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					                      Journal of Advances in Developmental Research 2 (2) 2011 : 268-272

                                                       Research Article
                                     Available online at

                              Journal of Advances in Developmental Research
                                          ISSN: 0976-4704 (Print), e-ISSN: 0976-4844 (Online)
                                            J.Adv.Dev.Res. Volume 2, No.2, December 2011

  A Study of Stress and Burnout Between Schools and
       Universitie’s Physical Education Teachers
                          Sisodiya Aman Singh* and Arora Deepika
     *Corresponding author, Department of Physical Education, Jai Naraien Vyas University, Jodhpur,

               The data pertaining to the psychological characteristics were collected from 50 subjects (25
      subjects from college/universities, while another 25 subjects were from schools), who were selected
      from different organizations either affiliated to the government, to public or private sector, to
      different boards or universities, who are engaged in teaching and coaching either at school, college
      or university level. Psychological questionnaires were administered to the subjects. The stress and
      burnout between the physical educationists of school, college or university level, was find out using
      Stress Diagnostic Survey and Maslach Burnout Inventory method, respectively. All the selected subjects
      were informed about the aims and objectives of the present work and requested for their cooperation.
      The subjects were explained about different variables required for the study with necessary instructions.
      The scholar contacted the physical education teachers personally and their sincere cooperation was
      solicited. Results show a significant difference between the mean scores of physical educationist of
      school, college or university level, in relation to stress and burnout. The correlation between physical
      educationists of school, college or university level, in relation to stress and burnout was also found
      significant at 0.05 levels of significance.

                  Introduction                                       Sports psychology is the scientific study of
                                                             behaviour in sports or sports related context. It is
         Sports form an important aspect of life.            an attempt to understand ‘how and why’ underlying
They play a vital role in bringing about physical,           sports behaviour. Sports psychology is defined as
mental and social growth of the nation. The past             the study of mental processes related to human
few decades have witnessed man on innovation in              sports performance. It consists of theories and laws
this area. Sports are becoming increasingly                  of learning, the important of reinforcement, and
sophisticated, technical, gaining popularity as              the linking of perceptual abilities with motor
separate profession with expansion of educational            performance contribute to the body of knowledge.
facilities in the country. More young people are             Sports psychologists utilize the information when
taking part in sports as a daily feature of their life.      studying topics such as achievement motivation,
The participation in sports and physical fitness             arousal, attribution and personality development1.
increase an individual’s productivity, and also
promotes social harmony and discipline.                              The application of psychological principles
                                                             to the improvement of performance in sport has
                                        A.S. Sisodiya and D. Arora                                       269

received greater attention today. There are certain               The subject of this study were the coaches,
accepted psychological principles which have to be       teachers or administrators selected from different
applied so that the athletes and players are able to     institutions either affiliated to the government
show their best in their performance. It is important    at the centre or in the state, to public or private
to know about the role of emotional phenomenon           sector or to different boards/universities who are
like incentive motivation, achievement motivation,       engaged in physical education activities i.e.,
state and trait anxiety and sport competition            coaching, teaching and administration. The total
anxiety of the players during training as well as        numbers of subjects for this study were 50
competitive situations2.                                 ph y sic al ed u c ation ists (25 fr om c olleg es/
                                                         universities, while another 25 subjects were from
        Basic research in psychology includes            schools).
per ception, cogn ition , attention, emotion,
motivation, brain functioning, personality,              Criterion Measured
behaviour, and interpersonal relationships. Some,
especially depth psychologists also consider the               Two criteria i.e. stress and burnouts were
unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical         measured between subjects.
methods to determine causal and correlational
relationships between psychosocial variables. In         Administration of tests
addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical
and deductive methods, clinical psychologists            Stress Diagnostic survey:
sometimes rely upon symbiotic interpretation and                 Stress Diagnostic questionnaire contained
other inductive techniques.                              th e str es s diag n ostic su r v e y (SD S) a
                                                         multidimensional self-reportin g in ventor y
         Physical activity positively influences         designed to measure employee’s perception of
physical and psychological health at all stages of       stress. The latest version of stress diagnostic
life cycle, thus the promotion of physical activity is   survey contains 75 items that reflect perceived
an effective means of ‘improving health and              stress in terms of 17 work-related dimensions.
enhancing function and quality of life’. Young           These 17 dimensions are categorized as Macro-
individuals have increased their involvement in          stressor s and Micro-stressor s. Th e macr o-
physical activity and competitive sport; there have      stressors are related to organizational agencies
indeed been corresponding psychological benefits.        while the micro-stressors are more related to the
Some of these ben efits include enhan ced                person’s job. Each dimension contains four items.
motivation, increased self-concept and improved          Respondents indicate the frequency the condition
mood states.                                             on a 7 point scale ranging from “never” to
                                                         “always”. The stress diagnostic survey is widely
       Feeling of c on stan t str ess leads to           used and has a high degree of internal consistency
exhausted feeling (Physically, mentally and              and retest reliability.
emotionally) which may be termed as burnout.                     These 17 dimensions are categorized as
Effective burnout-busting strategies include             either macro-stressors (Politics, Human resource
taking care of one emotionally and physically,           dev elopme n t,     Rew ar ds,    Par ti c ipation ,
asking for help when one need it, and staying            Underutilization, Supervisory style, Organization
connected to other people.                               structure and Work flow) or micro-stressors (Role
                                                         ambiguity, Role conflict, Quantitative for people,
                 Experimental                            Time pressure, Job scope and Technology).
                                                         Details of these variables are given below.
Selection of Subject                                     Subject were asked to circle the appropriate
                                                         number for each item that describes best for how
                                                         frequently each item is a source of stress at work
270                 Journal of Advances in Developmental Research 2 (2) 2011 : 268-272

place. The subjects were described the different      Statistical Analysis
numbers to be circled by them as;
                                                      The data collected were calculated using descriptive
Circle 1 if the condition described is never a        statistics and t-test. Further the data were
source of stress.                                     analyzed using product moment correlation
Circle 2 if it is rarely a source of stress.          coefficient.
Circle 3 if it is occasionally a source of stress.
Circle 4 if it is sometimes a source of stress.
Circle 5 if it is often a source of stress.                      Results and Discussion
Circle 6 if it is usually a source of stress.
Circle 7 if it is always a source of stress.

Maslach Burnout Inventory                             Table 1. Descriptive statistics of stress between
                                                      college/ universities an d sch ools physical
        The thir d par t of the questionnaire         educationists
contained the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI).
Th e M aslac h Bur n ou t In v entor y is a self                             College/University School
reporting instrument with three sub scales            Mean                   225.76               276.68
designed to measure burnout. It encompasses           Standard Deviation     29.697               24.951
emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and lack      Range                  119                  108
of personal accomplishment.                           Minimum                167                  212
                                                      Maximum                286                  320
Emotional Exhaustion
                                                      N                      25                   25
         It consists of nine items and assesses
feelings of being emotionally over-extended and
                                                      Table 2. Descriptive statistics of burnout between
over-exhausted by one’s work.
                                                      college/ universities an d sch ools physical
       It includes five items that measure an
                                                                              College/University School
unfeeling and impersonal response towards
                                                      Mean                    42.64                57.88
recipients of one’s service, care, treatment or
                                                      Standard Deviation      3.534                9.134
                                                      Range                   13                   36
Personal Accomplishment                               Minimum                 37                   40
                                                      Maximum                 50                   76
        It consists of eigh t items; sub scale        N                       25                   25
assesses the feelings of competence and successful
achievement in one’s work with people.                        The purpose of this study was many folds
The purpose of Maslach Burnout Inventory is to        and revealed some specific differences between the
find out, how coaches view their job and the          physical educationists of college/universities and
people when they work closely. A total of 22          schools. Before getting into conclusion of the study,
statements of job related feelings were described     it should be understood that, physical educationists
to the subject for three subscales as mentioned       are the architects of sports in education system and
above. The subjects were asked to read the
                                                      has multiple role in the life of sportsmen during
statement carefully and answer after deciding if
they were ever felt this about their job. The         their student life. Their positive contribution
subjects were asked to tick the number that best      certainly helps any society or country to grow with
describes their feelings.                             proper ratio.
                                      A.S. Sisodiya and D. Arora                                        271

Table 3. t- ratio of the means of stress between      Table 8. Correlation coefficient of stress and
college/ universities an d sch ools physical          burnout between schools physical educationists
                                                      Physical educationists Correlation of coefficient
        Physical educationists             t-ratio    Stress                   0.787557*
        College/Universities     Schools              Burnout
Mean 225.76                      276.68    6.563*
                                                      *significant at 0.05 level
S.D  29.697                      24.951
*significant at 0.05 level                                     The mean score of schools physical
                                                      educationists were found higher than the physical
Table 4. t- ratio of the means of burnout between     educationists of college/universities in relation to
college/ universities an d sch ools physical          stress (Table 1). The result of the study revealed
educationists                                         significant difference between the mean scores of
                                                      physical educationists of college/universities and
                       Game                t-ratio
                                                      schools (Table 3). High level of stress in the schools
        Individual game       Team game               phy sical educ ation ists than the physical
Mean    42.64                 57.88        7.779*     educationists of college/universities might be
S.D     3.534                 9.134                   attributed to their job assignment. This fact is quite
*significant at 0.05 level                            reasonable that, satisfying head of the institution
                                                      at a time is tough than to satisfy players. The needs,
Table 5. Correlation coefficient of stress between    temperament and working conditions of schools
college/ universities an d sch ools physical          physical educationists vary from each other; this
educationists                                         takes lot of efforts to sublimate those inputs on one-
                                                      to-one basis. Sometimes sch ools physical
Physical educationists Correlation of coefficient
                                                      educationists may not succeed in their efforts
College/Universities     -0.01597
                                                      resulting in to failed performance, which may also
Schools                                               lead to stress. The total quantitative overload may
                                                      also lead the extent of stress. In other words stress
                                                      may also be created by too great a volume of work
Table 6. Correlation coefficient of burnout between
                                                      to be accomplished in the allotted time. The
college/ universities an d sch ools physical
                                                      difference in stress level between the physical
                                                      educationists of college/universities and schools
Physical educationists Correlation of coefficient     may also be due to micro-stressors like; role
                                                      ambiguity, role conflict, career progress, time
College/University       0.00914
                                                      pressure etc. The result of present study is also on
                                                      the line of the studies conducted previously3. They
                                                      found different exploratory and confirmatory
Table 7. Correlation coefficient of stress and        factors along with administrative constraints like
burnout between college/universities physical         increased workload and excessive meetings as
educationists                                         principal form of stress.
                                                               Mean, standard deviation, range, minimum
Physical educationists Correlation of coefficient
                                                      and maximum values for burn out were found
Stress                   0.709768*                    higher in school’s physical educationists than that
Burnout                                               of college/universities (Table 2). The effect was also
*significant at 0.05 level                            found significant (Table 4). Sources of burnout
                                                      indicated factors like, performance, lack of
                                                      recognition, time pressure and interpersonal
272                   Journal of Advances in Developmental Research 2 (2) 2011 : 268-272

conflict3. These factors accounting for burnout can      5. Itschaki N. 1994. Occupational stresses and burnout
also be predictor; attributed to the emotional                    among hospital social workers. Dissertation
exhaustion and lack of personal accomplishment.                   Abstract International, 55, 03:740-A.
The prevalence of burnout was also studied
previously 4 an d a positive and sign ific ant           6. Dale J and Weinberg R. 1989. Burnout in Sport:
relationship was found attributed among sex, age,                Review and Critique, University of north Texas,
                                                                 Denton. USA Applied sports Psychology, 2: 67-
marital status and coaching appointment. A study
about burnout among hospital social workers was
conducted5 and results show that lack of education
and lack of experience were the key factor for
burnout. The result of present study may also be
attributed to the emotional maturity, role conflict,
role ambiguity, role assignment, over load,
experience, personal relationship and active
participation of the physical educationist. A study
on college and school coaches was carried out6 to
determine burnout in relation to their leadership
style and concluded that burnout and leadership
style have a significant relationship.

        Correlation between college/universities
and schools physical educationists for stress and
burnout was found non-significant (Table 5 and 6)
but a significant relationship was revealed within
the physical educationist of college/ universities and
schools level in relation to their stress and burnout
level (Table 7 and 8). The fact may be attributed to
the emotional maturity which seems to be at
different level for the entire physical educationists
as the age variation factor was high.


1. Angela L. 1986. Physical Education: A Contemporary
        Introduction. Saint Louis: Times Mirror /Mosby
        College Publishing.

2. Singh A. 1992. Sports Psychology: A Study of Indian
        Sportsmen. Delhi: Friends Publications.

3. Rainey DW. 1995. Sources of Stress, Burnout and
        Intention to Terminate among Basketball
        Referees. Journal of Sport Behavior, 22: 453-

4. Karen E. 1993. Occupational burnout in physical
        Education Faculties . Dissertation Abstract
        International, 54, 01: 123-A.

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