Fisheries Aid-Effectiveness by changcheng2


									Political Economy of Fisheries
Reform: Lessons and
Applications for Development
               Sloans Chimatiro
               Senior Fisheries Advisor
               NEPAD Secretariat, Johannesburg, South

               Steve Cunningham,
               Montpelier, France
               Presented at the Case Study Peer Review Session of the Africa
               Platform for Development Effectiveness
               6th June 2011, Balalaika Hotel Sandton, South Africa
        Presentation outline
• Background to the study
• Methodology
• Factors which have influenced fisheries aid
  to Africa
• Levels of fisheries aid to Africa (1973-2001)
• Analysis of performance of fisheries aid
• Challenges to effectiveness of fisheries aid
• Recommendations
•   This study is part of a collaborative global study between NEPAD
    Agency and the World Bank entitled “The political economy of
    natural resource use: lessons for fisheries reforms”; and
    subsidiary study known as “The political economy of fisheries
    reform: lessons and applications for development assistance”.
•   The studies aim at drawing lessons to inform the architecture of
    the donor support to African fisheries policy and governance
•   The studies are based on the hypothesis that:
    “the key reason for the disconnect between fisheries
    development aid and impact of fisheries (natural resources)
    sustainability is that by and large development projects have
    lacked a solid theoretical underpinning”
•   Preparation of background paper on Africa, as part of the
    World Bank’s global study
•   Commissioned four case studies: Ghana (Anglophone, West
    Africa, less aid); Mozambique (Lusophone, Southern Africa,
    a lot of aid); Senegal (Francophone, West Africa, a lot of
    aid); and Uganda (Anglophone, East Africa, a lot of aid)
•   Description of country’s aid structure; fisheries performance
    in terms of formulation of projects, and development
•   Economic theory of overexploitation of fisheries and
    suggestions for effective involvement of aid
    Factors which have influenced
        fisheries aid to Africa
•   Growing scarcity of fish globally has focused interest in
•   The powerful fishing entities in Europe and Asia
    represents a strong political lobby to sustain their
•   “Aid Business” has become more pluralistic, comprising
    donors, aid agencies, intermediaries in recipient
   Levels of fisheries aid to Africa
• Using data provided by the World Bank, we
  found that African fisheries have received
  substantial aid (US $4.6 billion between
Levels of fisheries aid to Africa
Table 3. Fisheries Development Aid in Africa – Top 10 Donors
Donor                 US $ millions Donor             No. projects
Japan                 799              France         294
France                432              EU-OECD        206
Sweden                392              Sweden         167
Italy                 312              Japan          165
EU-OECD               309              Norway         161
AFDB                  281              Italy          131
Norway                272              Canada         117
West Germany          234              Netherlands    100
World Bank (IDA)      178              Belgium        84
World Bank (IBRD) 145                  Spain          81
Total                 3,354                           1,506
Source: Calculations based on database developed by Hicks (2007)
    Levels of fisheries aid to Africa
Table 4. Fisheries Development Aid in Africa – Top Recipients
Recipient            Total             Recipient              Number of
                     (US $ millions)                          projects

Mozambique          385                Mozambique             147

Angola               366                 Angola                 106
Morocco              342                 Senegal               103
Senegal              302                 Madagascar            75
Mauritania           203                 Mauritania            69
Egypt                191                 Tanzania              64
Madagascar           190                 Namibia               60
Tunisia              178                 Morocco               59
Somalia              149
Source: Calculations based on database developed by Hicks (2007)
         Levels of fisheries aid to Africa
Parameter              Global                                                           Africa
Fish utilization and   110 million tones (77% catch) used for human food;               - Africa is a net exporter of fish (since 1985);
trade                  Trade: 37% catch (value US $86 billion); exports                 - Total exports: US $4.4 billion (5% global)
                       grown by 32% (2000-06); 49% exports from DCs;                    - Total imports: US $679 million (<1%
                                                                                        - 19.4 % agric exports on average;
Supply and             - Global per capita fish supply increased to 16.7 kg in 2006     - Fish supply in SSA is static (8.3 kg/capita);
consumption                  (from 16.4 kg in 2005);                                    - Mean fish consumption by country : 21%
                       - fish contributes 15% global protein supplies;                       daily protein;
                                                                                        - Ghana (65%), Sierra Leone (63%),
                                                                                             Gambia (57%), Nigeria (36%), South
                                                                                             Africa (8%);
Policy and             - Policy development and fisheries management are major          There have been few objective assessments
management                  challenges;                                                      of policy and fisheries management in
                       key issues:                                                           Africa;
                       - limited institutional capacity;                                There are some recent indicators:
                       - role of public sector reform and better governance, and ODA;   (1) Fisheries development policy:
                       - Concern over fishing capacity and subsidies;                   - PRSPs – fisheries quality rating: 32%
                       - Also in key areas (mainstreaming EcSA and PrecA, bycatch,      - WB-CAS – rating: 6%
                            bottom trawl regulations, shark                             - EU-CSP –rating: 10%
                       fisheries, IUU);                                                 - Mean value : 16%
                       - prioritization of capacity-building;                           (2) Fisheries management :
                       - role of international and regional dimensions.                 - Formulation/Implementation mean : 34%
                                                                                        (3) Fisheries management (McWhinnie
                                                                                        - Morocco (33%)
                                                                                        - Namibia (50%)
                                                                                        - South Africa (50%)

Table 3. Comparison of the status of global and African fisheries and aquaculture fisheries
Source: Cunningham and Neiland (2009), adapted from FAO-SOFIA
    Challenges to effective aid- Key
•   Lack of ownership of the process of identifying and formulating
    projects by the African fisheries institutions, including Ministries of
    Fisheries and fish-dependent communities.
•   Over the past decades, capacity development was never emphasised in
    fisheries development aid (recently this has changed).
•   Volume of aid and aid targets have been influenced by the prevailing
    development narrative with particular focus on infrastructure (e.g.
    Fishing harbours and fleets). With evidence that choice of targets were
•   Fisheries policy has been influenced by international development
    narratives for natural resources; with no efforts have to link fisheries to
    the wider national macro-economic development policies.
    Challenges to effective aid- Key
•   Multiplicity of channels of aid has overwhelmed the capacity of recipient
    countries to coordinate and make good use of aid
•   The performance of fisheries aid is difficult to discern precisely in all the case-
    studies. In all four case study countries, the fisheries are in general currently
    characterised by:

        overexploitation, both economic and biological, which suggests that the
         overall contribution of fisheries aid aimed at fisheries development has
          not been very successful, in many cases, the fisheries are in poor state
                                         than before.
              effective fisheries management systems have been not been
          established, and the problems associated with regulated open access
          have emerged including weak economic performance, declining stock
                                 levels and social instability.
•   Likely use of aid as a source of investment, should include a detailed
    assessment, at an early stage, of the potential benefits which can be realised
    on a sustainable basis from a well-managed fisheries sector.
•   Aid-funded projects should be well-designed and provide the future vision and
    direction for fisheries sectoral development through the clear identification of
    policy objectives and implementation mechanisms.
•   The prioritisation of fisheries aid programmes and projects should be clearly
    linked and flow from the sectoral policy framework – objectives and
•   The performance of fisheries aid investments should be carefully monitored,
    assessed and evaluated:
       at a project level (i.e. did the project achieve its stated objectives?); and
       in relation to sectoral policy goals (i.e. did the investment have a positive and desired
        impact in relation to policy goals?);
•   Fisheries aid should be part of this dynamic process, with a need to anticipate
    and plan ahead for likely investments required over time;
•   The linkage between national macro-economic policy and fisheries policy
    must be established and understood in order to ensure that fisheries aid is
    effectively prioritised and used within the overall context of national
•   Fisheries aid for improved fisheries management should give proper
    consideration to the central role of resource rent in fisheries exploitation (both
    a benefit and an incentive to overexploit under weak management) and
    addressed using appropriate management approaches (e.g. wealth-based
    fisheries management). Economic analysis should provide the essential
    theoretical and empirical framework;
•   The relationship between fisheries reform and fisheries aid should also be
    well-defined in the future; including the benefit & cost of reform, and the
    need for aid where appropriate over time given that fisheries reform can take
    decades rather than just years.
                             Pix: S. Chimatiro

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