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					   What’s New in CISE:
    Status Report and
       Reflections

           Gregory R. Andrews
 Professor, Computer Science, Univ. of Arizona
Former Division Director, Computer and Network
     Systems, National Science Foundation
                 February 2005
                    Outline


•   NSF context
•   The CISE Directorate
•   Programs, trends, and plans
•   Reflections and lessons learned




                                      2
   National Science Foundation
              (NSF)
• Created in 1950
  ―to promote the progress of science; to advance the
    national health, prosperity, and welfare; to secure
    the national defense; and for other purposes‖
• Roles
  –   Support basic research
  –   Train the next generation
  –   Educate the public
  –   Advise the government on science policy

                                                          3
  Federal Support for Research

• National Science Foundation (NSF)
  – Curiosity-driven basic research
  – Long term
• National Institutes of Health (NIH)
  – Use-inspired basic research
  – Long term
• Mission Agencies: DARPA, DOE, NASA, etc.
  – Applied research
  – Shorter term

                                             4
         Pasteur’s Quadrant

Basic research (Bohr)    Use-inspired basic research
           NSF           (Pasteur)
 1950      …      2005
                                NIH


                         Applied research (Edison)

                           Mission Agencies


                                                       5
              NSF Organization
                                  National Science
                                       Board


                              Office of the Director                 Administrative Offices


     Directorate for Biological                 Directorate for Mathematical
             Sciences                               & Physical Sciences

     Directorate for Computer &               Directorate for Social, Behvioral
Information Science and Engineering                & Economic Sciences

     Directorate for Education                  Directorate for Geosciences
       & Human Resources

    Directorate for Engineering                      Office of Polar Programs


   Office of Integrative Activities



                                                                                              6
     NSF Crosscutting Initiatives
              for 2005

•   Biocomplexity in the Environment
•   Nanoscale Science and Engineering
•   Mathematical Sciences
•   Human and Social Dynamics

• Information Technology Research - ended as
  an initiative in 2004

                                               7
  Computer and Information
Science and Engineering (CISE)

• Created in 1985 (out of MPS)
  – Three research divisions
  – Two infrastructure divisions: supercomputing and
    networking
  – Office of cross-disciplinary activities
• Minor reorganization in 1997
  – 5 Divisions: CCR, EIA, IIS, ACIR, ANIR
• Major reorganization in 2003
  – 4 Divisions: CCF, CNS, IIS, SCI

                                                       8
        CISE Responsibilities

• Support basic research and education in
  computer and information science and
  engineering

• Support a shared cyberinfrastructure for all of
  science and engineering




                                                    9
          New CISE Organization

                             Office
                             of the
                            Assistant
                            Director

Computing and    Computer and      Information and        Shared
Communications     Network            Intelligent    Cyberinfrastructure
 Foundations       Systems             Systems             (SCI)
   (CCF)            (CNS)                (IIS)




                                                                           10
         Key Concept: Cluster

• Comprehensive activity in a coherent area of
  research and education
• Team of program officers and staff working closely
  with the community
• Initially: group of existing programs
• By end of FY05: one program per cluster




                                                       11
    Computing and
Communication Foundations
         (CCF)
• Formal and Mathematical Foundations
   – Computer science theory; numerical computing; computational
     algebra and geometry; signal processing and communication
• Foundations of Computing Processes and Artifacts
   – Software engineering; software tools for HPC; programming
     languages; compilers; computer architecture; graphics and
     visualization
• Emerging Models for Technology and Computation
   – Computational biology; quantum computing; nano-scale
     computing; biologically inspired computing



                                                                   12
             CCF Competitions
• FY 2004
  – Responsible for about 2030 proposals
  – Heavy mortgages and NSF-wide commitments
  – Decent success rates for CAREER (15%) but terrible success rates
    for clusters (6%)
• FY 2005
  – Theoretical Foundations: January 2005
  – Emerging Models for Technology and Computation: February 2005
  – Foundations of Computing Processes and Artifacts: May 2005 with
    awards in fall from FY 2006 budget
• FY 2006 and 2007
  – Possibly no competitions in FY 2006
  – Fall deadlines for all three clusters in FY 2007



                                                                       13
      Computer and Network
         Systems (CNS)
• Computer Systems
   – Distributed systems; embedded and hybrid systems; next-
     generation software; parallel systems
• Network Systems
   – Networking research broadly defined plus focus areas in
     programmable wireless networks and networks of sensor systems
• Computing Research Infrastructure
   – Research infrastructure; minority institutional infrastructure;
     research resources
• Education and Workforce
   – Curriculum development/educational innovation; IT workforce;
     special projects; cross-directorate activities (e.g., REU sites)



                                                                        14
             CNS Competitions
• FY 2004
   – Responsible for about 2035 proposals
   – Good success rates for CAREER and infrastructure (30%)
   – Fair success rates for research programs (18-20%)
• FY 2005 — One solicitation per cluster
   –   Computer Systems: November 2004
   –   Network Systems: January 2005
   –   Computing Research Infrastructure: July 2005
   –   Education and Workforce: Education with research programs;
       workforce subsumed by Broadening Participation emphasis area
• FY 2006
   – Same deadlines as in FY 2005, but Networking in December


                                                                      15
 Information and Intelligent
       Systems (IIS)
• Systems in Context
   – Human computer interaction; educational technology; robotics;
     computer-supported cooperative work; digital government
• Understanding, Inference, and Data
   – Databases; artificial intelligence; text, image, speech, and video
     analysis; information retrieval; knowledge systems
• Science & Engineering Informatics/Information
  Integration
   – Bioinformatics; geoinformatics; cognitive neuroscience; data-driven
     science


                                                                           16
             IIS Competitions
• FY 2004
  – Responsible for about 2590 proposals
  – Success rates 17% CAREER, 6% regular.
• FY 2005
  – Raise success rate of 2004 to 12-15%
  – Science & Engineering Informatics/Information Integration and
    Universal Access: December 2004
  – Data, Inference, and Understanding and Systems in Context:
    May 2005 with awards in fall from FY 2006 funds
• FY 2006
  – Same deadlines as in FY 2005


                                                                    17
  Shared Cyberinfrastructure
            (SCI)
Cyberinfrastructure: computational engines, storage,
  networking, data, sensors, software, and services to
  support advances in science and engineering

• Infrastructure Deployment
   – Planning, construction, commissioning, and operations
• Infrastructure Development
   – Creating, testing, and hardening next-generation deployed
     systems


                                                                 18
History of NSF CI Investments


                                                                          Cyberinfrastructure

                                                                                  TCS, DTF,
                                                                  Terascale
                                                                                  ETF

                      Information Technology Research                  ITR


                                  NSF Middleware Initiative            NMI

                                                                   PACI            NPACI and
                                                                                   Alliance
                  NSF Networking

       Prior
                      Supercomputer Centers           SDSC, NCSA,
    Computing
    Investments                                       PSC, CTC
                  |           |               |               |               |                |


              1985         1990            1995         2000              2005            2010




                                                                                                   19
            SCI Competitions
• FY 2004
  – Core funding for the PACI centers and expansion of the Extensible
    Terascale Facility (ETF)
  – NSF Middleware Initiative (NMI): 141 proposals; 20 awards
  – International Network Connections: recently decided
• FY 2005
  – Continuing support for PACI and ETF
  – Cyberinfrastructure Teaching, Education, Advancement, and
    Mentoring (CI-TEAM): Spring 2005
  – NSF Middleware Initiative (NMI): Spring 2005
  – Leveraging and coordinating shared and domain-specific
    cyberinfrastructure with other agencies and directorates



                                                                        20
   Key Concept: Emphasis Area

• Focused area of research that cuts across
  clusters and divisions
• Addresses a scientific and/or national priority
• Has program announcement and funds




                                                    21
    FY 2004 Emphasis Areas
• Cyber Trust
   – Develop computing systems that operate securely and
     protect sensitive information
   – Received 488 proposals; made 50 awards; got $5M in co-
     funding from DARPA
• Information Integration
   – Integrate and ―mine‖ large data repositories to support data-
     driven science
   – Received 238 proposals; made 33 awards
• Science of Design
   – Develop a body of theoretical and empirical knowledge to
     facilitate creation of a science of software design
   – Received 182 proposals; made 24 awards


                                                                     22
    FY 2005 Emphasis Areas

• Information Integration: December 2004
• Cyber Trust: February 2005
• Science of Design: Spring 2005

• Broadening Participation: June 2005
   – Support alliances and projects that have the potential
     significantly to increase the number of underrepresented
     students achieving college and graduate degrees

• Probably one more on High-End Computing


                                                                23
                         NSF and CISE Annual Budgets ($M)
                                     Actuals
                  7000                                      700

                  6000                                      600




                                                                  CISE Budget ($M)
NSF Budget ($M)


                  5000                                      500

                  4000                                      400

                  3000                                      300

                  2000                             NSF      200

                  1000                             CISE     100

                    0                                       0




                             q
                            94
                            95
                            96

                         19 7
                            98

                         20 9
                         20 0
                            01
                            02

                         20 3
                       05 04
                          Re
                            9


                            9
                            0




                            0
                         19
                         19
                         19
                         19


                         19




                         20
                         20
                    20
                                       FY



                                                                                     24
                                                Funding Rate for Competitive Awards in CISE

                                 7,000                                                                         100%
                                                                                                               90%
Number of Proposals and Awards




                                 6,000
                                                                                                               80%
                                 5,000                                                                         70%




                                                                                                                      Funding Rate
                                                                                                               60%
                                 4,000
                                                                                                               50%
                                 3,000
                                                                                                               40%

                                 2,000                                                                         30%
                                                                                                               20%
                                 1,000
                                                                                                               10%
                                    0                                                                          0%
                                         1994   1995 1996 1997     1998 1999 2000     2001 2002 2003    2004

                                            Competitive Proposal Actions   Competitive Awards   Funding Rate




                                                                                                                                     25
                      NSF and CISE Funding Rate Trends

                40%
                35%
Funding Rates




                30%
                25%
                20%
                15%
                         NSF
                10%
                 5%      CISE
                 0%
                    94

                    95

                    96

                    97

                    98

                    99

                    00

                    01

                    02

                    03

                    04
                 19

                 19

                 19

                 19

                 19

                 19

                 20

                 20

                 20

                 20

                 20
                                     FY




                                                         26
      CISE FY 2005 Budget
         Request ($M)
CISE Budget Lines    FY 2005
CCF                  $91.41
CNS                  $132.39
IIS                  $92.54
SCI                  $123.60
ITR   (cross-CISE)   $178.11
CISE Total           $618.05
                               27
       Reflections on Being at NSF

• My Duties
   – Represent CISE in NSF and Interagency settings
   – Help set CISE directions and policies
   – Manage the development and execution of CNS programs
     and budget
   – Manage CNS staff: scientific and administrative
• Program Officer Duties
   –   Represent their discipline within CISE and NSF
   –   Interact with community to get input and provide advice
   –   Help define directions for their area of research
   –   Manage competitions: core and cross-disciplinary


                                                                 28
          General Observations

• Science Policy and Government Agencies
   – There are lots of smart, hardworking government employees
   – Each agency, including Congress, has its own point of view
     and its own agenda
   – Budget size matters
• National Science Foundation
   – Widely respected throughout government, for good reason
   – There is an institutional ethic to provide service to the
     scientific community
   – It’s lots more fun when the budget is rising (2003) than
     when it is falling (2004 and 2005)

                                                                  29
       General Observations II
• CISE Directorate
   – The importance of CISE is recognized within NSF
   – Funding decisions truly are guided by NSF’s dual roles:
       • Supporting good science
       • Training the next generation—throughout the country
   – The rapid increase in proposals has put CISE under
     tremendous pressure
       • The scientific staff is overworked
       • The peer review process is at the breaking point
   – Despite the above, panels and program officers are making
     good recommendations
   – However, few projects are adequately funded and lots of
     really good work is not getting funded

                                                                 30
                         Advice

• Attributes of winning proposals
   – Address important problem and have novel idea(s)
   – Well written project description, good technical depth, know
     the related work
   – Address broader impacts and describe (own) prior work —
     and read the proposal submission instructions!
• Interact with program officers
   – Get feedback on proposals, ask for advice, provide input
   – Volunteer to be a reviewer
• Consider working at NSF at some point


                                                                    31
               Conclusion

• NSF’s role is fundamental to all areas of society —
  the most basic future investment
• Computer science and related disciplines are hugely
  important in their own right and essential to
  advancement in all areas of S&E
• NSF and our field are facing unprecedented pressures
  that can only be overcome by concerted, cooperative
  action




                                                     32
       Further Information

• CISE Web site: www.cise.nsf.gov

• Computing Research News bimonthly
  columns: www.cra.org

• Contact: greg@cs.arizona.edu



                                      33

				
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