   24349.0
                     2008                   66432.6
                     2009                  114834.3
                     2010                   78631.2
                     2011                   59267.8
                     2012                   46305.0
                     Total                 389819.8


21.4   SECTORWISE SOURCES OF FUNDS & IMPEMENTATION FRAMEWORK


       The summary of the sectoral investments is presented in Table 21.4. The projectwise
       details, funding mechanism and probable implementation framework for each sector
       is presented in subsequent tables.




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         249
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan


Table 21.4 Summary of the Sectoral sources of funds
                                   Total (Rs.          Sources of Funds(Rs. Crore)
         Sector
                                    Crore)       GoI      GoHP        SMC        Pvt Sector
Traffic & Transportation             969.0       702.0    191.3        2.5          73.2
Decongestion                          41.7       33.3       6.5        1.8           0.0
Storm Water                           14.1       11.3       2.3        0.5           0.0
Water Supply                         655.6       524.5    124.0        7.1           0.0
Sewerage                             178.6       142.8     23.5       12.2           0.0
Governance                            30.5       24.4       6.1        0.0           0.0
Planning                              10.0        8.0       2.0        0.0           0.0
Soid Waste                            29.8       23.8       3.3        2.6           0.0
Tourism                               66.0       40.8       9.2        1.0          15.0
Environment & Urban
                                      22.0       17.6       3.4         1.0           0.0
Forest
Disaster Management                   25.1        20.0      5.0         0.0          0.0
Heritage                             229.0        93.2     23.3         0.0         112.5
Housing                              1000.0        0.0      0.0         0.0         1000.0
Urban Poor                           627.0       501.6     125.4        0.0          0.0
                    Total            3898.2     2143.4    525.4          28.7       1200.7




      INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              250
      CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                         Shimla City Development Plan


  21.4.1 Traffic & Transportation

                                          Suggested         Project              Funding (Rs.Lakhs)
                          Implementatio   Implementati      Cost
Project Name
                          n Agency        on                (Rs.                                          Pvt.
                                                                       GoI           GoHP       SMC
                                          Framework         Lakhs)                                        Sector
Standardization      of
                             HPPWD            EPC              5225           4180     1045           -         -
Cart Road
Standardization      of
                               SMC            EPC              1516       1212.8       151.6     151.6             -
Municipal Roads

New Links                    HPPWD            EPC              5600           4480     1120           -            -

                           HPPWD &
HOCS                        Transport         EPC             12660          10128     2532           -            -
                           Department
Junction
                             HPPWD            EPC              1500           1200      300           -
Improvements
                           SMC/ Private
Parking Facilities                            VGF             12200           2440     2440           -      7320
                             Sector
                           HPPWD &
Lifts and Escalators        Transport         EPC              1464       1171.2       292.8          -            -
                           Department

Tunnels                      HPPWD            EPC              8925           7140     1785           -            -

                                          EPC & O&M
MRTS                           SPV                            45000          36000     9000           -            -
                                          through SPV
Bus Shelters and            Transport
                                              EPC               500            400      100           -            -
Local Terminals            Department
                            Transport
Ropeways                                      EPC               327          261.6      65.4          -            -
                           Department

Pedestrian Facilities     SMC, HPPWD          EPC              483.9         387.1      96.8          -         -


Street Lighting                SMC            EPC               500            400          -     100           -

Technical  Studies:
Master Plans and              UTTA              -              1000            800      200           -         -
DPRs

                                                    Total   96900.9      70200.7     19128.6     251.6      7320.0




        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                    251
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                              Shimla City Development Plan


  21.4.2 Decongestion
                                          Suggested       Project        Funding (Rs. Lakhs)
                        Implementatio     Implementati    Cost
Project Name
                        n Agency          on              (Rs.                                                     Pvt.
                                                                         GoI               GoHP      SMC
                                          Framework       Lakhs)                                                   Sector
Shifting        of
Commercial Activity           SMC             EPC             1798.5           1438.8      179.85    179.85                 -
Centres

Bypasses to the City        HPPWD             EPC             2369.5           1895.6       473.9          -                -


                                                  Total       4168.0           3334.4       653.8     179.9                 -


  21.4.3 Storm water

                                                               Project                    Funding (Rs. Lakhs)
                                          Suggested
                            Implementa                         Cost
Project Name                              Implementation
                            tion Agency                        (Rs.                                                 Pvt.
                                          Framework                            GoI         GoHP      SMC
                                                               Lakhs)                                               Sector
Renovation of Identified
                                    SMC         EPC               413.76          331       41.376    41.376                    -
Natural Drains
Renovation of Open
                                    SMC         EPC                    84.5       67.6        8.45      8.45                    -
Drains
Construction of roadside
drains as per drainage          PWD             EPC                    810        648          162             -                -
design
Technical Studies: Master
                                    SMC          -                     100           80         20             -                -
Plans and DPRs

                                                                                            231.82
                                                      Total      1408.26        1126.6                49.826                    -
                                                                                                 6




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                          252
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                         Shimla City Development Plan


  21.4.4 Water Supply

                                                               Projec            Funding (Rs. Lakhs)
                                           Suggested
                             Implementa                        t Cost
Project Name                               Implementation
                             tion Agency                       (Rs                                          Pvt.
                                           Framework                     GoI         GoHP     SMC
                                                               Lakhs)                                       Sector
Technical Studies: Master
Plans, DPRs and Energy          I&PH             -                500          400     100          -                -
Audit Studies
Rainwater harvesting and
                                    SMC         EPC               240          192      24      24                   -
water conservation
Augmentation of Water
                                            EPC & O&M
Supply Scheme for Shimla     I&PH/SPV                           57954     45363      11591          -                -
                                            through SPV
City from River Pabbar
Rehabilitation of water
supply transmission and
                               SMC,
distribution network and                        EPC              6563      5251        656     656                   -
                             I&PH/SPV
augmentation/extension
of distribution network

Water Monitoring Cell        SMC, I&PH          EPC               300          240      30      30                   -


                                                      Total     65557     52446       12401    710                   -


  21.4.5 Sewerage

                                                              Project            Funding (Rs. Lakhs)
                                           Suggested
                             Implementa                       Cost
Project Name                               Implementatio
                             tion Agency                      (Rs.                                           Pvt.
                                           n Framework                   GoI         GoHP     SMC
                                                              Lakhs)                                         Sector
Rehabilitation of the main
                                I&PH           EPC             4899.1     3919.3      979.8             -            -
sewerage network
Provision of sewerage
network for areas of
Dhalli, Tutu, New Shimla
                             SMC, I&PH         EPC            12180.3     9744.2     1218.0   1218.0                 -
and special areas of
Ghanahatti, Kufri and
Shoghi
Provision of missing links
to connect the
refurbished old sewerage        I&PH           EPC               576.3     461.0      115.3         -                -
network with new
sewerage network.
Technical Studies: Master
                                I&PH             -               200.0     160.0       40.0         -                -
Plans and DPRs

                                                     Total    17855.7    14284.5     2353.1   1218.0             0.0




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                       253
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                      Shimla City Development Plan


  21.4.6 Governance

                                                            Projec            Funding (Rs. Lakhs)
                                         Suggested
                        Implementation                      t Cost
Project Name                             Implementation
                        Agency                              (Rs.La                                   Pvt.
                                         Framework                    GoI         GoHP    SMC
                                                            khs)                                     Sector
Computerization &
Establishment of              SMC             EPC             1000          800     200         -             -
information system
Implementation of
BPR Plan & E-                 SMC              -              1000          800     200         -             -
Governance
Establishment of
                           UD, GoHP           EPC              500          400     100         -             -
training institutions
Training of SMC &
Parastatal agencies'          SMC              -               500          400     100         -             -
staff
Business Process
Re-engineering                SMC              -                50           40      10         -             -
Study

                                                    Total     3050      2440        610       0           0


  21.4.7 Planning
                                                            Project           Funding (Rs. Lakhs)
                                         Suggested
                        Implementation                      Cost
Project Name                             Implementation                                              Pvt.
                        Agency                              (Rs.      GoI         GoHP    SMC
                                         Framework                                                   Sector
                                                            Lakhs)
Renewal of core
                              SMC             EPC                             0       0       0
area
Development GIS
Based spatial                 SMC              -                500         400     100         -             -
database
Capacity Building
on GIS based                  SMC              -                500         400     100         -             -
Planning
                                                               1000         800     200       0           0
Total




        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                  254
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


     21.4.8 Solid Waste Management
                                                                       Project                   Funding (Rs. Lakhs)
                                               Suggested
                            Implementation                             Cost
Project Name                                   Implementation                                                           Pvt.
                            Agency                                     (Rs.           GoI          GoHP      SMC
                                               Framework                                                                Sector
                                                                       Lakhs)
Door to door Collection            SMC          Service Contract            200            160         20      20               -
Street Sweeping                    SMC               EPC                       200         160         20      20               -
Storage and                                      EPC & Service
                                   SMC                                         675         540       67.5     67.5
transportation                                     Contract
Integrated Waste
Treatment & Disposal               SMC               DBO                   1500        1200           150     150
Facility
Upgradation of bio-
                                   SMC                   -                      50          40           5         5
medical facility
Others (Capacity
Building, Training and             SMC                   -                     350         280         70
Technical Studies)
                                                               Total       2975        2380         332.5    262.5



     21.4.9 Tourism
                                                                     Project                Funding (Rs. Lakhs)
                                              Suggested
                          Implementation                             Cost
 Project Name                                 Implementation                                                            Pvt.
                          Agency                                     (Rs.            GoI          GoHP       SMC
                                              Framework                                                                 Sector
                                                                     Lakhs)
 Upgradation of
 Naldhera Golf              Tourism Dept           EPC                   500           400           100
 Course
 Development of
 Nature Park at              Forest Dept           EPC                  1500          1200           300
 Craignano
 Development of           Tourism Dept/Pvt.
                                                   BOT                   500                                                  500
 Theme Part                     Sector
 Development of                                EPC & O&M
                            Tourism Dept                                1000           800           200
 Skating Ring                                    Contract
 Beautification of
                                SMC                EPC                  1000           800           100      100
 Shimla
 Eco-tourism Projects        Forest Dept           BOT                  1000                                                 1000
 Upgradation of
 Tourist Information        Tourism Dept           EPC                   500           400           100
 Center
 Others (Capacity
 Building, Training
                             GoI/GoHP                -                   600           480           120
 and Technical
 Studies)
                                                             Total      6600          4080           920      100            1500




          INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                                   255
          CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                        Shimla City Development Plan


    21.4.10 Environment, Disaster Management & Forests

                                                              Project          Funding (Rs. Lakhs)
                                           Suggested
                        Implementation                        Cost
Project Name                               Implementation                                           Pvt.
                        Agency                                (Rs.      GoI        GoHP    SMC
                                           Framework                                                Sector
                                                              Lakhs)
Network of Fire
Hydrants          and
                         SMC & Fire Dept        EPC               105         84      21       -            -
upgradation of Fire
Station
Prevention          &
Control of Land         Forest Dept/PWD         EPC              2000     1600       400       -            -
Slide
Conservation of Soil
                            Forest Dept         EPC               500      400       100       -            -
Erosion
Upgradation        of                       EPC & O&M
                               SMC                               1000      800       100     100            -
existing Parks                                Contract
Community
                              GoHP               -                500      400       100       -            -
Awareness
Technical Studies             GoHP               -                600      480       120       -            -
                                                      Total      4705     3764       841     100                0


    21.4.11 Heritage
                                                              Project          Funding (Rs. Lakhs)
                                           Suggested
                        Implementation                        Cost
  Project Name                             Implementation
                        Agency                                (Rs.                                  Pvt.
                                           Framework                    GoI        GoHP    SMC
                                                              Lakhs)                                Sector
  Restoration       &
  Conservation     of
                          Heritage Board    EPC & BOT           22500     9000      2250               11250
  stage government
  owned buildings
  Technical Studies       Heritage Board         -                400      320        80

                                                      Total     22900     9320      2330       0         11250




         INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                256
         CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                       Shimla City Development Plan


   21.4.12 Housing

                                                             Project          Funding (Rs. Lakhs)
                                          Suggested
                         Implementation                      Cost
 Project Name                             Implementation
                         Agency                              (Rs.                                    Pvt.
                                          Framework                    GoI       GoHP     SMC
                                                             Lakhs)                                  Sector
 Development of
                              HIMUDA           BOT            100000                                 100000
 Satellite townships

                                                     Total   100000          0        0       0       100000




   21.4.13 Urban Poor

                                                             Project          Funding (Rs. Lakhs)
                                          Suggested
                         Implementation                      Cost
 Project Name                             Implementation
                         Agency                              (Rs.                                    Pvt.
                                          Framework                    GoI       GoHP     SMC
                                                             Lakhs)                                  Sector
 R&R of project
                                GoHP            -              22000    17600      4400         -             -
 Affected People *
 Resettlement       &
 Rehabilitation     of        HIMUDA           EPC             30000    24000      6000         -             -
 slums
 In-situ upgradation
                                 SMC           EPC             10000     8000      2000         -             -
 of slums
 Construction   of
                                 SMC           EPC               250      200        50         -             -
 labour hostels
 Construction   of
 working women's                 SMC           EPC               250      200        50         -             -
 hostels

 Studies                      UD, GoHP          -                200      160        40         -             -


                                                     Total     62700    50160     12540       0           0

* Tentative provision




           INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               257
           CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan


21.5   FINANCING STRATEGIES


       In order to create the assets and maintan the assets created through JNNURM funds
       will be needed. Moreover this mission is an important stepping stone to make the
       Urban Local Bodies self-sufficient and financially independent. In order to ensure
       the above, the following steps are being taken:

       Improving financial status of the ULB:

       It is expected that the implementation of reform agenda prescribed under JNNURM
       will improve the financial condition of the SMC. The significant improvement will
       be visible post JNNURM period when the required assets are created through
       financing and reform implementation is completed.

       Public Private Partnership Projects

       The JNNURM grant may be leavraged to attract the private sector investment
       whereever possible. Various PPP options like Service Contracts, BOT, concessions,
       JV and Community Based Provisions may be considered.

       External Financing used by ULB

       With commitment to implement the reform agenda and sanction from GoI under
       JNNURM, it is expected that SMC shall be in a position to raise the debt from the
       financial institutions at competitive rates. Certain measures like credit rating shall also
       help SMC to raise the funds.




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             258
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan



22 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN
22.1   PRIORITIZATION
       The projects are prioritized on the basis of stakeholder consultations, criticality from
       sustainability point of view, and potential of providing larger benefits. The sectorwise
       prioritization is presented Figure 22.1 to Figure 22.7.

                    Water Supply


        Sewerage and Sanitation


                   Decongestion


                  Transportation


                      Urban Poor


           Heritage Conservation


        Environment and Forests


                         Toursim




                                          Low                Medium                   High
                                    Figure 22.1 Sector-wise Priorities




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            259
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                              Shimla City Development Plan




  Augmentation of
  Water Distribution
      Network



  Rehabilitation of
  Water Distribution
       System



    Augmentation of
     Water Supply
      from Pabbar



                                      Low                 Medium                   High

                       Figure 22.2 Water Supply- Intervention Priorities




    Augmentation of
   Sewerage network
    in Special Areas




 Rehabilitation of City
 Sewerage Network




 Provision of Missing
 Links between new
   and old network



                                      Low                Medium                   High


                         Figure 22.3 Sewerage - Intervention Priorities




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             260
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan



     Improvement in Air
        Connectivity

  Improvement in Basic
     Infrastructure

      Development of
    Ecotourism Projects


 Beautification of Shimla


 Upgradation of Skating
         Rink

 Development of Theme
         Park

 Development of Nature
   Park at Criagnano

 Upgradtion of Naldhera
      Golf Course


                                       Low                 Medium                    High

                             Figure 22.4 Tourism - Intervention Priorities



    Integrated Waste
 Processing, Treatment
      and Disposal



      Expansion of D2D
         Collection



        Improvement in
         Transportation



    Upgradation in
 Biomedical Treatment
       Facility


    Improvement in
  Secondary Collection
   (Street Sweeping)



                                       Low                 Medium                    High
               Figure 22.5 Solid Waste management- Intervention Priorities




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                                261
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                             Shimla City Development Plan



                Pedestrian Facilities

    Bus shelters and local terminals

      Mass Rapid Transport System

                              Tunnels

                   Parking Facilities

                      Parallel Roads

                             Ropeways

                 Lifts and Escalators

             Junction Improvements

                             New Links

 Standardization of Municipal Roads

    Standardization of the Cart Road

                      Street Lighting



                                               Low          Medium                High
                Figure 22.6 Traffic & Transportation - Intervention Priorities




        Development of
          Township



    Construction of
  Labour and Women
        Hostel



   In-situ Upgradation
         of Slums



 R&R of slums to new
      location



                                         Low            Medium                   High


                 Figure 22.7 Housing & Urban Poor– Intervention Priorities




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              262
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                    Shimla City Development Plan


22.2      IMPLMENTATION TIMELINE

          The indicative timeline proposed for implementation of the projects/interventions
          during JNNURM period is presented in Table 22.1.

Table 22.Implementation Timeline
Project                                               2007   2008       2009    2010     2011         2012

Standardization of the Cart Road
Standardization of Municipal Roads
New Links
HOCS
Junction Improvements
Parking Facilities
Lifts and Escalators
Tunnels
Mass Rapid Transport System
Bus shelters and local terminals
Ropeways
Pedestrian Facilities
Street Lighting
Shifting of Commercial Activity Centres
Bypasses to the City
Renovation of Identified Natural Drains
Renovation of Open Drains
Construction of roadside drains as per drainage
design
Rainwater harvesting and water conservation
Augmentation of Water Supply Scheme for Shimla
City from River PABBAR
Rehabilitation of water supply network
Water Monitoring Cell
Rehabilitation of the main sewerage network
Provision of sewerage network in new SADA areas
Connection of old and new sewerage network
Computerization and establishment of information
system
Implementation of business process reengineering
plan and e-Governance
Establishment of Training Institution
Training of SMC and Parastatal agencies staff
Renewal of Core Area

          INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            263
          CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan


Development of nodes/townships
GIS based spatial database
Capacity Building on GIS based planning
D2D Collection
Street Sweeping
Storage and Transportation
Integrated Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility
Upgradation of Biomedical Facility
Upgradation of Naldhera Golf Course
Development of Nature Park at Craignano
Development of Theme Park
Upgradation of Skating Rink
Beautification of Shimla
Ecotourism Projects
Upgradation of Tourists Information Centre
Network of Fire Hydrants and upgradation of Fire
Station
Prevention and controls of land slides
Conservation of Soil Erosion
Upgradation of Existing Parks
Restoration and conservation of Government owned
heritage buildings
R&R of slums to new location
R&R of Project Affected People
In-situ upgradation of Slums
Construction of Labour Hostels
Construction of working women hostel
Development of 3 Satellite Townships


22.3   ACTION PLAN FOR JNNURM IMPLEMENTATION
       The action plan for rolling out JNNURM programme is derived from readiness of
       projects for development. It recommended that large projects with high priorities,
       which may require longer time frame for project development including preparation
       of Detailed Project Report through external consultants, should be taken up for in-
       principle approval from GoI based on prefeasibility study. The projects for which
       prefeasibility is ready should be submitted to GoI for in-principal approval, while for
       other projects the prefeasibility study may be initiated. The Detailed Project Report
       for small projects may be prepared internally.



       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          264
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                         Shimla City Development Plan


Further it is recommended that in order to coordinate the efforts for project
development and other preparatory work, the SLNA should establish the Project
Development and Management Unit (PDMU) having representation from various
departments. This shall provide the increased focus and timely completion of project
development activities in regulated and controlled manner. A dedicated project
development fund may be established for financing of project development
activities.


     PD Advisor                       SLNA                       Project Development
                                                                         Fund



                                      PDMU



                               Project Development

                  DPRs             Procurement              Financial Close




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                        265
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


         Table 22.1 Action Plan for JNNURM Implementation

     Status                           Project                                 Action Point
                       D2D Collection                     Submit proposal to GoI for     in-principal approval
                       Street Sweeping                    Submit proposal to GoI for     in-principal approval
                       Storage and Transportation         Submit proposal to GoI for     in-principal approval
                       Integrated Waste Treatment and     Submit proposal to GoI for     in-principal approval
                       Disposal Facility
Projects where         Standardization of the Cart Road   Submit proposal to GoI for in-principal approval
pre-feasibility is     Augmentation of Water Supply       Submit proposal to GoI for in-principal approval
     ready             Scheme for Shimla City from
                       River PABBAR
                       Prevention and controls of land    Submit proposal to GoI for in-principal approval
                       slides
                       Conservation of Soil Erosion       Submit proposal to GoI for in-principal approval
                                                          Initiate project development process for selection
                       Parking Facilities (6 Projects)
                                                          of BOT
Detailed
feasibility study      Mass Rapid Transit System          Submit proposal to GoI for in-principal approval
in progress
DPR under
                       Tunnels                            Submit DPR to GoI for sanction
progress
                       Bus shelters and local terminals   Initiate process of preparation of DPR internally
                       Pedestrian Facilities              Initiate process of preparation of DPR internally
                       Street Lighting                    Initiate process of preparation of DPR internally
                       Renovation of Open Drains          Initiate process of preparation of DPR internally
                       Rainwater harvesting and water
                                                          Initiate process of preparation of DPR internally
                       conservation
                       Upgradation of Biomedical
  DPR can be                                              Initiate process of preparation of DPR internally
                       Facility
 made in-house         Upgradation of Tourists
                                                          Initiate process of preparation of DPR internally
                       Information Centre
                       Upgradation of Fire Station
                                                          Initiate process of preparation of DPR internally
                       Network of Fire Hydrants and
                       Upgradation of Existing Parks      Initiate process of preparation of DPR internally
                       Construction of Labour Hostels     Initiate process of preparation of DPR internally
                       Construction of working women
                                                          Initiate process of preparation of DPR internally
                       hostel
                       Standardization of Municipal       Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
                       Roads                              principal approval
                                                          Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
                       New Links
Preparation of                                            principal approval
  DPR would                                               Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
                       Parallel Roads
   require                                                principal approval
appointment of                                            Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
                       Junction Improvements
   external                                               principal approval
  consultant                                              Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
                       Lifts and Escalators
                                                          principal approval
                                                          Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
                       Ropeways
                                                          principal approval


                    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               266
                    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan


   Shifting of Commercial Activity    Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   Centres                            principal approval
                                      Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   Bypasses to the City
                                      principal approval
   Renovation of Identified Natural   Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   Drains                             principal approval
   Construction of roadside drains    Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   as per drainage design             principal approval
   Rainwater harvesting and water     Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   conservation                       principal approval
   Augmentation of Water Supply
                                      Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   Scheme for Shimla City from
                                      principal approval
   River Pabbar
   Rehabilitation of water supply
                                      Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   transmission and distribution
                                      principal approval
   network
   Refurbishment of the main          Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   sewerage network                   principal approval
   Provision of sewerage network
                                      Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   for newly merged and old SADA
                                      principal approval
   Area
   Connect the refurbished old
                                      Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   sewerage network with new
                                      principal approval
   sewerage network
                                      Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   Renewal of Core Area
                                      principal approval
   Upgradation of Naldhera Golf       Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   Course                             principal approval
   Development of Nature Park at      Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   Craignano                          principal approval
                                      Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   Development of Theme Park
                                      principal approval
                                      Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   Upgradation of Skating Rink
                                      principal approval
                                      Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   Beautification of Shimla
                                      principal approval
                                      Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   Ecotourism Projects
                                      principal approval
   Restoration and conservation of
                                      Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   Government owned heritage
                                      principal approval
   buildings
                                      Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   R&R of slums to new location
                                      principal approval
                                      Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   In-situ upgradation of Slums
                                      principal approval
   Development of 3 Satellite         Initiate pre-feasibility report in-house for in-
   Townships                          principal approval




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                               267
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan



23 ANNEXURES
23.1   PROCEEDINGS OF CONSULTATION WORKSHOP
23.1.1 Introduction
       The workshop was organized under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal
       Mission to promote reform based urban development of the cities. In L&FS
       Infrastructure Development Corporation has been appointed by Department of
       Urban Development for preparation of City Development Plan for Shimla under
       Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission. The objective of the first
       workshop was to understand the current status of the Shimla city and to formulate
       the vision by benchmarking characteristics of acceptable performance indicators
       for sustainable infrastructure development and to explore the nature of
       interventions and identification of resources for development of Shimla City.


23.1.2 Participants to the Works
       For the workshop, elected members including MP, MLA, Mayor and Ward
       Councilors of Shimla City, Government officials, NGOs, representatives from
       Chamber of Commerce and Associations, academicians and eminent citizens were
       invited. The chief guest for the workshop was Shri Kaul Singh Thakur, Honorable
       Minister, Urban Development, Government of Himachal Pradesh.


23.1.3 Inaugural session
       Shri S. Behuria, Principal Secretary, Urban Development, GoHP welcomed
       participants and enlightened the audience with Government commitment and
       initiatives for development of Shimla. He explained the need for reputed
       professional consultant like IL&FS IDC in preparation of City Development Plan
       in unbiased and professional manner.


                                                   Chief Guest, Honorable Minister Shri
                                                   Kaul Singh Thakur lighted the lamp
                                                   and inaugurated the workshop. He
                                                   informed that Shimla is selected by
                                                   Government      of    India     under
                                                   JNNURM along with other cities. He
                                                   thanked visionary Prime Minister Dr.
                                                   Manmohan Singh for the JNNURM
       mission. He stressed upon de-congested, clean and better tourist destination. He
       assured adequate drinking water to Shimla people. He also assured basic sanitation
       services, widening of the roads, construction of tunnels for decongestion, more

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                        268
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                  Shimla City Development Plan


       parking facilities, housing for poor people. He also assured that all the suggestions
       will be incorporated while making CDP.

       Shri Harbhajan Singh „Bhajji‟, MLA addressed keynote address on the occasion.
       He presented JNNURM Scheme, detailed status of the scheme in terms of funds
       sanctioned, fund disbursed and current position of Shimla in preparation of CDP.
       He also mentioned problems faced by citizens of Shimla and stressed upon the co-
       ordination among the government agencies and unity among the political parties
       for optimal utilization of the JNNURM scheme and maximization of funds from
       GOI.

       IL&FS IDC, the consultant appointed for the preparation of CDP made a
       presentation about their approach for development of CDP, current infrastructure
       analysis of civic services like sewerage, water supply, solid waste management in
       Shimla besides other infrastructure sectors like traffic and transportation, tourism,
       environment and forest, housing for urban poor. The demand supply gap in each
       of the above mentioned sectors were presented. The draft vision statements for
       each of the sectors were also presented substantiated by the goals set by Shimla
       Municipal Corporation for each of the sectors.


Session I Panel Discussion on Planning

This session was chaired by Shri. S Behuria, Principal Secretary, Urban Development,
GoHP. Following persons were panel members
   1. Shri Diljeet Singh, Director, Dept. of Town and Country Planning
   2. Shri. A.R. Sankhayan, State Town Planner,
   3. Shri Pradeep Chauhan, SE , HPPWD,
   4. Shri Ajay Sharma, ADM Shimla
   5. Shri Manoj Panda, Senior Manager, IL&FS IDC.


The major points came across during the discussion are

      The need for single authority for
       entire region for implementation of
       town plan on line of Haryana model

      TCP has prepared Development
       Plan for Shimla and same has been
       submitted to Government of
       Himachal Pradesh and is awaiting
       cabinet approval.

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          269
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan


      The new Development Plan addresses the separate activity zone near Shoghi,
       housing in Kufri and Dhalli areas and transport infrastructure like new bypasses,
       tunnels and circular railway line.

      Regarding housing, it was revealed that about 30-40% area lying unoccupied which
       high percentage in context of small town like Shimla and there is a need for
       augmentation of infrastructure facilities in suburb areas in order to shift the
       pressure from core zone.

      With regards to need for preservation of heritage zone, it was informed that 50 m.
       on either side of the mall has been declared as a Heritage Zone and the heritage
       committee has been constituted for the conservation and redevelopment of the
       heritage structure within and outside heritage zone.

      TCP also informed about the changes made in bylaws with respect to height and
       level of the buildings in order to regulate the construction activities.

      Various proposals for the decongestion suggested by PWD were
            o 3 tunnels in Shimla City to be built at a cost of 80 Crores
            o Widening of the Motor Round Road from the existing conditions to Two
              Lane National Highway standards at a cost of Rs. 20 Crores, which
              includes land acquisition cost.
            o Widening of the Kalka Shimla Road (KSC) road from Tourism office to
              Victory Tunnel from the existing conditions to Two Lane National
              Highway standards at a cost of Rs. 18 Crores which includes the land
              acquisition cost.
            o 2 link roads to connect Motor Round Road with Shimla Bypass and Link
              road to Nabha area proposed for connectivity
            o Conversion of the existing pedestrian tunnel near Auckland School to a
              two lane motorable tunnel by lowering and widening at a cost of Rs. 12
              crores

Session II Panel Discussion on Tourism

This session was chaired by Shri.                 Avay     Shukla,      Principal    Secretary,
Tourism, GoHP. The panel members were
   1. Shri N.K. Negi, Architect, HP PWD
   2. Sh. B.S. Malhan, Convener, INTACH- Shimla Chapter
   3. Shri Tarun Shreedhar, Commissioner, Tourism and Aviation, GoHP
   4. Shree Harmeet Singh, ITOA
   5. Shri Gopal Mohan Aggarwal, Senior VP, Hotel and Restaurant Association
   6. Shri Raja Bhaseen, VP, Hotel and Restaurant Association
       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             270
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan


   7. Shri Neeraj Bachkheti, Advisor(Tourism), IL&FS IDC




The salient points that emerged during the discussion were

      The present average stay of a tourist in Shimla as per the figures given was 1.35
       days. In the presentation given by IL & FS there was a proposal to make efforts to
       increase the stay to 3-4 days. It was felt that at the first instance instead of trying to
       increase the period of stay, efforts should be made to attract high-end tourists
       which would be a source of better revenue and lesser strain on the already existing
       depleted infrastructure.

      It was stated that as per the presentation given by IL & FS there was a shortfall of
       guest rooms based on the tourist arrivals in Shimla. It was felt that instead of
       increasing the number of guest rooms in hotels or constructing new hotels, which
       would be an additional strain on the infrastructure; it would be more appropriate
       to strengthen the already existing infrastructure.

      The presently existing 9 hole golf course at Naldhera could be upgraded to the 18
       hole international standard golf course. Government has already initiated action
       for acquisition of additional 40 beeghas of land required for this purpose.

      A large parking area (Multi storied) near Tara Devi should be created to reduce the
       vehicular traffic in Shimla. A ropeway from the parking place to a convenient place
       as close to the Ridge or the Mall Road for facilitating the tourist should also be
       planned.

      Shimla having a heritage value in terms of many existing old buildings, a listing of
       all such heritage monuments /structures/ buildings should be carried out.
       Provision should be made for restoring and conservation of the heritage buildings.

      It was stated that Craignano project has already been taken over by the Forest
       Department and they will take necessary step with regards to this project.


Session III Panel Discussion on Traffic and Transportation

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                              271
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


This session was chaired by Shri. Avay
Shukla,       Principal      Secretary,
Transport , GoHP. The panel members
were
   1. Shri  Ved    Sood,    Shimla
      Decongestion & Beautification
      Group
   2. Shri Shashi Shekhar, Deputy
      Mayor, MC Shimla
   3. Shri R. K. Sharma
   4. Shri S.N. Kapoor, Retired Chief Engineer
The major points came across during the discussion were
    Sh. Avay Shukla, Principal Secretary confirmed that the Department of Transport
      has planned to provide a multilevel car parking complex at Taradevi having a
      capacity of 700 cars to operate a turn over of 4000 thousand cars in 20 hours. To
      enhance the mobility from Taradevi to Mall/Ridge, a ropeway connecting these
      places is proposed. Paid Taxis is also looked as a open for the people to shuttle
      between the proposed car parking complex at Taradevi and the city.
    Shifting of major activities from core area to places like proposed Transport Nagar
      and other identified locations along the bypass shall be taken up under the Shimla
      CDP.

Session IV Panel Discussion on Civic Services

This session was chaired by Smt. Rajwant Sandhu, Principal Secretary,IP&H , GoHP. The
panel members were
   1. Shri A.K Singh, Chairman, Sulabh International
   2. Shri Sohan Lal, Mayor, Shimla Municipal Corporation
   3. Shri S. N. Joshi, IAS (Retd.)
   4. Shri B D Thakur (IP&H)
   5.    Shri Shekhar Gupta, Commissioner, Shimla Municipal Corporation
   6. Shri S.N. Kapoor, Retired Chief Engineer


The major issues discussed during the discussion were

       Smt. Rajwant Sandhu, Principal Secretary, Irrigation and Public Health opined that
        sourcing of bulk water has been taken up with two projects presently. The short
        term plan is to tap water from Giri River so that minimum requirement by SMC
        shall be provided and the long term plan for water supply is to bring water from
        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                        272
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                               Shimla City Development Plan


    the Pabbar river for which the preliminary site visit have been made by the
    department to the source point. Consultants shall be appointed for carrying out
    detailed feasibility of the water supply scheme.

   As far the conservation of rain water, she informed that Rain Water Harvesting is a
    convenient and low cost method which has been successfully done by some of the
    institutions and organizations in Shimla City, the same shall be replicated in other
    institutions as well.

   She informed that the connection of old network and new network shall be carried
    out under the JNNURM scheme. Once connectivity is established, the treatment
    of sewage shall be effectively done at the already constructed STPs.

   As far as Garbage collection is concerned, the collection efficiency shall be
    improved by the SMC and also the proposed new plant shall carryout the recycling.

   With regard to public toilets, she expressed that these public utilities are poorly
    maintained compared to the toilets maintained in other cities like Delhi by the
    Sulabh International.

   Sh. Sohan Lal confirmed that the SADA areas are lacking all the basic civic
    facilities required. Street lighting for area identified for urban poor, have to
    included in the City Development Plan

   Sh. A.K. Singh, spoke on the internal design of public toilets and also the need for
    the elevation of the public utilities to blend with the adjoining buildings

   Sh. S.N. Joshi presented that the parking places are to be provided in sufficient
    number and also to address the traffic jams during school timings (morning &
    evening) alongside the MRR road.

   He highlighted the need for shifting of the compost plant as per the orders of the
    High Court.

   He said there is immediate need to refurbish the old sewerage network and to
    improve the frequency of leak detection of sewerage and said that it is necessary to
    make Shimla City open urinal free town comparing to the open defecation free
    cities

   Rainwater harvesting is must to handle the present water crisis.
   Disposal of debris shall be regularized as per rules

   Sh. Shekhar Gupta, Commissioner Municipal Corporation made remarks on the
    Rain water harvesting being made compulsory and also indicated that National
    Productivity Council has been appointed to prepare the final report on the Solid
    Waste Management report on Shimla and it is expected to be ready by end of
    September


    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                          273
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan


      Six parking lots within the city is taken up by Shimla Municipal Corporation for
       which the approval of the House and clearance from the Government is awaited

      Relining of the Nallahs and natural drains are to be considered as part of the
       Shimla CDP.

      Pedestrianisation near Schools have to be included into the Shimla CDP
      About 400 hundred families has been identified as urban poor and Deputy
       Commissioner has identified land near Tutu, where affordable housing for the
       identified urban poor and houseless shall be provided as part of the JNNURM.


Session V Panel Discussion on Forest

This session was chaired by T. D. Negi, Director Urban Development, GoHP. The panel
members were
   1. Shri Vasudeva, Member Secretary, HP Environment Protection and Pollution
      Control Board
   2. Prof. Yoginder Varma, Director, Institute of Integrated Himalayan Studies, HPU,
      Shimla
   3. Ms. Cheena Kanwal, Director, Environment, DRONAH Shri Sohan Lal, Mayor,
      Shimla Municipal Corporation
The major issues discussed during the discussion were

      Dr. Vasudeva commented that the forest consists of air, water, land, flaura and
       fauna
      Maala Singh, indicated the electric wires are open and runs on post to post. These
       are hazardous for pedestrians
      Under the Green Scheme for the Jakhu hill forest, the spacing for tree to tree is
       from 3 to 5 m.
      Encroachments should be avoided and more forest growth to be earmarked in the
       CDP
      Disposal of garbage
       should be properly
       monitored              and
       segregation of the waste
       at source is important.
      To       improve       the
       efficiency of collection,
       Chutes can be proposed
       for areas inaccessible by vehicles and carts.


       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                        274
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                Shimla City Development Plan


      As tunnels are proposed in the city, the muck shall be properly disposed so that
       the muck can be put to the best use and not just disposing. One example was to
       use the muck for leveling at the proposed cricket stadium
      There proposals shall be immediate, short term and long term proposals in the
       phasing of projects under Shimla CDP
      Prof. Yoginder Varma highlighted that high court has ordered the Environment
       shall be a subject in every institution.
      Tunnels can be carefully proposed based on the suitability of the geology



Vote of Thanks

Sh. Shekhar Gupta delivered the Vote of Thanks to the all the
Stakeholders who have made the first workshop on the Shimla
City Development Plan, a successful beginning.




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                        275
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


23.2   PROCEEDINGS OF NGO WORKSHOP
       Introduction
       The NGO consultation was organized only for NGOs in Shimla City for the
       development of the City Development Plan under Jawaharlal Nehru National
       Urban Renewal Mission. This meeting was held on 7th September, 2006 at Palika
       Bhavan, Shimla. The main objective of the consultation was to understand the
       current status of the Shimla city and the problems faced by the residents and their
       suggestions to be considered while development of the CDP.

       The consultation was chaired by Shri T.D. Negi, Director, Urban Development,
       Himachal Pradesh, Shri Shekhar Gupta, Commissioner, Shimla Municipal
       Corporation and Shri Ashwani Kumar Sharma, Asst. Commissioner, Shimla
       Municipal Corporation.

       Shri T. D. Negi welcomed participants on behalf of Govt. of Himachal Pradesh,
       Shimla Municipal Corporation and IL&FS. The participants discussed various
       issues by giving them priorities.

       Unanimously the first priority was water. The issues with water supply in the city
       are inadequate water supply, infrequent supply timings like for 1 hour daily in some
       areas and on alternate days in others, very low pressure at consumer end.

       The NGO‟s expressed that the augmentation of water sourcing has been done on
       adhoc basis and should be looked with long term perspective.

       The government clarified the various plans about increasing supply water quantity,
       pressure and duration.

       GoHP explained that Nauti Khad and Giri water augmentation schemes are being
       implemented by GOHP shall provide immediate and short term solution and
       GoHP is planning the sourcing of water from Pabbar for long term needs of the
       city.

       NGO‟s suggested that the GoHP should look into dedicated pondage on Satluj for
       Shimla for water sourcing.

       NGO‟s also felt that water harvesting is not practical solution due to terrain
       constrains in Shimla.

       GoHP explained that Government has successfully implemented the roof top
       water harvesting under bylaws in new constructions and is proposing to provide
       the incentives on house tax to encourage the roof top water harvesting.

       Second priority for citizens is Sewerage System and Solid Waste. The issues
       discussed included lack of connectivity of septic tanks with sewerage lines in
       SADA, poor collection efficiency of the SW, various problems with compost plant

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         276
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                         Shimla City Development Plan


like poor functioning due to unsuitable temperature of Shimla for entire year and
its closeness to the city area.

The government assured that the plant will be shifted to other location and
moreover the technology will be upgraded which will be suitable for Shimla
temperature. The government also assured that the task of connecting the old and
new sewerage network will be finished soon.

The third priority was transportation. The issues are congestion due to long buses,
overloaded public transport system, non-adherence to the time-table by private
transporters.

Fourth priority considered was decongestion of core areas. Under this NGOs
made following suggestions (i) reconstruction of Tibetian market with Tibetian
architect (ii) restructuring of lower bazaar and middle bazaar.

Finally beautification and landscaping was suggested. NGOs suggested that the live
hedge may be grown on the slope to restrict the disposal of garbage on the slopes.

NGOs emphasized upon necessary public amenities in the localities.




INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                        277
CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                 Shimla City Development Plan


23.3   PROCEEDINGS OF WORKSHOP WITH URBAN POOR
Date: 02/12/2006
Time: 1130 am
Place: Municipal Corporation, Shimla
Participants:
   1. Dr. Ashwani Kumar- Assistant Commissioner, Shimla
   2. Sh. Kaushal Mehta - IL&FS Infrastructure Development Corporation, Chandigarh
   3. Various NGO‟s dealing with the poor of Shimla
   4. Representatives of poor people of Shimla

The workshop was organized to
understand current status of the
dwelling places of the poor in Shimla,
their requirements in terms of basic
services and prioritize them. The poor
locations are very scattered across the
city except Krishna Nagar where a
large number of people reside.
Following are the outcome of the
discussion
     Basic amenities needed by the poor are water, roads, toilets, electricity, schools,
        lighting in descending order of priorities
      The poor people emphasized on upgradation of the current dwelling places rather
       then rehabilitation at other place however in case of unavailability of the land at
       existing locations, they are ready to move to a new location where the basic
       services are available
      The poor people are ready to pay some amount for the houses which shall be
       provided to them by Municipal Corporation
      Houses should be equipped with toilets and other basic facilities
      Various dwelling locations for the poor are not equipped with all the basic services
       however the gap between the actual and desired services is not high at almost all
       the locations and almost all have some services already available
      Many places houses are in very bad state and need urgent upgradation or
       rehabilitation




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                         278
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


23.4   PROCEEDING OF FINAL WORKSHOP

       For upliftment of basic service and increase the reach of basic services to urban
       population & and improvement in urban infrastructure, Government of India has
       launched Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission. Department of
       Urban Development, GoHP, has appointed IL&FS Infrastructure Development
       Corporation for preparation of City Development Plan for Shimla under
       JNNURM. In order to understand current status of Shimla city in terms of basic
       infrastructure & services and formulate the vision of Shimla city first workshop
       was organized on 6th September, 2006. Various stakeholders including elected
       public representatives, senior government officials, eminent citizens, local bodies,
       academic/research institutions, NGOs were present. Separate workshop with
       NGOs was organized to understand their perceptions on issues, vision and
       development of Shimla. Various Focus Groups Discussions and Departmental
       Discussions followed these workshops. Based on shared vision and goals derived
       from workshop draft CDP was prepared and put on the website of Shimla
       Municipal Corporation on 16th October, 2006 for inviting suggestions. The
       second workshop was organized for finalization and adoption of draft CDP


23.4.1 Participants to the Workshop
       For the workshop, elected members including MP, MLA, Mayor and Ward
       Councilors of Shimla City, Government officials, NGOs, representatives from
       Chamber of Commerce and Associations, academicians and eminent citizens were
       invited. The chief guest for the workshop was Shri Kaul Singh Thakur, Honorable
       Minister, Urban Development Government of Himachal Pradesh.

       The workshop started with keynote address by honorable minister of Urban
       Development, GoHP Shri Kaul Singh Thakur. He mentioned about position of
       Shimla on international map of global tourist destination. He also pointed out that
       shortage of water and congestion are biggest problems and should be solved
       urgently. He also emphasized on maintaining queen of hills status by preserving
       rich heritage characteristics of the town

       IL&FS IDC, the consultant, presented the draft CDP with emphasizing on various
       sectors, their priorities, major issues in those sectors, strategy to handle identified
       issues and interventions required to achieve the vision and goals. Stakeholders
       asked various questions and gave many suggestions. IL&FS IDC reviewed these
       suggestions in line with CDP requirement under JNNURM. Majority of
       suggestions were already addressed in the CDP




       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           279
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                             Shimla City Development Plan


    Vote of Thanks
    Sh. Shekhar Gupta delivered the Vote of Thanks to the all the Stakeholders who
    participated in the workshop and contributed by giving valuable suggestions


Major Suggestions received before and during the finalization workshop

   Leakages in the existing water distribution network should be high priority
   Catchment area treatment for to reduction of silt should be made integrated part
    of the water sourcing projects
   Enforcement of sewerage charges should be done in phased manner
   The problem of missing links between the old sewerage network and new network
    should be solved exigently
   Sewerage from hotels should not be allowed into drains
   Mechanism for maintenance of drains should be internalized in the projects
   Water harvesting should be treated as an alternative source of water and should be
    encouraged by giving incentives
   Adequate number of parking lots at various places especially near sealed road
    should be constructed
   Tunnels should be given highest priority in transportation sector
   Tunnels are high priority
   Junction improvements should be done at various junctions of city
   Flyover from Tolland to bypass road should be constructed
   CDP has made provision of constructions of three new labour hostels but as influx
    of migrant labour to the city incases, provision for more hostels can be done
   The place for muck & debris should be identified and specified




    INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                        280
    CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan


23.5    LIST OF IDENTIFIED NALLAHS
                                                                     Length      Estimated
                                                                     of          Cost
S. N.     Name of Nallahs
                                                                     Nallah      (Rs.
                                                                     (m)         Lakh)
          Nallah from Cedar wood hotel Jakhoo to Card road via
   1                                                                    570         25.65
          Jodha Niwas
   2      Nallah from Jakhoo to Lift via Amar Bhavan                    790         35.55
          Nallah from Dream Land Hotel Lakkar Bazaar to Cart
   3                                                                    360         16.20
          Road
   4      Nallah from OAK over to Cart Road Via Clifend Estate          250         11.25
   5      Nallah from Stocks place to Cart Road Via Palika Bhavan       600         27.00
          Nallah from Takka Bench to Cart Road via Sat Sang
   6                                                                    205         9.225
          Bhawan
   7      Nallah from Roshan Villa Jakhoo to Cart road near IGMC        740         33.30
   8      Nallah from Doctor Qtrs Lakkar Bazaar to Cart road            200          9.00
   9      Nallah from Jangal house to Cart Road via Chudel Bouri        650         29.25
  10      Nallah from Jakhoo to MC parking cart road near IGMC          720         32.40
  11      Nallah from Govt. Dispensary to Housing Board Sanjauli        275         12.375
  12      Nallah from Maszid to Housing Board Colony at Sanjauli        255         11.475
  13      Nallah from Old Police Chowki to Bypass upto M.C. limit       275         12.375
  14      Nallah from Children Park to Bypass upto M.C. limit           360         16.20
  15      Nallah from Sidharth Enclave to Bypass upto M.C. limit        240         10.80
  16      Nallah from Shivam Traders to Bypass upto M.C. Limit          150          6.75
  17      Nallah from Chopra house to Hill Grove Public School          400         18.00
  18      Nallah from Palika Bhavan to Main Stream                      503         22.635
  19      Nallah from Mall Road to Bypass via High Court                456         20.52
  20      Nallah from Chhota Shimla M.C office to Bypass                285         12.855
  21      Nallah from HP Tribunal to Bypass via Sadhna Ghatti           585         26.325
  22      Nallah from St. Bedes to Dhobi Ghat upto M.C. limit           325         14.625
                                                             Total                  413.76




        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            281
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                     Shimla City Development Plan




23.6     LIST OF OPEN DRAINS
                                                                             Length
                                                                                        Estimated
                                                                               of
 S. N.                                Name of Nallahs                                      Cost
                                                                             Nallah
                                                                                        (Rs. Lakh)
                                                                              (m)
            Repair and covering of nallah from Arya Samaj School towards
  1                                                                            250          1.35
            Ram Mandir
            Renovation / Improvement of Nallah from Mall Road towards
  2                                                                            225          2.75
            Cart Road via Dayanand School
            Renovation / improvement of nallah from P&T colony towards
  3                                                                            200          2.37
            Cart Road in W. No. 2
            Renovation / improvement of nallah from main Ram Bazaar to
  4                                                                            375          1.50
            D.D.U
  5         Renovation / Improvement of nallah in Command Area                 450          2.25
            Renovation / Improvement of nallah from State Bank towards
  6                                                                            250          1.60
            Cart Road
            Repair and covering of nallah from Combermere Hotel towards
  7                                                                            225          2.08
            Lift near Shiv Mandir
            Renovation / improvement of nallah from Durga Villa Rose
  8                                                                            335          5.67
            Cottage to Bihari Lal Cottage at Annadale
            Renovation / improvement of nallah from Prem House to
  9                                                                            200          0.53
            Buchal House at lower kaithu
            Renovation./ improvement of nallah from Military Barrack
  10                                                                           300          1.73
            Annadale
            Renovation / improvement of nallah from Rain Shelter Police
  11                                                                           400          1.99
            Line to Old Abakari, Annadale
            Renovation / improvement of nallah from Railway line to
  12                                                                           200          2.00
            Nalagarh road near Laxmi Narayan Temple at Tutu
            Renovation /improvement of nallah from Laxmi Narayan
  13                                                                           250          3.00
            Temple to Nalagarh road at Tutu
            Renovation / improvement of nallah from Boileuganj dispensary
  14                                                                           170          2.00
            to National Highway 21 near Petrol pump
            Renovation / improvement of nallah from Subzi Mandi to Cart
  15                                                                           120          0.90
            Road via Suji line
            Renovation / improvement of nallah from Shankli near Shanti
  16                                                                           106          1.53
            Niwas
            Renovation / improvement of nallah from adjoining Regal
  17                                                                           200          5.00
            Cinema, Lakkar Bazaar
            Renovation / improvement of nallah from Yodha Niwas to Mall
  18                                                                           100          4.50
            road, near adjoining Ladies park
            Renovation / improvement of nallah near Chelet day School, US
  19                                                                           50           0.50
            club
            Renovation / improvement of nallah from Stock Place to
  20                                                                           50           1.00
            Himachal Bhavan
            Repair of cross drainage and nallah at different points at
  21                                                                           20           2.00
            Sanjauali, Mall road
  22        Repair of Cross Drainage in Bhahari bazaar                         15           1.25
            Repair of nallah beyond Sunder Building towards lift nallah in
  23                                                                           100          3.00
            Krishna Nagar
  24        Restoration / renovation of nallah beyond Krishna Nagar School     100          4.86
            Restoration / renovation of nallah from Sukh Bhavan to Vidya
  25                                                                           150          2.46
            Bhavan, Shangti Ward
  26        Restoration / renovation of nallah near Central Home, Bemloe       136          1.00
         INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           282
         CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                      Shimla City Development Plan


                                                                               Length
                                                                                         Estimated
                                                                                 of
S. N.                                Name of Nallahs                                        Cost
                                                                               Nallah
                                                                                         (Rs. Lakh)
                                                                                (m)
           Restoration / renovation of nallah from Sethi Niwas to Sharda
 27                                                                             200          1.50
           Kunj below Gurdwara
           Restoration / renovation of Nallah near Sharda Stationers in
 28                                                                             250          1.50
           ward no. 17
           Restoration / renovation of nallah adjoining Vety Hospital to
 29                                                                             120          5.00
           Main stream Krishna Nagar
           Restoration / renovation of nallah Panchsheel Hotel to Lal Pani
 30                                                                              60          2.00
           School
 31        Restoration / renovation of nallah from Himland to Bye pass          185          2.50
 32        Restoration / renovation of nallah near Mini Kufta Dhar              60           1.00
           Restoration / renovation of nallah from Main Bus stand towards
 33                                                                             100          2.00
           Rajdoot Hotel
           Restoration /renovation of nallah from Rama Coal Co. cart road
 34                                                                             100          3.00
           to main stream, Krishna Nagar
           Restoration / renovation of nallah from Ghora Sarai to Main
 35                                                                              90          2.47
           stream, Krishna Nagar
 36        Restoration / renovation of nallah at Dyrton Estate                  250          1.80
           Restoration / renovation of drainage in Cemetary Area
 37                                                                             100          0.30
           (Remaining Portion)
 38        Restoration / renovation of Drainage Bangli, Bagicha                 150          1.50
           Restoration / renovation of nallah by providing M.S. Tiles in
 39                                                                             200          0.45
           Bazar Area
 40        Drainage System Military Barrack, Annadale                           150          0.66
                                                                       Total                 84.5




        INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                             283
        CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                           Shimla City Development Plan


23.7     LIST OF HERITAGE BUILDINGS

LIST OF HERITAGE BUILDING/CEMETERIES WITHIN THE HERITAGE
ZONE NOTIFICATION DATED 22.8.2002

  S.N.       Name of Building
    1        Chalet day School Building
    2        M.C. Library at Ridge
    3        Khadi Board Building on the Mall Road
    4        Town Hall Building
    5        G P O Building
    6        Telegraph Office Building (Telephone Exchange)
    7        Grand Hotel Building Complex
    8        Railway Board Building
    9        Parkash Niwas (Housing Shimla Typewriting Company Near S B I
   10        Vice Regal Lodge Complex
   11        Council Chamber (Vidhan Sabha)
   12        Wood Villa
   13        Oak Over
   14        Cemetery near Oak Over
   15        Barnes Court (Raj Bhawan)
   16        Clarks Hotel
   17        Clermont (Labour Bureau Office)
   18        St. Mark
   19        Earnstone
   20        Christ Church Complex at Ridge
   21        Band Stand (Tourism Restaurant)
   22        Gaiety Theatre Building
   23        Grindlays Bank Building
   24        Ghurch Housing Evening College and Library
   25        Bantony Building
   26        State Bank of India Building (Dalziel House)
   27        Gorton Castle Building
   28        The Whole Range Buildings Starting from Gainda Mull up to Northern
             Railway Booking Agency on the Mall Road
   29        Cedar Circuit House and Rest House
   30        U.S. Club Building
   31        Ladies Park
   32        Kali Bari Temple
   33        Cecil Hotel
   34        Post Office Chaura Maidan
   35        Carton House (Sanitorium)

         INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                 284
         CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                             Shimla City Development Plan


  36       Race View
  37       Yates Place
  38       Post office Summer Hill

LIST OF     HERITAGE BUILDING/CEMETERIES OUTSIDE THE HERITAGE
ZONE
  S.N.     Name of Building
    1      Y.M.C.A. Building
    2      Ripon Hospital
    3      Rothney Castle
    4      Auckland House
    5      Convent of Jesus and Marry
    6      Sterling Castle
    7      Rajkiya Kanya Maha Vidyala. (Old Building)
    8      Corner House
    9      Pari Mahal
   10      Walsingham (D.C. Residence)
   11      Raj Kumari Amrit Kaur‟s building (Manor Villa)
   12      Govt. Boy‟s Degree College Sanjauli
   13      Railway Station Shimla
   14      Inverarm (State Museum)
   15      Bemloe Cottages
   16      South Gate
   17      Foss Well
   18      Graig Garden
   19      Delphine Lodge
   20      Eagle Mount
   21      Winter Field
   22      Shimleshwar (Shiv Mandir)
   23      Jammu Castle
   24      Y.W.C.A. Building
   25      Ellerslie Building
   26      Burj
   27      Benmore Estate
   28      Orvyn (I.T.I. Shimla
   29      Cemetery at Sanjauli
   30      Cematery at Nav Bahar (Nuns Grave Yard below St. Beds.)
   31      Catholic Church
   32      Green Gate Longwood
   33      Dharbanga House (Tara Hall)
   34      Chapslee
   35      Aira Holme

       INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                     285
       CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                            Shimla City Development Plan


36       Hainault
37       Jakhoo Temple
38       Torrontium
39       Holly Lodge
40       Lady Reading Building
41       Bishop Cotton School
42       Sidhowal Lodge
43       Crow-Brough
44       Strawberry Hill
45       Spring Field
46       Emm Villa
47       Dixy
48       Dimple Lodge
49       Eddleston
50       Railway Station, Summer Hill
51       St. Thomas School
52       St. Edward School
53       Thistle Bank (Building of Sh. Yoginder pal Sood)
54       Old D.C. Office (Shimla Building)
55       Police Station, Chhota Shimla
56       Armsdell
57       Torney House
58       Cemetery at Barrier, Boileauganj
59       Cemetery at Kanlog




     INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                      286
     CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                       Shimla City Development Plan


    23.8   FINANCIAL ASSESSMENT OF LAST FIVE YEARS
                             Income Expenditure Statement
S N.   Item                             2001-02   2002-03   2003-04   2004-05   2005-06     CAGR
Opening Balance                          194.04    257.88    173.89    204.32    256.95
INCOME (I)
A      Revenue Account
     1 Tax Revenue
       General Tax                        294.8    322.57    331.19     486.4    466.32      12.15%
       Other Taxes                        80.40     70.92     78.24    157.73    126.90      12.09%
       Total Tax Revenue                  375.2    393.49    409.43    644.13    593.22      12.13%
     2 Non Tax Revenue
       Rent of Buildings                  91.37    101.84    112.45    145.64    193.74      20.67%
       Sale of water                     159.52    171.95    337.82    467.12    565.93      37.24%
       Fees and Other Revenue            189.66    129.11    157.85    278.24    239.19       5.97%
       Total Non-Tax Revenue              440.6     402.9     608.1     891.0     998.9      22.71%
     3 Octroi Grant                      459.01     241.4    273.67    418.54    385.52      -4.27%
       Total Revenue Income-A           1274.76   1037.79   1291.22   1953.67    1977.6      11.60%
B      Capital Account
       Sale of Municipal Assets           21.08     46.99     59.07    151.63      204.7     76.53%
       Loans                                  0         0         0         0          0
       Grants                                 0         0         0         0          0
       Total Capital Income-B             21.08     46.99     59.07    151.63      204.7     76.53%
Grand total Income(A+B)                 1295.84   1084.78   1350.29    2105.3     2182.3     13.92%
EXPENDITURE (E)
A      Revenue Account
     1 Establishment Expenses
       Salary
       General Dept                       98.62     111.7    112.05    123.43    142.63        9.66%
       Tax Dept                           31.53     31.19     34.73     35.55     43.41        8.32%
       Estate Branch                      21.86     26.77     26.42     22.46     29.57        7.85%
       Forest Dept                         40.2     43.73     51.35     55.54     62.27       11.56%
       Library                              0.2      0.22      0.12      0.12      0.12      -11.99%
       Public Health                     422.02    454.48    463.18    514.51    574.17        8.00%
       Water Supply                      150.53    175.48    183.11    189.36    209.38        8.60%
       Roads and buildings               157.27    173.02    187.37    191.79     211.4        7.67%
       9-c Grant                          34.36     36.99     40.23         0         0
       Total Establishment
                                         956.59   1053.58   1098.56   1132.76   1272.95       7.40%
       Expenses
    2 Contingencies
      General Dept                         36.3     42.54     28.49     41.35      51.48       9.13%
      Tax Dept                             0.38      9.99      5.76      1.99       1.47      40.24%
      Estate                                2.7      1.75      1.76      1.06       0.87     -24.66%
      Forest Dept                           4.2      2.24      3.16      2.87       1.88     -18.20%
      Library                              0.23      0.29      0.28      0.16       0.07     -25.73%
      Public Health                       39.47     27.39     32.58     49.73      41.31       1.15%
           INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           287
           CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                        Shimla City Development Plan


        Water Supply                       27.87     35.65     29.13     39.48      43.41     11.72%
        Roads and buildings                 2.38      2.45      2.59      3.86       3.18      7.51%
        Reserve                             0.64         0         0         0          0
        Total Contingencies
                                          114.17     122.3    103.75     140.5     143.67       5.91%
        Expenses
    3 Maintenance
      Roads & Bldgs                        90.98     97.08      6.96    259.56      89.86     -0.31%
      Water Supply                         17.35     26.07     30.98     36.23       32.8     17.26%
      Forest Dept                           0.83      2.28      1.59      1.54       1.17      8.96%
        Total Maintenance
                                          109.16    125.43     39.53    297.33     123.83      3.20%
        Expenses
    4 Other Expenses
        Amount due to IP&H for
                                          399.86    340.21    473.24    407.25      752.4     23.46%
        water
        Amount due to HPSEB for
                                          127.19    174.51    114.12     50.14      62.41     -21.13%
        electricity
        Total Other Expenses              527.05    514.72    587.36    457.39    814.81       11.51%
        Total Revenue
                                         1706.97   1816.03    1829.2   2027.98   2355.26       8.38%
        Expenditure
B       Capital Account
        Buildings                          45.45     24.08     40.88     33.59      3.94      -45.74%
        Roads                                  0         0     120.3    155.82    193.18
        Forest Works                        1.98      1.71      2.37      2.38      1.09     -13.86%
        Nallahs                             0.03      0.54      1.97       5.5       2.3     195.90%
        Toilets                            10.09       4.2      8.87      8.02     11.12       2.46%
        Street Lights                          0      3.98      3.47      9.22      9.77
        Water Works                         3.19      6.69      6.86     20.24       4.8      10.75%
        Total Capital
                                           60.74      41.2    184.72    234.77      226.2     38.92%
        Expenditure
Grand total Expenditure(A+B) 1767.71               1857.23   2013.92   2262.75   2581.46       9.93%
STATUS OF MUNICIPAL FINANCES
        Revenue Account (IA-
    1                                    -432.21   -778.24   -537.98    -74.31    -377.66
        EA)
    2 Capital Account (IB-EB)             -39.66      5.79   -125.65    -83.14      -21.5
Overall Municipal Status                 -471.87   -772.45   -663.63   -157.45    -399.16




            INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                           288
            CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                        Shimla City Development Plan


                                        Sectoral Contribution Share
S N.   Item                             2001-02   2002-03    2003-04   2004-05   2005-06    Average
INCOME (I)
A      Revenue Account
     1 Tax Revenue
       General Tax                        22.7%     29.7%      24.5%    23.1%      21.4%        24.3%
       Other Taxes                         6.2%      6.5%       5.8%     7.5%       5.8%         6.4%
       Total Tax Revenue                  29.0%     36.3%      30.3%    30.6%      27.2%        30.7%
     2 Non Tax Revenue
       Rent of Buildings                   7.1%      9.4%       8.3%     6.9%       8.9%         8.1%
       Sale of water                      12.3%     15.9%      25.0%    22.2%      25.9%        20.3%
       Other Fees and Revenues            14.6%     11.9%      11.7%    13.2%      11.0%        12.5%
       Total Non-Tax Revenue              34.0%     37.1%      45.0%    42.3%      45.8%        40.9%
     3 Octroi Grant                       35.4%     22.3%      20.3%    19.9%      17.7%        23.1%
       Total Revenue Income-A             98.4%     95.7%      95.6%    92.8%      90.6%        94.6%
B      Capital Account
       Sale of Municipal Assets            1.6%      4.3%       4.4%     7.2%       9.4%         5.4%
       Loans                                  0         0          0        0          0
       Grants                                 0         0          0        0          0
       Total Capital Income-B              1.6%      4.3%       4.4%     7.2%       9.4%         5.4%
Grand total Income(A+B)                  100.0%    100.0%     100.0%   100.0%     100.0%       100.0%
EXPENDITURE (E)
A      Revenue Account
     1 Establishment Expenses
       Salary
       General Dept                        5.6%      6.0%       5.6%     5.5%       5.5%         5.6%
       Tax Dept                            1.8%      1.7%       1.7%     1.6%       1.7%         1.7%
       Estate Branch                       1.2%      1.4%       1.3%     1.0%       1.1%         1.2%
       Forest Dept                         2.3%      2.4%       2.5%     2.5%       2.4%         2.4%
       Library                             0.0%      0.0%       0.0%     0.0%       0.0%         0.0%
       Public Health                      23.9%     24.5%      23.0%    22.7%      22.2%        23.3%
       Water Supply                        8.5%      9.4%       9.1%     8.4%       8.1%         8.7%
       Roads and buildings                 8.9%      9.3%       9.3%     8.5%       8.2%         8.8%
       9-c Grant                           1.9%      2.0%       2.0%     0.0%       0.0%         1.2%
      Total Establishment
      Expenses                            54.1%     56.7%      54.5%    50.1%      49.3%        53.0%
    2 Contingencies
      General Dept                         2.1%      2.3%       1.4%     1.8%       2.0%         1.9%
      Tax Dept                             0.0%      0.5%       0.3%     0.1%       0.1%         0.2%
      Estate                               0.2%      0.1%       0.1%     0.0%       0.0%         0.1%
      Forest Dept                          0.2%      0.1%       0.2%     0.1%       0.1%         0.1%
      Library                              0.0%      0.0%       0.0%     0.0%       0.0%         0.0%
      Public Health                        2.2%      1.5%       1.6%     2.2%       1.6%         1.8%
      Water Supply                         1.6%      1.9%       1.4%     1.7%       1.7%         1.7%
      Roads and buildings                  0.1%      0.1%       0.1%     0.2%       0.1%         0.1%
           INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                            289
           CORPORATION LIMITED
                                                                   Shimla City Development Plan


       Reserve                           0.0%     0.0%     0.0%     0.0%       0.0%         0.0%
      Total Contingencies
      Expenses                           6.5%     6.6%     5.2%     6.2%       5.6%         6.0%
    3 Maintenance
      Roads & Buildings                  5.1%     5.2%     0.3%    11.5%       3.5%         5.1%
      Water Supply                       1.0%     1.4%     1.5%     1.6%       1.3%         1.4%
      Forest Dept                        0.0%     0.1%     0.1%     0.1%       0.0%         0.1%
      Total Maintenance
      Expenses                           6.2%     6.8%     2.0%     13.1%      4.8%         6.6%
    4 Other Expenses
       Amount due to IP&H for
       water                            22.6%    18.3%    23.5%    18.0%      29.1%       16.74%
       Amount due to HPSEB for
       electricity                       7.2%     9.4%     5.7%     2.2%       2.4%      -36.40%
       Total Other Expenses             29.8%    27.7%    29.2%    20.2%      31.6%       27.69%
       Total Revenue
       Expenditure                      96.6%    97.8%    90.8%    89.6%      91.2%        93.2%
B      Capital Account
       Buildings                         2.6%     1.3%     2.0%     1.5%       0.2%         1.5%
       Roads                             0.0%     0.0%     6.0%     6.9%       7.5%         4.1%
       Forest Works                      0.1%     0.1%     0.1%     0.1%       0.0%         0.1%
       Nallahs                           0.0%     0.0%     0.1%     0.2%       0.1%         0.1%
       Toilets                           0.6%     0.2%     0.4%     0.4%       0.4%         0.4%
       Street Lights                     0.0%     0.2%     0.2%     0.4%       0.4%         0.2%
       Water Works                       0.2%     0.4%     0.3%     0.9%       0.2%         0.4%
       Total Capital
       Expenditure                        3.4%     2.2%     9.2%    10.4%      8.8%         6.8%
Grand total Expenditure(A+B)            100.0%   100.0%   100.0%   100.0%    100.0%       100.0%




           INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT                                                       290
           CORPORATION LIMITED

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:136
posted:11/7/2011
language:English
pages:299