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765 Technology Implementation in Post-Secondary Institutions


									Technology Implementation in Post-Secondary Institutions

                       Aaron Knapp
                        Vande Zande
                 Educational Leadership 765
                         Issue Paper
                                                                                             Knapp 1

The Issue

       One main issue at the post-secondary level of education would be that of implementing

more technological advancements in terms of the student learning within a specific institution.

While technological advancement and innovation is quite important in any post-secondary

institution, this is especially important in terms of student learning, as the main goal of post-

secondary institutions is to provide an effective, useful, and quality education for all constituents.

Altbach, Berdahl, and Gumport state in American Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century:

Social, Political, and Economic Challenges that “classroom teaching itself has been changed

through the use of computer laboratories, educational software, and sophisticated presentation

techniques” (Altbach 2005). While these have been the current advances of technology so far in

terms of technology, this is the just the beginning. Technology is growing exponentially and

post-secondary institutions must stay on top of the learning curve and continue to advance its

educational agenda by integrating new technologies to efficiently train its constituents in these

new technologies and develop more avenues to establish a global learning environment that not

only centers around a broader expansion of knowledge, but offers new experiences for learners

through innovative technologies and communication with a diverse population of individuals to

help increase retention rates, graduation rates, and grade point average and provide overall

deeper learning for all students.

       This is an increasingly important notion in higher education as the world and society

around higher education institutions continue to change. Altbach, Berdahl, and Gumport write

that “the contemporary university is the most important institution in the complex process of

knowledge creation and distribution, serving as home not only to most of the basic sciences but

also to the complex system of journals, books, and databases that communicate knowledge
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worldwide” (Altbach 15). Additionally, diversification “is of primary importance and will

continue to reshape the academic system” (Altbach 31). Post-secondary institutions should be in

the forefront of technology innovation to help reach the needs of their students, and to a larger

extent, society in general. Thomas L. Friedman writes in his book The World Is Flat that “digital,

mobile, personal, and virtual” technologies are “steroids” that are flattening the world (Friedman,

2005). Friedman states that that he calls “certain new technologies the steroids because they are

amplifying and turbocharging all the other flatteners,” of various organizational ideas and

practices that “flatten” the world and make for more global collaboration. For digital, Friedman

says that former HP CEO Carly Fiorina states that “thanks to the PC-Windows-Netscape-work

flow revolutions, all analog content and processes- everything from photography to

entertainment to communication to word processing to architectural design to the management of

[a] home lawn sprinkler system – are being digitized and therefore can be shaped, manipulated,

and transmitted over computers, the Internet, satellites, or fiber optic cable” (Friedman, 187). In

terms of virtual technology, Fiorina means that “the process of shaping, manipulating, and

transmitting this digitized content can be done at very high speeds, with total ease, so that you

never have to think about it- thanks to all underlying digital pipes, protocols, and standards that

have now been installed” (Friedman, 187). Speaking of mobile technology, Fiorina means “that

thanks to wireless technology, all this can be done from anywhere, with anyone, through any

device, and can be taken anywhere” (Friedman, 187). By personal technology, Fiorina means

“that it can be done for you, just for you, on your own device” (Friedman, 187). As the world

continues to “flatten” itself, opportunities using technology increase to allow students to situate

themselves in a global academic community that allows for innovative educational growth.
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To this degree, it is essentially that more technological innovations get implemented within

higher education in order to meet the needs of all students and provide the essentially deeper

learning that will help individuals and societies grow extensively.

The Context of the Issue

       The particular context for this issue seems to be all parts of the institution that deal with

student learning, may it be faculty departments and the curriculum they use, library resources

and availability, and student affairs, with particular programs offered to enhance student learning

in general. Technology is an integral part of any post-secondary institution as a whole, and to this

degree, we see that multiple areas of the institution are indeed affected by the implementation of

such tools. The point of post-secondary institutions is to educate students and see these very

students succeed. Technology provides abstract ways to help engage students in various areas of

the institution to provide a deeper understanding of the specific field(s) students are learning

about. Professor Joshua Garrison of the University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh states that the root

cause of technological change in that specific institution is that of the “access to information”

(Garrison). Garrison states that “nearly everything” is impacted by technology implementation in

his institution “from professional standards,” such as DPI, “to assessment, to classroom

presentation” (Garrison). Additionally, he brings up the point that the “faculty are exploring

ways in which technology can enhance student learning,” focusing on such tools as online

textbooks (Garrison). The idea of the “access to information” is a very important one that should

be considered for how technology constructs deeper understanding in terms of student learning.

As technology continues to grow, more and more innovations are being made, especially in
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education, that allow students to learn vast amounts of knowledge in innovative ways that give

students the ability to have a deeper understanding. For example, a student may operate within a

history course in a “second life” format, exploring what it was like to be in a specific time period,

gaining a better understanding of that time through an innovative experience. All areas of a post-

secondary institution are impacted by student learning, and thus, all areas of the institution area

also affected by technological change.

       The article 21st Century Trends for Higher Education: Top Trends, 2008-2009 states that

“adults ages 18-26 are typically the first to adopt new technologies,” and that these “evergreen

students” bring various technologies onto college campuses and “expect [institutions] to have the

infrastructure to support the latest technologies” (Wilen-Daugenti, 2008). This shows that, often,

students can be considered “ahead of the game” with technology and expect to come into

institutions that have new, innovative technologies. The same article states that some of the

biggest trends in 2008 “include the emergence of Web 2.0 and social networking phenomena

such as blogs and wikis, as well as new online video repository and delivery websites such as

YouTube, iTunes, U, and Big Think” (Wilen-Daugenti 2). Additionally, “the influx of

smartphones, such as the iPhone, and other intelligent devices has also enhanced mobile

learning…creating new channels for content delivery, video expansion online, and podcasting”

(Wilen- Daugenti 2). These new ways of thinking have shown that learning itself is changing

drastically. The University of Wisconsin System Student Statistics Headcount Enrollment

indicate that the growth of 18-24 year olds increased from 128,842 in Fall 2004-2005 to 137,990,

an increase of 9148 students, or 7% (University of Wisconsin System). The number of these

students continues to increase in the University of Wisconsin System, as these same students

bring in new technologies every year that they hope are supported by the university’s
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infrastructure. Trend 3 of 21st Century Trends for Higher Education: Top Trends, 2008-2009

states that “college campuses are taking steps to enhance technical literacy and create campus

culture that encourages faculty to use computers, smart devices, and other innovative tools in

their curricula” (Wilen-Daugenti, 3). Again, given that post-secondary institutions are primarily

for educating its constituents, it’s important to note that if a particular institution does not want to

change and offer the types of technological support and innovations that will support learning,

the same institution risks potentially losing that student to another institution that will provide

these types of support and promote deeper learning and understanding of knowledge.

        It’s also important to note that “while many students may be device-savvy, they may not

necessarily be information-savvy,” and students may “have not learned how to use technology

for academic purposes” yet (Wilen-Daugenti, 3). In addition to implementing technologies,

institutions must be willing to educate individuals on the use of these very technologies. It is

equally important that students are able to learn how to use these technologies in order to benefit

them. A number of programs are available at universities like the University of Wisconsin-

Oshkosh, but these programs require students to be proactive and learn on their own accord.

Given student’s increasingly busy lives, they may not have time to independently enter in these

programs to learn technology, so it’s the role of the university to offer certain programs and

possible credits to help with the education of students. In this way, students are able how to

effectively use these various technologies to gain a deeper understanding.

        The fifth trend of 21st Century Trends for Higher Education: Top Trends, 2008-200,

mobility of students, also states that the “adoption of the BlackBerry, iPhone, and other smart

devices that have Internet access allows students and faculty to perform a wide range of tasks

virtually anywhere they have cell phone service” and that “mobile phones are also being used to
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access computer files from a remote location” (Wilen-Daugenti, 4-5). To an extent, this mobility

could tie in with “Trend 8: Evolution of Teaching and Learning” which states that “the education

process continues to evolve from one-to-one (teacher to student) to collaborative learning” and

that “Web 2.0 and social networking tools such as blogs and wikis, and online social gathering

websites such as Flickr, are enhancing and facilitating collaborative learning and are being used

widely on many campuses” (Wilen-Daugenti, 6). Furthermore, “many professors opt to post all

class material, including complete audio and/or video recordings of lecture, on sites like ITunes

U and YouTube” (6). This “open house” of content have begun to change universities

extensively, as the technological changes within the post-secondary institution so far have

resulted in students being able to access information and read at the their own leisure even prior

to it being assigned in class. As further discussed before, collaboration ties in with this same idea,

as the article states that “virtual meeting-place and application sharing tools such as Cisco

WebEx are efficient web-based collaboration solutions that help improve productivity and

decrease communication and travel” with “WebEx simulate[ing] the visual communications that

occur between students and teachers in the traditional classroom setting” (Wilen-Daugenti, 7). A

very important trend that is linked with all of these trends is the “Trend 10: Strategic Plans and

Technology,” which stressed that “universities are developing long-term financial strategies to

ensure that technology is incorporated into the budget” (Wilen-Daugenti, 8). Ideas such as

“cloud computing” a method “that allows files and data to be stored on a remote network using

the Internet” is already being put into place to lower IT costs at the post-secondary level.

       All of these trends show what is already in place. Mind you, the article this information

is being taken out of was published in August 2008. This is to show that while some of these

ideas seem innovative, they are already a year and a half old. These types of things already
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existed by August 2008. It is important to understand where a particular post-secondary

institution stands now in order to show where it should go. The context of this particular issue is

of drastic importance. However, the information of this particular article, to some extent, can

already be considered to be outdated already. More innovations continue to happen every day

within society and thus, it is of the utmost importance that these technologies get implemented

within post-secondary institutions if they are valuable and provide extensive academic

achievement and learning. Greg Wypiszynski, Director of the Office of Graduate Studies at the

University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, states that “there is always an aim to use technology where it

is not, improve technology where it is already in place, train people to use technology efficiently

and effectively, to replace technologies that are out of date and to balance the use of technology

with the need to maintain some level of human interaction with the [constituents of the

institution]” (Wypiszynski).

       In order to effectively provide technologies that promote deeper learning and

understanding, it is essentially to first understand where an institution, as previously stated, in

order to move forward. These types of data and information help to paint a picture of what the

current context is like for various post-secondary institutions within the United States of America.

Not all of the institutions have implemented these types of technologies, but a number of them

have and continue to progress to help with student learning. It is the hope that these new

technologies provide new, deeper learning experiences for students that help students gain the

most out of their particular post-secondary institution. As a whole, institutions hope that these

deeper learning experiences result in higher retention rates, graduation rates, average grade point

average, and satisfactory learning rates to validate the institution’s goal of providing a deeper

learning experience for all of its constituents.
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Leadership and Organizational Theory Perspectives

       For this particular issue of technology innovation into post-secondary institutions, it is

crucial to set up an extensive plan that will allow for comprehensive organizational and academic

success. First, it’s important to realize where there may be some administrative or operational

issues to consider for this particular issue of implementing technology in a post-secondary

institution. This will help aid in addressing potential issues that could be avoided while

implementing various technologies. Rather than rushing into the implementation process and

risking success, it is important to lay out the various issues and address them before they surface.

       One issue that could develop could be that of accountability versus autonomy within the

institution. Technology implementation can be a touchy subject for a number of different reasons.

As previously stated, it has been noted that there is a “digital divide” for particular students and

faculty. 21st Century Trends for Higher Education: Top Trends 2008-2009 states that a wave of

faculty retirements are an increasing trend within post-secondary education, and that “while

many of these retirees tend to be less technical and more resistant to using technology than

students, universities expect that incoming teachers and other staff will be technically proficient

and open to innovation, thereby enabling universities to enhance their technical and information

literacy programs” (Wilen-Daugenti, 3). As technology implementations continue within post-

secondary education, it is important to note that accountability needs to be addressed for

technology and that it is the entire institution’s job to service the needs of students. To this

degree, institutions may set up particular benchmarks to be met by certain areas of the institution,

such as faculty and student services, and the role that technology not only plays within each area
                                                                                             Knapp 9

at this particular time, but also questioning what advances might be most beneficial to students.

While autonomy is certainly something that is desired by a number of individuals in post-

secondary institution, this can still exist with the idea of accountability. While certain

benchmarks might be dictated by a particular institution for various faculty departments and

various areas of student services, the university may choose to let these areas pick the “road”

they would like to take to implementing technology within the areas. For example, a university

may decide that one of its benchmark goals is to increase student achievement and retention. For

faculty, this may focus around the curriculum itself, while student services may focus on certain

programs or areas that need be more satisfactory for students. The university may wish to see

proposed technology implementations that will increase student retention and satisfaction and

may provide these areas with statistics and information that could assist the implementation, but

would allow these areas the autonomy to come up with their own proposed technological

implementations to aid in the areas of retention and satisfaction. Again, it is important to note

that the role of technology within the institution should provide deeper understanding and deeper

learning of knowledge, which must be addressed by all areas of the university. The university

may oversee technological implementations to make sure that the technology being implemented

into various areas, but may allow the autonomy of its employees to implement innovations that

will develop deeper understanding within a particular area.

       Change versus stability is another very important issue that needs to be considered. The

idea of stability can go back to what individuals at the university feel as “comfortable.”

Understandably, some employees of a particular university or institution may feel that they

operate better within a context where there is limited change and there is a stable understanding

of how particular areas of education operate, may it be curriculum, development, financial aid, or
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otherwise. However, it is important to remember the role of the university is to aid the students

and that changes need to be continually made in order to meet these specific needs and help aide

in providing an educational experience that is more extensive and reaches to deeper areas than is

currently in place. Learning On Demand: Online Education in the United States, 2009 states that

“online enrollments have continued to grow at rates far in excess of the total higher education

student population, with the most recent data demonstrating no signs of slowing” (Allen &

Seaman, 2009). Additionally, “over 4.6 million students were taking at least one online course

during the fall 2008 term, a 17 percent increase over the number reported the previous year,”

“the 17 percent growth rate for online enrollments far exceeds the 1.2 percent growth of the total

higher education student population,” and “more than one in four higher education students now

take at least one course online” (Allen & Seaman, 1). If these statistics are any indication,

universities, colleges, and institutions are changing at an alarming rate. Regardless if individuals

at particular institutions value stability, it is imperative that change happens in post-secondary

institutions. While the ultimate goal of post-secondary institutions is to develop, adapt, and refine

student learning and student learning experiences, it should not be forgotten that institutions have

to compete with other universities and colleges for students. If changes are not made within

institutions regarding technology, these very institutions risk losing a large portion of their

students who would rather learn at an institution that supports technology innovation with

connecting to a deeper understanding of knowledge than subscribe to an educational experience

that might be lacking or be thought of as too “surface based” in the future. While change can be

considered to be frustrating and frightening for some individuals at the post-secondary level, it’s

important to remember that with enough support, changes within an institution can be very

smooth. Learning On Demand: Online Education in the United States, 2009 states that “there is
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no single approach being taken by institutions in providing training for their teaching faculty,”

and that “only 19 percent of institutions with online offerings report that they have no training or

mentoring programs for their online teaching faculty” (Allen & Seamen, 3). This shows that

most universities with particular online learning situations tend to train their faculty through a

“combination of mentoring and training options” (Allen & Seamen, 3). It is important to note

that when change is implemented within an institution, particularly technology, it is very

important that training and support be offered from top to bottom so that faculty and staff can

become equipped with knowledge and help aid students with particular technological needs and

concerns to have a satisfactory, pleasant, and abstract educational experience throughout.

       Another issue that should be discussed in terms of the larger issue of technology

implementation is the idea of urgency versus thoroughness. There is urgency within higher

education to continue to provide improvements and to continue creating abstract learning

processes for students. However, while this is might be the case, it is also important to note that

implementation should not be rushed at the post-secondary without proper set up, for this could

ultimately lead to failure of certain technological innovations at the post-secondary level or

failure of particular technical programs. Thoroughness or quality should also be considered while

implementing various technologies. Again, all of these issues tie back to the main issue of

whether or not technological implementations create deeper, abstract learning experiences at the

post-secondary level. If an overall of a university or college’s technology programs and abilities

is to be done, it must be done in an effective manner to provide quality education for all. Josh

Garrison states that one of the concerns he has of technology placed within the curriculum is that

“too often technology can be used as a convenience, at the expense of quality” (Garrison). Greg

Wypiszynski states that “the effects [of implementing technology] can be negative if the
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technology and its application is not effective or efficient, or positive when the technology truly

enhances or improves the delivery of services or information” (Wypiszynski). While technology

should be put into place at the university level, it should not sacrifice the quality of education

and/or student learning. The primary goal of the university is to provide extensive, abstract

learning processes and experiences to help students go deeper within areas of knowledge. If this

idea is compromised, due to fast implementation, it needs to be rethought in a qualitative manner.

       Once some of these conflicts have been thought up, it’s also important to note specific

where one would like to go with the idea of creating deeper, abstract learning experiences for

students with post-secondary institutions. A vision of what should be done is something that

should be developed first so one knows what should be developed and how it should be

implemented prior to any other actions are taken. The vision of this particular issue is to

implement various technologies at a post-secondary institution to promote deeper understanding

and knowledge of various fields and help create a global academic community that students can

situate themselves in to help increase graduation rates, retention rates, average grade point

averages of students, and satisfaction rates among all students. Various current technologies, as

well as new technologies, can be used to transform student learning into a more interactive

experience that helps to result in a deeper understanding of knowledge within the institution.

Online text books, second life programs, and online collaborative efforts, such as using WebEx,

are all viable options for implementation at post-secondary institutions that could help for more

abstract learning among students. Once a vision is developed, support can be given to various

areas of the institution for implementation.

       Support is one of the biggest concerns for this particular issue. First and foremost,

everyone in the university or college must be on board with the issue of technology
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implementation in order to create a collaborative environment that is focused on the

improvement of post-secondary education at a particular institution. A series of information

sheets showing statistics of technology implementation and the benefits, as well as surveys will

help generate what areas of the institution need to be addressed for this issue. By providing a

number of “help” committees that can alleviate fears and help aide in education to various parts

of the institution will prove to be invaluable. Additionally, budgetary issues are also another

support system that needs to be put in place. Greg Wypiszynski states that “it cannot be

overstated that money to buy, implement, and maintain technology must be a priority in the

organization,” but “since funding for a public institution is subject to unique pressures compared

to a private one, success in the future will go to those units and organizations that can

substantiate, garner, and maintain fiscal resources” (Wypiszynski). All of these support systems

need to be firmly in place when implementing technology to result in a smooth transition from a

more “traditional” educational environment to a more “technical, new age, abstract experience”


       Commitment is a huge factor at the university. All aspects of the college must be

committed to implementing new technologies to provide abstract learning experiences for

students and aid in access to a global academic community that will result in deeper

understanding of knowledge for the various constituents of an institution. Surveys could be put

out to gauge individual’s feelings on the matter. Again, it is important to make sure that the

general feeling of the university is a positive one with enough support so that a firm commitment

can be made by all aspects of the university to help further student learning processes. This can

be done by making sure that enough support is given so various areas of the institution are

ultimately committed to the process.
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       External relationships, as well as internal relationships, are very important when creating

this extensive change at the institution. Post-secondary institutions must stress how important it

is to implement technology in this day and age by providing possible future students and the

community with information regarding the implementation of technology, but also what the idea

for implementing technology can do for student learning, education, and society as a whole.

Potential future students might realize that the institution is committed to excellence in higher

education and that the institution strives to provide complex and comprehensive learning

experiences to students to help them prepare for a vastly changing society.

The Influence of Technology Implementation on Higher Education and Personal Opinion

       The idea of how huge technology implementation is at the post-secondary level cannot be

stressed enough. As society continues to change, it is imperative that post-secondary institutions

are at the forefront of this change and continue to implement new, abstract ways of thinking

about situations and working with education in order to provide for an extensive learning

experience that will work for all students within post-secondary education. Sixteen Myths About

Online Teaching and Learning In Higher Education: Don’t Believe Everything You Hear states

that “we are witnessing a drastic increase of online learning in different places” (Li & Akins,

2005). Again, if the article 21st Century Trends for Higher Education: Top Trends, 2008-2009 is

any indication, a number of these technologies already exist at the post-secondary level. It is

again important to note that these innovations, such as Web 2.0 and social networking tools such

as “blogs and wikis, and online social gathering websites such as Flickr” already exist.

Furthermore, new resources from the Technology, Entertainment, and Design (TED) conference
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are being used for academic purposes and used to create higher order thinking at post-secondary

level (Stansbury, 2010). Individuals are already able to mass collaborate using various social

networking sites, creating a more collaborative academic effort that can reach to all areas of the

technological world. Innovation in Higher Education: Implications for the Future states that

“innovation can offer flexibility to enable institutions to adapt more readily in a constantly

changing environment” (White & Glickman, 2007).

       The sky is the limit for post-secondary education and it’s clear that technological

innovation will not stop anytime soon. What is important is that these innovations can be used

academically to provide new experiences for students and help students better understand

knowledge through a series of different innovations that give new experiences for students. It’s

my firm opinion education will continue to change and evolve. Those who do not focus on

technological implementations, that being specific institutions, may be left in the dust by only

offering “traditional” system ways of thinking. Certainly, in a vastly changing society, higher

education institutions must be on the forefront of this change to allow for students to be open to

new experiences that I was never given a chance to experience. For example, individuals in a

particular history class might be exposed to a situation where they are situated in Constantinople

in 1453 to experience what the Byzantines did while trying to fend off the siege of the Ottoman

Turks rather than reading a history book about what happened to the Byzantines. This type of

technological innovation will place an individual in the environment of 1453 Constantinople and

allow for deeper learning that will have a much longer last effect than current practices. Articles

such as Innovation in Higher Education: Implications for the Future, 21st Century Trends for

Higher Education: Top Trends, 2008-2009, What Every 21st-Century Educator Should Know,

Sixteen Myths About Online Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: Don’t Believe
                                                                                            Knapp 16

Everything You Hear, Learning on Demand: Online Education in the United States, 2009, and

growing University of Wisconsin Student Enrollment statistics all provide information of how

and why technological changes must and will be made within post-secondary education

institutions. Whether individuals particularly like it or not, change is inevitable at the post-

secondary level. 21st Century Trends For Higher Education states that “in the 21st century,

technology will play an increasing role in higher education” and that “institutions will adopt

innovative solutions that will change the way students learn, communicate, produce, collaborate,

and study both on and off campus-solutions that will also improve interactions among faculty,

staff, and students” (Wilen-Daugenti, 9). Furthermore “creating innovative services from current

and future technologies requires a powerful, reliable, expandable, and secure IT infrastructure

that has adequate bandwidth, quality of services, and storage” (Wilen-Daugenti, 9). As they

changes in technology are continued to be implemented in post-secondary education, it is

essential that they are used in the most effective manner to provide deeper, abstract learning

experiences for all individuals situated within a particular institution.


       It can be concluded (or ironically rather not, depending how you want to look at the

situation) that technology implementation and change within post-secondary institutions will not

slow down anytime soon. While this may be the case, it is again imperative that these

technological innovations get implemented correctly to adequately provide students with

learning opportunities that not only center around a broader expansion of knowledge and deeper

and connection of what that knowledge is. Articles such as Usability Testing in Technological
                                                                                            Knapp 17

Education. Instructor Presence for Web-Based Classes, and Technology Student Learning

Preferences and the Design of Flexible Learning Programs help give information on possible

solutions or ideas that can help when implementing technology in post-secondary education. The

former, specifically, contains information on “learnability,” “efficiency,” “memorability,”

“errors,” and “satisfaction” that help determine how to set up a set up solutions to implementing

technology in a way. These criteria help explain how “as consumers, students typically notice

when one product is more user-friendly than another” and ways to approach this particular

situation (Flowers, 2005).

       Certainly, post-secondary education continues to evolve into a context or environment

that is increasingly technological, innovative, and abstract that will continue to provide deeper

understanding for individuals who are situated with any post-secondary institution. It is

important to note, though, that when implementing various technologies at the post-secondary

level, steps need to be taken to ensure that the quality of education does not decline and that

technology is implemented in such a way that it can succeed by providing a vision and enough

budgetary and educational support systems to make for a smooth transition. The ultimate main

goal of technology implementation in higher education is to not only provide broader expansion

of knowledge, but offers new experiences for learners through innovative technologies and

communication with a diverse population of individuals to help increase retention rates,

graduation rates, student grade point average, student satisfaction rates and provide a deeper,

abstract learning experience that will aide in students being active change agents not only in the

university, but society as a whole.
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                                          Works Cited

Allen, I., & Seaman, J. (2010). Learning On Demand: Online Education in the United States.
        Babyson Survey Research Group.

Altbach, P. G., Berdahl, R. O., & Gumport, P. J. (2005). American Higher Education in the
       Twenty-First Century: Social, Political, and Economic Challenges (Second ed. ).
       Baltimore And London: The John Hopkins University Press.

Flowers, J. (2005, May). Usability Testing in Technology Education. The Technology Teachers,

Garrison, J. (2010). Interview with Josh Garrison.

Li, Q., & Akins, M. (2005). Sixteen Myths About Online Teaching and Learning in Higher
        Education: Don't Believe Everything You Hear. Tech Trends, 49(4), 51-60.

Smith, P. J. (2001). Technology Student Learning Preferences and the Design of Flexible
       Learning Programs. Instructional Science, 29, 237-254.

Stansbury, M. (2010, January 18). What Every 21st-Century Educator Should Know. eSchool

(2010). University of Wisconsin System Student Statistics. University of Wisconsin.
                                                                                      Knapp 19

White, S. C., & Glickman, T. S. (2007). Innovation in Higher Education: Implications for the
       Future. New Directors for Higher Education, 137, 97-104.

Wilen-Daugenti, T., & McKee, A. R. (2008). 21st Century Trends for Higher Education: Top
      Trends, 2008-2009. Cisco Internet Business Solutions Group.

Wypiszynski, G. (2010). Interview with Greg Wypiszynski

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