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HPT

VIEWS: 6 PAGES: 34

  • pg 1
									    Human performance
       technology

                      Pioneers

                  Thomas F. Gilbert
                       [ 1927 – 1995 ]



                     Allison Rossett
                [ Dept. of Educational Technology,
                   San Diego State University ]



1
       Engineering vs Technology


                Scientists
                Do research

                Engineers
        Design systems and process

             Technologists
    Implement solutions and troubleshoot

2
    Allison Rossett & the current trend of
                HPT




                       “…optimize workforce
                         performance and
                         capture customer
                         intelligence”



3
    Human Performance Technology…

    Why and how do we need to switch strategies to
      enhance performance ?
     Strategy = a careful plan or method to achieve the
      end
     Strategy leads to organizational development.
     Behavior is not accomplishment.
     Performance is accomplishment.
     Training is bringing in improved skills and knowledge
      ( a mere behavior –refresh button), but
      organizational system accomplishes nothing
      because performance is still standing still!

4
    Performance Improvement Strategies

    should include :

         innovation    + insight
     discrimination    + discretion

    Then behaviors transform into performance
      and the organizational system grows.

5
    More the options, more the confusion

       HPT generates „customized solutions‟
       Change is the law of nature
          {diversity is the course of nature}
        And every change is a challenge; brings in
           conflicts too.
        Performance improvement training
        must focus on ‘dealing with change’

6
    HPT in 2004+ –               challenges Allison Rossett
                                      perceives


        We do have reasonably delicious tools and
        technology, and have long had robust theory for
        instruction and support. What is more pressing for
        people in the business than have to deliver on all
        these possibilities?
        URL – http://www.uwex.edu/disted/conference/04speaker_survey.htm
       strategies for reducing the anxiety over
        assignments
         without nipping creativity ( stress management )
       humanizing the experience, making it vivid, tasty,
        and
         meaningful.
7      incorporating teams in meaningful and not
    Customized Approach


       OPTIMALS      What we want them to
                       think/do


       ACTUALS       What they are up to now


       CAUSES        Why they do what they do
                       and why they might not


8
    Effective Organizations – a peep

       Decisions are made on data, not mandates. (war)
       Many sources contribute to the data, including the
        people doing the work. (primaries)
       Results are measured ( drop-outs)
       Programs transcend habits and are plan-fully
        redundant { KM – knowledge management }, with
        access to information after development events.
        (agile market)
       Training may be part of the solution, or, occasionally,
        no portion at all.
        (rise of the Performance Consultant)
9
     Implications: acceleration of HPT

     Cross-functional link between strategies and
       technology :
     Can we infuse lessons about the power of
       selected instructional strategies into better
       decisions about technology?

     Else…

10
     Else….

        Schools and companies will continue with the
         complaints : “ Hey, what happened?
         Multimedia did not revolutionize the schools!
         Too many kids and too many adults are still
         failing.”
        Do you know? Allison Rossett had once
         clicked out of web training, but now
         campaigns and champions DL and online
         training – “Confessions of a Web Drop-out”

11
                 Distance Learning –
                freedom vs guidance

     Loopholes
     Anywhere, anytime, whenever you want ….
                   leads to
     Not now, maybe later, and often not at all !
     Remedial measure
     Interactive, humanizing, capturing sessions and
        presentations
     [ Recommendation 2004 – Breeze Live]
12
     Corporate scope – HPT- implications
     addressed     ( Variety is the spice of life)



        Price water house Coopers – professional- to-
         professional , web-based advice service for
         managers on topics that crop up in daily business
        RWD – provides with a broad range of integrated
         solutions designed to improve the productivity and
         effectiveness of workers in complex operating
         environments
        Accenture – application development, systems
         administration
        EDS - to contain costs, be more agile – focusing on
         core performance while driving growth

13
                Gilbert
                  and
      Human Performance Technology

     Thomas f. gilbert [ 1927 – 1995 ]
          is known as the
     “father of human performance
            technology”




14
     The Link                  Influences

        B.F. Skinner         The Behavior of Organisms: An
                               Experimental Analysis [1938] ;
                               The Science and the Art of
                               Teaching [1954]

        Gilbert, Thomas      An Early Approximation to the
                               Principles of Programming
                               Continuous discourse, Self-
                               Instructional Materials ;
                               “Mathetics”[1962]


        Robert Gagne         The Conditions of Learning
                               [1968]


15
         Skinner & Gilbert

       In 1958, Skinner invited Gilbert to lead the
        Behavioral Laboratory at Harvard, after reading
        Gilbert‟s paper entitled
      “ Fundamental Dimensional Properties of the
        Operant.”
      Gilbert soon became impatient working with animals
        and birds. Too anxious to apply the discoveries in
        the real world, he began to shape and distill
        principles for „instructional design‟.

16
     A critical analysis of the stumbling
     blocks

     Gilbert set out to investigate the following
         „behavioral/work cult‟ that kept the
         deficiencies in tact, in spite of elaborate
         training –
     1. The High Cost of Knowledge
     2. Human Incompetence even after job-
         training


17
     Leisure = time x opportunity

     So, Gilbert‟s equation of leisure :

     Leisure = Human Capital
     ------------------------------------------------------------------

     [ The Oxford English Dictionary calls leisure,
      “ an opportunity afforded by freedom from
        occupations” or
          “ time allowed before it is too late”.]
18
     HPT

      Art   of converting
             Human Potential
                   into
             Human Capital
             HP      HC
19
             Performance Audit

                     Value
     Worth     = -------------------
                      Cost


20
     First Leisurely theorem

        Human competence is a function of worthy
         performance (W), which is a function of the
         ratio of valuable accomplishment ( A ) to
         costly behavior( B ).
                                   A
                      W      =    ----
                                   B

21
                        A       vs B

        People are very
         much alike in their
         behavioral
         repertories (B
         measure), but there
         are great individual
         differences in what
         they accomplish (A
         measure).

22
     Second Leisurely Theorem

                  Measurement Theorem
     Typical competence is inversely proportional to
       the potential for improving performance (PIP)
        which is the ratio of exemplary performance
            (Wex) to typical performance (Wt).
                               Wex
                      PIP = -----------
                                Wt

23
     PIP as a measure of opportunity

        The lower the PIP of any person or group,
         the more competitive that person or group
         will be.
        Poor performers may have great potential
         too!




24
            BEM & PEM : The Classic IDT
     models – the launching pad of HPT

        BEM : Behavioral Engineering
         Model
     [ Information, Instrumentation and
         Motivation subdivided into
         Environmental & Personal ]
        PEM : Performance
         Engineering Matrix
     [ 6 vantage levels – Philosophical, Cultural,
        Policy, Strategic, Tactical, Logistic ]

25
     Third Leisurely Theorem

        For any given accomplishment, a deficiency
         in performance has as its immediate cause a
         deficiency in a behavior repertory (P), or in
         the environment that supports the repertory
         (E), or in both. But its ultimate cause will be
         found in the deficiency of the management
         system (M).


26
      Gilbert’s derivation

           A           A
     W = ------   = ---------
           B        P + E




27
     Knowledge Mapping and progression

            Content of training = Da x Dk
     The efficient content of training, at work or at
       school, is the product ( not the sum ) of the
       deficiencies in accomplishments ( Da ) and
       the deficiencies in knowledge ( Dk) relevant
       to those accomplishments. If either
       deficiency is zero, the result should be no
       coverage.
              3 + 0 = 3, but 3 x 0 = 0

28
     Distribution of training costs

     1.   Development of training program [ lectures, films,
          books, related items]
     2.   Delivery of training program [ instructors, facilities,
          management ]
     3.   Trainees [ wages, benefits, overhead ]

     Gilbert calls it „absurdity‟ in work cult because trainee
         costs are often overlooked. Solution…


29
     Trainee costs : an overlooked factor

        Gilbert proved his theories by reducing the
         training time for a particular disease from 100
         hours to 02 hours, at the Center for Disease
         Control, by applying an efficiency model of
         instruction.
        This „time-saver‟ training model was the
         success of his performance audit matrix.


30
     In 1978, Gilbert published the classic work,
      “HUMAN COMPETENCE :
     Engineering Worthy Performance”

     The work compiled all his theories and practical
       solutions, with a number of real-life case
       studies.

31
            1978 – 1979
     ( ?? Impatience or Pessimism ??)

      “ Nothing Works” - Marilyn Bender Gilbert

     – in 1979, Gilbert published
     “Human Incompetence : The Autobiography of an
        Educational Revolutionist.”
     Within a year, he sounded pessimistic, concluding the
        article with the above statement by his wife, who had
        also earlier worked with B.F. Skinner at Harvard.


32
     Technique + Tact to troubleshoot

        Icy or spicy, offer an
         exquisite, but measured
         „house-special‟. It is going to
         be an instant „click‟, leading
         the customer to measure the
         pepper and salt to garnish.
        Infinity, thy name is Human
         Performance Technology –
         a sail beyond the
         horizon…..to penetrate into
         the heart of the universe


33
                             End Quote

     “Training and Organizational Development :
       Siblings Separated at Birth.”
                                        Allison Rossett

     There is no „over-the-counter‟ general formula to maintain the ties.
                                       .
      Diagnosing and determining the „prescription‟ to keep this bond
             intact is the accomplishment of a human performance
                              technologist/consultant.
                                                   Reeny James, IT 8000
                                                           25 Feb 2004
34

								
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