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Beagle_Pain_Syndrome

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									Beagle Pain Syndrome
Last updated on 4/23/2003.

Contributors:
Linda G. Shell, DVM, DACVIM Neurology

Synonyms:
Juvenile polyarteritis
Necrotizing vasculitis
Steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis
Canine juvenile polyarteritis syndrome

Disease description:
Beagle pain syndrome is a disease of unknown etiology, believed to be an immune
mediated meningitis, polyarteritis. It may be inherited in the Beagle. Onset of clinical
signs often occurs before twelve months of age. A similar syndrome has been
described in Bernese mountain dogs, German shorthaired pointers, boxers, toller
retrievers, and occasionally in other breeds.

Beagle pain syndrome is characterized by a systemic necrotizing vasculitis with severe
subarachnoid hemorrhages throughout the entire length of the spinal cord and brain
stem. Fibrinoid necrosis of the tunica media is found in affected arteries with
transmural infiltration by neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasmacytes, and macrophages.
Thrombosis and vascular occlusion may lead to neural ischemia. Affected vessels may
contain IgG containing cells and hemosiderin laden macrophages. Amyloidosis,
lymphocytic thyroiditis and systemic vasculitis may occur in some dogs.

Clinical signs in affected dogs often consist of an acute to gradual onset of intermittent
fever, anorexia, depression, hunched posture, 'guarding' of the neck or cervical
rigidity, and transient pain on movement. Paresis may also occur. Laboratory findings
may show neutrophilia. Cerebrospinal fluid aspiration may yield blood tinged fluid with
erythrophagocytosis and increased neutrophils and protein. Spinal fluid culture is
negative.

Etiology:
Genetic, hereditary
Idiopathic, unknown
Immune mediated

Breed predilection:
Beagle
Bernese mountain dog
German shorthaired pointer

Age predilection:
Juvenile

Clinical findings:
ANOREXIA, HYPOREXIA
Cachexia, weight loss
Cervical guarding
Cervical pain
Cervical rigidity
Depression
Exercise intolerant or reluctant to move
FEVER
Fever intermittent
Forelimb proprioceptive deficit
Malaise
PAIN
PARALYSIS OR PARESIS
Paraplegia
Paresis, partial paralysis
Postural change
Proprioception decreased
Quadriparesis
TACHYCARDIA
Transient pain
WEAKNESS
ZZZ INDEX ZZZ

Diagnostic procedures:               Diagnostic results:
Hemogram                             ANEMIA
                                     Leukocytosis
                                     Neutrophilia

Serum chemistry                      Hypoalbuminemia

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis   Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neutrophilic pleocytosis
                                     Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein increased

Necropsy                             Necrotizing vasculitis
                                     Thrombosing arteritis


Treatment/Management/Prevention:
SPECIFIC
1) Aspirin: 20-25 mg/kg q12h: Used for initial episode and if only mild signs are
present.
2) Prednisone: 2 mg/kg PO q12h for week and taper slowly over 6 months: Used in
cases non-responsive to aspirin, severe cases, or recurrence of signs.
3) Azathioprine: 1.5 mg/kg PO q48h: Usually reserved for those patients who don't
respond to prednisone or if prednisone causes unacceptable side effects.
4) Some dogs may recover spontaneously.
5) Recovered dogs may relapse and not respond to further treatment.

Differential Diagnosis:
Menigitis
Polyarthritis
Polymyositis
Discospondylitis
Disk herniation
Spinal cord trauma
http://www.vin.com/Members/Search/Search.plx?B=1&S=+Beagle+Pain+Syndrome+&PD=3




References:

1) Synder PW, Kazacos EA, Scott-Moncrieff JC, et al: Pathologic features of naturally
    occurring juvenile polyarteritis in beagle dogs. Vet Pathol 1995 Vol 32 (4) pp. 337-
    345.
2) Scott-Moncrief JCR, Snyder PW, Glickman LT, et al: Systemic necrotizing vasculitis
    in nine young beagles. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992 Vol 201 (10) pp. 1553-1558.
3) Albassam MA, Houston BJ, Greaves P, Barsoum N: Polyarteritis in a beagle. J Am
    Vet Med Assoc 1989 Vol 194 (11) pp. 1595-1597.
4) Scott-Moncrieff JC, Synder PW, Glickman LT, Felsburg PJ: Systemic vasculitis
    [canine pain syndrome] in young laboratory beagles. J Vet Intern Med 1990 Vol 4
    (2) pp. 112.
5) Peace TA, Goodchild LR, Vasconcelos DY: What's your diagnosis? Fever and
    leukocytosis in a young beagle. Canine juvenile polyarteritis syndrome (beagle
    pain syndrome). Lab Anim (NY) 2001 Vol 30 (5) pp. 23-26.
6) Summers BA, Cummings JF, de Lahunta A: Idiopathic Immune-mediated
    polyarteritis and menigoencephalitis. 1995 pp. 114-116.
7) Meric SM, Perman V, Hardy RM: Corticosteroid-responsive meningitis in ten dogs. J
    Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1985 Vol 21 pp. 677-684.
8) Meric SM, Child G, Higgins RJ: Necrotizing vasculitis of the spinal
    pachyleptomeningeal arteries in three Bernese mountain dog littermates. J Am
    Anim Hosp Assoc 1986 Vol 22 pp. 459-465.
9) Meric SM: Canine meningitis: A changing emphasis. J Vet Intern Med 1988 Vol 2
    (1) pp. 26-35.
10) Braund KG: Meningitis vasculitis. Clinical Syndromes in Veterinary Neurology, 2nd
    ed. St Louis, Mosby 1994.

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Address (URL): http://www.vin.com/Members/Associate/Associate.plx?DiseaseId=501

								
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