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					                    Study of ICT Utilization
           in the International Cooperation Project
                    Managed by Universities


                                                                 *Ryota Yamamoto (Kansai University, Japan)



                                                          <Abstract>



    This study categorized ICT utilized in the international cooperation project by university by difference of collaborative
    situation. Author used “Collaborative situations” (Granott, 1993) for framework of categorizing. This study shows
    important factors when university manage the international cooperation project.




* Author: Doctoral student of Kansai University, Japan / ryota@ict-education.org
** This paper was selected as Young Scholar Award, Hanyang-Kansai Roundtable 2009.



                                                            - 45 -
                                                 Study of ICT Utilization
                            in the International Cooperation Project Managed by Universities




     I. Background

  In the field of the international cooperation, communication between participants (developing worker and
beneficiary) is one of important factor for management of the projects. This kind of communication includes
‘promotion (e.g. seminars and lectures)’, ‘empowerment (e.g. dialogue and workshop)’ and ‘intercultural
communication’. This communication is called ‘development communication’, and development communication
related with the processes of international cooperative project.
  Spreading ICT (Information and Communication Technology) is impacting to development communication. JICA
(Japan International Cooperation Agency) is practicing distance technical cooperation, called ‘JICA-Net’ since 2002.
JICA-Net is platform for providing various services to participants (e.g. multimedia contents for self regulated
learning, TV conference system and web site). Purposes of construction of JICA-Net are provision of technical
cooperation to beneficiary efficiently and provision of communication tool for participants. In fact, JICA provides
various lectures, multimedia contents and communication platforms to participants of the project (Kikue, 2008).
  Nowadays, the international cooperation that universities take part in it is expected from several sectors, for
example, The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT) practices
‘International Cooperation Initiative, MEXT’. The purpose of this practice is support to the international cooperation
work by universities.
  However, universities do not have ICT infrastructures, like JICA-Net. In that situation, how will be universities
practice the international cooperation projects utilizing by ICT? This study clarifies ICT utilization in the
international cooperation project work by Kansai University as a case study.




   II. Methodology

  This research separates 2 parts. At first, pick up ICT
tools were utilized in the international cooperation
projects    work   by   Kansai    University.   Second,
categorize these ICT tools into “collaborative situation
(Granott, 1993)”, and discuss particularity of these
media.
  Granott      (1993)     categorized      collaborative      <Figure 1> Collaborative interactions (Granott, 1993)
interactions (Figure 1). According to this figure, collaborative interactions are able to categorize 9 patterns (Mutual
Collaborations, Symmetric Counterpoint, Parallel Activity, Asymmetric Collaboration, Asymmetric Counterpoint,
Swift imitation, Scaffolding, Guidance or Apprenticeship and Imitation). It will be clarified way of media utilization


                                                           - 46 -
                                                 Ryota Yamamoto (2009)




in various situations.
  The Data that were analyzed are year report of 2008 who were described by each projects. Moreover, author
interviewed project leaders for gathering expletive information.


                         [Table 1] Meaning of Collaborative interactions (Granot , 1993)

Mutual Collaborations     -A highly collaborative interaction between peers of equal expertise.
                          -The participants are about equally dominant in the activity
                          -Participants may suggest to one another courses of activities, discuss the suggestions,
                          agree on a common activity, work it out together, share comments, on the occurrences,
                          discuss their implications, and co-construct their understanding together
Symmetric                 -It occurs between peers of equal expertise who interact while alternating dominance on an
Counterpoint              activity.
                          -dominance shifts from one partner to another for chunks of the activity, but throughout the
                          interaction dominance is about equally distributed
Parallel Activity         -It is an interaction among peers of symmetric expertise, engaged in an activity that is
                          mostly independent
                          -The participants are absorbed in their own activity, whereas in the interactive segments
                          they watch the other’s activity or talk and exchange information
Asymmetric                -It represents a collaborative interaction between peers of some asymmetric expertise
Collaboration             -The degree to which the participants take part in, or responsibility for, an activity is
                          consistently unbalanced
Asymmetric                -It is a moderately collaborative interaction among peers of some asymmetric expertise
Counterpoint              -The interaction is asymmetric due to the unequal expertise of the participants
                          -The processes of knowledge construction are unsynchronized, and the interaction reflects
                          previously or independently constructed knowledge of the more capable partner
Swift imitation           -It is an interaction among peers of moderately asymmetric expertise, engaged in an
                          activity that is mostly independent
                          -The processes of knowledge construction are unsynchronized; the construction of
                          knowledge of the more capable peer may have occurred prior to the interaction
Scaffolding               -It corresponds to a guiding collaborative interaction between partners with asymmetric
                          knowledge and expertise
                          -The guiding partner assists the other4’s construction of knowledge
Guidance or               -They are interactions among participants with asymmetric expertise, characterized by
Apprenticeship            periods of guidance interspersed throughout an activity or discussion
Imitation                 -It corresponds to interaction among partners of asymmetric expertise
                          -It consists mainly of independent (noncollaborative) activities, with limited interaction, in
                          which the less experienced partner imitates the more experienced




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                                                   Study of ICT Utilization
                              in the International Cooperation Project Managed by Universities




   III. Practice of Graduate School of Kansai University

  Graduate School of Kansai University practices the international cooperative projects in several areas. These the
international cooperative projects are practiced by professors, graduate students and undergraduate students. And
these projects collaborate with various organizations, for example, NGO/NPO, United Nations agency, universities in
the overseas and so on. One of the projects, ‘Promoting ICT education project in the Philippines’ are practicing
training to elementary school teachers for promoting ICT education in the Philippines. For this training, this project
collaborates between Kansai University and university in the Philippines (Bulacan State University).
  Each project utilizes various ICT tools for realization of collaboration, and project’s goals. One of the projects,
‘China-Japan Exchange project’ utilizes various ICT tools for practice Japanese language education to Chinese
university students, for example, Skype (the internet conference system), NOTA (CSCL: Computer supported
Collaborative Learning) and so on.


                     [Table 2] The international cooperation projects work by Kansai University


          Project name                         Counterpart                                     Activities
                                     -UNRWA (United Nations               Practicing training to UNRWA school teacher
                                     Relief and Works Agency)             together with UNRWA staff in Syria, Middle East
Educational cooperation project
                                     staffs
for Palestinian refugees
                                     -Japanese professor major in
                                     anthropology
                                     - Filipino professors                Practicing training about ICT utilization in class
Promoting ICT education project      - Filipino university students       to primary school teacher together with Filipino
in the Philippines                   -Filipino primary teachers           university professors and students in the
                                                                          Philippines, South East Asia
                                     -NGO staffs                          Practicing international education to primary and
Bangladesh support project
                                                                          secondary schools in Japan
                                     -Japanese Professor major in         Supporting Japanese language education
China-Japan Exchange project         Japanese language                    through exchange education.
                                     -Chinese university students
Germany-Japan Exchange               -German professor                    Supporting Japanese culture education through
project                              -German university students          exchange education




                                                             - 48 -
                                                 Ryota Yamamoto (2009)




  IV. Result

 Result of this study is following (Table 3). In these projects, 8 kinds of media were utilized.


                                             [Table 3] Result of categorize


   Project name           Counterpart          Category of interaction        ICT tool     Contents of communication
                        UNRWA staffs            Mutual Collaboration           Mail         Consensus making of the
                                                                                             project, Division of labor
                                                                                             and Sharing information
   Educational
                                                                              Skype           Consensus making of
cooperation project
                                                                           (including        project, Division of labor
  for Palestinian
                                                                               chat)         and Sharing information
     refugees
                           Japanese             Mutual Collaboration           Mail         Explanation of the project
                        professor major                                                      activities, discussion for
                        in anthropology                                                            improvement
                            Filipino            Mutual Collaboration           Mail           Consensus making of
                          professors                                                         project, Division of labor
                                                                                             and Sharing information
                                                                              Skype           Consensus making of
                                                                           (including        project, Division of labor
                                                                               chat)         and Sharing information
                       Filipino university     Symmetric Counterpoint          Mail           Strengthen a sense of
                           students                                                          community by informal
  Promoting ICT
                                                                                                   communication
education project in
                                                                              Skype           Strengthen a sense of
  the Philippines
                                                                           (including      community and Explanation
                                                                               chat)       about the project activities
                                                                               BBS            Explanation about the
                                                                                              project activities and
                                                                                               consensus making
                                                                               SNS            Strengthen a sense of
                                                                                             community by informal
                                                                                                   communication
Bangladesh support        NGO staffs            Mutual Collaboration           Mail         Consensus making of the
      project                                                                                         project
   China-Japan             Japanese             Mutual Collaboration           Mail         Consensus making of the



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                                                 Study of ICT Utilization
                            in the International Cooperation Project Managed by Universities




                         Professor major                                                                project
                           in Japanese
                            language
                             Chinese                Scaffolding                BBS                  Scheduling for
                            university                                                              communication
                             Students                                       Mailing list            Scheduling for
  Exchange project
                                                                                                    communication
                                                                              NOTA             Making learning outcomes
                                                                                               (Japanese news paper) by
                                                                                                     collaboration
                                                                              Skype         Presentation about learning
                                                                                               outcomes by collaboration
                             German            Mutual Collaboration            Mail            Consensus making of the
                            professor                                                                   project
                             German                 Scaffolding                Mail                 Scheduling for
  Germany-Japan             university                                                              communication
  Exchange project           students                                         NOTA             Making learning outcomes
                                                                                                    (‘Manga’ story)
                                                                              Skype         Discussion for making story
                                                                               Blog         Discussion for making story




   V. Discussion

       1. Characteristics of ICT utilization in the situations

  The international cooperation projects of Kansai University realized them activities utilizing by various ICT tools.
And these ICT utilizations were separated in each situation.
     In the Mutual Collaboration, ‘Mail’ and ‘Skype (including chat)’ were utilized mainly. In this situation, highly
collaboration and shared objective of the project, there is not necessary to utilize various ICT tools for collaboration.
‘Mail’ and ‘Skype’ are able to share information easily. Therefore, in this situation, these ICT tools were chosen.
     In the Symmetric Counterpoint, ‘Mail’, ‘Skype’, ‘BBS’ and ‘SNS’ were utilized mainly. In this situation there is
sharing objective of the project, but not highly collaboration, it is necessary to strengthen a sense of community.
These ICT tools are able to realize informal communication.
     In the Scaffolding, ‘Mail’, ‘Skype’, ‘Mailing List’, ‘NOTA’, ‘BBS’ and ‘Blog’ were utilized. In this situation,
meaning of learning support is bigger than collaboration. For realization of learning in collaboration, various ICT
tools were utilized.


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                                                   Ryota Yamamoto (2009)




       2. Consideration for media utilization

  It is necessary to consider about situation of the internet connection, speed. The international cooperation projects
of Kansai University were considered these factors when they choose ICT tools for them collaboration. In the project
of China and Germany, counterparts in these countries are able to connect the high speed internet. However, in the
project of Syria and the Philippines, counterparts in these countries are not able to connect the high speed internet.
Therefore, these projects utilized ‘light load’ ICT tools, for example, ‘Mail’ and ‘Skype (including chat)’.
     Moreover, it is necessary to consider about characteristic of peers. In the project of the Philippines, Filipino
university students did not experience collaboration. Therefore, in this project, ‘SNS’ were utilized, because SNS
were utilized by Filipino university students ordinarily.



   VI. Conclusion

  Universities working international cooperation have to choose ICT tools considering the Collaborative situations,
condition of the internet connection and characteristic of peers.
  ICT tools are releasing every day. New ICT tools are appearing. Universities have advantage, because they are
able to utilize these new ICT tools. Universities have to find new ICT tools from the internet, and examine possibility
of adaptation of the project.



   VII. Assignment and Perspective

  This study clarified ICT utilization in 3 situations. However, there are other situations in the international
cooperation project. Moreover, effects of ICT utilization in the international cooperation project were not clarified.
  It is necessary to clarify about ICT utilization in various situations and effects of ICT utilization in the
international cooperation project. For solving these assignments, author will continue the this kinds of study.



                                                        References

Granott N. (1993) Patterns of Interaction in the Co-Construction of Knowledge: Separate Minds, Joint Effort, and Weird
      Creatures; DEVELOPMENT IN CONTEXT Acting and Thinking in Specific Environments .183-207.
Kenji Kikue (2008) Pilot Test for International Cooperation through JICA-Net, 15th Conference of Japan Association for
      Educational Media Study . 62-65
Kenichi Kubota (1999) Development Communication-Making Global Network by Global citizen-, Akashi Shoten



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