anatomy lab liver kidney heart lungs

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					Liver, spleen;
Circulatory, respiratory and
excretory systems

     Principles of Anatomy
           ANSC 2202
            Fall 2006
Kidney diseases
   Bacterial infection in a
   Salmonella  green
    kidneys in pigs
   Polycystic kidney
    disease (PKD):
       genetic
       multiple cysts in the
       start out very small but
        they grow larger 
        eventually severely
        disrupt the kidney 
        kidney failure
        Kidney diseases
   Kidney stones (calcium or potassium – any cation)
   Chronic renal failure:
       Hypertension
       Infections
       Autoimmune disorders (i.e. lupus glomerulonephritis)
   Acute renal failure
       Poisoning
       Injury
       Drug
Excretory system: kidney =
‘filtering factory’
   Humans:
       size of fist
       ½ lb
   Role:
       remove toxins, waste products, and extra water from entire
        body  urine bladder (200 quarts of blood/d)
       hormones that:
            Stimulate the production of red blood cells
            Regulate blood pressure
            Maintain normal chemical balances in your body
            Regulate bone calcium content
    Excretory system: kidney =
    ‘filtering factory’


   Nephron = functional unit of kidney
         Excretory system: kidney =
         ‘filtering factory’
   ‘Loaded blood’:
       Afferent arteriole
       Bowman’s capsule
       Glomerulus (twisted mass of
        tiny tubes, main filter of     Loop of
        nephron) for water + soluble   Henle

       Out of Bowman's capsule 
        proximal convoluted tubule
       Loop of Henle
       Collecting duct (urine)
       Ureter  bladder urethra.
   ‘Filtered blood’ (clean):
       Out of the glomerulus
       Efferent arteriole
Spleen diseases
   Enlarged spleen possibly caused by recurrent
    malaria, pneumonia/pulmonary edema
   Tumors
   Long ‘tongue-shaped’ organ (pigs, humans)
   3 roles/3 tissues:
       Reticuloendothelial tissue:
            phagocytosis of erythrocytes and cell debris from the blood
            RBC
       Venous sinusoids + power of contraction of the spleen:
        expulsion of the contained blood (for increased circulatory
        demands in certain animals).
       White pulp: lymphocytes (antibodies)
Liver diseases
   Infectious Canine Hepatitis (ICH)
       Adenovirus
       Vomiting, diarrhea, fever, coughing, swelling of the head and neck
        due to lymph node enlargement, abdominal tenderness and even
        central nervous system signs (like poisoning).
       Clotting factors disrupted
       If minimal symptoms: ocular lesions during the convalescent phase
   Copper Toxicosis (Copper Storage Disease)
       Copper accumulates in hepatocytes instead of being excreted with
        bile  inflammation and scarring, ultimately leading to liver failure
       Bedlington, West Highland white terriers, some Dobermans and
        Skye terriers.
       Acute: lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting - death can occur in 2-3
       Chronic: anemia (pale mucous membranes), depression, lethargy,
        and anorexia (weak, underweight).
Liver diseases
   Cirrhosis: atrophy of the
    liver parenchyma +
    hypertrophy of the
    connective tissue.
   Jaundice: accumulation of
    bile pigment in the blood
    stream (obstruction of the
    duct system)
   Liver: great vascularity 
    often secondary metastasis
    of cancer
   Roundworms and
   Hepatitis C (picture)
Liver = ‘energy and
detoxifying factory’
   Hepatocyte = functional unit of the liver
   Role of the liver:
       Energy storage
       Nitrogen excretion
       Regulation of the water and blood distribution
       Detoxification (drugs, alcohol,…)
       50% lymph production
       Blood clotting factors
Liver = ‘energy and
detoxifying factory’
         Liver = ‘energy and
         detoxifying factory’
   Organization:
       Left lobe: smaller
       Right lobe: on the side of
        the gallbladder fundus
       Highly vascularized
   Food/alcohol  intestines
    diffuses to blood:
       Portal vein
       Hepatocytes charged in
   Bile  bile duct (branches
    with duct from pancreas)
    small intestines (emulsify
Circulatory system and heart
= ‘body pump’
   Heart diseases: numerous
   Heart = cardiac muscle (not smooth, not
   Autonomic nervous system control
   Organization of the heart:
       2 atria + 2 ventricles (left is the most powerful)
       Valves
       Arteries and veins
       Connection with lungs and rest of the body
    Circulatory system and heart
    = ‘body pump’
   Definition: not based the level of oxygenation of
    the blood:
       Artery = vessel through which blood exits the heart
       Vein = vessel through which blood goes into the heart
   Structure:
       Artery: tough, elastic; no valves
       Vein: thin wall because exposed to less pressure;
       Arteries-arterioles-capillaries-venules-veins
  Circulatory system and heart
  = ‘body pump’

                          Tunica intima
lumen                     Tunica intermedia   lumen

                          Tunica adventitia

VEIN                                          ARTERY
Thin wall-less pressure
        Circulatory system and heart
        = ‘body pump’
   Vena cava (superior and inferior)
    (deoxygenated blood)
   Right atrium
   Atrioventricular valve
   Right ventricle
   Pulmonary valve
   Pulmonary arteries (deoxygenated
   Lungs: oxygenation of the blood
   Pulmonary veins (oxygenated
   Left atrium
   Mitral valves
   Left ventricle
   Aorta (oxygenated blood)
Circulatory system
Dissected blood vessels
Lung diseases
   Emphysema
   Pulmonary edemas
   Asthma
   Other respiratory
Respiratory system and lungs:
‘oxygenating factory’
   Heart and lungs: intertwined system
          Respiratory system and lungs:
          ‘oxygenating factory’
   Alveoli = functional unit of
    the lungs
   Air  Trachea
   Bronchioles
   Alveoli
        O2 from the breathed-in
         air diffuses through the
         capillary and charges the
         blood (coming from
         pulmonary arteries) in O2
        CO2 from blood diffuses
         out of the capillaries and
         charges the air in CO2.
   Thin epithelium: simple
    squamous !!
Dissection views

Heart and lungs    Liver, spleen, kidney

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