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ELL Handbook

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					   ELL Handbook
Clinton Community School District
       Clinton, Wisconsin

           2010 - 2011




                1
Table of Contents
Preface .......................................................................................................................................................... 3

Acronyms ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

Philosophy and Goals .................................................................................................................................... 6

Identification, Assessment, Placement and Exit Criteria for English Language Learners ............................. 8

Program Levels and File Organization ........................................................................................................ 11

Program Structure ...................................................................................................................................... 13

Credits, Grading, Promotion, Retention, Evaluation, ................................................................................. 15

and Special Educational Needs ................................................................................................................... 15

ELL Staff Roles and Responsibilities ............................................................................................................ 18

English Language Proficiency Levels ........................................................................................................... 21

WIDA Performance Definitions ................................................................................................................. 23

Language Acquisition Charts and Strategies for Teachers .......................................................................... 24

   Second Language Acquisition ................................................................................................................. 31

   Ideas for Modifying for English Language Learners ................................................................................ 33

5.4 The CAN DO Descriptors for WIDA’s Levels of English Language Proficiency ................................ 35

Appendices.................................................................................................................................................. 38

   EL Student Profile.................................................................................................................................... 39

   HOME LANGUAGE SURVEY ..................................................................................................................... 41

   Acceptance or Refusal of Services .......................................................................................................... 43

   Exit Letter Form....................................................................................................................................... 45

   Introduction of an ELL Student to Staff .................................................................................................. 47

   Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAO) ........................................................................... 48

   ACCESS for ELLs ....................................................................................................................................... 49

WKCE Documents ....................................................................................................................................... 51

   ELL Decision Process ......................................................................................................................... 52

   THE ASSESSMENT ACCOMMODATIONS MATRIX FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS
   ................................................................................................................................................................ 53
                                                                                 2
                                    Preface

The Clinton Community School District developed this handbook with the
acknowledgement of its responsibilities and best practices when serving English
language learner students.

The State of Wisconsin defines a student with limited-English proficiency as a
pupil “who has difficulty with reading, writing, speaking, or comprehending in
English within the academic classroom setting” Pl 13.03(7).

Any student who is identified as language minority (having a non-English
language spoken in the home) during the school enrollment process should be
given an English language proficiency assessment within the first two weeks of
enrollment using the W-APT (ACCESS for ELLs screener). This instrument
addresses speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills in English. This score
should be recorded on Skyward and the assessment should be placed in the
student’s file.




                                        3
Acronyms




   4
               Acronyms
ELD        English Language Development
ELL        English Language Learner
EL         English Learner
ELP        English Language Proficiency
ESL        English as a Second Language
LEP        Limited English Proficient
TESOL      Teachers of English to Speakers of
           Other Languages
WITESOL    Wisconsin’s TESOL organization
WIDA       World-Class Instructional Design
           Assessment (WIDA Consortium)
ACCESS     Assessing Comprehension
for ELLs   and Communication in English
           State to State for English
           Language Learners - Testing
           period: December to February
W-APT      WIDA-ACCESS Placement Test
           (screener)




                      5
Philosophy and Goals




         6
                                  ESL Programming

                         Clinton Community School District



                                     Philosophy



The ESL/ELL Program addresses the needs of students who do not have English as their
primary language. This is achieved by supporting the social and academic needs of
the students through content area collaboration and limited classroom pull-out from K
– 12. Instruction should progress from concrete ideas and skills to abstract ideas and
more complex language skills. The program develops skills in understanding English
through listening, speaking, reading, and writing and provides students with
opportunities for academic success while maintaining high standards.




                                  Goals/Objectives



Objectives to be covered include increasing cultural awareness as well as academic
knowledge through the following:

   1. To help the student become familiar with the American culture and its customs
      and support the student in his/her efforts to cope with a new culture and
      surroundings.
   2. To create pride in the student’s cultural heritage by encouraging maintenance of
      the student’s native language and culture through native language content
      support, bilingual literature, classroom climate, and recognition/celebration of
      traditions.
   3. To develop English language proficiency through a variety of social and
      academic experiences.
   4. To facilitate meaningful learning and provide access to the curriculum in the
      content areas.
   5. To nurture students’ potential to become life-long learners, self- advocates, and
      contributing members to a global society. This would involve working on
      motivation and goal setting as part of post-secondary planning, and preparing
      students to exit the ESL programming.
   6. To promote awareness among staff of learning strategies for all ELL students
      and acceptance of good ELL services as necessary for all instructional programs.
   7. To communicate fully with families in order to address their needs and connect
      them to resources.




                                          7
Identification, Assessment, Placement and Exit Criteria for
                 English Language Learners




                             8
         Identification, Assessment, and Placement of Language Learners

The district’s student registration process will provide identification of English
Language Learners (ELL). The registration process for a student enrolling for the first
time will include the procedure described below.

A. Identification and Background Information
   1. The school secretary, in conjunction with the school counselor and interpreter (if
      needed), will assist the enrollee, parent, or guardian, whoever is appropriate, to
      report any language different from English by completion of the district
      enrollment card and a Home Language Survey which will identify:
           a. The language first acquired by the student,
           b. The language spoken most often at home,
           c. The language the parents use when speaking to the child,
           d. The language the child uses most to speak with friends,
           e. The language family members usually use when speaking to each other,
              and
           f. The language used to speak with siblings.
   2. If “no” answers are given to questions 1, 2, or 3, the form is to be placed in the
      student’s cumulative file and no further action is necessary.
   3. If “yes” answers are given to questions 1, 2, or 3, the form is to be forwarded to
      the Pupil Services Director at the School District Office and the program teacher
      at the applicable school. Program placement will be made based on
      assessments, previous academic records, and consultation with certified staff
      and parental consent.

B. Assessment
   1. All incoming students whose Home Language Survey indicates eligibility for
      ESL/ELL assessment will be evaluated for English proficiency to determine
      program placement.
   2. The language proficient levels of all students in the district program will be
      evaluated annually. All test summary score sheets will be kept in the student’s
      cumulative file.
   3. Tests available to determine language proficiency include:
          a. W-APT (ACCESS screener)
          b. ACCESS for ELLs

C. Placement
   1. The parents and/or guardians will be requested to give written consent to the
      placement of the student(s) in the recommended ESL/ELL program.
   2. If, after receiving a full explanation of the program as outlined above, the
      parents elect not to enroll the student in the program, the parents must sign a
      form to disapprove the placement which is entered into the student’s record.
      Even if an ELL student does not receive services, s/he will be administered the
      ACCESS for ELLs test.


                                            9
   3. A student who demonstrates the need for ESL/ELL support and meets the
      criteria may enter or re-enter the ESL/ELL program at any grade regardless of
      earlier services received or previous parental choice.
   4. ELL students from other countries will be placed in age-appropriate classes. ELL
      students transferring from other schools within the U.S. will be placed in grades
      according to records.

                                      Exit Criteria

A. A student who is recommended for exiting an ESL/ELL Program must meet the
   following criteria:
   1. The student receives a 6.0 on the ACCESS for ELLs test.
   2. If a student does not receive a 6.0, but does receive a 5.0 and is in 4th grade or
       higher, s/he may possibly be exited if the following conditions exist:
           a. The student has sufficiently developed academic language to
              demonstrate their understanding in English.
           b. The teacher has evaluated at least two pieces of evidence of academic
              English language proficiency and keeps evidence on file in the district for
              at least two years. Evidence should include demonstrations of proficiency
              without the use of adapted or modified English materials or ELL
              accommodations such as:
                    i. District benchmark examinations (in multiple content areas)
                   ii. Writing samples or performance assessments scored with formal,
                       standardized rubrics
                  iii. State assessments at applicable grade levels
                  iv. Academic records such as semester or end-of-course grades
           c. The parent(s) and educators agree that the student has reached the full
              English proficiency.
   3. Evaluation for a reclassification decision should include the bilingual and/or ESL
       teacher, classroom teachers, parents, and other relevant staff.
   4. The district is required to monitor all fully English language proficient students
       for the first two school years after their exit from ELL classification. Districts
       must keep documentation on file throughout the two-year monitoring period.




                                           10
Program Levels and File Organization




                 11
                               PROGRAM LEVELS



Students may qualify for and receive other services available from the
school district including, but not limited to:



     Exceptional Education Needs Services
     Title I programs
     Reading/Writing Specialist Services
     School Counseling
     Speech/Language
     Milton, Edgerton, Clinton Alternative School (MECAS)
     Learning Support Services
     TAG Services


         FILE ORGANIZATION FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS



Every student enrolled in the ELL program will have pertinent information
in two files. Below is a chart naming the two files and the information that
will be kept in each one. Note that some of the information is overlapping.
This is important for district organization as well as for DPI reports and
audits.

      Within Cumulative File               Within Yellow Folder

Test Scores:                        Home Language Survey
Standardized Test Scores            Acceptance or Refusal of Services
Yellow Folder                       W-APT
                                    Form Screener Results
                                    ACCESS for ELLs Test Results
                                    Year-end Report
                                    Exit Form




                                     12
Program Structure




       13
                             ELL PROGRAM STRUCTURE




ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Grades PreK-4 are located at Clinton Elementary School. Grade placements are age-
appropriate while taking into consideration students’ previous academic career.
Students are serviced through inclusion in the general education classroom and
supported by a para-educator and/or an ESL/ELL teacher. Pull-outs are only as needed.
Content support will be provided in the primary language when necessary.



MIDDLE SCHOOL

Grades 5 – 8 are located at Clinton Middle School. Students are provided English
language and literacy development instruction as appropriate for their proficiency
levels. Academic content support will be provided through collaboration with content
area teachers and include instructional aide support in the classroom. Content support
will be provided in the primary language when necessary. Students will be integrated
into mainstream school classes as appropriate.



HIGH SCHOOL

Clinton High School serves students in grades 9 – 12. Students are integrated into
required and/or elective courses where they receive ELL support from a para-educator.
ELL students also receive support each day through resource/study hall class with an
ESL teacher.




                                          14
Credits, Grading, Promotion, Retention, Evaluation,

          and Special Educational Needs




                        15
      CREDITS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS’ COURSES


Assessing Credits/Graduation

English language learners must meet the same requirements for graduation
that are set for other students. Equivalent credit may be awarded for course
work completed previously and verified by transcripts. Refugee students who
are unable to obtain transcripts may be awarded credit for completed course
work based upon information provided by the student, legal custodian, or
guardian. Sworn affidavits may be required.


                                    GRADING

Teachers of ELL elementary students will use the alternate elementary ELL
report card for students with English language proficiency (ELP) levels of 1 – 2.

At the middle school, students with an ELP level 3 – 5 will receive grades of A,
B, C, D or F based on their performance. Students with an ELP level of 1 - 2 may
receive a grade of P (pass) or F (fail).

At the high school, students receive grades of A, B, C, D, or F based on their
performance. When in doubt about grading, the classroom teachers may
collaborate with the ELL staff and administration to determine if a P/F grade is
appropriate.


                          ELL PROMOTION GUIDELINE

ELL students will be promoted based on their continuous social and academic
progress appropriate to their English language proficiency levels (ELP).


                    EVALUATION OF STUDENT PROGRESS

The student profile will be updated on each ELL student at the end of each
school year.




                                        16
     SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS

At times it becomes apparent that English language learners experience
difficulty in their academic setting for more specific reasons than language
interference.

The following steps are taken to identify special educational needs of an English
language learner:

1. Classroom teacher is to employ and record a variety of interventions in the
classroom.
2. Student is brought to the attention of the principal in meetings identified as
Students in Need (SIN).
3. A SIT (Student Intervention Team) meeting is organized to gather
information and brainstorm. This meeting includes teachers, specialists, and
parents.
4. Strategies recommended at the SIT meeting are evaluated and discussed at a
follow-up SIT meeting.
5. A referral is recommended, if necessary.
6. Testing is arranged, with parents’ approval, to determine eligibility for
special education services.




                                       17
ELL Staff Roles and Responsibilities




                 18
                       ELL Staff Roles and Responsibilities




ELL Teachers

Serve ELL students

       Support in the classroom
       Provide content area instruction
       Assist with remedial work
Be an   advocate

       Modify/adapt lessons, projects or assessments
       Act as a resource
       Administer ACCESS for ELLs Tests
       Provide language arts instruction
       Collaborate with administrators, classroom teachers, and counselors to
        plan most effective schedules
       Monitor students’ progress
       Maintain reports according to DPI requirements
                  Exit letter
                  ACCESS scores
                  W-APT scores
                  Acceptance or refusal of services form
                  Year end report
       Create a positive environment for students by being knowledgeable
        about culture and background
       Act as translators and/or interpreters
       Provide professional development
       Notify staff of ELL students’ backgrounds
       Attend IEP meetings (SIN, SIT)
       Communicate effectively about students’ progress


Para-educators

Serve ELL Students

       Act as translators and/or interpreters
       Coordinate planning for instruction with classroom teachers
       Modify or adapt instructional resources as needed
       Modify lessons, future assessments and assignments
       Support students within the classroom
       Monitor student progress and report findings to ELL teacher
       Communicate with parents
       Review content area and provide instructional support
                                           19
     Communicate effectively with ELL teacher
     Assist ELL teacher
     Advocate for ELL students
     Create a positive environment by being knowledgeable about students’
      culture and background


ELL Teachers and Para-educators Serve Parents

   Be advocates
   Inform of students’ English proficiency progress
   Act as a liaison between school and family




                                     20
English Language Proficiency Levels




                21
English Language Proficiency Levels
Limited English Proficiency Levels [Pl 13.07(1)-(5), Wis. Admin. Rule – note: this is a
draft cite]

Level 1 – Beginning/Preproduction:
 The student does not understand or speak English with the exception of a few isolated
   words or expressions.

Level 2 – Beginning/Production:
 The student understands and speaks conversational and academic English with hesitancy
   and difficulty.
 The student understands parts of lessons and simple directions.
 The student is at a pre-emergent or emergent level of reading and writing in English,
   significantly below grade level.

Level 3 – Intermediate:
 The student understands and speaks conversational and academic English with
   decreasing hesitancy and difficulty.
 The student is post-emergent, developing reading comprehension and writing skills in
   English.
 The student’s English literacy skills allow the student to demonstrate academic
   knowledge in content areas with assistance.

Level 4 – Advanced Intermediate:
 The student understands and speaks conversational English without apparent difficulty,
   but understands and speaks academic English with some hesitancy.
 The student continues to acquire reading and writing skills in content areas needed to
   achieve grade level expectations with assistance.

Level 5 – Advanced:
 The student understands and speaks conversational and academic English well.
 The student is near proficient in reading, writing, and content area skills needed to meet
   grade level expectations.
 The student requires occasional support.

FULL ENGLISH PROFICIENCY LEVELS
Level 6 – Formerly LEP/Now Fully English Proficient:
 The student was formerly limited English proficient and is now fully English proficient.
 The student reads, writes, speaks and comprehends English within academic classroom
   settings.

Level 7 – Fully English Proficient/Never Limited-English Proficient:
 The student was never classified as limited-English proficient and does not fit the
   definition of a limited-English proficient student outlined in either state of federal law.


                                               22
WIDA Performance Definitions
  At the given level of English language proficiency, English language learners will process,
understand, produce or use:


                    Specialized or technical language reflective of the content areas at grade level
 6 - Reaching       A variety of sentence lengths of varying linguistic complexity in extended oral
                     or written discourse as required by the specified grade level


                    Specialized or technical language of the content areas
                    A variety of sentence lengths of varying linguistic complexity in extended oral
 5 – Bridging        or written discourse, including stories, essays or reports
                    Oral or written language approaching comparability to that of English-
                     proficient peers when presented with grade level materials

                    Specific and some technical language of the content areas
                    A variety of sentence lengths of varying linguistic complexity in oral
                     discourse or multiple, related sentences or paragraphs
4 - Expanding       Oral or written language with minimal phonological, syntactic or semantic
                     errors that do not impede the overall meaning of the communication when
                     presented with oral or written connected discourse with sensory, graphic or
                     interactive support

                    General and some specific language of the content areas
                    Expanded sentences in oral interaction or written paragraphs
                    Oral or written language with phonological, syntactic or semantic errors that
3 - Developing
                     may impede the communication, but retain much of its meaning, when
                     presented with oral or written, narrative or expository descriptions with
                     sensory, graphic or interactive support

                    General language related to the content areas
                    Phrases or short sentences
                    Oral or written with phonological, syntactic, or semantic errors that often
2 - Beginning
                     impede the meaning of the communication when presented with one-to-
                     multiple-step commands, directions, questions, or a series of statements with
                     sensory, graphic or interactive support


                    Pictorial or graphical representation of the language of the content areas
                    Words, phrases or chunks of language when presented with one-step
                     commands, directions, WH-, choice or yes/no questions, or statements with
 1 - Entering        sensory, graphic or interactive support
                    Oral language with phonological, syntactic, or semantic errors that often
                     impede meaning when presented with basic oral commands, direct questions,
                     or simple statements with sensory, graphic or interactive support



                                                23
Language Acquisition Charts and Strategies for Teachers




                          24
                Language Acquisition Chart


This chart was designed to help teachers better understand the process of
second language acquisition. Please use this chart as a resource for learning
more about the way people learn a new language in general, not as an
indicator of the way all students should progress. Since curriculum gets
continuously more difficult in each grade, a student may move in and out of
these stages and not necessarily progress linearly.



Many factors will influence how quickly students acquire a second language,
including the following:



   Age and time of entry into second language learning environment
   Attitude and motivation to learn second language
   Personality and learning style
   Language abilities in first language
   Similarity of first and second language
   Previous educational background
   Physical and emotional health
   Parental involvement in student's education
   Natural talent or ear for learning second language
   Previous exposure to second language and culture
   Maintenance of first language skills
   Supportive learning environment
   Teachers' use of ESL methods and appropriate strategies
   Amount of acceptance towards new culture


Adapted from The English Connection Newsletter




                                      25
                                       DPI Level 1- Entering Stage
   Other Names         Newcomer
                       Pre-Production
                       Silent Period Stage
    Definition         The student does not understand or speak English with the
                        exception of a few isolated words or expressions
                       The student is listening and absorbing language
                       The student is adjusting to U.S. culture
                       0-500 receptive word vocabulary
  Typical Student      Has minimal receptive vocabulary and only comprehends key
    Behaviors           words
                       May not produce speech for many months
                       Will try to make sense out of messages
                       Is working to gain familiarity with the sounds, rhythm and
                        patterns of English
                       Responds to commands
                       May participate in shared readings
                       Relies heavily on context and picture cues for comprehension
                       Student indicates comprehension non-verbally (pointing,
                        nodding, etc.)
                      ABLE TO: observe, locate, label, match, show, classify, categorize,

Teaching Strategies      Use gestures, manipulatives, visuals, props, realia (real things)
                         Create climate of acceptance/respect that supports
                          acculturation
                         Give one and two-step directions in English supported by
                          modeling, visuals, demonstrations, etc.
                         Provide materials or support staff in student's first language
                         Use buddies and cooperative grouping
                         Provide safe opportunities for student to attempt language
                          production (i.e. chants, songs and poems)
                         Display print to support oral language
                         Use hands-on activities
                         Repeat directions and vocabulary
                         Model directions for student
                         Modify your speech: speak softly, slowly, emphasize key
                          words, and simplify grammar and vocabulary
                         Do not talk more loudly or out of context
                         Use physical response to check for understanding
                         Ask yes/no questions
                         Ask students to point/draw/show
                         Teach content area vocabulary
                         Label classroom items using both languages
                         Be animated and enthusiastic
Relative Time Line       0-6 months in K-12 U.S. School System
                         Often can be a whole calendar year

                                           26
                                   DPI Level 2 - Beginning Stage
   Other Names           Early Production
                         Beginning Level of Reading
                         Social Language Stage
    Definition           The student understands and speaks conversational and
                          academic English with hesitancy and difficulty
                         The student understands parts of lessons and directions
                         The student is at a pre-emergent or emergent level of
                          reading and writing in English, significantly below grade
                          level
                         The student communicates with one and two word
                          utterances
                         Very limited comprehension and vocabulary
                         The student is still adjusting to U.S. culture
  Typical Student        Produces words in isolation
    Behaviors            Verbalizes key words
                         Responds with one/two word answers or short phrases
                         Mispronunciation and grammar errors common
                         Identifies people, places and objects
                         Able to repeat and listen with greater understanding


                      ABLE TO: Name, recall, draw, list, record, point out,
                      underline, organize

Teaching Strategies                 Continue Stage 1 Strategies PLUS:

                         Simplify language/not content
                         Design lessons to motivate students to talk
                         Ask questions requiring simple responses, such as,
                          yes/no?, who?, what?, which one?, how many?, etc.
                         Expose students to a variety of experiences with
                          understandable texts, such as patterned or predictable
                          books
                         Introduce interactive dialog journals
                         Introduce a student dictionary or word wall for new
                          vocabulary words
                         Expand student responses by modeling more elaborated
                          language. For example, if student says "boat," you could
                          say, "yes, those sailors are on a boat."
                         Do not overly correct grammatical errors, but do model
                          appropriate language
                         Use shared and paired reading to encourage oral
                          production of speech
Relative Time Line       6 months-2 years in K-12 U.S. School System



                                          27
                                   DPI Level 3 - Developing Stage
   Other Names          Intermediate/Speech Emergence
                        Short phrases/Simple sentences
                        Social Language
    Definition          The student understands and speaks conventional and academic
                         English with decreasing hesitancy and difficulty
                       The student is post-emergent, developing reading
                         comprehension and writing skills in English
                       The student possesses some English literacy skills that allow the
                         student to demonstrate academic knowledge in content areas
                         with assistance
                       The student still makes grammatical, word order and usage
                         errors and is still limited in vocabulary development and
                         comprehension of texts and spoken English
                       Up to 7,000 receptive/active word vocabulary
  Typical Student      Will speak with less hesitation and demonstrate increased
    Behaviors            understanding
                       Produces longer phrases or sentences with grammatical
                         inaccuracy
                       Uses newly acquired receptive vocabulary to experiment with
                         English
                       Participates more fully in discussions, including those with
                         academic content
                       Functions at a social level
                       Depends heavily on context
                       Studies "big ideas" and key concepts in content areas
                       Engages in independent reading based on oral fluency and prior
                         experiences with print, still uses limited vocabulary
                       Demonstrates comprehension by responding orally and in
                         written form (charts, graphs, diagrams)
                      ABLE TO: tell, describe, restate, compare, summarize, question,
                      map, dramatize
Teaching Strategies                 Continue Stage 1 and 2 Strategies PLUS:
                       List and review instructions step by step
                       Build on student's prior knowledge
                       Incorporate more reading and writing
                       Explicitly teach writing skills
                       Ask students to describe personal experiences
                       Focus on communication in meaningful contexts, where
                         students can express themselves in speech and print
                       Use semantic mapping and content webbing to develop
                         vocabulary
                       Provide content-area texts, newspapers, trade books,
                         magazines, etc. that are rich in visuals to promote conceptual
                         development
                       Encourage drama, art, music and other forms of creative
                         expression to represent meaning
                       Use performance based assessments
                       Ask open-ended questions that stimulate language production
Relative Time Line     1-3 years in K-12 U.S. School System




                                           28
                                   DPI Level 4 - Expanding Stage
   Other Names          High/Advanced Intermediate
                        Academic Language Stage
    Definition          The student understand and speaks conversational English
                         without apparent difficulty, but understands and speaks
                         academic English with some hesitancy
                       The student continues to acquire reading and writing skills
                         in content areas needed to achieve grade level
                         expectations with assistance
                       The student can communicate thoughts more completely,
                         can participate in every day conversations without highly
                         contextualized support
                       Up to 12,000 receptive/active word vocabulary
  Typical Student      Engages in and produces connected English speech
    Behaviors          Shows good comprehension
                       Demonstrates increased levels of accuracy and
                         correctness
                       Uses expanded vocabulary and higher-order language
                         usage (persuade, evaluate, etc.)
                       Reads a wider range of narrative genre and content texts
                         with increasing comprehension
                       Makes complex grammatical errors
                       Functions fairly well with academic concepts
                       Conducts research projects
                       Still needs support for complex language and concepts
                      ABLE TO: Imagine, create, appraise, contrast, predict,
                      express, report, estimate, evaluate, explain

Teaching Strategies                Continue Stage 1-3 Strategies PLUS:

                         Introduce more academic language and vocabulary both
                          oral and written
                         Ask questions soliciting opinions, judgment, explanation
                          (more why and how questions)
                         Have students brainstorm, list, web, use graphic
                          organizers
                         Structure group discussions
                         Guide use of reference materials
                         Facilitate more advanced literature studies
                         Provide for a variety of realistic writing experiences
                         Publish student-authored stories, newsletter, bulletins,
                          etc.
Relative Time Line       3-5 years in K-12 U.S. School System




                                          29
                                     DPI Level 5 - Bridging Stage
   Other Names           Advanced
                         Near Fluent
                         Academic Language Stage
    Definition           The student understands and speaks conversational and
                          academic English well
                        The student is near proficient in reading, writing, and
                          content area skills needed to meet grade level
                          expectations
                        The student requires occasional support
                        Beyond 12,000 receptive/active word vocabulary
  Typical Student       Has advanced skills in cognitive/academic language
    Behaviors           Participates on an academic level with age/grade peers
                        Maintains two-way advanced conversations around
                          academic content
                        Uses more complex grammatical structures
                        Demonstrates comprehension in decontextualized
                          situations
                        Uses enriched vocabulary
                        Produces language comparable to native English speakers
                          peers
                       ABLE TO: relate, infer, hypothesize, outline, revise, suppose,
                       verify, rewrite, assess, justify, critique, summarize, illustrate,
                       judge, demonstrate

Teaching Strategies                 Continue Stage 1-4 Strategies PLUS:
                          Incorporate note-taking skills
                          Teach study skills
                          Teach test-taking skills
                          Demonstrate how to verify answers (oral and written)
                          Expand figurative language (idioms)
                          Continue on-going language development through
                           integrated language arts and content-area activities
Relative Time Line        5-7 years in K-12 U.S. School System



                                DPI Level 6 - Full English Proficiency
    Definition            The student was formerly limited-English proficient and is
                           now fully English proficient.
                          The student reads, writes, speaks and comprehends
                           English within academic classroom settings


   Adapted from various sources, including information from the Wisconsin
   Department of Public Instruction, definitions pulled from Wisconsin DPI



                                            30
                                       Second Language Acquisition

Students Learn a second language by                Therefore, the teacher should

Bridging: tying English word to concepts           • Teach words in meaningful contexts – concrete
which are known in their first language.             objects or pictures
                                                   • Group words by concepts
                                                   • Utilize all senses in teaching vocabulary (touch,
                                                     smell, sight, etc.)
Chunking: picking up and imitating                 • Provide opportunities for students to imitate
chunks of language, phrases, or units of             language chunks they hear in meaningful activities
more than one word that are remembered               involving concrete materials, i.e., charts and
                                                     games
as a whole. The chunks serve as a
                                                   • Act as a model, constructing appropriate language
transition from labeling to sentence                 chunks, responding to each student’s repetition of
fluency.                                             chunks, reinforcing and validating verbal
                                                     responses
Creating: forming original utterances from         • Provide opportunities for students to engage in
previously learned words and chunks with             role playing activities where they can hear and use
language. Students do this in                        the language
                                                   • Comment on group activities and engage students
conversations or in game-like situations
                                                     in communicating about what they are doing
where language is used meaningfully.               • Structure language lessons around interpersonal
                                                     communication in meaningful situations
Listening and Sounding Out: learning               • Proceed from receptive understanding to
language through listening for an                    expressive practice
extended period of time before producing           • Provide group activities that develop listening
                                                     comprehension, story-telling, music, drama,
it.
                                                     rhymes, and oral reports
                                                   • Provide individual activities such as listening to
                                                     records or tapes accompanied by visual aids, short
                                                     stories, or filmstrips.
Following the Phrase: using familiar               • Provide opportunities for students to generate and
phrases over and over. Student practices             use patterns in social situations
known phrases and varies them by                   • Teach children a phrase such as “I eat ___” and
                                                     apply the phrase in a relevant manner using
changing words that follow the phrase:
                                                     concrete objects and pictures.
e.g., I like cookies. I like grapes. I like you.
Socializing: learning social expressions as        • Provide opportunities for students to interact with
chunks – imitating expressions heard in              English students and apply expressions in
social settings. The learner is motivated by         appropriate social settings
                                                   • Emphasize active language use in all activities
a desire to become part of the social world
                                                   • Group students so that those with limited English
of English speakers.                                 are learning and those with greater ability are
                                                     teaching and using what they have learned
                                                   • Encourage participation in extra-curricular
                                                     activities




                                                       31
Using Clues: using gestures, context or      • Use all types of clues to help students obtain
other visual clues as hints to determine       meaning
the meaning of new words or phrases.         • Make your teaching methods as visually oriented
                                               as possible
Students learn to scan the environment for
a clue, make a hypothesis, assess the
probability that the inference is correct,
and readjust to later information.
Peer Prompting: repeating words or           • Foster and encourage learning in which students
phrases a peer has used until it is said       can freely exchange ideas on common intellectual
correctly. Students come to rely on peers      tasks
                                             • Pair LEP students with English-speaking peers for
as language models. Peer prompting gives
                                               small group activities
the learner feedback on the correct words
needed in a given situation

School District of Newport News, VA




                                                 32
              Ideas for Modifying for English Language Learners

1.   Reduce the number of items for which the student is responsible. Ask the
     student to learn 7 to 8 vocabulary or spelling words instead of 20, read
     one story instead of two, limit the number of story problems in math
     class.

2.   If the test has 50 items and each counts for two points, you might ask
     the student to do 20 and count them five points each instead.
     Remember, you are trying to test his/her mastery of the subject, not
     his/her ability to read/write English.

3.   Allow the student to take the test “open book”, with fewer questions, a
     bilingual dictionary, and/or extra time. The student can also have
     his/her test read.
4.   When correcting work, only give a number or letter grade if it is a “C”
     or better. For lower achievement, only write comments. An “F” can be
     so discouraging that a student will give up. Pass/fail is an option for
     level 1 and 2 ELL students.

5.   Be willing to rephrase a question, explain, demonstrate and/or provide
     a picture. Use graphic organizers. Scaffold to provide support to
     students.

6.   Identify key words necessary to learn the concept you are teaching and
     teach the vocabulary. Students can develop a dictionary of new words.

7.   Encourage the student to discuss what he/she knows about a topic. A
     student may have knowledge about his/her own country that may
     relate to what you are teaching.

8.   Have the student record key concepts or words or be given an outline
     of the chapter. As the student progresses, he/she can write a chapter
     summary.

9.   Limit the use of idioms and abbreviations. Students may have difficulty
     understanding them. Also, if you reference a story or historical event,
     briefly explain it to them. Students who were reared in other countries
     were not taught our history or may have never heard stories like “Little
     Red Riding Hood”.

10. Students are often times required to write in cursive. Cursive writing
    may not have been taught in the ELL student’s home country. Allow
    students to print. Also print your own comments, as the student may
    not be able to read the comments written in cursive.




                                     33
11. When working with multiple choice items, limit the number of choices
    – instead of 4 choices, use only 3. Make sure the students understand
    the vocabulary of the other selections. If not, simplify it.

12. Try to use the present tense when you can and reduce sentence
    length.

13. Organize cooperative groups for collaborative tasks. Employ rubrics
    and assign specific jobs for every group member. Groups should have
    at least 3 members, especially if one is an ELL student.

14. Allow students to make corrections on tests or assignments. The goal
    is for the student to learn the material.

15. When using matching, break up longer sections. Have between 5 – 10
    items per section instead of 20 in one section.

16. For short answer provide helpful words to help generate ideas. Allow
    students to answer using note format as opposed to complete
    sentences.

17. For fill-in the blank, provide a word bank for the student.

18. Avoid True/False items on assignments/assessments. Language can
    be ambiguous.

19. ELL students may answer correctly but too softly for you to hear. When
     you say, “What?” he/she may think that the answer is wrong and then
     is reluctant to repeat. Ask the student to say the answer again.

20. Just because an ELL student says, “Okay” or nods when you ask if
    he/she understands, does not mean that he/she does. The student
    may feel uncomfortable or reluctant to ask for more help. Try asking
    the student to show you what he/she is supposed to do or know.

21. If you would like help developing materials, presenting a lesson, or
    modifying, please see us!




                                     34
                                                                                                            Resource Guide
5.4 The CAN DO Descriptors for WIDA’s Levels of English
Language Proficiency
For teachers unfamiliar with the ELP standards, the CAN DO Descriptors provide a starting point
for working with ELLs and a collaborative tool for planning. As teachers become comfortable with
the Descriptors, the standards’ matrices can be introduced. The CAN DO Descriptors are also
general enough to be appropriate to share with students’ family members to help them
understand the continuum of English language development.

The CAN DO Descriptors expand the Performance Definitions for the ELP standards by giving
suggested indicators (not a definitive set) in each language domain: listening, speaking, reading
and writing. More targeted than the Performance Definitions, the Descriptors have greater
instructional implications; that is, the information may be used to plan differentiated lessons or
unit plans. The Descriptors may also apply to ACCESS for ELLs® scores and may assist teachers and
administrators in interpreting the meaning of the score reports. In addition, the Descriptors may
help explain the Speaking and Writing Rubrics associated with the ELP test. A distinguishing
feature of these Descriptors, although not explicitly mentioned, is the presence of sensory,
graphic or interactive support, through ELP level 4, to facilitate ELLs’ access to content in order
to succeed in school.

The CAN DO Descriptors offer teachers and administrators working with ELLs a range of
expectations for student performance within a designated ELP level of the WIDA ELP Standards.
The Descriptors are not instructional or assessment strategies, per se. They are exemplars of
what ELLs may do to demonstrate comprehension in listening and reading as well as production
in speaking and writing within a school setting. Unlike the strands of MPIs, the Descriptors do not
scaffold from one ELP level to the next. Rather, each ELP level is to be viewed independently.

Currently, the CAN DO Descriptors are written for the entire preK-12 spectrum. Given that they
are generalized across grade spans, it is important to acknowledge the variability of students’
cognitive development due to age, grade level spans, diagnosed learning disabilities (if applicable)
and their diversity of educational experiences. Due to maturation, expectations of young ELLs
differ substantially from those of older students. These differences must be taken into account
when using the Descriptors. In 2008, WIDA will release new grade level cluster-specific CAN DO
Descriptors at www.wida.us.

Presented as an oral language and literacy matrix, similar to the format of the ELP standards, the
Descriptors should facilitate educators’ examination of the language domains for the five levels of
English language proficiency. ELP level 6, Reaching, is reserved for those students whose oral and
written English is comparable to their English-proficient peers. Figure 5M presents the CAN DO
Descriptors of English oral language and literacy development across the levels of English
language proficiency.

In Figure 5N, the CAN DO Descriptors for English language proficiency h a v e b e e n
t r a n s l a t e d into Spanish. This version may be shared with parents literate in Spanish, perhaps at
parent-teacher conferences, or to set goals for an individual student’s English language development.

                                                  35
Figure 5M: CAN DO Descriptors for the Levels of English Language Prof i ciency, PreK-12
For the given level of English language proficiency, with support, English language learners can:
                      Level 1                         Level 2                        Level 3                            Level 4                            Level 5
                      Entering                       Beginning                      Developing                         Expanding                           Bridging
             • Point to stated pictures,    • Sort pictures, objects        • Locate, select, order           • Compare/contrast                 • Draw conclusions from
               words, phrases                 according to oral               information from oral             functions, relationships           oral information
 LI5TENING




             • Follow one-step oral           instructions                    descriptions                      from oral information            • Construct models based
               directions                   • Follow two-step oral          • Follow multi-step oral          • Analyze and apply oral             on oral discourse
             • Match oral statements to       directions                      directions                        information                      • Make connections from
               objects, figures or          • Match information             • Categorize or sequence          • Identify cause and effect          oral discourse
               illustrations                  from oral descriptions to       oral information using            from oral discourse
                                              objects, illustrations          pictures, objects

             • Name objects, people,        • Ask WH- questions             • Formulate hypotheses,           • Discuss stories, issues,         • Engage in debates
               pictures                     • Describe pictures, events,      make predictions                  concepts                         • Explain phenomena,
 52EA-ING




             • Answer WH- (who, what,         objects, people               • Describe processes,             • Give speeches, oral                give examples and justify




                                                                                                                                                                                   Level 6 Reaching
               when, where, which)          • Restate facts                   procedures                        reports                            responses
               questions                                                    • Retell stories or events        • Offer creative solutions to      • Express and defend
                                                                                                                issues, problems                   points of view

             • Match icons and symbols to   • Locate and classify           • Sequence pictures, events,      • Interpret information or         • Conduct research to glean
               words, phrases or              information                     processes                         data                               information from multiple
 READING




               environmental print          • Identify facts and explicit   • Identify main ideas             • Find details that support          sources
             • Identify concepts about        messages                      • Use context clues to              main ideas                       • Draw conclusions from
               print and text features      • Select language patterns        determine meaning of            • Identify word families,            explicit and implicit text
                                              associated with facts           words                             figures of speech


             • Label objects, pictures,     • Make lists                    • Produce bare-bones              • Summarize information            • Apply information to
               diagrams                     • Produce drawings,               expository or narrative           from graphics or notes             new contexts
             • Draw in response to a          phrases, short sentences,       texts                           • Edit and revise writing          • React to multiple genres
 WRITING




               prompt                         notes                         • Compare/contrast                • Create original ideas or           and discourses
             • Produce icons, symbols,      • Give information                information                        detailed responses              • Author multiple forms/
               words, phrases to convey       requested from oral or        • Describe events,                                                     genres of writing
               messages                       written directions              people, processes,
                                                                              procedures

Variability of students’ cognitive development due to age, grade level spans, their diversity of educational experiences and diagnosed learning disabilities (if applicable), are to be
considered in using this information.
                                                                                         36
 Figure 5N: Descripción de las Habilidades en los Niveles del Lenguaje Académico del Inglés, PreK-12
 En cada nivel de capacidad en el lenguaje inglés, con apoyo, un estudiante de inglés puede hacer lo siguiente:
                        Nivel 1                           Nivel 2                                    Nivel 3                                 Nivel 4                                   Nivel 5
                       Entrando                          Empezando                               Desarrollan                               Extendiendo                            Conectand
                                                                                                       do                                                                         oo
             • Señalar dibujos, palabras o      • Clasificar dibujos u objetos           • Localizar, seleccionar y orde-         • Comparar y contrastar                  • Sacar una conclusión
               frases indicados                   siguiendo las                            nar información que provi-               funciones y relaciones de                de información oral
  ESCUCHAR




             • Seguir instrucciones orales        instrucciones verbales                   ene de descripciones orales              acuerdo a información oral             • Construir modelos
               de un paso                       • Seguir instrucciones                   • Seguir instrucciones verbales          • Analizar y aplicar                       basados en discurso
             • Emparejar declaraciones            verbales de dos pasos                    de paso múltiples                        información oral                         oral
               orales con objetos, figuras      • Emparejar declaraciones                • Clasificar o secuenciar                • Identificar causa y efecto en          • Hacer conexiones en
               o ilustraciones                    verbales con objetos, figuras            información oral usando                  discurso oral                            información oral
                                                  o ilustraciones                          dibujos u objetos

             • Nombrar objetos, personas y      • Preguntar                              • Formular hipótesis y hacer             • Discutir cuentos, cuestiones,           • Participar en debates
                                                • Describir dibujos,                                                                                                        • Explicar fenómenos,




                                                                                                                                                                                                         Nivel 6 Alcanzando
               dibujos                                                                     predicciones                             y conceptos
  HABLAR




             • Contestar preguntas                eventos, objetos y                     • Describir procesos                     • Hacer presentaciones                      dar ejemplos y
               (quién, qué, cuándo,               personas                               • Recontar cuentos o eventos               orales                                    justificar respuestas
               dónde, cuál)                     • Reformular y decir                                                              • Ofrecer soluciones creativas            • Expresar y defender
                                                  hechos                                                                            a cuestiones o problemas                  puntos de vista


              • Emparejar símbolos y dibujos    • Localizar y clasificar                 • Secuenciar dibujos, eventos            • Interpretar información o              • Realizar investigaciones
                con palabras, frases o letras     información                               y procesos                              datos                                    para reunir
                en la escritura en el           • Identificar hechos y                   • Identificar ideas principales          • Encontrar detalles que                   información de fuentes
                medioambiente                     mensajes directos                       • Usar pistas del contexto para           apoyan las ideas                         múltiples
             • Identificar conceptos de         • Seleccionar patrones de                   determinar el significado de            principales                            • Sacar una conclusión
  LEER




                la organización de letras y       lenguaje asociados con                    palabras                              • Identificar figuras retóricas y          de texto explícito e
                elementos de textos               hechos                                                                            relaciones entre palabras                implícito


             • Etiquetar objetos, dibujos,      • Hacer listas                           • Producir textos básicos                • Resumir información de                 • Aplicar información a
               diagramas                        • Producir dibujos, frases,                de estilo narrativo o                    representaciones gráficas o              contextos nuevos
                                                  oraciones cortas y apuntes
  ESCRIBIR




             • Dibujar respuestas a                                                        informativo                              apuntes                                • Reaccionar a múltiples
               instrucciones                    • Dar información pedida                 • Comparar y contrastar                  • Corregir y revisar                       generos y discursos
             • Producir íconos, símbolos,         por instrucciones orales o               información                              escritura                              • Redactar varias
               palabras y frases para             escritas                               • Describir eventos,                     • Crear ideas originales o                 formas/géneros de
               comunicar un mensaje                                                        personas, procesos                       respuestas detalladas                    composiciones
Translated by (Traducido por) Elizabeth J. Hartung, Monona Grove, WI; revised by (revisado por) Andrea Cammilleri, Mariana Castro and Stephanie Herrera, WIDA, Wisconsin Center for Education Research
 El desarrollo cognoscitivo de los estudiantes puede variar según edad, grado, diversidad de las experiencias educacionales, y discapacidades de aprendizaje (si existen). Esto se
 debe considerar al usar esta información.
                                                                                                      37
                     Appendices

          EL Student Profile (Year End Report)
      Home Language Survey (English and Spanish)
Acceptance/Refusal of Services form (English and Spanish)
            Exit Letter (English and Spanish)
         Introduction of an ELL Student to Staff
  Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAOs)
                     ACCESS for ELLs




                           38
                                               Clinton Community Schools
                                                EL Student Profile
                                                 Year End Report

                                                       20_____

 Student (Last, First) _________________________________                Date of Birth __________________

 Clinton Enrollment Date _____________________________                  Grade _________________________

 Enrolling from ______________________________________    Date___________________________
                  (Country or City/State)
 Primary Language __________________ IEP? No ______Yes _______ Area _____________________

 _____________________________________________________________________________________________
 English Language Proficiency Assessments

 ACCESS for ELLs ___________         Regular Tier A            B    C     W-APT (screener)

Listening                       Speaking                        Reading Proficiency      Writing Proficiency
Proficiency Level               Proficiency Level               Level                    Level

      _________                           ________                      ______                   ______
                                                                        __                       __
Oral Language                   Literacy Proficiency            Comprehension            Overall Composite
Proficiency                     Level                           Proficiency Level        Proficiency Level

      _________                           ________                      ______                    ______
                                                                        __                        __
 Year end Level:     1      2        3        4       5        6     (must monitor for 2 years)

 Exited (Reclassified) at _____________ (at least a 5.0 overall) on _________________ (date)

Literacy Report
Emergent _____      Early _____          Transitional _____    Self-Extending ______ Advanced _____


Levels A – C        Levels B - I         Levels H – M           Levels L - T          Levels S – Z
Grades K – 1        Grade 1 - 2          Grades 2 – 3           Grades 3 – 4          Grades 4 - 8



 Standardized Academic Assessments

 WKCE-CRT (Mark A, P, B, M)

 Math __________      Language __________

 Science________       Reading ___________

 Social Studies _______ Writing ________

 A – Advanced, P – Proficient, B – Basic, M – Minimal

                                                          39
Instructional Information

EL Support       Check those that apply.

_____ Mainstreamed                           _____ Mainstreamed with support
       without support                             _____ Math
      _____ Math                                   _____ Science
      _____ Science                                _____ English
      _____ English                                 _____ Social Studies
      _____ Social Studies



_____ Pull-out                               _____ EL Study Hall/Resource

Summer School Attendance 20_______         Yes ______   No ______



Comments:




Recommended EL Service for next academic year




_____________________________________________________________________________________________




EL Teacher ___________________________________________ Date ________________________




                                               40
                                                     HOME LANGUAGE SURVEY
                                                Clinton Community School District


Student’s Name ______________________________________________________________          Grade _______________

Place of Birth   _______________________________________________________________________________________

Number of years of education outside U. S. schools: __________

Number of years of education inside U. S. schools:     __________

Dear Parent or Guardian: The state of Wisconsin requires that schools identify and report the primary language of all of their students.
“Primary Language” is defined as the language the student learned when he or she first began to talk the language that usually is spoken
in the student’s home, or the language that the student usually speaks. You are the person most qualified to provide this important
information about your family’s primary language. Please take a few minutes to answer the following questions, even if English is the only
language usually spoken by members of your family. Your answers will remain confidential.

Directions: Circle the correct response for each of the following questions. Indicate other languages, if appropriate.

1. What language did your child speak when he or she first began to talk?              English
                                                                                       Spanish
                                                                                       Other _____________

2. What language does your child speak most often at home?                             English
                                                                                       Spanish
                                                                                       Other _____________

3. What language do YOU use most often when speaking to your child?                    English
                                                                                       Spanish
                                                                                       Other _____________

4. What language does your child speak most often with friends?                        English
                                                                                       Spanish
                                                                                       Other _____________

5. What language do other family members in your home use most
   often when speaking with each other?                                                English
                                                                                       Spanish
                                                                                       Other ____________

6. What language does your child speak most often with siblings?                       English
                                                                                       Spanish
                                                                                       Other _____________

7. Can an adult family member or extended family member in the home speak English?              ______ Yes
                                                                                                ______ No

8. Can he or she read English?                                                                  ______ Yes
                                                                                                ______ No

9. Do you require communications from the school to be in a language                            ______ Yes
   other than English? If so, what language? __________________________                         ______ No



Please sign this form and return it to your child’s teacher or to the school office.




_________________________________________________________________           _________________________________
Signature                                                                   Date

                                                                       41
                                                   Información sobre el Idioma de Casa

                                                    Las Escuelas de la Comunidad de Clinton
Nombre del estudiante ________________________________________________________________                 Grade ___________

Lugar de Nacimiento _______________________________________________________________________

Número de años de educación fuera de los Estados Unidos:        ____________

Número de años de educación dentro de los Estados Unidos:       ____________

Estimados Padres o Tutores: El estado de Wisconsin requiere que las escuelas identifiquen y reporten el idioma primario de todos los estudiantes. El idioma
primario se define como el idioma que el estudiante aprendió cuando él o ella empezó a hablar y que generalmente se habla en casa o la lengua que el estudiante
usualmente habla. Ud. es la persona con las calificaciones para proveer esta información sobre el idioma principal de la familia. Favor de tomar unos minutos
para contestar las siguientes preguntas, aun si inglés sea el único idioma generalmente hablado por miembros de su familia. Sus respuestas serán confidencial.

Direcciones: Ponga círculo alrededor de la respuesta que Ud. escoge. Indica otros idiomas, si apropiado.

1. ¿Qué lengua aprendió el/la estudiante cuando empezó a hablar?                                Inglés
                                                                                                Español
                                                                                                Otra ______________


2 . ¿Qué lengua habla su niño en casa la mayoría del tiempo?                                    Inglés
                                                                                                Español
                                                                                                Otra ______________


3. ¿Qué lengua usa Ud. generalmente cuando habla con su niño?                                   Inglés
                                                                                                Español
                                                                                                Otra ______________


4. ¿Qué lengua habla su niño con sus amigos generalmente?                                       Inglés
                                                                                                Español
                                                                                                Otra ______________


5. ¿Qué lengua usan otros miembros de la familia en su casa cuando se hablan?                   Inglés
                                                                                                Español
                                                                                                Otra _______________


6. ¿Qué lengua habla su niño con su(s) hermano(s)?                                              Inglés
                                                                                                Español
                                                                                                Otra _______________

7. ¿Puede hablar inglés un adulto de la famila?                                                 Sí _______ _
                                                                                                No ________

8. ¿Puede él o ella leer inglés?                                                                Sí ________
                                                                                                No ________

9. ¿Quiere Ud. recibir comunicaciones de la escuela en una lengua que no es                     Sí ________
   inglés?       ¿Qué lengua? ________________________                                          No ________


Favor de firmar esta forma y devolverla al maestro/a de su niño o a la oficina de la escuela.
____________________________________________________               ___________________________

  Firma                                                                 Fecha




                                                                                 42
                           Clinton Community School District

                          English Language Learner Program

                                Acceptance or Refusal of Services



Student Name __________________________________Date ________________

Please check the school: Clinton Elementary School ______________
                         Clinton Middle School     ______________
                         Clinton High School        ______________

Present English Language Proficiency Level ________________
                                             (Scale 1 – 6)

Please check one: Beginner     _______
                  Intermediate _______
                  Advanced     _______

Your student is entitled to receive English as a Second Language services/support because of his/her
English language proficiency level. Please indicate below whether or not you would like him/her to
receive this support.

Please check one:

____________ Yes, I want my child to receive ESL support.

____________ No, I do not want my child to receive ESL support.



Please return this form to your child’s ESL teacher, ____________________, as soon as possible. Thank
you.



__________________________________________              ___________________
Signature of a Parent or Guardian                       Date




                                                   43
                    El Distrito Escolar de la Comunidad de Clinton

             El Programa de Aprender Inglés Como Segunda Lengua

                     La Forma de Aprobar o No Aprobar Servicios


Nombre del Estudiante ____________________________ Fecha ____________

Favor de indicar la escuela:   Escuela Primaria            __________
                               Escuela Intermedia          __________
                               Escuela Secundaria (High School)________

El nivel de la habilidad en inglés (según un examen) ____________

Favor de indicar uno: Principiante ___________
                      Intermedio   ___________
                      Avanzado     ___________

Su estudiante puede recibir servicios/apoyo en el Programa de Inglés como Segunda Lengua porque
tiene un nivel bajo 6.0. Favor de indicar si Ud. quiere que él/ella reciba tal apoyo.

Favor de marcar uno:

_____________ Sí, apruebo los servicios de Inglés como Segunda Lengua.

____________ No, no apruebo los servicios de Inglés como Segunda Lengua.



Es muy importante que Ud. devuelva esta forma tan pronto como posible a la maestra de ESL,
_________________________, de su niño/a. Muchas gracias.



____________________________________________      ______________________
Firma de un Padre o Tutor                         Fecha




                                                  44
                                Clinton Community School District
                              English as a Second Language Program

                                          Exit Letter Form




______________________________                    Fecha ________________

______________________________                   Grade ________________

______________________________



Dear Parent of ______________________________:

The English as a Second Language Program provides temporary assistance to students in developing
English language skills and school success. When students are judged to be proficient in English
and are able to succeed in school without ESL assistance, they are exited from the program.

Based on our testing, English proficiency and standardized testing, as well as observations by
classroom teacher(s), your student is now ready to exit the program and will no longer receive ESL
services. Your student will continue to be monitored for two years by the ESL and classroom
teachers and if the data indicates need, your student could be readmitted to ESL with your
permission.

We are confident that your student will continue to be successful without ESL assistance. Please call
the school if you have any questions.

English Language Proficiency Level ____________ (Time of Exiting)

Sincerely,




_____________________________               ____________________________
ESL/Bilingual Teacher                       Director/a



Copies: Parents or Guardians
        Student’s Cumulative File
        ESL Coordinator




                                                 45
                                     El Distrito Escolar de Clinton
                           El Programa de Inglés como Segundo Idioma

                                    Carta de Salir del Programa




_______________________________                   Fecha ________________

_______________________________                   Grado ________________

_______________________________



Estimado padre de ______________________________:

El Programa de Inglés como Segundo Idioma da ayuda temporaria a los estudiantes para amplear
sus habilidades en inglés y sus éxitos generales en la escuela. Cuando los estudiantes dominan el
inglés y son capaces de tener éxito en la escuela sin la ayuda de ESL, el estudiante sale del
programa.

Basado en nuestros exámenes, uno sobre inglés y el examen estandardizado del estado, y las
observaciones de los maestros en el aula, su estudiante está listo para salir del programa y ya no va
a recibir los servicios de ESL. Los maestros de ESL y del aula van a seguir observando al estudiante y
si los datos indican que hay una necesidad, el estudiante podrá regresar al programa de ESL con el
permiso de usted.

Tenemos confianza que su estudiante va a seguir teniendo éxito sin la ayuda de ESL. Favor de
llamar la escuela si usted tiene alguna pregunta.

Nivel de Capacidad en Inglés ____________ (De esta fecha)

Sinceramente,




___________________________          _______________________________
Maestra de ESL/Bilingüe               Director/a




                                                  46
Introduction of an ELL Student to Staff             Date ___________________
Clinton Community Schools                           To _____________________
                                                    From ___________________


___________________________________________, a new student in your ____________________
class, is a non-native speaker of English.

Following is some information that we think will be helpful to you as you work with your new student:

  1. Pronunciation of name: First name ____________________________________

                              Family name ___________________________________

  2. Native language (s) _____________________________________

  3. Age _____ Gender _____ Grade ______

  4. Born in the U. S. Yes _____ No _____ If no, in which country? __________________

  5. Educational background:
     a) Years of education in another country ___________________________________

     b) Years of education in the U. S. __________________________________________

     c) Received ESL services in the U. S.:     Yes _____ No _____

     d) Received bilingual services in the U. S.: Yes _____ No _____

  6. English language proficiency:

     _____ ELP level 1 Entering               _____ ELP level 4 Expanding

     _____ ELP level 2 Beginning               _____ ELP level 5 Bridging

     _____ ELP level 3 Developing              _____ ELP level 6 Reaching (Formerly
                                               English language learner, now proficient)

  7. Reading and writing ability in first language: ____________________________________

     ________________________________________________________________________________

     ________________________________________________________________________________

  8. Comments/suggestions: (Current Placement)
     ________________________________________________________________________________

     ________________________________________________________________________________

     ________________________________________________________________________________

  9. Family prefers communication home in its primary language, ___________________.




                                                     47
                Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAO)

State and federal education laws require the assessment of and accountability for Limited
English Proficient (LEP) students – also known as English Language Learners (ELLs) – in
three specific areas called the Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAOs). Listed
below are the three areas which includes the progress that is expected by the ELL students.

AMAO 1: Progressing in English Language Acquisition
About 50% of ELL students at Levels 1 – 4 must meet ELP Progress Requirement
- annual increases in the number or percentage of students making progress in
learning English.

                           Required ELP* Level Increases

Cohort A, grades      0.8 ELP                   Cohort D, grades      0.5 ELP
1-2, levels 1-2                                 1-2, levels 3-4
Cohort B, grades      0.7 ELP                   Cohort E, grades      0.4 ELP
3-8, levels 1-2                                 3-8, levels 3-4
Cohort C, grades      0.6 ELP                   Cohort F, grades      0.3 ELP
9 – 12, levels 1-2                              9 -12, levels 3-4

*ELP = English Language Proficiency

AMAO 2: Exiting Targets
The AMAO 2 target is to exit at least 20% of eligible ELL students.

               All students who achieved ELP level 6 during the year.
          ______________________________________________________
          All students who achieved or expected to achieve ELP Level 6.

AMAO 3: ELL- District Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
This measures the annual AYP targets under Title I for the ELL subgroup in Reading and
Mathematics grade level academic achievement standards.




                                           48
                                         ACCESS for ELLs

              English Language Proficiency Test for the English Language Learners



Test Information



      2005-2006 – first administered
      Test is administered in 23 states through the WIDA Consortium
      Test window is from December through middle of February
      The test assesses the four domains of language – listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
      The speaking test is an individual test, but the listening, reading, and writing sections can be
       administered in small groups. Kindergarten test is also administered individually.
      The test assesses academic vocabulary, not academic content.
      New items are introduced each year on the test.
      The test is given according to grade clusters and tiers:
            Kindergarten
            Grades 1 – 2, tiers A, B, C
            Grades 3 – 5, tiers A, B, C
            Grades 6 – 8, tiers A, B, C
            Grades 9 – 12, tiers A, B, C
      The ACCESS test results give us an English language proficiency level, 1 – 6 (exit).
      The proficiency level determines the test tier that the ELL student will take:
            Tier A English language proficiency levels (ELP) 1 – 3
            Tier B ELP levels 2 – 4
            Tier C ELP levels 3 – 5 Only students who have taken tier C are in a position to be
               exited from testing.
      If a student is a recent arrival to our district without an ELP level, a screener, the W-APT, can
       be administered to determine a level until the ACCESS is given. (WIDA ACCESS Placement
       Test)
      ACCESS test results include a bar graph of scores for the parents, a teacher report with
       proficiency levels (1-6), scale scores, and a school roster with scores.


Where do I find the ACCESS for ELLs scores?



    Teacher Reports are found in the student’s Cum File.
    The Student Roster Report is with the ESL teacher, the counselor, the principal and in the
     Central Office.
    The English language proficiency level of each student must be entered into Skyward.
    The Parent Report (bar graph) is sent home with report cards at the end of the academic year
     in which the test is administered. The report is accompanied by a letter explaining the
     testing, and both are available in Spanish.
    Test results are not available until the end of April or the first part of May.




                                                   49
How do I interpret the ACCESS for ELLs scores?



    Scores are available in scale scores and/or English language proficiency levels. Both sets of
     scores are shown on the Teacher Report which is found in the student’s file.
    The language proficiency levels, from 1 – 6 show the progression of language development in
     the acquisition of academic English.
    Besides the four language domains, the ACCESS assesses the following:
          Oral Language 50% listening + 50% speaking
          Literacy 50% reading + 50% writing
          Comprehension 70% reading + 30% listening
          Overall Score (Composite) 35% reading + 35% writing + 15% listening + 15% speaking
    The federal and state governments recommend the amount of growth in the English language
     proficiency levels that they wish to see for each ELL student from year to year. This report is
     called the Annual Measureable Achievement Objectives (AMAOs) and is sent to districts the
     following year after the tests.




                                                50
       WKCE Documents
       ELL Decision Process
Assessment Accommodations Matrix




               51
                  ELL Decision Process

              ELL Students: English Language Level 1 and Level 2


           “Recently Arrived”
               Less than 12 months                        In Country More Than 12 Months
             attending a U.S. school

Must Take Math Test (grades 3-8, 10)
  & Science Test (grades 4, 8, 10)           Must Take Math Test (grades 3-8, 10)   Must Take Math Test (grades 3-8, 10)
May Take Reading Test                         & Science Test (grades 4, 8, 10)       & Science Test (grades 4, 8, 10)
Record First-Year Status by filling in “L”   Must Take Reading Test                 Must Take Reading Test
bubble in inside front cover of WKCE Book



                   Not                                  Not
                  *FAY                                  FAY                                 FAY


            *AYP =                                   AYP =                      AYP = Test Participant
     Test Participant Only                    Test Participant Only             & Each Tested Subject

*FAY = Full Academic Year
*AYP = Annual Yearly Progress


                                                         52
                                                THE ASSESSMENT ACCOMMODATIONS MATRIX FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS                                         - UPDATED 2010

                                                                                 Accommodations for English Language Learners (ELLs)
                                     on the Wisconsin Knowledge and Concepts Examination (WKCE) and Wisconsin Alternate Assessment for Students with Disabilities (WAA-SwD)
                                    Accommodations are allowed for ELL students (i.e. students whose English language proficiency levels are 1 through 5). 
                                                                                                                         Refer to page 3
                                    All accommodations for an ELL student must be determined by the student’s teacher.*                 
                                   Accommodations should be consistent with day-to-day instructional methods and should not be first introduced during testing. 
                                   Accommodations should enhance access without changing the skill or construct measured. 
                                    Districts should monitor the use of accommodations by comparing assessment accommodations received with those stated in student plans. 


                                                   Accommodation Description For English Language Learners (L)                        WKCE                         WAA-SwD
                                    English Language Reference Material: English support materials, not intended to define words or to provide correct response for student
                                    L1        Provide spelling assistance or spell-check device, where appropriate (Not allowed                    N/A: Students are not required to spell
                                              on Language Arts or Writing test).                                                                  responses.
                                    Scripted Oral English : Reading aloud and repeating test items or directions verbatim from test book
                                    L2        For all subject areas except Reading test, read questions and content to student in
                                              English (Not allowed on WKCE Reading test or WAA-SwD “Read by Student”                                                     
                        n English




                                                      9
                                              items).
                                    Clarification in English: Unscripted oral explanation of test considered potentially difficult for ELLs to access
                                                                                             1
                                    L3        Simplify, explain, or clarify test directions.                                                       N/A: Directions are incorporated into each
                                                                                                                                           
       Linguisti Suppor i




                                                                                                                                                   item.
                                                                                                                         1, 2, 3
                                    L4        Use directions that have been marked or highlighted by teacher or student.                           N/A: Directions are incorporated into each
                                                                                                                                                  item.
                 t




                                                                                                                    1
                                    L5        Have student reread and/or restate directions in his/her own words.                                 N/A: The WAA-SwD is in simplified language.
                                    L6        Provide audio recording of test items in English that is simplified for words not
                                              related to content or vocabulary (Not allowed on Language Arts or Reading                           N/A: The WAA-SwD is in simplified language.
                                                     4, 11
                                              tests).
Direct c




                                    L7        Read test items in English that is simplified for words not related to content or
                                                                                                                 12
                                              vocabulary (Not allowed on Language Arts or Reading tests).                                         N/A: The WAA-SwD is in simplified language.
                                    Oral Response: Student answers test items orally in English
                                                                                                        5
                                    L8        Student indicates response in English orally to a scribe.                                           N/A: Test administrator records all responses.
                                    L9        Student records responses using an audio or video device.
                                              a) Test administrator transcribes student’s responses into WKCE test book.
                                                                                                         4
                                              b) Student watches or listens to his/her recorded responses and transcribes into                   N/A: Test administrator records all responses.
                                                                      4, 6
                                                  scorable test book.

                                                                                                                53
                                             THE ASSESSMENT ACCOMMODATIONS MATRIX FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS - UPDATED 2010

                                                  Accommodation Description for English Language Learners (L)                        WKCE                    WAA-SwD
                                 Dual Language Reference Material: Support material in English and native language, not intended to define words or provide answers for student
                                 L 10     Provide bilingual word-to-word (no definition) translation (Not allowed on                        N/A: Not appropriate for students taking the
                                          Language Arts, Reading, or Writing tests).                                                       WAA-SwD.
                                 Written Translation: Professionally translated written accommodation scripts provided to student
                                 L 11     Qualified translator provides written translation of directions in student’s native               N/A: Directions are incorporated into each item.
                                                                                                                  10
                                          language. For Spanish, use DPI-provided WKCE translation scripts.                         
                                 L 12     Qualified translator provides written translation of test items into student’s native                                      
                                          language. Student responses must be in scorable test book. For Spanish, use DPI-                  Translate only the script following the “SAY”
Languag




                                          provided WKCE translation scripts (Not allowed on Language Arts or Reading                       icon and the Reading “Read-by-Teacher” items.
                                                  10
                                          tests).                                                                                           Note: WAA-SwD translation scripts not
e




                                                                                                                                            provided.
                                 Scripted Oral Translation - Only DPI-Provided Scripts: Reading aloud professionally translated, DPI-provided scripts of test items and/or directions
                       i Nativ




                                 L 13     Read aloud DPI-provided Spanish or Hmong translations of test directions in the Test
                                                                                                             9
                                                                                                                                    
               Support n e




                                          Administration Manual ( http://dpi.wi.gov/oea/publications.html).                                 N/A: WAA-SwD translation scripts not provided.
                                 L 14     Read test items aloud using DPI-provided Spanish scripts (Not allowed on Language
                                                                    9
                                          Arts or Reading tests).                                                                          N/A: WAA-SwD translation scripts not provided.
                                 L 15     Provide audio recording of test items using DPI-provided Spanish scripts (Not
                                                                                             4
                                          allowed on Language Arts or Reading tests).                                                      N/A: WAA-SwD translation scripts not provided.
                                 Sight Translation - Languages other than Spanish: Unscripted oral translation of test items and/or directions into student’s native language
Direc Linguist




                                                                                               1, 10
                                 L 16     Interpret directions into student’s native language.                                             N/A: Directions are incorporated into each item.
                                                                                                                      1,10, 12
                                 L 17     Simplify, explain, or clarify test directions in student’s native language.                      N/A: Directions are incorporated into each item.
      ic




                                                                                                                       4, 10
                                 L 18     Audio recording of directions interpreted into student’s native language.                        N/A: Directions are incorporated into each item.
                                 L 19     Audio recording of test items interpreted into student’s native language (Not allowed
                                                                                   4, 10                                                                            
t




                                          on Language Arts or Reading tests).
                                 L 20    Interpret test passages and questions into student’s native language. Student responses
                                         must be documented in scorable test book (Not allowed on Language Arts and                                              
                                                          10
                                         Reading tests).
                                 Student Response in Native Language: Student responds in his/her native language
                                 L 21    Student responds (orally or in writing) in his/her native language; translator translates
                                         student response into English, and then scribes (oral response) or transcribes (written                                 
                                                                                                            5, 6, 10
                                         response) into scorable test book (Not allowed on Writing test).

         Indirect Linguistic Support
             L 21     Extra time: provide extra time for any timed test, as long as a test session is completed
                                                                           7
                      within the same day the student started the session.                                                                 N/A: WAA-SwD is not a timed test.

                                                                                                             54
                THE ASSESSMENT ACCOMMODATIONS MATRIX FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS - UPDATED 2010
   L 22      Any accommodation not on this list must be submitted to DPI for approval, as it may represent a modification which changes the skill being
             measured.
                All requests for an additional accommodation must be made to DPI at least two weeks before the test administration window begins, by
                completing and submitting the Request for Accommodation Form located at http://dpi.wi.gov/oea/dacforms.html.
                Requests will be reviewed by a committee to determine whether the request can be approved; approval or non-approval will be returned via fax
                or email.


*Allowable Accommodations for Students in Unique Circumstances
Some students who do not have an IEP or 504 plan, due to unique circumstances at the time of testing, may be able to demonstrate their learning more accurately through the use
of accommodations on an as needed basis only. In these unique cases, please follow the guidelines outlined in the matrix for Students with Disabilities; call DPI’s Office of
Educational Accountability with any questions at (608) 267-1072. Examples of unique circumstances:
o A student with a broken arm may need a scribe or be able to use a word processor to record responses. o
A student who forgot to wear eyeglasses may need a visual magnification device.




                                                                                                                                                                             3
                                                                                     55
                      THE ASSESSMENT ACCOMMODATIONS MATRIX FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS - UPDATED 2010
Explanation of Footnotes
1
    Test directions:
       o Any portion of the WKCE test book where the word “Directions” appears in a shaded or colored box, typically at the top of a page preceding a particular section of test
            content.
       o WKCE item stems and test questions should not be considered directions.
       o Test Directions for the WAA-SwD are incorporated into the teacher test book and are read aloud to the student.
       o Directions may not be expanded.
2
    Marking test book with #2 pencil: Students should not make pencil marks near answer bubbles, other than to mark one correct answer. Students should not mark in any of
    the following areas in the test book:
       o        the student Pre-ID Barcode on barcode label,
       o        the timing tracks (the parallel lines along the side of the test book),
       o        the skunk lines (the little squares and rectangles across the bottom of each page of the test book), or o the Litho codes (the squares and numbers
       across the bottom of the first and last page of the test book).
3
    Highlighters:
       o Highlighters may only be used by ELLs (for directions only) and students with disabilities in a manner consistent with their day-to-day instruction.
       o Carefully supervise the use of highlighters as they may cause smudging of pencil marks and bubbles and, therefore, could affect scoring.
       o Do not allow the highlighting of track marks, litho codes, skunk lines, barcodes, pre-slugged bubbles or any carbon black printing. The highlighters cause these black
           inks to blur and bleed, which could affect scoring.
       o Use only a highlighter from the following list, which were tested and found to have minimal problems:
                               Avery Hi-liter (regular or thin-tipped), Bic Brite-Liner, Sanford Major Accent, or Sanford Pocket Accent (thin-tipped)
4
    Using audio/video or electronic (e.g., word processor or text talker) recordings: when using accommodations that involve audio, video or electronic recordings or saved
    files, the test administrator must ensure that the recording or file is deleted upon completion of testing for security purposes.
5
    Use of a scribe (student dictates orally to scribe):
       o       Scribes may be provided in the rare instances when visual or motor difficulties, including injuries, prevent students from writing their answers.
       o       When a student dictates responses orally to a scribe, the test must be administered in a separate, individual setting so as not to disturb other students.
       o       The WKCE Writing prompts measure composition, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling; therefore, a student must dictate these exactly as they are to
       be written.
       o       Scribes must be impartial and should allow students adequate time to review and approve the response, if desired.
       o       All scribing should be done with a #2 pencil; responses scribed in ink will not be scored.
6
    Transcribing student responses (student’s answers are documented in a manner other than in the scorable test book [e.g., large-print, Braille version, computer response, etc]):
       o Translators who scribe student responses from native language to English should translate word-for-word to the extent possible for all content areas except Writing. For
          the Writing test, student must dictate or write responses in English (translation not allowed) exactly as they are to be written.
       o The answers must be transcribed into the regular WKCE test book or WAA-SwD student Answer Document with a #2 pencil to be scored.
       o Transcription of the student’s responses must be verbatim, including spelling, formatting, punctuation, etc.
       o Test security must be maintained. After answers are transcribed, destroy all electronically-saved student responses, including audio tapes. All paper copies of student
          work (e.g., Braille tests, large-print tests, graph/lined/grid paper, printed copies of computer responses, etc.) must be returned with non-scorable test materials.

                                                                                               56
                      THE ASSESSMENT ACCOMMODATIONS MATRIX FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS - UPDATED 2010
7
    Test security during breaks: Test security must be maintained during all breaks within a testing session. To lessen the risk of a security breach occurring during
    these breaks, students requiring the use of restroom facilities must be escorted by either the proctor or a test examiner. In addition, students must not be allowed
    to use any form of wireless communication during these breaks.
           Example: The time allotment for a session of the test is one hour. Instead of scheduling the test 9:00-10:00a.m., the test may be scheduled 9:00-
                     10:15a.m. with a 15-minute break while still maintaining one hour to take the test.
8
    Students who are visually impaired and are not proficient in Braille may have the Reading portion of the WKCE and the “Read by Student” Reading items of
    the WAA-SwD read aloud by a test administrator.
       o The WKCE is available in contracted Braille; if a student designated by his/her IEP Team, by use of Form I-7-B (available at
          http://dpi.wi.gov/oea/dacforms.html), to take the WKCE is not proficient in contracted Braille and is receiving instruction in reading contracted Braille, the
          student may have the Reading test passages and items read by a test administrator.
       o The WAA-SwD is available in un-contracted Braille; if a student designated by his/her IEP Team, by use of Form I-7-B, to take the WAA-SwD is
          not proficient in un-contracted Braille, the student may have the “Read by Student” items in the Reading test read by a test administrator.
9
    Test Administrator Read Aloud Accommodation:
       o Test administrators must read in a pace and tone that is appropriate for each individual student. Careful attention must be given such that no changes in
          tone or inflection are detectable which might indicate a correct answer.
       o Students may direct test administrators to reread a portion of a passage, test question, or answer choice as needed.
10
     For students who have test items and/or directions translated into native language:
       o A qualified translator and interpreter (see http://dpi.wi.gov/oea/doc/translator_guidelines.doc) should have a Bachelor’s Degree in Modern Languages.
           When this is not possible, be sure that a translator has the following qualifications:
                1. Mastery of the target language
                2. Familiarity with both cultures
                3. Extensive general vocabulary in both languages
                4. Ability to express thoughts clearly and concisely in both languages
       o Translators work with the written word, transferring meaning from a source language into a target language. Interpreters work with the spoken word,
          transferring meaning from a source language into a target language.
       o Translators should participate in all aspects of staff training related to test administration and test security.
       o
          For more information about state provided scripts available in Spanish, and bilingual word lists in Spanish and Hmong for the
          WKCE, please see http://dpi.wi.gov/oea/ells.html.
       o In order for this accommodation to be most effective, students should have content-area knowledge in their native language.
11
     Sign Language and Oral Interpreters
       o Interpreters need to be able to translate in the same method of sign language typically used by the student (e.g., American Sign Language [ASL] or Signing
           Exact English [SEE]. Interpreters must not clarify, elaborate, or provide assistance with the meaning of words, intent of test questions, or responses to test
           items.
                            E.g. The sign for many math symbols often defines for the student what the item is intending to measure and would invalidate the item.
12
  Simplified English: The test administrator providing an accommodation in which English is simplified for words not related to content or vocabulary should be
  familiar with the content area being tested. The WAA-SwD is already in simplified language.
         Example (Grade 5 WKCE Released Item) of a simplified English test item:
The sales receipt below shows the groceries that Jose purchased from the supermarket. What is the estimated cost of Jose's groceries?
Simplified English: The receipt below shows the food that Jose bought from the store. Estimate how much money Jose spent on the food.
                  Note: It is important that “estimate” remain in this test item because it is part of the standard which is being tested.
                                                                                                57
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