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An Introduction to Open Source by changcheng2

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									                     An Introduction to Open Source
                     From development ethos to big business

                       Today’s Overview


   Brief Examples

   Open Source: what does it mean, exactly?

   How it is used

   Open Source Myths

   The Business Advantage

   New Directions

   Resources for further Investigation
                     An Introduction to Open Source
                     From development ethos to big business

                          Some Examples:
   Apache Web Server

   Linux Operating System

   Firefox Web Browser

   Thunderbird E-mail Client

   Open Office, Office Suite

   Eclipse Development Platform

   Java Development Language
                     An Introduction to Open Source
                     From development ethos to big business

                           How is it used?

   End-user:
       Desktop and server applications
       E-mail, browser, web-server, Office suites

   In-house Developer:
       Create and modify software for in-house use
       Development tools, IDEs, other components
       Release under open source license, or not

   Vendor, Developer, Integrator:
       Create proprietary software using Open Source components
       Release under open source license, or not
                     An Introduction to Open Source
                     From development ethos to big business
           Separate Elements of the Open Source Idea

   Price & Licensing
       Open != Free
       How the product can be used
   Development Methodology
       How the software application is developed, and who does it
   Development Ethos
       Why has the application been created?
   Access and Interoperability
       How does it work with other apps; documented APIs?
   Support
       What kind of commercial and community support is available?
                         An Introduction to Open Source
                         From development ethos to big business

                                Terminology


   “Open Source” is a software development and distribution
    methodology
       Source is provided
       Source can be distributed
       Source can be modified


   FOSS, “Free and Open Source Software”, is the umbrella
    term:
       Free as lunch: it is commercially free
       Free as in freedom: you have the freedom to do what you like with it
                     An Introduction to Open Source
                     From development ethos to big business

                            Some Myths
   You can’t build a business on Open Source
       You can sell FOSS successfully (RedHat)
       You can grow a successful business on FOSS (Google)
   FOSS is developed by kids and hippies
       Major development by IBM, Sun and similar enterprises
       Extremely formal software development process
   FOSS is less secure than proprietary software
       Formal studies conclude that OSS is more secure
       Vulnerabilities are fixed faster
   Proprietary software is of higher quality than FOSS
       FOSS is peer reviewed
       Studies show 4x fewer bugs per thousand lines of code
       EU companies use FOSS b/c high quality, easy to deploy
                      An Introduction to Open Source
                      From development ethos to big business

                             The License

   “Open Source” has specific meaning, tied to licenses
    endorsed by the Open Source Initiative (OSI)

   GNU General Public License (GPL) is most common
       75% to 80% of all FOSS
       Affirms copyright, provides additional permission
       Restrictions focus on distribution of derivative software


   Dual Licensing models are increasingly common
       Same software available under two different licenses
       MySQL, QT, Sugar CRM, Open Office
       Commercial license pays for Open Source development
                      An Introduction to Open Source
                      From development ethos to big business

            Business Advantage to Using Open Source

   Enhances Interoperability
       Open APIs and connectivity
       Vendor neutral, Standards compliant
       Usually, but not always, platform neutral

   Greater Support Options
       Community, commercial and in-house support
       Divorces licensing from support issues
       Long-life

   Extremely cost effective
       Low price barrier
       Rarely, if ever, uses per-seat license fees
       Formal cost and risk analysis still required
                                          An Introduction to Open Source
                                          From development ethos to big business

                                                    Giving it Away?

Proprietary Applications                                                        OS application creates new
                                                                                market opportunities and
                          Open development tools                                products



      Support and Service                          Proprietary features
                                                                                Services and support built
                          Open Source Application
                                                                                on open source application




                                 Proprietary Application
                                                                                Proprietary application is
OS
GIS                                                                             loosely coupled with OS or
            OS Database             OS Webserver              OS Image Engine
                                                                                other proprietary applications
                     An Introduction to Open Source
                     From development ethos to big business

                            Big Business

   20 Open Source businesses received $149 million in
    VC funding last year
   Sugar CRM raised $7.7 million in funding last year
   At least three raised $20 million last month alone
   Billion-dollar companies selling Open Source
    software
       Money from services, not licenses
       Massive downloads and distribution
   Red Hat: $125 million in revenue in 2004, market
    capitalisation at $2 billion
   Huge investment in Open Source from Oracle, IBM,
    SAP and other large enterprises
                     An Introduction to Open Source
                     From development ethos to big business

                  Where is Open Source Going?
   Not away

   Development of new business models

   Continued endorsement as value for money

   Severe reduction of per-seat license models
       Increased emphasis on service and support

   Advent of Open Source trends in other businesses
       Open Access Publishing
       Moves away from traditional developer/user relationship
                                    An Introduction to Open Source
                                    From development ethos to big business
                                           Easy Resources
   Open Source Software: What Is It and How Does It Work?
        Very good and concise article:
        http://www.groklaw.net/article.php?story=2004040421042728

   DTI Open Source Fact Sheet (PDF)
        Short and sweet overview of business benefits
        http://www.dti.gov.uk/bestpractice/assets/oss.pdf

   Open Source Software Advisory Service
        Unbiased advice and guidance about free and open source software
        http://www.oss-watch.ac.uk/


   Open Source Software in UK Government (PDF)
        Government policy on the use of Open Source Software within the UK government
        http://www.govtalk.gov.uk/policydocs/policydocs_document.asp?docnum=905

   A Guide to Open Source Software (PDF)
        A very good overview applicable to both public and private enterprises
        http://www.sourceit.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/42065/A_Guide_to_Open_Source_Software.pdf
                 An Introduction to Open Source
                 From development ethos to big business




Tyler Bell
Technical Director
Oxford ArchDigital Ltd

tyler.bell@oxarchdigital.com

								
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