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					      California
I. Prehistoric California
      A. Natural landscape
            1. The name
                  a. Las Sergas de Esplandi n by Garc¡ Ordo¤ez de Montalvo
16thcen
                        i. an island close to paradise to the east of the
Indies
                      ii. harsh & wild with craggy rocks & only metal is
gold
                     iii. Queen Califa & Amazons
                  c. The land of the Caliphs (North Africa & Middle East)
            2. Geography
                  a. An Island?
                        i. geographically cut off by mountains, deserts, &
ocean
                  b. plate tectonics
                        i. North American&Pacific plates meet at San
Andreas Fault
                              a. Pacific plate started moving north 30
mil. yrs ago
                              b. volcanic activity continues, (Ring of
Fire)
                                    i. Shasta in Klamath Mts. &Lassen in
Cascade Mts.
                              c. Sierra Nevada form & tilt West 20-10 mil.
years ago
                                    i. Coast Range starts later &Central
Valley fills
                  c. Glaciation 2 mil. years ago
                        i. no glaciers from Polar regions
                      ii. small glaciers from mountains moved down&formed
valleys
                     iii. warming causes sea to raise & new coast line
                              a. Golden Gate forms 10,000 years ago &
forms bay
                  d. Climate
                        i. Mediterranean (fairly rare in world)
                              a. warm dry summers & wet winters
                              b. El Nino pocket of warm water in south
east Pacific
                      ii. micro climates (regions have own climatic
conditions)
                              a. Northern rain forests, southern & eastern
deserts
                                    i. low breaks in Coastal Range allows
cold air in
            3. Plants & Animals
                  a. More diversity than elsewhere in U.S.
                        i. 73 varieties of conifers in American West, 54
in CA
                              a. oldest living things, largest & tallest
                  b. prehistoric animals
                       i. large reptiles in eastern deserts, Nevada,
Utah&Arizona
                            a. most of CA under water during this period
                     ii. large mammals, mammoths, sloths, camels, wolves
& tigers
                            a. extinct with climactic change 6000-3000
B.C.
      B. Native Peoples
            1. Origins
                  a. land bridge theory 35,000-15,000 years ago
                  b. problems with theory
                  c. alternative theories
            2. Agriculture & domestic animals?
                  a. dogs not widely used limited to some tribes
                  b. acorns, wild grains
                        i. acorn leaching process spread 10,000 years ago
                  c. flood plain planting along rivers
                        i. Yuma, Mohave & Halchidhoma-maize, pumpkin,
squash&beans
                      ii. Owens valley Paiute built large irrigation
canals
                              a. Cahuilla even irrigated from wells at
times
                     iii. almost all knew of agriculture but not used by
all
                  d. hunters & gathers with large trade network
                        i. coastal fishing
                      ii. Chumash plank boats to channel islands
            3. Isolated tribes
                  a. 100 different tribes with 64-80 different languages
                  b. geographic isolation, plentiful food supply&temperate
climate
            4. Trade networks
                  a. interior mineral products
                        i. obsidian, steatite (soap stone), cinnabar,
granite
                  b. coastal products
                        i. abalone, salt & tar for caulking boats
                  c. fairs, treaties, market agreements, exchange rates
                        i. tobacco & cocaine in Egyptian mummies?
            5. Science & Medicine
                  a. Astronomy
                        i. tracked solstice for agriculture & religion
                              a. power to predict & benefit tribe
                  b. Medicines from local plants
                        i. used some surgery & set bones
                      ii. whites consulted shamen years after conquest
                              a. especially concerning infection & serious
illness
                     iii. idea of subconscious & interpretation of dreams?
            6. Religion
                  a. creation myths that reflect their environment
                  b. some monotheists but most polytheists
                       i. animistic - human behavior & characteristics of
animals
                 c. taboos & customs limited exploitation of nature
                       i. some birth controls established-better than
consequences
                 d. harmony with nature & neighbors myth
                       i. no market economy & limited technology
                 e. hallucinogenic drugs used to induce visions
                       i. jimpson weed, mushrooms & peyote
           7. Government
                 a. Bands of tribes (triblets)
                       i. small groups under captains of tribes
                             a. leadership & relations within a band
                             b. tribes based on language not
relationships
                             c. different dialects & religious practices
                             d. some intermarry others ostracized
                     ii. banded with other clans to defend or fight
                 b. leadership based on family structure & inherited
                       i. potlatches maintain equality of wealth
                     ii. chiefs give more away at least once a year
                             a. allowed two wives in many tribes
           8. Gender roles
                 a. women - gathered & prepared plant foods
                       i. maintained houses & reared children
                 b. men - hunted animals & harvested woods & minerals
                       i. governed, traded, & conducted religious
ceremonies
                 c. labor sharing at harvest times (salmon runs acorn
season)
                 d. European farming rejected by many men as women's work
                       i. fought assimilation
                 e. sex more free than european morals
                       i. single men lived in communal houses
                     ii. women lived with families & joined man's clan
                             a. divorce easy but not as common as today

II. Europeans and Indians
      A. Explorers
            1. Glory, Gold, & God
                  a. The Reconquista & Spanish feudal system
                  b. the incomienda & Barthome de las Casas
                  c. germ pool theory
            2. Hernan Cort‚s 1519 invasion of Mexico
                  a. early myths and Aztec response
                        i. Quetzalcoatl & Black Tezcatlipoca
                  b. Malinche
            3. 1533 mutineers cross Gulf of California to Baja
                  a. returned with tales of island surrounded by pearl
beds
                        i. met hostile natives who killed all except 2
                  b. Cort‚z follows lead in 1535 named sea & claimed
island
                   c. Ulloa (1539) Alarcon (1540) discovered Colorado &
fresh water
                          i. California is a peninsula but name sticks
              4. Juan Rodr¡guez Cabrillo w/ 3 ships 1542
                    a. peaceful Indians with news of other whites landing in
east
                         i. Ulloa or Alarcon?
                   b. San Diego (named first San Miguel later changed by
Visca¡no)
                         i. Indians peaceful at first but attacked at night
                               a. 2 bands & retribution for attacks in east
                               b. made reference to horses swords lances &
cross bows
                   c. European reaction to Chumash (kidnapped 6 children)
                         i. claimed must be white (too intelligent for
indians)
                               a. small ocean boats, towns with round
houses, make-up
                   d. Winter storms & scattered ships
                         i. low supplies & hungry w/ little water
                               a. turned around north of Monterey Bay
                   e. dies of infection in broken arm 1/3/1543
                   f. ships return 4/14/43 under second in command
Bartolom‚ Ferrer
                         i. established Spain's claim to California & west
coast
                               a. no wealth, limited knowledge & no inlet
to east
              5. Sir Francis Drake & New Albion 1579
                    a. privateer for England(consort & partner with queen
Elisabeth)
                   b. avoid trap by sailing up west coast of New Spain
                   c. around the world in Golden Hind (Fernando Magellan
1519-22)
                   d. New Albion someplace in northern California (Drake's
Bay?)
                        i. meeting Costal Miwok, fear-prayer-& applause
                      ii. exchange of gifts
                     iii. brass plate (1937 H.E.Bolton)
      B. A Second Wave of Explorers
            1. The Manila Galleons
                  a. Trade with far east and Philippines established by
Magellan
                  b. new route north with treasure to CA and south to
Mexico
                        i. ships weak & needed supplies susceptible to
pirates
                      ii. supply station in northern California may
alleviate
                  c. 1587 Pedro de Unamuno in a Manila galleon explored
coastline
                        i. may have found Morro Bay
                              a. natives fled by attacked later killed 5
                      ii. Spain feared loss of valuable treasure to
natives
                              a. ordered future explorers not to travel
inland
                  d. 1595 Sebasti n Rodr¡guez Cerme¤o & San Agust¡n
explored coast
                        i. christened Port of San Francisco (now Drake's
Bay)
                              a. assembled small exploration launch San
Buenaventura
                      ii. storms destroyed ship
                             a. tried to build vessel & stole wood from
village
                              b. Indians attacked & fled on San
Buenaventura
                    iii. Galleon & treasure lost, expedition a failure
                             a. Spain orders Galleons to avoid dangerous
coastline
                              b. sends smaller vessels north to explore in
future
             2. Sebasti n Vizca¡no's Expedition 1602
                   a. 3 ships San Diego, Santo Tom s, Tres Reys & 130 men
                         i. difficulty against winds & frequent stops for
supplies
                      ii. contact with Indians mostly favorable
                  b. despite hardship managed to map coast up to Point
Pi¤os
                        i. scurvy ravaged crew all too weak to work
                      ii. stopped at Monterey Bay (named for Viceroy)
                              a. feared failure & exaggerated the bay
                                    i. Portol 's expedition failed to
recognize it
                             b. sent one ship home with extremely ill
                  c. pushed north past Cape Mendicino, storm separated 2
ships
                        i. landed Drake's Bay couldn't salvage San
Agust¡n's cargo
                      ii. turned south at Cape San Sebasti n (in southern
Oregon)
                      iii. all ships returned safely but over 40 died
             3. 1606 Royal Order prohibited further sea exploration of
California

III. SPANISH CALIFORNIA
      A. Problems & Early attempts
            1. European threats to New Spain
                  a. French & Indian War- Britian gets Florida & France
out
                  b. Russians expanding south from Alaska
            2. Visitor-General Jos‚ de G lvez ordered to secure north
                  a. settlement through missions & presidios
                  b. Capt. Gaspar de Portol & Fr. Jun¡pero Serra lead
expedition
                        i. four pronged invasion of San Diego
                       ii. Apr. & Apr. 1769   2 ships w/ 100 sailors from La
Paz
                      iii. Capt. Fernando Rivera led troops & cattle from
Mexico
                       iv. Portol   & Serra left Baja w/ mission Indian
neophites
                   c. disease & Indian resistance killed half
                         i. 1 ship (San Antonio) sent for reinforcements
                       ii. Serra stays behind with sick
                      iii. Portol leads land expedition to Monterey
                               a. cannot recognize bay from Vizca¡no's
description
                               b. found San Francisco Bay as impediment
north
                               c. retraced path & returned to San Diego
                   d. San Antonio returns the day before failure & return
                         i. Portol & Serra head north on ship to Monterey
                   e. Expedition establishes Monterey as capitol of Alta CA
                        i. Serra founds mother mission Mission San Carlos
Borromeo
                        ii. Portol gives command to Lieutenant Pedro Fages
                      iii. Portol returns home
              3. San Francisco
                    a. 3 missions divided the distance from San Carlos & San
Diego
                         i. San Gabriel Arc ngel (1771)
                       ii. San Antonio de Padua (1771)
                      iii. San Luis Obispo de Tolosa (1772)
                   b. missions depended on detachments of soldiers to
protect
                         i. soldiers caught run always as well
                       ii. needed supplies from Mexico to feed soldiers
                   c. Captain Juan Bautista de Anza expedition 1775-1776
                         i. overland from Mexico along Gila & Colorado
Rivers
                              a. longer but safer than sea route
                       ii. establish presidio of San Francisco
                              a. first time women & children brought north
                              b. also start mission San Francisco de Asis
(Dolores)
                      iii. Indians help build presidio & mission
                              a. at celebration soldiers shot guns
                              b. Indians ran away & none baptized for one
year
      B. Missions as a Colonial tool of Exploitation
            1. Serra's efforts 1769-1784
                  a. first 9 missions 50-75 miles apart
                        i. designed two day's journey apart
            2. Ferm¡n de Lasu‚n founded 9 more by 1803 & reduced distance
between
                  a. fostered growth w/ irrigation, agriculture & industry
                  b. built stone & adobe structures with tiled roofs
                  c. 21 missions from San Diego to San Francisco Solano by
1823
             3. Indian relations under mission system
                   a. separated & controlled once in mission system
                         i. no way out after conversion
                       ii. women in locked buildings at night
                   b. time for prayer & work
                         i. whipping common, (flagellations as well)
                       ii. Indian religions persecuted once they converted
                      iii. disease caused Indians to question & return home
                       iv. soldiers returned run-aways & punished wayward
                   c. Padre's responsible for Indians & decided when ready
to leave
                        i. kept Indians under care & exploited for mission
system
             4. Rich Institutions
                   a. training schools for European crafts & agricultural
skills
                        i. cattle introduced, iron work, ceramics, leather
& tools
                  b. introduced European crops & enticed Indians in lean
times
                        i. at times both suffered & Indians released to
forage
                      ii. livestock allowed to run wild with little care
                  c. few skilled craftsmen throughout California
                  d. no exports even at times of plenty
                        i. held surplus for lean times
                      ii. illegal export of grain to Russians at Ft. Ross
                     iii. illegal trade to British & Americans in hide &
tallow
                   e. some missions specialized (wine & oil at San Gabriel)
             5. Early Indian Resistance: The San Diego & Colorado River
Rebellions
                  a. 1769&70 early raids on Portol -Serra party
                  b. 1775 Ipai and Tipai bands led by Francisco a neophyte
attacked
                        i. destroyed mission and presidio & killed three
                c. 1776 Spaniards throughout colony took back control of
area
                  d. 1781 Yuma Revolt triggered by the founding of Los
Angeles
                        i. settlers led by Lt. Gov. Fernando Rivera
destroyed crops
                      ii. Indians attacked & killed over 30 colonists &
soldiers
                             a. all those that stayed behind
                     iii. remained in control of Colorado for 70 yrs.
                  e. San Gabriel mission Nov. 1810 but put down by forces
in L.A.
                        i. Claims of priests and Madona picture
                  f. Disease weakens Indians more
                        i. 1769-1846 Indians droped from 300,000 to
100,000
                      ii. native medicines fail to heal
                     iii. women affected more than men
                             a. kidnapped & taken to missions in large
number
                                   i. Soldiers killed men & captured rest
                                 ii. some forced into prostitution &
concubinage
                             b. separated by mission fathers & isolated
in dorms
                                   i. disease spreads in confinment
                             c. infertility from disease
                                   i. syphilis
      X. Pueblos
            1. Franciscans demanded soldiers for protection but refused
to supply
            2. Governor Felipe de Neve offered alternative of pueblos
                  a. Franciscans fought idea & offered to supply soldiers
            3. 2 successful pueblos of gente de raz¢n
                  a. San Jos‚ (1777) started with 68 soldiers & families
                        i. recruits from San Francisco & Monterey
                  b. Los Angeles (1781) recruited from northern Mexico
                        i. 11 families 44 people of mixed race
                  c. Villa de Branciforte near Santa Cruz 1797 failed in
20 yrs.
            4. government support and planing
                  a. recruits promised salaries & supplies until self
sufficient
                  b. promised to improve land & town & serve in militia
                  c. towns designed on grid by officials
                  d. irrigated fields & Indian labor hired
                        i. Padre's feared influence on Indians
                      ii. Indians worked for town's people & avoided
missions
                              a. exploitation a major concern
                              b. fear of uprising for cause
                              c. laws against Indians living with settlers
                              d. Indian servants (wards) & hands common
                     iii. no longer enticed by mission food
                  e. never a rebellion focused on a town but several on
missions
            5. culture & education
                  a. only upper class educated
                  b. most upper class played a musical instrument
            6. Environmental Impact
                  a. grazing animals, sheep, cattle & horses
                        i. minimal effect with limited population
                      ii. Indians forbidden to own or ride horses
                              a. Indian labor needed & law unenforceable
                              b. raiding Indians stole trained horses for
resale
                  b. imported plants
                        i. some encroachments on native vegetation
                              a. intended & accidental
                  c. few imported birds
                        i. later starlings from English immigrants
IV. MEXICAN CALIFORNIA 1821-1848
      A. Mexican Revolution
            1. Fr. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla a criollo priest starts 1810
                  a. rebels plundered indiscriminately not supporting
upper class
                  b. lower classes could not be controlled
                  c. Hidalgo captured defrocked & executed
            2. Fr. Jos‚ Mar¡a Morelos took over revolt after a few months
                  a. some initial success at Acapulco in 1813
                  b. defeated at siege of Mexico City and captured
                  c. Morelos captured defrocked & executed 1815
            3. Latin American revolutions effected CA
                  a. Frenchman Hippolyte de Bouchard attacked CA in 1818
                        i. raided Monterey & San Juan Capistrano
                      ii. left Joseph Chapman behind at Monterey
            4. Colonel Agust¡n Iturbide & Plan de Iguala 2/24/1821
                  a. hoped a proper emperor could be found to run country
                  b. no emperor found & Iturbide takes over till 1823
                  c. Iturbide appointed Luis Antonio Arguello governor of
CA
                        i. a native born california had popular support
                      ii. Pablo Vicente de Sol opened trade hides to
British
                     iii. Arguello signs contract with Americans
            5. Gen. Antonio L¢pez de Santa Anna took over & ousted
Iturbide
                  a. Constitution of 1824 established a republic
                  b. Jos‚ Mar¡a Echeand¡a appointed governor & settles in
San Diego
                        i. claimed wet & foggy Monterey bad for his health
                      ii. Joaqu¡n Sol¡s led mutiny in Monterey 1829
                              a. Echeand¡a met on battle field near Santa
Barbara
                              b. mutineers back down without a fight
                                    i. needed pay & food but did not want
to die for
                              c. Mexico stops sending convicts to CA as
soldiers
                     iii. Frontier security threatened by American
immigrants
                              a. Jedediah Smith leads Americans to San
Gabriel 1826
                                    i. Echeand¡a feared precedent
established
                                  ii. ordered Smith to return to U.S.
            6. Echeand¡a's attempts at Secularization
                  a. Padre's frightened after Indian revolt in San Diego
                        i. Echeand¡a convinces to feed & clothe soldiers'
families
                  b. 1826 allows Indians to voluntarily leave certain
missions
                        i. only a few leave & are incapable of independent
living
                   c. Mission hides & tallow industry supports 2/3rds CA
population
                         i. Franciscans insisted secularization would
disrupt economy
                       ii. economic development depended on secularization
                              a. Missions held most the valuable land in
state
                   d. Apr. 1831 Echeand¡a issued new plan but not
implemented
              7. Gov. Colonel Manuel Victoria a strong conservative takes
over
                   a. pro cleric he supports missions
                   b. runs state as dictator&refuses to call territorial
diputaci¢n
                   c. rebellion in the south that gathered troops
                   d. battle at Cahuenga Pass mostly uneventful
                         i. Jos‚ Mar¡a Avila's brave charge killed
governor's aide
                               a. also wounded governor w/ lance before
Avila died
                    e. 1/17/1832 Victoria resigned & returned to Mexico
              8. Victors quarrel over government
                    a. Echeand¡a takes over again
                          i. Southerners want a division of civil & military
power
                       ii. diputaci¢n elects Pio Pico governor but
Echeand¡a stops
                   b. Northern Californians support Captain Agust¡n
Zamorano
                         i. Zamorano, Victoria's secretary, brought 1st
press to CA
                   c. truce avoids bloodshed
                         i. Zamorano given military control north of San
Fernando
                        ii. Echeand¡a retains control of the south
              9. Gov. General Jos‚ Figueroa appointed 5/9/1832
                    a. proud of Indian ancestry broke down racial boundaries
                    b. promoted conlonization to defend against Russians &
U.S.
                         i. ordered Ensign Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo north
                       ii. Vallejo to build a presidio & give land to
settlers
                               a. Ballejo establishes Santa Rosa & Petaluma
                               b. cuts off Russians from interior & they
leave
                              c. becomes one of richest ranchers in CA
           10. Seculariztion of the Missions
                  a. 1813 Spain ordered secularization of missions over 10
yrs old
                         i. Mexican Revolution stoped orders before carried
out
                   b. Revolutionary ideals claimed Missions a tool of
colonization
                       i. Indians should be free no more racial
classifications
                      ii. others wanted the wealth of the missions
                  c. The G¢mez Far¡as Plan
                        i. Santa Anna elected president & retired to
Jalapa hacienda
                      ii. Vice President G¢mez Far¡as acting president
very liberal
                             a. 8/1833 orders complete secularization of
CA missions
                                   i. removed franciscan authroity over
Indians
                                 ii. missions converted to ordinary
churches
                                iii. missionaries replaced by parish
priests
                             b. property divided among Indians & settlers
                                   i. local land owners could not own
mission land
                             c. property dispursment bill failed
                 d. H¡jar-Padr‚s Colony 1834
                       i. Jos‚ Mar¡a H¡jar director of
colonization&governor of CA
                     ii. Jos‚ Mar¡a Padr‚s military comandante of CA
                    iii. colony made up of 250 craftsmen & teachers
                             a. criticized as illprepared, few farmers &
ranchers
                     iv. given letter and plan for secularization
                 e. Gov. Figueroa continues secularization
                       i. Fr. Narciso Dur n remins Figueroa of Echeand¡a
experiment
                     ii. diputaci¢n drew up 3 stage plan
                             a. 10 missions secularized now 6 next yr
then last 5
                             b. 33 cultivable acres per Indian family
                             c. large grants
                             d. 1/2 mission livestock given to Indians
                             e. Indians emancipated but drafted to work
mission land
                    iii. H¡jar-Padr‚s colony lands at San Diego
                             a. President Santa Ana takes over&rejects
constitution
                                   i. cancels H¡jar and Padr‚s
appointments
                             b. Figueroa allowed colony to settle N.of
San Francisco
                                   i. rumors start that H¡jar-Padr‚s
colony rebelling
                                 ii. 1835 gov. allows colonist to settle
anywhere
                                iii. H¡jar and Padr‚s arrested & sent
back to Mexico
                 f. Figueroa resigns in poor health, appoints Jos‚ Castro
governor
                         i. local trustees appointed to oversee
secuarlization
                              a. trustees stold most of mission's wealth
                              b. Indians not given enough to survive
                                    i. forced to work for others or flee
                                  ii. many refuse to work mission lands &
flee
                                 iii. a few remain in small villages near
missions
                      ii. no organized secularization led to exploitation
of Indians
                              a. a few Indians rebel & led attacks from
interior
            11. Political Turmoil
                   a. Colonel Mariano Chico appointed governor by Santa
Anna
                         i. only lasted 3 months before another Revolution
                   b. Nicolas Guti‚rrez assumed power until disputes
erupted
                         i. Juan Bautista Alvarado & Jos‚ Castro raise army
                               a. gained support from American immigrant
Isaac Graham
                       ii. army marches on Monterey & Guti‚rrez resigned
                   c. diputaci¢n elected Alvarado governor
                         i. another revolt by Jos‚ Castro & Carlos Carrillo
in south
                              a. southerners given a prefectura
(subgovernor)
                       ii. 1838 Mexico formally appoints Alvarado governor
                               a. also appointed Vallejo comandante general
            12. The Hide and Tallow Trade
                   a. Missions controlled 10 million acres & 400,000 head
of cattle
                         i. thousands of horses & 1/2 million sheep
                       ii. developed trade with Mexico &foreigners in
tallow & hides
                      iii. Mexican Revolution legalized illicit trade w/
foreigners
                   b. Governor Arguello allowed foreigners to build
storehouses
                   c. Richard Henry Dana's Two Years Before the Mast 1840
                         i. 19yr old Harvard student on Pilgrim
                               a. ships liked American firms in Hawaii with
CA
                              b. acted as floating department stores
                       ii. spread misconceptions of californios
(stereotypes)
                   d. San Diego best harbor for hides
                         i. climate good & harbor safe for loading hides
                               a. sea water could rot hides
                               b. men could cure 25 hides a day
                       ii. government wanted customs house moved to south
                               a. smuggling avoided 1/4 to 1/3rd legitimate
duties
            13. Rancho and Pueblo Society
                   a. Large land owners controlled society
                         i. Padres, Officers & Rich landowners primarily
white
                       ii. large extended families & ranch hands
                      iii. Patrons & Compadres
                              a. godparents of workers, names sakes
                       iv. women had few freedoms not allowed education
                              a. no division of farm labor
                              b. domestic responsibilities, sewing,
cooking&cleaning
                              c. worked in missions supervising & teaching
Indians
                              d. had some control over families when male
head died
                                    i. 60 land grants given to women
                                  ii. women retained property in marriage
                                 iii. community property rights under
Mexican law
                   b. soldiers & poor worked for Ranchers or owned lots in
town
                   c. By 1845 only 6 Catholic priests remained in CA
                         i. Rancheros & Immigrant merchants much more
important
                   d. Land Grants
                         i. under Spain only 20 large grants given
                       ii. before secularization another 30 were given
                      iii. by 1846 &war there were more than 700 private
land grants
                              a. over 8 million acres owned by individuals
                              b. Mexico limited size to 50,000 acres
                                    i. avoided limits by owning adjacent
grants
                       iv. Grants given to influential
                              a. submitted a map of grant & governor
granted
                              b. needed definite boundaries & research
other claims
                                    i. some floating with vague boundaries
                              c. Indians exempt & noted on map (dise¤o)
                   e. Towns
                         i. Ayuntamiento town councils allowed after
1824constitution
                       ii. Alcalde judge, sheriff, mayor & councilman
                              a. did jobs needed in town
                                    i. policeman dog catcher & street
sweeper

V. FOREIGN PENETRATION OF CALIFORNIA
      A. The Russians in California
            1. Count Nikolai Rezanov visits San Francisco 1806
                  a. hoped to get supplies for Russian-American Fur Co. at
Sitka
                        i. men starving & suffering scurvy
                   b. engaged to Concepci¢n Arguello (daughter of S.F.
comandante)
                          i. made the illegal trade easier
                    c. died on return trip to Russia
              2. 1810 Ivan Kuskov scouted Bodega Bay established Ft. Ross
in 1812
                   a.   traded manufactured goods with locals for food
                   b.   hired Indians to farm area
                   c.   brought Aleut hunters for sea otters & fur seals
                   d.   explored interior and named Mt. St. Helena in Lake
County
              3. Failure of Russian post
                    a. could not raise enough wheat to feed Alaskan posts
                    b. inland expansion blocked by Vallejo
                    c. Sea otter population starts to decline
                    d. Hudson's Bay Co. in Oregon agrees to supply Alaskans
1839
                    e. sold holdings to John A. Sutter in 1841
        B. Hide & Tallow Traders
              1. British John Begg & Co. opened California business 1822
                    a. brought 15-20 immigrants a year to CA
                    b. William E.P. Hartnell worked 2 yrs in Peru before CA
                          i. married & became Catholic & Mexican citizen in
1830
                         ii. granted Rancho Patrocinio del Alisal near
Monterey
                        iii. visitador de misiones after secularization for 2
yrs .
                                a. useless to stop plunder of secularization
& quit
              2. Boston firm of Bryant & Sturgis stars in 1823
                    a. Americans followed & equaled the number of British
before 1830
                   b. Able Stearns from New England
                         i. married Mexican, Naturalized & gained large
land holdings
                         ii. Alcalde, during early American period, richest
in So.CA
            3. Filled need in Mexican society for economic expansion
                  a. few businessmen or craftsmen
                  b. fit in with the upper classes of Mexican land owners
      C. Mountain Men
            1. Jedediah Smith with small party of 17 to San Gabriel 1826
                  a. came as result of William H. ashley rendezvous in
rockies
                  b. hoped to open up more beaver country to s.w. of Salt
Lake
                  c. guided by two neophytes who ran away from San Gabriel
                  d. stayed for six weeks while Echeand¡a examined (see if
spying)
                  e. hunted beaver near San Diego & traveled north in San
Joaquin
                        i. few men stayed on Stanislaus R.
                   f. crossed Sierra Nevada & Great Basin home to Bear
Valley Utah
                   g. returned next year with a few women in party
                         i. attacked by Mojave Indians near Colorado R.
                       ii. aided with supplies & horses at San Gabriel
                      iii. made contact with men on Stanislaus & went to
San Jose
                       iv. Fr. Dur n held him captive & Echeand¡a placed in
jail
                         v. allowed to leave but never return
                       vi. overland up into Oregon and attacked again by
Indians
                      vii. gained supplies from Hudson's Bay Co. at
Vancouver
                      viii. killed in 1831 by Comanches on Santa Fe Trail
              2. James Ohio Pattie arrived in San Diego in 1827 w/ small
party
                    a. imprisoned by Echeand¡a in fear of invasion
                    b. released in exchange for small pox vaccine
              3. Others followed 1828 Mexico allowed settlers to come to CA
                    a. promised to become Mexican citizens & Catholics
                    b. several routes established by Mountain men over
Sierras
                         i. 3 southern routes through dessert & across
Colorado R.
              4. Scoundrels or Nonconformists
                    a. Dr. John Marsh
                          i. ran away from Santa Fe 1836 to L.A.
                        ii. claimed he had degree to practice medicine (B.A.
Harvard)
                      iii. settled in southeast S.F. bay area
                       iv. wrote & encouraged others to come to CA
                   b. John Sutter left family in Switzerland 1834 for CA
                         i. trapped furs in Rockies & traveled to Hawaii &
Alaska
                       ii. settled in n. Sacramento Valley on grant from
Alvarado
                      iii. appointed local military commander & Allcalde
                              a. claimed military background but had none
                       iv. New Helvetia - Sutter's Ft.
                              a. bought Ft. Ross in 1841 - cannon &
uniforms
                               b. cattle, sheep, horses, wheat,grist mill &
distillery
                               c. employed Indians, Californians &
Hawaiians
                                d. supply station to immigrants from east
                                      i. sent aid east
                                    ii. credit to new arrivals
                                   iii. sold land & leased Indian laborers
              5. Frontier Settlers
                    a. Bidwell-Bartleson Party 1841
                          i. encouraged by Dr. John Marsh's letters
                       ii. 500 people pledged to go in 1840 only 1 & some
new people
                      iii. John Bidwell leads group leads 68 others & John
Bartleson
                              a. Bartleson elected leader but deserts &
returns later
                       iv. joined group heading to Oregon & 1/2 went on to
Oregon
                        v. 32 continued to Marsh's near Mt. Diablo back to
Sutter's
                   b. Workman-Rowland Party
                         i. 25 Americans flee Santa Fe 1841 must leave
                       ii. among party is B.D. Wilson
                   c. 1842 no parties
                   d. 1844 Stevens-Murphy party crossed the Sierras in
wagons
                         i. route became Donner Pass
                       ii. opened way for over 1,500 in next year
                   e. Donner party of 87 in 1846 arrived too late
                         i. from Springfield, Ill tried new route
                               a. written of in Lansford W. Hastins's
Emigrant's Guide
                              b. went south of Salt Lake to cut off time
but longer
                       ii. camped Nov. 2 just short of summit
                              a. at night snowstorm blocked pass
                      iii. snowed in for months, most survivors ate flesh
to live
                      iv. 40 perished most survivor were women
      D. The breakdown of Mexican Government
            1. Juan Bautista Alvarado remained governor from 1838 to 1842
                  a. conflict with north & south over the customs house &
capitol
                  b. Gen. Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo criticizes Alvarado's
inaction
                        i. fears weakened frontier & political inaction
                      ii. petitions Mexico city for united civil &
military command
            2. General Manuel Micheltorena appointed governor in late
1842
                  a. army of 300 unpaid & low on supplies many ex-convicts
                        i. Batallon Fijo de Californias mixed racial
background
                  b. resentment and freedom of north led to another
rebellion
            3. Jos‚ Castro & Alvarado joined Americans in south with P¡o
Pico
                  a. Micheltorena was aided by Sutter, Isaac Graham &
rowdy friends
                        i. Graham owned still & disreputables hung out
there
                  b. Americans decided to drop out and let Mexicans decide
issue
                        i. battle killed one horse & one mule
                     ii. Micheltorena agreed to leave & take troops with
him
                 c. Pico was head of the diputaci¢n & was given civil
leadership
                       i. Castro became comandante general & went back to
Monterey
            4. Indian raids accentuated the lack of control
                  a. Vallejo spent most of time chasing Indians to Sierras
                  b. Most ranchos near San Diego abandoned at some point
                        i. population in far south declined by 50%
      E. American Interest
            1. Manifest Destiny
                  a. term developed by John L. O'Sullivan in 1845
Democratic Review
                  b. feeling of expansion prevalent years before
                  c. Texas expansion 1820s & Nation 1836 but Jackson won't
annex
                  d. 1835 Andrew Jackson offered Mexico 1/2 mil for S.F.
bay & area
                  e. 1841 British agents suggest CA as security for loan
to Mexico
                  f. Commodore Thomas ap Catesby Jones seized Monterey
Oct. 1842
                        i. believed U.S. was at war with Mexico over Texas
                  g. James K. Polk elected 1844 but Tyler annexed Texas
just before
                        i. John Slidell offers $40 mil for New Mexico & CA
but no
                      ii. Polk offered Consul Larkin position as
confidential agent
                              i. ordered to stir up Californians against
Mexico
            2. John C. Fr‚mont
                  a. Commissioned in the army Corps of Topographical
Engineers
                  b. 1842 sent on a reconnaissance of the Oregon Trail
                  c. 1843 &44 w. on Columbia R. & s. to Sierras into San
Joaquin
                        i. crossed Tehachapi into Mojave and on to Utah
                      ii. published trip became guide for immigrants to CA
                  d. 1845 expedition to CA
                        i. met with Castro in Monterey for supplies
                      ii. established Ft. near San Juan Bautista
                     iii. Thomas Larkin suggested Fr‚mont leave without
war
                      iv. Fr‚mont traveled into Oregon but returned May
1846
                  e. Bear Flag Revolt
                        i. Fr‚mont's secret orders?
                      ii. setters feared removal & forces captured
Vallejo's adobe
                     iii. after taking north headed south
                      iv. Castro&Pico threatening each other over control
of state
                       v. Pico gathering horses to attack north
                     vi. Fr‚mont advances to south without violence
                    vii. Battle of Los Angeles Fr‚mont overland from
S.Diego
                             i. Commodore Robert F. Stockton in San Pedro
                   viii. Capt. Archibald Gillespie & 8 men in L.A.
                    ix. Battle of San Pasquel & Gen. Stephen W. Kearny
                       x. Capitulation at Cahuenga Jan 13, 1847

VI. THE NEW EL DORADO
      A. The Discovery
            1. Sutter's Mill built with James Wilson Marshall in 1847
                  a. crew of Maidu Indians & Mormon veterans of Mexican
War
                  b. diverted river through a millrace each night
                        i. Apr.24, 1848 found gold
                      ii. kept secret & allowed workers to prospect on off
time
                  c. Sutter, Marshall & Sam Brannan all died in poverty
            2. Alternative views claim Indian workers first discovered
strike
                  a. Sutter let them work the claim & took credit for it
himself
            3. Placer Gold and its allure
                  a. beauty scarcity & malleability have made it desirable
                  b. most ore in CA was placer type found in waterways
                        i. deposited with the currents in stream beds
                      ii. rivers change course w/ geological development
                  c. San Feliciano Canyon (Placerita Canyon) 1st strike in
CA
                        i. Francisco L¢pez discovers gold in 1841 but
little gold
                      ii. E. branch of San Gabriel River similar claims
      B. The Gold Rush
            1. News gets out in California
                  a. Sutter's agent to Monterey makes claim on American R.
& tells
                  b. Workers on the Mill pay Sam Brannan's store in gold
dust
                  c. Sutter tells John Bidwell & Mariano Vallejo
                  d. newsmen underplayed story in CA press
            2. Gold fever spreads through state by March
                  a. workers in Mill & nearby businesses quit to prospect
                  b. June only 200 people remain in San Francisco from 800
                  c. people from whole state headed to mines by summer
            3. The News Spreads
                  a. Military Governor Richard B. Mason sent 230 ozs. Gold
to D.C.
                  b. James K. Polk changed state of Union to mention
strike
                  c. Horace Greeley in New York Tribune wrote about strike
1/30/49
                  d. News spreads throughout world
                        i. 1849 population increases to 20,000 by 1850
100,000
      C. Rush to the Fields
            1. The Sea route
                  a. 17,000 miles & 5 months around Cape Horn
                        i. most traffic traveled sure route
                      ii. voyage hard on crew & passengers
                              a. seasick, bad food & water, inactivity
                  b. across the Isthmus was shorter, faster & safer
                        i. not enough ships to conduct load
                      ii. travel arranged only sea voyages
                     iii. Panama & Nicaragua negotiate own country
                      iv. 1850 steamships coordinate arrivals w/ little
delays
                        v. 1855 transisthmian railway finished
            2. Across the Plains
                  a. started in spring w/ grass to feed animals
                  b. news of Donner party caused panic some left too early
or late
                  c. by 1850 trails littered & directed routes
                  d. approximately same # travel by land as sea
                  e. make up
                        i. most young men
                      ii. 1/4 foreign born
                     iii. most return home without any riches
      D. Mining the Gold
            1. Searching for a strike
                  a. most 49ers middle or upper class
                        i. only first few were laborers
                      ii. expense keeps poor home
                  b. very few had any idea of process for finding gold
                        i. trial, error & imitation
                  c. first attempts
                        i. surface deposits plentiful & easily reached
                      ii. panning
                     iii. cradle or rocker introduced later takes 3 men to
run
                  d. surface deposits depleted by 1852
                        i. companies of men needed to dig deeper
                      ii. flumes, dams & sluices constructed
                     iii. costly digging with high risks
            2. Mechanized Mining
                  a. Hydraulic Mining introduced by Anthony Chabot, Nevada
Co. 1852
                        i. hose on end of flume to wash topsoil
                      ii. Edward E. Matteson introduced nozzle in 1853
                  b. debris clogged irrigation streams & killed wildlife
                  c. Dredging introduced in 1850
                        i. 1884 court restricted hydraulic mining &
becomes popular
                      ii. used until 1940s
                  d. Hard crock mining of mid 1850s
                        i. lack of capitol & experience
                      ii. increased in 1860s & 70s with others decline
      E. Mining life
            1. They brought their culture with them
                  a. avoided temptation to revert to primitivism
                        i. courts established early
                      ii. popular tribunals assured justice
                              a. at times reverted to mobs
                  b. mining camps reflect eastern society
                        i. male amusements greater in mines than elsewhere
                      ii. visitors amazed by civilian institutions
                              a. churches, schools, newspapers,
photographers etc.
            2. Democracy in the fields
                  a. small plots & equal chances
                        i. any man could be rich tomorrow
                  b. decreased price of gold with increased supply
                  c. decreasing amounts found lowers profits
            3. Californios in the Mines
                  a. Yankee hostility towards Mexicans surfaced with new
immigrants
                  b. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo assured rights of
Mexicans
                  c. Mexicans forced out of some areas
                  d. Merchants exploit miners
                        i. cattle prices & other goods
                      ii. new stores & buildings to serve miners
                     iii. Farlons Islands & San Francisco redwoods?
            4. Foreign Miners Tax
                  a. Senator Thomas Jefferson Green (Texan) introduced tax
                        i. prejudiced against Mexicans (wanted slavery in
CA)
                  b. tax of $10. month collected selectively
                        i. Germans & French allied with 4,000 Mexicans to
protest
                      ii. American mob demanded Mexicans pay
                     iii. small battle & many arrests with only one
Mexican stabbed
                      iv. Mexicans left the mines in droves
                        v. tax lowered in 1850 & protest urged repeal in
1851
                  c. Chinese taxed more readily with little resistance
                        i. Indians used to chase down absent Chinese
miners
            5. Indian problems
                  a. Oregonian prejudices start trouble with local Indians
                        i. Indians employed in mines
                      ii. Oregon had wars with Indians 1847-49 & reacted
negatively
                     iii. attacked Maidu village who retaliated and killed
5 whites
                  b. once warfare starts it spread to other tribes
                  c. Oliver M. Wozencrat, George W. Barbour& Redick Mckee
agents
                        i. 1850-52 tour state & arrange treaties with
Indians
                     ii. avoid war & pacify
                    iii. treaties met strong opposition from white
settlers
                             a. 12,000 sq. miles too much to give up
                     iv. Cota rebellion 1851 n. San Diego Co.
                 d. Edward F. Beale, U.S. Indian Superintendent of CA
                       i. ranch plan but only Tej¢n established
                             a. abandoned in 1868

VII. THE THIRTY-FIRST STATE
      A. Military Occupation & Forming a Government
            1. Confusion with rapid change
                  a. Change in leadership seven military governors in 2
years
                        i. Commodores John D. Sloat and Robert F. Stockton
                           Colonels John C. Fr‚mont and Richard B. Mason &
                           Generals Stephen W. Kearney, General Persifor
F. Smith
                     and General Bennett Riley
                      ii. Mason's Laws for the Better Government of
California 1848
                              a. hoped to keep Mexican law in place in
transition
                              b. allowed election of local alcaldes most
were Mexican
                              c. a few Americans elected in the north
                  b. Political turmoil in D.C. led to more problems
                        i. Wilmont Proviso -David Wilmont Dem. Penn.
                      ii. Southerners propose Missouri Compromise line
                     iii. nativists oppose expansion & inclusion of people
of color
            2. Constitution of 1849
                  a. discontent in Northern California
                        i. unhappy with the Mexican system of government
                              a. San Francisco established mayor & town
council
                      ii. San Jos‚, Monterey, S.F. and Sacramento demanded
action
                  b. Mil. Gov. Bennett Riley calls constitutional
convention 6/1849
                        i. exceeded his authority but Pres. Taylor
supported idea
                  c. 48 delegates at Monterey Convention
                        i. most were American immigrants from before the
war
                              a. 8 delegates were Mexican & 12 American
new comers
                  d. issues
                        i. slavery settled with little dispute
                              a. no slavery for early admission & appease
miners
                              b. feared exclusion of free blacks would
slow admission
                      ii. state boundaries posed the biggest controversy
                              a. Rocky Mts., Sierras or in between
                      iii. very progressive for day, incorporating Mexican
tradition
                              a. protected the rights of women to own
property
                                    i. hoped to attract women to state?
                              b. prohibited the use of paper money
(greenbacks)
                              c. outlawed dueling
                              d. ordered public schools & started a
University
             3. Statehood
                   a. Constitution approved by overwhelming majority 12,064
to 811
                   b. Peter H. Burnett fist governor & John McDougal
lt.gov.
                   c. not approved by D.C. until 1850
                         i. government met in San Jos‚ but operated without
legality
                       ii. congressional delegates were not admitted to
congress
                      iii. politics in D.C. held up admission
                              a. Sen. Henry Clay Whig Ken. & Stephen
Douglass Dem. Il
                              b. Utah,New Mexico&Texas, slavery & CA, D.C.
& runaways
                       iv. state legislature still elected 2 senators
Fr‚mont & Gwin
                   d. "Legislature of a Thousand Drinks"
                         i. Thomas Jefferson Green called for adjournment
to saloon
                       ii. few members with experience in politics
                              a. most had own agendas
                   e. capital moves from San Jos‚, Vallejo, & Benicia to
Sacramento
                  f. 9/50 Congress admits 10/50 California finds out &
celebrates
      B. Early Politics
            1. David C. Broderick & William M. Gwin competing for the
Senate
                  a. Broderick a Democrat from N.Y. in 1849
                        i. built political power on S.F. volunteer fire
co.
                      ii. built fortune on waterfront speculation &
private mint
                     iii. opposed slavery & supported Jacksonian democracy
                  b. used position as state senator to build on patronage
                        i. used jobs in S.F.& support from Tamany
Democrats in state
            2. Gwin a "Chivalry" Democrat from Tennessee & Mississippi
                  a. opposed slavery in CA but opposed Federal control of
issue
                  b. senator from CA supported Mare Is. Navy Yard & S.F.
Mint
                  c. had control of federal patronage in state
            3. Democrats controlled state politics until internal rivalry
                  a. Broderick challenged Gwin for senate in 1855 &
divided party
                  b. Republican John B. Weller replaced Fr‚mont for two
yrs
                  c. Know-Nothings elected J.Neely Johnson as governor
                        i. also David S. Terry state chief justice of
supreme court
            4. compromise that leads to open confrontation
                  a. 1857 both Broderick & Gwin serve as senators
                        i. Gwin promises not to appoint patronage
                              a. Pres. James Buchanan appoints only
"Chivalry" Dem.
                      ii. Broderick denounced Buchanan, Gwin & David Terry
                              a. Terry resigned
                              b. Broderick challenged Terry to duel & lost
      C. Minorities & Injustice
            1. "Their Majesty the Mob"
                  a. mob justice did not start with Americans
                        i. 1836 "defense committee for public safety" in
L.A.
                      ii. killed man and woman for murdering her husband
                  b. After gold discovery mobs more common
                        i. common in mining camp but also in other areas
                      ii. L.A. had 44 murders in one year "rare day
without"
                              a. Vigilance Committee hanged five murderers
in 1851
                              b. at least one man was innocent
                              c. members known as the "Rangers"
                     iii. Mayor Stephen Foster stopped mob for trial of a
man
                              a. found innocent & foster resigned to join
lynch mob
                              b. 20 lynchings between 1854 & 55 in L.A.
                  c. San Francisco gangs played a role in starting mob
action
                        i. private police "Regulators" kept order on
waterfront
                              a. became a gang called "Hounds" joined
"Sydney Ducks"
                              b. "Sydney Ducks" from australian penal
colonies
                              c. July 1849 gangs raided "chilenos" on
Telegraph hill
                                    i. killed a woman & raped her daughter
                      ii. Sam Brannan organized a Law & Order party of 200
men
                              a. stopped the "Hounds"
                     iii. Apr. 1851 William Tell Coleman led tribunal
                              a. tried & convicted 2 "Ducks" but divided
jury
                      iv. June 1851 Brannan & Coleman led mob of 500
                               a. caught & hanged 4 Ducks over next few
months
                               b. ended by whipping or deporting suspected
criminals
                               c. abused citizens reluctant to cooperate w/
committee
                                d. air of intimidation & oppression
                    d. Vigilance Committee of 1856 in S.F. best known
                          i. argued civic authorities unable or unwilling
                                a. could not protect from fire & arson
                                b. city law was corrupt & involved with vice
                                c. claimed they imposed unbearable taxes for
themselves
                       ii. city was growing & reforming
                               a. Boss Broderick backed reforms & power
declined by 56
                               b. violence well below national average
                      iii. Two murders started Committee
                               a. Charles Cora shot U.S. Marshal William
Richardson
                                     i. Cora & mistress Arabella Ryan
insulted Marshall
                                           a. madam Ryan sat too close in
theater
                                   ii. Richardson confronted Cora w/ pistol
                                  iii. Cora shot the next night
                                   iv. hung jury & remained in prison for
retrial
                               b. James P. Casey shot James King of William
                                     i. King lost fortune in panic of 1855
                                   ii. Owned the Bulletin & wrote about
enemies
                                  iii. said Casey had served prison term in
New York
                               c. Coleman led 2,000 into new Vigilance
Committee
                                     i. hanged Casey & Cora
                                   ii. could not be stopped & state aid
wasn't enough
                                  iii. arms from fed. arsenal in Benicia
intercepted
                                   iv. 6,000 members march in city
8/18/1856
              2. Racial intolerance in a multi-racial society
                    a. By 1860 40% of population was foreign born
                    b. Anti-Chinese Prejudice
                          i. 1860 35,00 Chinese lived in CA
                                a. most bondsmen to merchants in China or
S.F.
                               b. worked harder than anyone for less wages
                               c. labeled coolies (unskilled & uneducated)
                       ii. 1852 Foreign Miners Tax aimed at Chinese
                               a. $3 & $4 a month to ineligible for
citizenship
                                    i. only free white people could apply
                     iii. 1854 state supreme court ruled Chinese were not
white
                              a. linked Chinese to Indians
                              b. movement against led to Federal Exclusion
Act 1882
                   c. Black Californios
                         i. Legislation in 1850 denied Blacks right to vote
& testify
                       ii. Dred Scott decision in 1857 could not limit
slavery
                      iii. Biddy Mason & Hannah & 10 children slaves of
Robert Smith
                              a. Arrived in 1851 started to leave 1855
                              b. Judge benjamin Hayes reviews status &
frees
                              c. Lives with Robert Owens & family
                              d. invests in real estate & becomes nurse &
midwife
                       iv. Archey Lee in Sacramento objected to leave w/
master 1857
                              a. won hearing for freedom in 1858
                                    i. court ruled master took job & was
resident
                              b. state supreme court reversed master
didn't know laws
                              c. federal commissioner said Lee wasn't
guilty of crime
                                    i. gave Lee his freedom
                              d. Lee left before his status changed again
                        v. Mary Ellen "Mammy" Pleasant won right to use
rails 1860s
                              a. wealthy business woman & fought in courts
                              b. led way for others but could afford to
most couldn't
                       vi. Indentured servants contracts used instead of
slavery
                      vii. segregated schools
                     viii. Three Colored Conventions during 1850s
                              a. demanded changes in rights to testify &
vote
                             b. 1863 allowed to vote with Civil War &
15th am. 1868
           3. Land Grants and Lost Land
                 a. over 800 Land grants with 14 million acres from
Mexico & Spain
                       i. grants were not designated in squares like U.S.
system
                     ii. Americans squatted on apparently vacant grant
land
                 b. Land Act of 1851
                       i. 3 man commission reviewed all titles within 2
yrs
                     ii. titles invalid unless proven otherwise
                      iii. met most time in S.F. and demanded English
                       iv. lawyers needed as well
                         v. 512 titles confirmed & 132 appealed with over
100 wins
                       vi. slowed down land sales since no one was sure of
title
                      vii. a number of frauds won cases & required others
to pay
                     viii. caused resentment among Hispanics in all
southwest
              4. Agricultural beginnings
                    a. prices dropped after gold rush
                    b. Ranchers made fortunes but grew in debt (Pico Hotel)
                    c. Floods of 1861-2 & droughts afterward
                    d. experimented with new crops for growing population
                          i. grew produce near city centers in Bay Area
                        ii. tried wheat farming in central valley during
winter
                      iii. Morman irrigation in San Bernardino & German in
Anaheim
                               a. allowed limited agricultural development
in 50s&60s
                   e. Wine & Brandy and the Indian slave market of the
early 1860s
              5. Land Speculation
                    a. decline of Ranchos led to cheap land
                    b. farming gains promised easy sales
                    c. miners left mines & headed into cities & country for
work
                   d. cities grew & took on Eastern appearance&culture of
Victorians

VIII. THE RAILROAD ERA
      A. Connecting and Uniting the Country
            1. Transportation problems in Gold Rush California
                  a. water transportation cheapest & best but very limited
                  b. few women immigrants do to problems in transportation
                        i. ocean & overland routes too dangerous
            2. Early Transcontinental Railroad Schemes
                  a. railroads too big for one man across nation
                        i. link coasts could bring new trade from Asia
                  b. government subsidies introduced by Congress in 1840s
& 50s
                        i. nothing came of early plans
                              a. political rivalries over route stopped
action
            3. Pioneer Rail Lines
                  a. short rails replaced stage & wagon routes
                  b. most speculative railroads failed in early years
                        i. Sacramento Valley Railroad one exception
                              a. took miners from Sacramento steamboat to
foothills
                              b. 1856 the 1st working RR in CA
                      ii. 1862 Railroad connected Oakland with waterfront
                      iii. 1864 San Francisco & San Jos‚ RR
                       iv. 1865 San Francisco & Alameda RR (from Alameda to
Hayward)
                   c. encouraged growth in San Francisco & development of
economy
              4. Theodore Judah brilliant engineer & visionary
                    a. built the Sacramento Valley RR in 2 yrs.
                    b. searched Sierras for a possible route through to east
                    c. spent 1856 to 1860 promoting a transcontinental RR
                          i. politics in state & federal governments over
route
              5. The Founding of the Central Pacific Railroad
                    a. Comstock Lode & wagons to S.F. created new interest
                          i. consortium hired Judah to continue Sacramento
RR
                              a. stopped in Folsom
                   b. Judah discovered a route across Sierras across Donner
Pass
                         i. Daniel Strong & others joined Judah from
Cen.Pac. RR10/86
                   c. Judah sought new support in S.F.
                         i. Sacramento Valley RR fired him for actions
                   d. Judah claimed new route would make travel from
Comstock easy
                         i. approached Sacramento business men & towns
along route
                       ii. Collis P. Huntington & partner Mark Hopkins
joined plan
                      iii. Charles Crocker & Leland Stanford helped finance
as well
                       iv. 6/27/61 Cent.Pac.RR incorporated
                   e. Big Four connected economically & politically
                         i. Huntington & Hopkins store had connections in
east
                       ii. all involved in founding Republican party in
Sacramento
                                a. with Lincoln had the ear of D.C.
              6. Civil War and the Transcontinental Railroad
                    a. most immigrants in 49 came from north
                    b. Union hoped RR would keep west in Union
                          i. Pony Express 4/3/1860-10/24/1861
                        ii. Telegraph completed in 1861 made express
obsolete
                      iii. Nevada silver mines needed for war effort
                   c. small pockets of Confederate support existed, most in
south
                   d. Confederate sympathizers usually arrested or silenced
by mobs
                   e. Blacks in state worried about outcome (Robert
Owens&telegraph)
                   f. Ft. Point built to protect Golden Gate (wall for
blasts)
                         i. cannons almost worthless (July 4th 1876
celebration)
              7. Central Pacific Besieged
                    a. expensive to start
                          i. shortages of iron shipped all the way around
Cape Horn
                        ii. extremely cold temperatures
                       iii. high snowfall could hamper train crossings
                        iv. labor shortages at both ends of track
                    b. building costs would exceed federal subsidies
                    c. funds were short & halted building several times
              8. Pacific Railway Act of 1862
                    a. Stanford ran for governor to get state support for RR
9/1861
                   b. Others went to D.C. for federal aid
                         i. Republican friends on railway committees
                       ii. Judah appointed clerk of both Senate & House
committees
                      iii. Gave away Central Pacific stock to Congressmen
                              a. stock almost worthless but a good bribe
if fed. aid
                       iv. San Francisco & San Jos‚ RR dropped opposition
                              a. given right to build from S.F. to
Sacramento
                   c. Pacific Railway Act signed
                         i. Central Pacific from San Francisco east
                       ii. Union Pacific Railroad from Missouri River west
                      iii. 10 alternate sections (1600 acres) of public
land checker
                       iv. right of ways & government timber & stone for
building
                         v. 30 yr. government bonds $16,000 per mile on
plains
                               i. $48,000 per mile in mountains,$32,000 in
Great Basin
                                     a. Stanford has state geologist change
Sierras
                                     b. sierras start at foothills not steep
grades
              9. Local subsidies & mounting opposition to the Central
Pacific
                   a. Gov. Stanford passed bills granting bonds to RR
                         i. n.Cal. towns buy over $1 million in Central
Pacific stock
                   b. towns far from the route opposed purchase of stocks &
bonds
                         i. filled law suits challenging state aid
                       ii. claimed railroad was wild speculation & route
won't work
                   c. the anti-Central Pacific campaign slowed the RR down
                         i. labeled RR as corrupt & ruthless(this sticks
years later)
          10. Breaking Ground
                 a. Jan 8, 1863 ground broke at Sacramento riverfront
                       i. Gov. Stanford turned first shovelful of dirt
                     ii. nothing else was done for several months
                              a. they had no money for track or machines
                   b. March 1863 Huntington borrowed money from eastern
investors
                         i. used loan to seed more money & bought machinery
for RR
            11. Judah Versus the Big Four
                   a. company could not meet 50 miles of track by Nov. 1864
deadline
                         i. Big four demand stock holders pay their
subscriptions
                       ii. Judah & small holders could not afford to pay &
rebelled
                              a. demanded company mortgage all their
assets first
                   b. Crocker & Co. given contract to lay first track
                         i. Charles Crocker & others gather investments &
saves start
                   c. Judah demands absolute control over engineering &
construction
                         i. Judah worried about loosing control to other
company
                   d. July Huntington faction won control
                         i. demanded Judah to buy them up or get out
                       ii. Judah exchanged stock for $100,000 Central
Pacific bonds
                      iii. Judah resigns from board but remains chief
engineer
                     iv. Travels East to borrow money catches yellow
fever & dies
          12.The Pacific Railway Act of 1864
                 a. Union Pacific had as much trouble rasing cash as
Central Pac.
                 b. Huntington & Thomas Durant (Union Pac.) lobbied
congress
                       i. needed extensions of deadlines
                     ii. 1st 50 mile deadline extended to 1865
                    iii. Congress also doubled grants to 20 sections a
mile
                     iv. allowed railroad to sell own 1st mortgages on
railroad
                             a. reduced federal loans to 2nd mortgage
status
                             b. allowed company to raise more money
quickly
                       v. rivals now gave up much opposition
                             a. either quit or joined Central Pacific
lines
                 c. Huntington took care of books & kept company in black
                       i. a major feat & seen as a business genius
          13. Completing the Transcontinental Railway
                 a. once complete to Comstock Lode they started to make
money
                       i. RR cheaper than wagon travel & quicker
                 b. stocks & bonds easier to sell
                 c. Labor problems in 1865 with access to Comstock
                       i. laborers would rather risk luck in the mines
than RR
                     ii. deep snow not worth $35 per month
                    iii. Crocker hired Chinese over objections of others
                            a. paid only 60-70% of white wages
                            b. by May made up 2/3rds of workers
                     iv. contracted with S.F.labor contractors to bring
from China
                      v. Chinese workers very useful & continue on other
lines
                            a. conditions so bad in 1867 even Chinese
strike
                            b. Crocker cuts off supplies & starves
workers back
                 d. miles of sheds protected tracks in winter
                 e. May 1868 only traveled 140 miles but laid 550 miles
next year
                 f. May 10, 1869 two railroads meet at Promontory Point
Utah
                       i. miles of leveled ground bypass each other
                     ii. both working around the clock to make more money
                 g. Leland Stanford drives golden spike (removed & in
museum)
                        i. celebrations all over the country
          14. The Big Four and the Emerging Rail System
                  a. railways started up all over the state
                  b. most were swallowed up by the big four
                        i. they were poorly run & owners tried to make
quick profits
                  c. Central Pacific nearly went under in the 1870s
                        i. Huntington convinced others to keep
expanding&ride it out
                  d. competed with steamships for state transportation
                        i. rate & traffic agreement with Pacific Mail
Steamship Co.
                      ii. developed own Occidental and Oriental Steamship
Co.
                     iii. also developed ferries & river boat
transportation
          15. Southern Pacific Railroad bought by the Big Four in 1868
                  a. started by San Francisco & San Jos‚ RR Co.
                  b. had right to build from San Jos‚ to the Colorado
River
                  c. southern route would not get snow bound
                  d. Sep. 5, 1876 connected the north railroads with L.A.
                  e. 1877 built a bridge over Colorado without U.S.
permission
                  f. 1881 connected to El Paso & other rails in Texas
                        i. Huntington bought up lines in Texas to connect
                      ii. 1st coast to coast owned by one company
      B. California's Railway Era: Economic Development and Social Unrest
            1. The Terrible Seventies
                  a. the railroads helped with rapid industrialization
                 b.   speculation helped those with land already
                 c.   towns far from the rails declined and died away
           2. Urban   Growth
                 a.   farms grow dependent on rails all over U.S.
                 b.   cities dependent on produce brought by rails &
industry also
                 c.   Oakland the connection between the rails and the sea
                         i. Horace Carpentier deeded city's waterfront to
Cent. Pac.
                              a. Leland Stanford the other main owner
                  d. Commerce quickened & land prices rose
                        i. population 1860-2,000, 1870-10,500, 1880-35,000
                      ii. Telephone invented 1876 in Oakland 1878
                     iii. Electricity brought to Oakland in 1880s
                  e. city expands & connects to Berkeley & San Leandro
                        i. streetcars, trains & cable cars allow growth
                  f. rail connections were paramount in growth
                        i. Los Angeles boomed after 1872 with subsidized
So.Pac.RR.
                              a. 1860-2,000; 1870-5,700; 1880s-11,200
                       ii. San Diego lost rail connection & remained same
size
                             a. only around 3,000 by 1900
                  g. Contract and Finance Company (Pacific Improvement Co.
- 1879)
                        i. a construction & real estate development arm of
Big Four
                       ii. built towns on grid pattern with Victorian
ideals
                              a. shops, stations, warehouses, housing &
hotels
                              b. donated money to build schools, churches,
parks,etc.
                              c. brought water to many towns, to promote
in arid land
                              d. set up low fares to future investors
             3. San Francisco: From Instant City to Pacific Metropolis
                   a. geographic location helped early growth but hindered
railroads
                        i. great harbor for sea travel but isolated on
peninsula
                      ii. land bought up early by speculators
                             a. not enough level land for train yards
                  b. Oakland took more business, San Francisco led anti-RR
movement
                        i. city still prospered & Central Pacific
headquarters there
                       ii. Oakland had no deep harbor, SF remained Ocean
Port
                  c. Population continued to grow 234,000 by 1880
                        i. half were foreign born & 3/4 had one parent
foreign born
                              a. most cosmopolitan and ethnically diverse
cities
            4. Industrialization
                  a. mining shaped city
                        i. slow for industrial growth before Civil War
                              a. mining industry stripped resources:
capitol & labor
                      ii. after war mining more complex needed heavy
machinery
                              a. Comstock also needed heavy machinery
                     iii. business responded to growing needs with new
industry
                              a. railroads also encouraged new industry
                              b. use of coal & Bessemer Converter & open-
hearth steel
                                    i. growth in rest of country as well
                  b. Railroads supplied labor
                        i. Chinese migrated to S.F. after 1869 by 1880-
100,000
                      ii. Irish come from Union Pacific line
                  c. Capitol a problem
                        i. new industry generated wealth
                      ii. Stocks first begin to appear
                              a. John Pierpont Morgan sold them & others
invested
                              b. expanded during the 1880-1890s in nation
            5. Railroads and the Bonanza Wheat Era
                  a. trains & produce in California
                        i. long routes, weather & travel expenses limited
growth
                              a. hard to compete with Bonanza farms of
midwest
                      ii. Central Pacific monopoly limited competition
                              a. trade within California increased
                  b. wheat growing ideal for dry summer climate
                        i. large scale machinery after Civil War
                      ii. large farms needed- shipped in large amounts
without risk
                  c. middlemen
                        i. merchants from Europe & U.S. bought wheat & set
prices
                      ii. merchants made large profits but farmers
suffered
                     iii. silo operators & Railroads also blamed
                  d. Wheat farming became one of state's largest industry
                        i. ended in 1880s with too much competition in
great plains
      C. Fruit and Specialty-Crop Farming
            1. fruit farming started with missions but grew with rails
                  a. fragile perishable items concerned farmers
                  b. needed cooperation & organization to develop
            2. California State Agricultural Society started 1854
                  a. managed state fair, & supported research into new
farming
                  b. branches developed over several interests, wine,
citrus, etc.
                   c. formed cooperatives with overprotection of 1880s
                         i. Sunkist (California Fruit Growers' Exchange)
1893
                               a. first successful agricultural cooperative
in nation
              3. Government supported cooperatives under heavy lobbying
pressures
                   a. Army Signal Corps (U.S. Weather Bureau) gave climate
stats.
                         i. allowed farmers to locate fields, choose crops,
etc.
                   b. Navel Orange imported from Brazil 1873 for Riverside
County
                   c. worked on diseases effecting crops
                   d. state agencies helped even more
                         i. State Board of Agriculture (1863)
                       ii. Board of Viticulture (1880)
                      iii. Horticultural Commission (1883)
                      iv. Board of Silk Culture (1883)
                         v. Dairy Bureau (1895)
                       vi. State Veterinarian (1899)
                               a. secured regulatory & quarantine
legislation
                              b. all put under State Department of
Agriculture(1919)
            4. Southern Pacific promotes Agriculture
                  a. out of place among populists
                  b. advanced capital for small farms in emerging regions
                  c. encouraged public irrigation&preservation of forest
watersheds
                  d. annual instructional trains in rural areas scientific
farming
                  e. pioneered development of ice manufacturing
                        i. fruit cooling plants, refrigerated
cars&shipping systems
                  f. Frank Norris-novel The Octopus exposed Southern
Pacific greed
                        i. trouble following argument after
            5. Chinese truck farming
                  a. rented land (could not own)
                  b. raised produce (primarily vegetables & sold in towns)
      D. Water Resources
            1. Water became a big issue with large cities and little
conservation
            2. Riparian law adopted by legislature
                  a. Anglo-American tradition
                  b. owners along water route had sole right to divert
            3. Legislature also adopts Hispanic "prior appropriation"
system
                  a. allowed others to preempt water right on public land
                        i. for "beneficial use"
            4. Legal cases erupted over differences in water customs
                  a. cases usually won by raparians
            5. 1887 The Wright Irrigation act
                 a. allowed the formation of local irrigation districts
                 b. had to power of eminent domain & right to levy taxes
                       i. sold bonds, created canals & reservoirs
                 c. National Reclamation Act 1902 called for larger
projects
      E. The Assault on Nature and the Beginning of Environmental Concern
            1. Early problems evident
                  a. mining, bonanza farming & railroad expansion
                        i. floods of people moving into state
                      ii. killing game for food hunted species out of
state
                              a. grizzly disappear in 1870s
                              b. Bighorn, Elk, Condor & several sea birds
almost gone
                  b. forests destroyed
                        i. hydraulic mining, lumber, clearing farms & over
grazing
                              a. floods common & unrestrained
                  c. hydraulic-mining
                        i. flooding sent debris into flat farm land
                      ii. covered valleys with infertile soil & threatened
farming
                     iii. 1870s & 1880s anti-debris associations flourish
                              a. valley farmers & So. Pacific lobby for
legislation
                              b. 1880 required dams to catch debris
                      iv. 1884 Fed. Judge Lorenzo Sawyer injunction
stopped it
                              a. Hydraulic-mining dead in state
                              b. some economic fallout
                  d. 1900s some movement at restoring devastated
environment
                        i. National Progressive movement
            2. John Muir
                  a. nearly blinded by industrial accident in 1867
                        i. turned from industry & invention to nature's
wonders
                  b. Transcendentalists tradition of Thoreau & Emerson
                        i. industrialization killing the soul
                      ii. Nature & God's purpose, man killing off animals
                     iii. all nature interlined (webs)
                  c. Campaign to save Yosemite
                        i. 1st federal wilderness preserve entrusted to
state (1864)
                      ii. poachers destroyed forests, streams, and game
                     iii. 1870s Muir & Southern Pacific Company campaign
                              a. 1890 congress converted area around
valley to park
                      iv. Sierra Club 1892 in San Francisco
                              a. 1905, 06 returned Yosemite to national
control
                  d. movement expands to other areas in state (1890s-
1900s)
                        i. Sequoia National Park
                        ii. Lake Tahoe National Forest
                       iii. Big Basin Redwoods Park (near Santa Cruz)
        F. Social and Political Conflict
              1. class & stratified communities in Victorian California
                    a. transportation advances of cable & street cars
                          i. Andrew Halladie's cable car allowed building on
hills
                       ii. street car allowed movement away from city
                   b. nob hill & bunker hill
                         i. rich large mansions
                   c. pockets of boarding houses near factories for working
class
             2. ethnic neighborhoods
                   a. African Americans
                         i. some small neighborhoods in major cities
                       ii. middle class service jobs in railroads, waiters
& porters
                     iii. ethnic institutions in some cities
                  b. Chinatowns
                        i. few women before 1882 & exclusion
                      ii. community building took several generations
                  c. Barrios
                        i. by 1900 East Los Angeles thrived
                      ii. increased migration after 1900, found
institutions there
            3. rural gang labor pools
                  a. irrigation facilities expensive but necessary edge
over others
                        i. opened up to risk during years of drought
                  b. ethnic minorities formed labor camps following
seasonal crops
                        i. Indians used until decline in 1860s
                      ii. Chinese follow until 1882 restrictions
                     iii. Japanese until 1906 Gentelmen's agreement
                      iv. Mexicans with 1910 Revolution
                  c. 1870s Populist movement on National level
                        i. Patrons of Husbandry 1867 Oliver Kelley -
Grange 1870s
                      ii. 1873 California State Grange & cooperatives
                              a. 231 Grange locals in state & 13,500
farmers
      G. Early Labor Movements and the "Indispensable Enemy"
            1. demand for labor in San Francisco allowed some
unionization
                  a. high turnover & new migrants undercut attempts
            2. 8 hour day legislated in 1868 on state level
                  a. could not be enforced easily (esp. in hard times)
                  b. workers had to object & bring complaints
            3. panic of 1873 & collapse of Comstock mines
                  a. rails opened & cheap goods brought west
                  b. unemployed Irish immigrants
                  c. boat loads of Chinese (20,000 came in 1876 alone)
            4. Anti-Chinese agitation increased with hardships
                  a. blamed in mines for unemployment & low wages
                 b. Unions take up call against
                 c. Los Angeles Chinese Massacre 1871
                 d. July 23, 1877 meeting ended with "On to Chinatown"
                       i. burned and destroyed numerous businesses
                     ii. Gov. William Irwin called out militia for order
                    iii. William T. Coleman formed Committee of Public
Safety
                              a. armed men with pick handles from his
warehouse
      H. The Workingmen's Party of California (WPC)
            1. Sept.1877 in depression & turmoil at end of summer
            2. claimed capitalists, formed monopolies & employed Chinese
                  a. reaction to urbanization & centralization of wealth
            3. tried to combat corporations & eject cheap Chinese labor
            4. 10,000 members marched in Thanksgiving Day parade of 1877
                  a. led by president Denis Kearney (Irish owner of wagon
company)
                        i. natural orator & born leader, thousands came to
meetings
            5. official concerns
                  a. state & city laws limited freedom of assembly &
expression
                  b. jailed Kearney & other leaders
            6. 1887 political influence grows
                  a. elected a state senator & local officials from
Alameda Co.
                  b. members of legislature, mayor & majority of
supervisors in SF.
                  c. 1/3 rd seats in Constitutional Convention of 1878-9
                  d. local laws discriminating against Chinese
                        i. brick laundry etc.
            7. Economic prosperity & limited Chinese immigration ended
party 1880s
      I. Anti-Railroad Politics
            1. National concern from Populists over rates in rural areas
                  a. Californians far from eastern markets & little travel
between
                  b. Railroad varied rates & granted favored districts
                        i. usually to promote other Southern Pacific
businesses
            2. Granger laws in several states limit railroads & demand
fair rates
                  a. 1876 state railway advisory commission formed
                        i. very ineffective
                  b. Wabash v. Illinois 1886 Supreme Court rejected
Granger laws
                        i. Federal Government passed Interstate Commerce
Act 1887
                              a. formed Interstate Commerce Commission
(very weak)
      J. The Constitution of 1879
            1. 3 groups equally represented
                  a. WPC, Grange, & nonpartisans (Democrats & Republicans)
            2. Sweeping controls on business
                  a. railroad commission established (3 man body)
                        i. fix rates, & prohibit unfair treatment of
shippers
                   b. corporate income tax imposed
                         i. imposed a board of equalization
                               a. stabilized tax rates among counties
                               b. tightened banking regulations
             3. emphasis on education
                   a. reorganized funding for schools & universities
             4. sanctioned 8 hour work day
             5. authorized legislature to act against the Chinese
             6. did not support woman's suffrage
             7. established idea of state involvement as regulator agency
                   a. oversaw public utilities
                   b. equalized tax burden
       K. Chinese Exclusion
             1. Supreme Court upheld rights of Chinese in the U.S.
                   a. struck down state & local codes against
             2. President Rutherford B. Hayes negotiated treaty with China
1880
                  a. allowed immigration restrictions
                  b. 1882 restrictions suspended Chinese immigration &
citizenship
                        i. only temporary at first (10 yrs)
                  c. Exclusion Act of 1882 did not deport Chinese
                        i. angered a number of Californians
                      ii. riots, boycotts & political demonstrations in CA
& others
                  d. pressure forced congress to pass Exclusion Act of
1888
                        i. prohibited reentry in U.S. of Chinese who leave
                      ii. added 10 more years to temporary exclusion
                     iii. 1904 treaties & legislation made exclusion
permanent
                             a. reopened to Chinese immigration in WWII

IX.BEGINNINGS OF MODERN CALIFORNIA
      A. Southern California and the Railroad controversy
            1. San Diego held lead in the race for a Transcontinental
link
                  a. Los Angeles was too far from the harbor
                        i. Phineas Banning constructed Railroad to San
Pedro
                              a. built town of Wilmington & improved
harbor
                  b. San Diego like S.F. expected Railroad & bought up
waterfront
                        i. price too high & Southern Pacific looked for
alternative
                  c. 1871 William S. Rosecrans&others start CA.So.Coast
Railway Co.
            2. 1870s Big Four laid tracks in San Joaquin Valley
                  a. 1876 Los Angeles bribed the So. Pac.
                        i. gave RR $610,000 & Banning's RR
      B. Population: "The One Great Desideratum"
            1. Agriculture
                  a. cattle ranching changes to feed lots instead of open
grazing
                  b. wine production increases
                  c. California Silk Association - mulberry trees(limited
success)
                  d. California Cotton Growers and Manufacturers
Association
                        i. 10,000 acres near Bakersfield
                      ii. brought a community of African Americans from
south
                              a. now a state park near Button Willow
                  e. The Bahia navel introduced from Brazil (Washington
navel)
                        i. 1873 only two trees in Riverside by 1890 over a
million
            2. Tourism books & boosterism
                  a.Charles Nordhoff California for Health,
Pleasure&Residence
                  b. B.C. Truman Homes and Happiness in the Golden State
of CA
            3. Corporate and Civil attempts at enticing settlers
                  a.California Immigrant Union & Pacific Land Bureau
                        i. attracted settlers from east
                  b. Los Angeles Board of Trade founded So.CA Immigration
Ass.
                        i. claimed so.cal. a "veritable sanitarium"
                  c. Arid climate inhibited some farmers
                        i. Most Americans farmers at time
                      ii. irrigation systems seemed alien & expensive
                     iii. not deemed appropriate for long term settlement
      C. The "Boom of the 80s"
            1. Railroads open doors
                  a. Atchison,Topeka&Santa Fe extended to AZ, Needles &
San Bern.
                        i. in Los Angeles in 1887 & cut rates
                              a. Kansas City to L.A. $125 then $63 then $5
                  b. Rate war with Central Pacific (1884 renamed Southern
Pacific)
            2. Boosterism paid off
                  a. tourism increased & settlers explored new area
                  b. worthless land sold & communities boom & bust
overnight
                  c. most new immigrants from the American east
                        i. 1/3 rd came from elsewhere in CA
                  d. collapse of boom in 1889 most of gains & losses on
paper only
                        i. little wealth lost but much generated from land
sales
                      ii. 50,000 in LA in 1890 100,000-1900; 300,000-1910
      D. The First Oil Boom
            1. Spanish knew & used brea (tar) to pave streets & cover
roofs
                    a. San Fernando, Santa Barbara & San Buenaventura
refined oil
              2. American oil exploration began in Western Pennsylvania in
1859
                    a. E.L.Drake perfected mass extraction & drilled first
well
                    b. R.S. Baker drilled in central L.A. Banning in
Wilmington
                    c. Union Mattole Oil Co. sank first well in Petrolia in
1857
                          i. only limited success it was too remote
                        ii. now a very small town on Matole river
                    d. only limited early success in several other wells in
state
        E. Black Gold
              1. Union Oil Company of California
                    a. Lyman Steward and Wallace L. Hardison start small co.
1883
                          i. limited success in Ventura & L.A.
                        ii. numerous dry holes and wasted time
                    b. 1886 join Thomas R. Bard wealthiest man in Ventura
                          i. form Sespe Oil Co. later Union Oil
                        ii. by 1900 one of nations largest petroleum
operations
                               a. refineries at San Pedro & Oleum in
Carquinez Straits
                             b. owned tankers & pipelines to beat
Railroad rates
           2. Standard Oil of California
                 a. John D. Rockefeller owned 80% oil refining in U.S.
                 b. bought out Pacific Coast Oil Co. in 1900
                       i. moderately successful oil co in S.F. bay region
                 c. attempted to take over Union Oil Co of CA but
unsuccessful
           3. Edward L. Doheny starts backyard oil boom
                 a. hand-dug a producing well near the La Brea Tar Pits
                 b. builds base for the Pan american Oil Co. & his empire
of oil
                 c. 1920s bribed Sec. Int. Albert B. Fall
                       i. access to Elk Hills oil preserve
                     ii. build tanks & preserve oil in times of war (WWI)
                    iii. Fall convicted of taking $100,000 bribe
                     iv. Doheny innocent, claimed it was a loan to an old
friend
                       v. government revoked lease
                     vi. Doheny made substantial profits
                    vii. reserves closed until 1976 & operated by navy
           4. California Oil very poor quality
                 a. needed more refining then the Pennsylvania product
                 b. railroads and industry reluctant to use
                 c. Oil companies convert locomotives & seam generators
to oil 1st
                 d. asphalt used in paving nation wide by 1890s
                 e. gasoline not needed until 1900s and the automobile
      F. The Fight Against Monopoly
            1. U.S.Steel;American Tobacco;Northern Securities;American
Sugar Trust
                  a. all had national attention and broken up
            2. Railroads had center of attention in CA
                  a. 1880s conflict over corporation taxation in 1879
constitution
                        i. weren't' worried about impotent Railway
commission
                  b. Federal court supported Railroad rights
                        i. Stephen J. Field granted corporations 14th
amend. rights
                     ii. corporations had due process as well
                  c. Railroads reached compromise & set own tax levels in
state
            3. Democrats battle Railroads
                  a. Gov. George Stoneman felt humiliated
                        i. called special secession of state legislature
1884
                      ii. pro railroad Democrats betrayed anti-railroad
legislation
                  b. Democratic Convention in 1884 at Stockton
                        i. refused to support pro-RR candidates
                      ii. nominated only anti-monopoly candidates
                     iii. split party in CA(failed to support Grover
Cleveland Dem)
                      iv. Leland Stanford elected to Senate
            4. 1878 Federal law required Central Pacific to repay federal
debt
                  a. $28 million by 1899
                  b. 1896 tried to extend loan to 100 yrs at 1% interest
                  c. William Randolph Hearst collected 200,000 signatures
against
                        i. owner of S.F. Examiner
                  d. Congress rejected loan Apr. 1897 forced payment
                        i. company argued they would go bankrupt but don't
      G. Political Change in the 1890s
            1. The Question of Silver also divided state
                  a. 16 to 1 or not at all
            2. Santa Fe RR broke Southern Pacific monopoly in 1880s
                  a. biggest monopoly failing
            3. Legislature passed Railroad Reassessment Act 1893
                  a. made RR pay $2.2 million in back taxes
            4. Australian ballot law enacted 1891
                  a. no direct election of Senators of several more years
      H. The Free Harbor Fight and the Funding Bill
            1. Banning began development of harbor region in L.A.
            2. L.A. needed an inner-harbor with a breakwater for ocean
vessels
            3. Army Corps of Engineers studied & recommended San Pedro
for $4 mil.
            4. Collis Huntington 1892 bought much of Santa Monica from
S.Pacific
                  a. pressured government for new studies
                 b. despite recommendation for San Pedro $2.9mill bill
for Santa M
                       i. Harrison Gray Otis of Times led fight against
Santa M.
                             a. didn't want it controlled by Huntington
                 c. Congress had 3rd study & approved funds for San Pedro
                       i. 1899 started construction 2nd largest harbor in
U.S.
      I. Agrarian Revolt
            1. Southern Farmers & National Farmer's Alliance
                  a. proposed numerous reform legislation
                        i. nationalize RR, Telephone & Telegraph
                      ii. paper currency & silver
                     iii. secret ballot; direct primaries & election of
senators
                  b. limited success locally
            2. People's or Populist Party 1892
                  a. Omaha Platform more radical
                        i. equal rights for women
                      ii. silver at 16 to 1 gold
                     iii. urban help-8hr.day, Pinkertons & immigration
restrictions
                  b. Democratic support 1896 but two tickets
                        i. William Jennings Bryan & Arthur Sewall split
ticket
                  a. Sewall was a hard money man supported gold standard
                      ii. 2 tickets strong tariff candidate William
McKinley wins
      J. Populism in California
            1. 1888 Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward (a utopian novel)
                  a. described a peaceful evolution of a nationalized
economy
                  b. also promoted a complete democracy of social equals
            2. Nationalist clubs formed all over the state
                  a. over 4,000 members in first year
                  b. most left to join the Farmers' Alliance movement
                        i. larger organization with similar goals
            3. Farmers' Alliance
                  a. recruited members from both Republican & Democrats
                  b. anti-monopoly feeling strong in state
            4. Populists Politics
                  a. eight Populists elected to state legislature
                  b. 1893 sent Senator Stephen M. White (our man Steve) to
D.C.
                  c. 1894 elected Populist James H. Budd governor
                        i. Adolph Sutro elected Mayor of S.F.
                  d. Pullman strike of 1894 divided party
                        i. Richard Olney, U.S.D.A. helped General Managers
Ass.
                      ii. got injunction against Am.Railroad Union
                              a. conspiracy to restrict trade
                     iii. Grover Cleveland sent in federal troops & broke
strike
                      iv. most Populists disillusioned over power of RR
                            a. number join Eugene Debbs(pres.ARU)become
socialists
                              b. moderates return to Dem. or Rep. party
      K. The Urban Scene: Prelude to Progressivism
            1. Cities start to grow in the late Victorian age (1870-1890)
                  a. most cities only 2-2 1/2 mile radius
                  b. a walking city where business is done face to face
                  c. politics focused on neighborhoods (wards)
                  d. San Francisco Consolidation Act of 1856
                        i. organized government and established rules for
building
                      ii. amendments outweighed law & often contradicted
                     iii. contributed to the rise of Boss politics
                              a. four charter campaigns to strengthen law
all failed
                      iv. established city management as business not
politics
                              a. public ownership of utilities, contract
devices etc.
            2. Initiative Referendum & Recall
                  a. Los Angeles had similar plan for clean government
                        i. Railroads ran city & owned majority of property
                      ii. free harbor campaign hurt but did not kill them
                  b. John Randolph Haynes lead Direct Legislation League
1898
                        i. failed but formed the Good Government league in
1899
                  c. Goo-Goos(Times&Harrison Gray Otis term)new charter
1903
            i. 1st city to provide for direct democracy In.Ref.Rec.
                  d. Recalled one councilman in 1904 for voting record for
RR
                  e. 1906 Mayor Arthur C. Harper nearly recalled for ties
to RR
                        i. resigned under a recall pressure or 1st
U.S.mayor removed
      L. Preprogressive Women
            1. Rights under Mexican law fairly liberal
            2. U.S. slow to grant rights to women
            3. 1869 statewide suffrage society failed to convince
1879Const. Conv.
                  a. did open business & professions to women
                        i. only 5% of businesses owned or operated by
women 1890s
                              a. most dressmakers, milliners, innkeepers
                  b. Gordon & Clara Shortridge Foltz broke gender barrier
for bar
                        i. sued to gain acceptance to Hastings College of
Law 1879
                  c. Univ. of Cal. Medical School admitted Lucy Wanzer
1873
                        i. USC School of Medicine 1st degree to woman in
1888
                      ii. 1890 10% of doctors in LA were women
            4. State Teaching (Normal) colleges taught women teachers
1880s
                  a. 1900 most elementary teachers were women
                        i. paid less much less than men
            5. other professions open to women
                  a. clerks, librarians, stenographers by 1900s
                        i. Unions not always open to women
                              a. Ladies Assembly of Knights of Labor in SF
1885
                              b. AFL not allowed until much later
                  b. teachers
                        i. State Colleges opened to prepare women teachers
                              a. San Jos‚, L.A., & Chico
                              b. private schools: USC, Pomona & Claremont
                      ii. By 1900 most elementary school teachers were
women
                     iii. Kate Kennedy led S.F. teachers in equal pay
movement
                              a. men were paid substantially more
                  c. Big business hired thousands
                        i. clerks, librarians, stenographers & secretaries
                      ii. S.F. established the Ladies Assembly of Knights
of Labor
                             a. 1885 S.F. strong union town L.A. anti-
union
                  d. Other Reforms movements
                        i. WCTU starts in several large cities
                      ii. Friday Morning Club started by Caroline
Severance 1880s
                             a. expand kindergarten programs, improve
education
                             b. affordable housing for working women
                             c. mitigate treatment for juvenile offenders

X. PROGRESSIVE CALIFORNIA
      A. Abraham Ruef and the Union Labor Party
            1. 4/18/1906 Earthquake in San Francisco
                  a. fire leveled the city
                  b. water & gas mains broke all over city & looked for
scape goat
            2. Ruef successful lawyer worked in Republican machine 1886-
1901
                  a. Union Labor party started to support working class
                        i. waterfront workers strike 1901
                              a. Mayor James Duval uses police to protect
scabs
                      ii. workers disenchanted with Democrats & new party
forms
                  b. Ruef nominated Eugene Schmitz for mayor
                        i. Irish-German Catholic & head of musicians'
union
                      ii. elected 1903
                     iii. 1905 ULP took all 18 seats of Board of
Supervisors
                 c. Ruef's "French Restaurants"
                       i. used public money to build "Municipal Crib" a
brothel
                     ii. extortion & kickbacks
                    iii. divided spoils among supervisors
                            a. a few sought bribes & embarrassed
everyone
      B. Indictment and Trial
            1. Fremont Older of S.F. Bulletin expose on City Hall
corruption
                  a. Teddy Roosevelt sent two special investigators from
D.C.
            2. Grand Jury indicts Ruef & mayor Schmitz November 1906
                  a. 1907 two supervisors trapped in selling votes
                        i. given immunity to bring down others
                  b. March 1907 returned 67 more indictments against Ruef
& others
                  c. Ruef also given immunity & 20 more indictments made
                        i. indicted both takers & those who offered bribes
            3. Longest corruption trail in U.S. history
                  a. 100s of jury members called
                        i. one shot at & nearly killed Chief Prosecutor
Heney
                              a. later committed suicide in jail
                      ii. one supervisor's front porch blown up
                     iii. Police Chief William J. Biggy disappeared on
launch
                              a. in night trip across bay
                  b. only Ruef & Schmitz convicted by end of 1908
                        i. Schmitz found guilty but reversed on
technicality
                  c. Hiram W. Johnson reneged on immunity & tried Ruef
                        i. found guilty & sentenced to 14 yrs in San
Quentin
                      ii. 1915 Ruef paroled & pardoned in 1920 died 1936
                     iii. Schmitz elected to board of Supervisors in 1917
died 1928
      C. The Lincoln-Roosevelt League
            1. Edward A. Dickson with Los Angeles Express investigated
Republicans
                  a. found Southern Pacific almost owned party officials
                  b. organized progressives into "Lincoln Republicans"
                  c. party progressives form the Lincoln-Roosevelt Clubs
                        i. support direct primaries, woman's suffrage, &
senators
            2. limited Success
                  a. put pressure on Republicans through clubs
                  b. secured a preferential popular vote on Senators (not
binding)
                  c. pass direct primary law
                  d. amended several railroad bills
      D. Hiram Johnson and the Election of 1910
            1. Ruef prosecutor Johnson ran on Republican ticket for
Governor 1908
                 a. well documented condemnation of railroad business
practices
            2. toured state in bright red Locomobile roadster
                  a. won narrow victory over Democrats & Socialists
            3. reformer but unsure of platform
      E. Economic Regulation
            1. Stetson-Eshelman Act 1911 empowered Railroad Commission
                  a. fix rates for passengers and freight in state
            2. Public Utilities Act created 5 man Public Utilities
Commission
                  a. men appointed by governor-authority over all public
utilities
            3. Back Act of 1909
                  a. state superintendent of banks to review bank's
soundness
            4. businessmen joined the efforts
                  a. Gabriel Kolko's the Triumph of Conservativism
                  b. Railroads freed from rate wars & rebates to oil &
agriculture
      F. Political Reform
            1. Early campaign against political corruption
                  a. Powerful partisan organizations blamed for corruption
                        i. 1891 legislature adopts Australian ballot
                      ii. 1893 legislature tried to regulate campaign
practices
            2. Johnson hoped to give more control to the electorate
                  a. initiative, referendum & recall
                  b. professional politicians fought against "direct
democracy"
                  c. 1911 legislature passes & electorate supports
            3. Weakening party influence 1911 & 1913
                  a. no party endorsement of candidates in primaries
                  b. no partisan identification on ballots for many
elections
                        i. state, county or municipal offices
                  c. cross filing allowed candidates to run in all
primaries
                        i. did not have to place party affiliation on
ballot
                      ii. candidates could win both primaries & not face
election
                     iii. incumbents had distinct advantage with name
recognition
            4. changing strategies and difficulties of reform
                  a. direct democracy required more signatures with
population
                        i. too many signature needed to qualify measures
w/ growth
                  b. special interest groups replaced partisan
organizations
            5. believed women could reform political corruption
                  a. victorian women seen as morally superior
                  b. state finally supports suffrage for women
                  c. Los Angeles Woman Suffrage League in 1901 & statewide
in 1904
                   d. 1911 state suffrage amendment passed by legislature
                         i. won narrow support in popular election
       G. Union Activism in Los Angeles and the Bombing of the Times
             1. Most Union activity in California before 1900 centered in
S.F.
            2. Harrison Gray Otis of the Times opposed unions by 1880
                  a. Merchants and Manufacturers' Association joined fight
against
            3. The AFL sent organizers to city to oppose Otis & the M&M
            4. May 1910 several unions on strike in L.A.
                  a. city officials enforced an antipicketing ordinance
                  b. workers & Socialists formed the Union Labor Political
Club
                        i. nominate Job Harriman for mayor(V.P.for Debs
1900 ticket)
            5. height of strike and bomb killed twenty employees in Times
building
                  a. Clarence Darrow defended John J. & James B. McNamara
                        i. admitted guilt in trail
                      ii. John got life; James got 15 yrs.
                  b. admission of guilt destroyed activism: L.A. remained
open shop
            7. San Francisco also experienced setbacks to Unionism
                  a. M&M & Chamber of Commerce broke Longshoreman's strike
1916
                  b. July 22 "Preparedness Day" parade (WWI) & bomb on
Market St.
                        i. killed 10 & maimed over 40
                  c. Tom Mooney & Warren K. Billings arrested & tried
                        i. both found guilty: Mooney's death sentence
commuted
                      ii. both serve life sentences but pardoned in 1939
                     iii. opposition to verdict from around world
                      iv. later evidence that contradicted testimony
                        v. proof that D.A. Charles M. Fickert encouraged
perjury
      H. Fears of Radicalism
            1. State government supported working man constitutes w/
limitations
                  a. passed Employer Liability Act (limited workers
compensation)
                        i. Industrial Accident Board reviewed cases
                      ii. also passed a state workers insurance program
                  b. 8 hour day & minimum-wage for women
                  c. Industrial Welfare Commission
                        i. regulates working conditions for women &
children
            2. Anti-Labor efforts also gain support
                  a. almost approved compulsory arbitration bill (stops
strikes)
                  b. defeated bill against injunctions, black lists &
                   c. Fresno&San Diego outlawed Wobblie gatherings in
public places
                         i. IWW made some inroads with unskilled workers
                       ii. only had 1,000 members in CA by 1910
                   d. 1912 many arrested in San Diego & 2 die in jail from
a beating
                          i. Hiram Johnson investigated
              3. Free Speech Fights
                    a. anti-IWW laws declared unconstitutional
                    b. citizens and authorities condemned in San Diego &
Fresno
                          i. hostility towards radicalism & IWW continued
              4. Wheatland Riot summer of 1913 (south of Marysville)
                    a. Durst Hop Ranch recruited 2,800 adult workers for 800
jobs
                         i. inadequate facilities,sold water w/lemon flavor
in fields
                       ii. held back wages till harvest was in
                   b. Wobblies organized protest
                   c. Sheriff deputies confronted workers & shots fired
                         i. 5 dead: 2 deputies, 2 workers & D.A. of Yuba
County
                       ii. Blackie Ford & Herman Suhr arrested for 2nd
degree murder
                              a. organized protest & were imprisoned
                   d. Commission on Immigration & Housing investigates
conditions
                         i. recommends improving conditions among farm
labor camps
                      ii. Labor Camp Act 1915 passed but ignored by
farmers
      G. The Criminal Syndicalism Act, 1919
            1. fear of radical activism, the bombings & national fears
                  a. Bolshevik revolution in 1917
                  b. A.Mitchell Palmer's "red raids"(5,000 arrested & 600
deported)
            2. 500 arrested under CA statute
            3. 1st trial was 52 yr old Charlotte Anita Whitney
                  a. philanthropist & social worker became a Communist in
1919
                  b. convicted & sentenced to 14yrs
                  c. appeals upheld all way to U.S. Supreme Court
                  d. Gov. Clement C. Yong pardons (didn't want a 60 yr old
martyr)
                  e. remained law until 1968 when federal court
invalidates
      H. Race in Progressive California
            1. D. W. Griffith's film The Birth of a Nation(1915)one of
first films
                  a. Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan (1916) by William J.
Simmons
                  b. NAACP & Urban League protested showing film in L.A. &
Oakland
            2. 1906 Gentleman's agreement
                 a. Asiatic Exclusion League in S.F.
                 b. S.F. Board of Education started segregating Japanese
students
                 c. President Roosevelt helpless & diplomatic crisis
                       i. Japanese agree to limit emigration if given
civil rights
            3. Alien Land Law of 1913
                  a. "aliens ineligible for citizenship" couldn't lease or
buy land
                  b. Japanese leased or bought land in name of children
      I. Water for the Cities: Hetch Hetchy & Owens Valley
            1. 1900 fight for clean water in S.F. lead to Hetch Hetch
Valley
                  a. 13yr. fight in congress over location, Yosemite
National Park
                  b. 1906 earthquake & Ruef trial showed need for outside
help
                  c. Raker Act 1913 created a 200 mile aqueduct & dam
                        i. also created cheap hydroelectric power
            2. Los Angeles growing with little water resources
                  a. 1904 Fred Eaton suggested tapping Owens River for
water needs
                        i. bought land around Long Valley to sell water
rights
                      ii.drought depleted L.A. reservoirs
                  b. Eaton sells holdings to L.A. with William
Mulholland's support
                  c. Times & Examiner editorials discussed Eaton's plan
                        i. Times supported plan
                      ii. Examiner claimed Otis & Huntington owned S.F.
valley land
                  d. voters approved project in 1905
                  e. Federal Government prevented homesteaders from
claiming water
                        i. also gave some land in Sierra National Forest
for project
                  f. Eaton's $1mil. for land too high
                        i. city avoided Eaton's reservoir plan for direct
river flow
                      ii. reservoir built in 1941 for consistency
                  g. project still threatens Mono Lake ecosystem

XI. PROSPERITY AND THE RISE OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
      A. Water and Power for Growth
            1. The Imperial Valley
                  a. Salton Sink 150 miles S.E. of L.A. mostly below sea
level
                        i. silt from Colorado R. filled area making
fertile soil
                      ii. irrigation a real problem for farming area
                  b. Charles R. Rockwood formed California Development Co.
1896
                        i. used Oliver Wozencraft's plan to divert
Colorado R. water
                            a. divert into an old channel (Alamo R.)
through Mexico
                     ii. Mexico agreed and water flowed into valley June
1901
                             a. settlers started arriving in 1900
                             b. finished by building 400 miles of canals
                 c. Flood almost destroys Imperial Valley 1905
                       i. Colorado flooded, sweeps through Alamo & other
channels
                     ii. Salton Sea formed
                    iii. Southern Pacific took over Calif. Dev. Co &
stopped flood
                            a. dumped tons of gravel into 1/2 mile break
in canal
                 d. American Canal
                       i. U.S. could not control project & demanded
American Canal
                     ii. Congress created a commission among states
effected
                            a. Sec. of Commerce H. Hoover met w/ states
1921 & 22
                    iii. Bolder Canyon Dam proposed by congress
                            a. Arizona refused but congress passed
anyway
                            b. Arizona given water in proportion to
population
                              c. Dam would supply electricity as well
needed in L.A.
      B. California and the Automobile
            1. invented in late 19th century but 1920 price cut to
affordable
            2. 1900 only 8,000 registered cars by 1929 nearly 27 million
                  a. California had over 2 million registered vehicles in
1929
            3. Model T
                  a. a team of engineers invented assembly line Ford first
to use
                  b. in 1913 used for Model T reduced time from 14 to 1
1/2 hrs.
                  c. in 1912 coast $600 by 1924 only $290
                  d. light weight, easy to repair & most popular in
history (V.W.)
                  e. stays the same year after year with little change
(V.W)
            4. Automobile spurs economic growth
                  a. manufacturing end
                        i. Thousands of tons of steel needed for
production
                      ii. glass, rubber, cloth, other raw materials
                  b. maintenance end
                        i. gas stations, garages replace livery stables &
troughs
                      ii. taxes support: traffic lights, paved roads,
bridges
                      iii. private interests start: motels, parking lots,
billboards
                   c. off shoots of industry
                         i. trucking improves local delivery & remote
access
                        ii. tractors revolutionize farming
              5. Los Angeles becomes 1st decentralized American city

                   a. almost anyone can afford
                   b. independence from rail lines & street cars
                   c. decline of corner store, local church & one room
schools
                         i. people could go further distances for better
services
                   d. growth of the suburbs
                         i. no longer the domain of wealthy alone
                       ii. by 1920 over have population in U.S. lived in
urban area
                              a. (towns with over 2,500 people)
                      iii. over 1/2 residents of L.A. lived in single
family homes
                               a. more 3 x the number of other American
cities
                   e. freeways develop only after WWII
                         i. complications revive interests in alternatives
today
              6. Cultural changes brought by Automobile
                    a. tourism increases dramatically
                          i. out to nature campaigns, picnics, resorts
                                a. CA ST. Automobile Ass. & Automobile Club
of So. CA
                   b. courtship practices change
                         i. couples escaped chaperoning parents
                       ii. 1919 only 10% cars covered 82% by 1927
                               a. concerns over too much privacy
                      iii. Necking in back seat fashionable & new morality
                   c. Advertizement changes
                         i. Automobile is symbol of good life, freedom,
power & sex
                       ii. one of first products offered on credit
                              a. Toledo, Ohio 1915 group of businessmen
offer
                                  installments on payments of cars
                               b. so successful others followed suit &
extended
                                 credit to almost everything
      C. Oil
            1. Leading Oil Companies
                  a. Standard Oil of CA, Union Oil, Shell & General
Petroleum
                        i. Standard Oil of NJ broken by Supreme Court in
1911
                              a. discovered large field in Huntington
Beach in 1920
                       ii. Union Oil drilled in Santa Fe Springs
                      iii. Shell tapped Signal Hill site
                    b. by 1930s state led nation in oil production
              2. Speculation boom swept the state
                    a. oil stocks sold at inflated prices
                    b. thousands lost money in wild speculation
                          i. Chauncey C. Julian Oil Scandal
                                a. raised $11 million from 40,000
subscribers
                                    i. to develop Julian's holdings
                              b. 5 million stocks sold at inflated prices
                              c. bubble burst & thousands lost all
      D. Gas and Hydroelectric Power
            1. Natural Gas evolved slowly in 1920s to become a major
energy source
            2. Hydroelectricity boomed in a few short years
                  a. 1893 only 4 hydroelectric plants in U.S. 2 in
southern CA
                  b. 1920s a major energy source for industry
                  c. 2 companies dominated state electricity
                        i. 1905 PG&E (from S.F. Gas&Elec. & CA Central
Gas&Elec.)
                      ii. Southern California Edison 1928
      E. The Movies
            1. Thomas A. Edison's Kintoscope displayed in New York 1894
                  a. 1896 1st theatrical presentation of moving pictures
                  b. 1902 1st motion picture theater opens (Los Angeles)
                        i. "nickelodeon" charged only a nickel (working
class only)
                  c. 1903 1st movie The Great Train Robbery by Edwin S.
Porter
                  d. 1922 color
                  e. The Jazz Singer 1927 the first picture with sound
                  f. 1928 the Oscars start (1927-8)
            2. The movie industry
                  a. centered in L.A. because of the year round weather
                        i. open shop labor policy also enticed producers
                      ii. the geography & terrain could double for
anywhere
                  b. Jewish immigrants formed first studios
                        i. William Fox, Adolph Zukor, Samuel Goldwyn,
                           Louis B. Mayer Marcus Loew, & Jesse L. Lasky
                      ii. Formed Paramount, Fox, Metro-Goldwyn Mayer,
Universal,
                           Columbia, Warner Brothers, & RKO (Radio-Keith-
Orpheum)
            3. Stars and personalities
                  a. Charlie Chaplin by 1916 received $10,000 a week
                  b. Hollywood shocked old time residents with scandals
            4. Censorship
                  a. Will H. Hayes issued first code of ethics & self-
regulation
                  b. The Legion of Decency (Catholic Church) threatened
boycotts
                        i. Hollywood organized Breen Office in 1934 to
censor selves
      F. Agribusiness
            1. Farms expanded land holdings, expanding horizontally
                  a. 1930s only 4% of farms owned 62% of farmland
            2. With large land ownerships companies started expanding
vertically
                    a. bought food-processing, distribution & marketing
businesses
            3. Rice & Cotton boom in the state
            4. Co-ops formed in the 1880s continued & others soon formed
                    a. California Fruit Grower’s Exchange 1893 (Sunkist)
                    b. Diamond Walnuts
            5. The Wine industry suffered with Prohibition
                  a. table grape sales increased due to home wine making
                        b. allowed vineyards to survive until 1933 & end
of prohibition
            6. Farm Labor
                    a. Japanese immigrants comprised most migrant workers
until 1915
                    b. Mexicans and Mexican Americans replace Japanese &
use cars
                           i. First mobile farm labor source
                    c. working conditions deplorable no sanitation &
danger increases
                    d. International Workers of the World
                        i. socialist labor movement organized unskilled
farm labor
                       ii. Criminal syndicalism law 1919 used to break
union
                             a. threat of communism growing in U.S. after
Bolshevik Rev.
            7. Prohibition
                    a. California ratified the Eighteenth Amendment in
1919
                        i. Volstead act left enforcement to local
government
                       ii. Harris Act passed in early 1920 but defeated by
referendum
                      iii. little money used for enforcement
                    b. cities ignored the prohibition stills and
speakeasies abounded
                        i. Midwesterner immigrants in L.A. yet “wets” a
majority
                    c. wineries closed and some failed
                  d. most liquor came from British Colombia and shipped
south
                    e. Tijuana becomes instant city with smuggling money
            8. Religion
                    a.William J. Seymour and the 312 Azusa Street
                       i. from Louisiana Seymour came to L.A. in 1906
                      ii. opened church with prayer meetings for several
weeks
                       iii. lasted until 1922 with Seymour’s death
                     iv. started several Pentecostal denominations
                      v. holiness movement able to close down movies in
1920s
                   b. Aimee Semple McPherson and the Four Square Church
                      i. Missionary to China with husband Robert
                     ii. Came back to east coast with baby daughter on
death of husband
                    iii. 1919 Aimee came to California for daughter
Roberta’s health
                     iv. 1921 built Angelus Temple completed in 1923
                      v. first woman in U.S. to get commercial broadcast
license
                     vi. Kidnapped and grand jury investigation
                    vii. Benevolence of Angelus Temple
                   c. Katherine Tingley (Mother Purple) of Theosophical
Society
                      i. Followed Buddhist & Brahman theories
                     ii. Built Temple in Point Loma near San Diego
                      iii. Annie Besant built a colony in Ojai Valley
for group
                          a. brought Krishnamurti to U.S. as new messiah

XII. THE DEPRESSION DECADE
      A. The Crash & Impact of Depression
            1. Oct. 24, 1929 Black Thursday
                    a. margin buying and panic
                    b. institutions and banks ruined
                      i. 1932 stocks selling for 10% of 1928 values
              2. Lay-offs and Hovervilles
                    a. southern part of state effected most
                      i. Highest percentage of elderly in the nation
                     ii. 1/5th of Los Angeles on relief
                    b. Thousands of homeless came to California
                      i. believed it was a paradise
                     ii. large farmers tried to get cheaper labor from
dust bowl
                      iii. Okies flooded into the state
                        iv. Los Angeles Police chief attempted to prohibit
entry to state
            3. Hoover did little
                    a. Reconstruction Finance Corporation
                      i. Financed construction of Oakland Bay Bridge &
Golden Gate
      B. The New Deal in California
            1. Federal Emergency Relief Administration
                    a. gave matching funds to state for relief
            2. Civil Works Administration
                    a. employed 150,000 to build dams, schools,
bridges,etc.
                    b. replaced with Public Works Administration
                      i. Build Newport Harbor
                     ii. The Colorado River and Central Valley projects
                       a. Hoover (Bolder) Dam started project
                    b. brought water through aqueduct to L.A.
                   c. Central Valley Project
                    i. Shasta dam and several others to get water from
north
                   ii. three canals send water to Bakersfield and pumping
stations
                  iii. pumped to reservoirs in San Fernando Valley for
L.A.
           3. The Civilian Conservation Corps
                   a. hired 18-25 yr olds for conservation projects
                   b. paid 30 dollars a month 25 went to parents
           4. Work Progress Administration hired writers, painters &
musicians
      C. Politics of the Depression
            1. Upton Sinclair
                    a. ran as Socialist in1926 & 1930
                    b. 1932 and ran for U.S. Senator
                    c. After supporting Roosevelt he switched to Democrat
in 1933
                    d. Wrote End Poverty in California pamphlet in 1933
EPIC
                    i. Calls for state run farms and factories
                     ii. Promotes idea of California supremacy & superb
economy
                    iii. I, Governor of California & How I Ended Poverty:
A True
                         Story of the Future 1933 runs for governor with
plan
                   iv. Repeal of state sales tax
                      v. supported $50 month pension old & disabled
                    e. Movie & Oil Industries oppose unfair taxes
                    i. Actors in disguise as Oakies at train yards
                   ii. Excerpts from his writing taken out of context
                       a. claimed he was atheist, communist, & immoral
(free love)
            2. Frank Merriam’s Pragmatism
                  a. Promoted New Deal programs with limits
                    i. fear of Communism & radicals like Sinclair
                  b. State Emergency Relief Administration (gained federal
relief)
                    c. allowed State Pension law (gained U.S. Social
Security Act 1935)
                    d. placed higher tax on inheritance, corporations &
banks
                    e. exempted sales taxes on groceries, fuel & drug
prescriptions

XXII. THE EARLY CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
      A. Problems of Discrimination
            1. Housing discrimination
                  a. before 1900 housing was open based on wealth
                  b. 1919 Los Angeles Investment Co. vs. Albert Gray
                    i. allowed residential restrictions but could not
limit sales
                    ii. restricted covenants remained until 1948 when
overturned
            2. Discrimination in employment & other areas
                  a. hotels, restaurants, theaters clothing stores &
public facilities
                  b. Huntington Beach black country club burnt before
opening 1925
                  c. Black amusement park owner denied application Santa
Monica
                  d. Black country club in Corona had members intimidated
& failed
            3. Pearl Harbor & Japanese interment
                    a. Executive order 9066 Feb. 14, 1942
                  b. FBI claimed Japanese Americans not a threat
                  c. Army & Lt. Gen. John DeWitt (western defense)
supported
                  d. Roosevelt gave into fears & racism
            4. Zoot-Suit Riot Aug. 1943
                    a. discrimination in housing & employment
                    b. distinct clothing
                    c. only riot by service men against civilians
      B. Expectations of Equality
            1. War allowed many minorities to find semiskilled jobs
            2. GI Bill (Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944)
                  a. provided buffer from unemployment after the war
                  b. low interest loans for housing & business (farms)
                  c. gave college education
            3. Interracial housing projects started after WWII
                  a. Whatts & south central Los Angeles were open
communities
                      i. Allowed anyone to live in the area
                   ii. by 1940's services were obsolete & overtaxed whites
leave
            4. 1948 Truman desegregates the military
                  a. veterans return with expectations of equality based
on military
            5. 1949 Fair Employment Practices Law passed
                  a. started in 1946 but delayed
            6. 1963 Rumford Fair Housing Act passed
                  a. referendum 1964 Proposition 14 repealed the law
                  b. State reinstated Rumford 65 & U.S. Supreme Court
upheld 67
      C. Black Civil Rights Movement
            1. NAACP launched campaign to reverse Plessy v. Ferguson 1896
                  a. Brown v. Board of Education Topeka Kansas et. al.
1954&55
            2. SCLC & grass roots movement of the south
                  a. Montgomery buss boycott 1955-56
                  b. Woolworth's drug store demonstration 1960
                  c. Children's crusade 1963
                  d. the effect of Television
            3. Whatt's Riot August 11, 1965
                    a. arrest of Marquette Frye on Avalon Blvd. near 116
St.
                 b. police overreacted to officer needs help calls
                 c. riots & looting recorded on Television
                 d. Lt. Gov. Glenn Anderson called out National Guard by
14th
                      i. feared initial involvement of guard
                     ii. 10,000 police & 13,000 national guard controlled
city
                  e. 35 dead, over 850 injured & over 4,00 arrested
            4. Black Panther Party
                  a.Stokely Carmichael's "Black Power" Summer of Freedom
1964
                         i. believed whites could not be trusted
                    b. Malcom X killed in Feb. 1965
                    c. Huey P. Newton, Bobby Seale & Eldridge Cleaver
form 1966
                    d. marched on Sacramento to defend right to bear arms
                       i. uniformed & armed against new gun control act
                    e. Armed confrontation with police in 1967 & 1968
                    f. Cleaver runs for Peace & Freedom party President
                       i. flees to Algeria to avoid revoked of parole &
prison
            5. Bussing
                    a. Supreme Court ordered in 1955
                    b. opposition throughout country
                    c. issue dies in 1976 with more conservative court
      D. Mexican American Civil Rights Movement
            1. Braceros program 1948-1964
                    a. loss of labor from WWII
                        i. business & farmers recruit in Mexico
                       ii. brought 4.5 million Mexicans into country
                    b. Braceros signed contract provide unskilled labor &
return home
            2. Operation wetback
                    a. small recession of 1953-1954 government deported
1.1 mil.
            3. Mexican Americans had unsure status
                    a. depending on local authorities, ignored or abused
                    b. some cases brutalized by police (Zoot Suit Riot)
            4. Opposition to discrimination divided
                    a. late 1940 several Mexican American groups started
                      i. Office of Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs
1943
                  b. Mendez et. al v. Westminster 1947
                    c. 1960 the Mexican -American Political Association
formed
                    d. Mexican American Legal Defense & Educational Fund
1968
                    e. Brown Berets start by young Chicanos 1968
            5. 1960 César Chavez organizes migrant farm workers
                    a. since 1900s unions have tried to organize migrant
workers
                    b. Chavez started door to door & field to field
campaign
                   c. by 1965 had 1,700 members & attracted volunteer
support
           6. Grape boycott and United Farm Workers (UFW)
                   a. UFW launches campaign for decent living age
                 b. targeted grape growers of California for action
                       i. grapes take years to reach production
                      ii. they require manicuring several times a year
                   c. boycott crippled wine industry & several signed
with UFW
                   d. 1966 the DiGiorgio Corp. held a rigged election
                       i. Gov. Edmund G. Brown Jr. investigated UFW won
2nd election
            7. Chavez continued struggle led boycott of lettuce in
Salinas valley
                    a. growers relented & unionized
            8. Just before Chavez's death in 1993 led a hunger strike
                    a. interested in conditions in the fields
                    b. trying to stop spraying pesticides
                        i. trying to convince consumers of danger
                    c. concerned about deaths, cancers & diseases in
workers
            9. Student Activism
                    a. 1967 Mexican American Student Org. later(youth
org.) spreads
                      i. UCLA, CSLA, Loyola, USC, CSLB, ELAC, & CSUN &
Austin
                       ii. spread north-Fresno, Hayward, Sac, Colorado &
Berkeley
                    iii. teachers, classes, & Latin Am. Studies programs
                    b. 3/3/68 "Blow Out" Abraham Lincoln HS in East L.A.
                        i. 1,000 students walked out & Sal Castro
(teacher)
                       ii. 1 1/2 weeks effected over 10,000 students in
LA
                    c. 13 Chicanos indicted by Grand Jury for conspiracy
& acquitted
                      i. Leaders labeled as communists
                              a. Sal Castro, teacher
                         b. Eliezer Risco, editor of "La Raza"
                              c. Patricio Sanchez member of MAPA
                              d. 10 others were students
            10. Moratorium Riot in LA Aug. 29, 1970
                    a. 20,000 attend march to end Vietnam war rest in
Laguna Park
                    b. liquor store hold up and police break up crowd
                  c. three dead including Ruben Salazar a reporter from
Times
                  d. organized several new groups to bring reform &
accountability
      F. Native Americans gained some identity & activism in 1950s
            1. 1953 eliminates reservations as legitimate political
entities
                    a. hoped to force assimilation
                      b. offered small subsidies to families to leave
reservation
                    c. took away federal protection & denied treaty rights
              2. National Congress of American Indians formed to oppose
policy
              3. Kinzua Dam project started in 1928
                      a. would flood 10,000 acres guarantee to Seneca in
1794
                   b. public hearings did not invite Indian response
                   c. Indian groups approached Kennedy in 1961
                   d. Kennedy refused to acknowledge Indian claim
                       i. continued pattern of stealing land for better
good
                  e. government paid $15 million but did not cover losses
            4. 1968 American Indian Movement (AIM)
                  a. started by Dennis Banks and George Mitchell
                  b. Nov. 1968 AIM captured Alcatraz Island in San
Francisco Bay
                        i. Federal government closed old prison
                       ii. 1963 declared the rock surplus property
                      iii. Fort Laramie Treaty 1868 permitted male
Indians to homestead
                       iv. Indians claim land & want to build a cultural
center
                        v. 1971 federal officials removed them
                       vi. government gives some tribes money & land for
education
                  c. 1972 militant group starts Broken Treaties Caravan to
D.C.
                        i. several people take over the Bureau of Indian
Affairs
                       ii. hold out in office for six days
      G. Affirmative Action and the decline of Civil Rights
                  a. 1978 Allan Bakke vs. University of California
                      i. Graduate student denied access to Davis medical
two years
                     ii. U.S. Supreme Court ordered in 5 to 4 school to
admit
                          iii. 16 seats saved for minority students
                     iv. Bakke's GPA and test scores higher than all 16
both years
                      v. court claimed race alone could not be used to
establish entry
                  b. University of California removed Affirmative action
in enrollments
                      i. Asian students at Berkeley
                       ii. Argue for rounded student body representing
the state
                  c. Racial groups vary on topic of Affirmative action
                      i. Whites claim with less qualified Blacks hired
                       ii. Without Blacks claim less qualified White
hired

				
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