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8th Grade Science Curriculum Guide 2011-2012

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8th Grade Science Curriculum Guide 2011-2012 Powered By Docstoc
					DMPS 8th
Grade Science
Curriculum      2011
                                                                               8th Grade Science Curriculum 2011

Iowa Core Statements
1. Understand and apply knowledge of forms of energy and energy transfer.

Energy is a property of many substances and is associated with heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound, nuclei, and the nature of a
chemical. Energy is transferred in many ways.

Heat moves in predictable ways, flowing from warmer objects to cooler ones, until both reach the same temperature.
Light interacts with matter by transmission (including refraction), absorption, or scattering (including reflection). To see an object, light from that
object- emitted by or scattered from it- must enter the eye.

Electrical circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy when heat, light, sound, and chemical changes are produced.
In most chemical and nuclear reactions, energy is transferred into or out of a system. Heat, light, mechanical motion, or electricity might all be
involved in such transfers.

The sun is a major source of energy for changes on the earth’s surface. The sun loses energy by emitting light. A tiny fraction of that light reaches
the earth, transferring energy form the sun to the earth. The sun’s energy arrives as light with a range of wavelengths, consisting of visible light,
infrared, and ultraviolet radiation.

2. Understand and apply knowledge of motions and forces.

The motion of an object can be described by its position, direction of motion, and speed. That motion can be measured and represented on a graph.
An object that is not being subjected to a force will continue to move at a constant speed and in a straight line.

If more than one force acts on an object along a straight line, then the forces will reinforce or cancel one another, depending on their direction and
magnitude. Unbalanced forces will cause changes in speed or direction of an object’s motion.

3. Understand and apply knowledge of the components of our solar system.

The earth is the third planet from the sun in a system that includes the moon, the sun, seven other planets and their moons, and smaller objects,
such as asteroids and comets. The sun, an average star, is the central and largest body in the solar system.

Gravity is the force that keeps planets in orbit around the sun and governs the rest of the motion in the solar system. Gravity alone holds us to the
earth’s surface and explains the phenomena of the tides.


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                                                                                8th Grade Science Curriculum 2011
The sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on the earth’s surface, such as growth of plants, winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle.
Seasons result from variations in the amount of the sun’s energy hitting the surface, due to the tilt of the earth’s rotation on its axis and the length
of the day.

Most objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motion. Those motions explain such phenomena as the day, the year, phases of the
moon, and eclipses.

4. Understand and apply knowledge of how different organisms pass on traits (heredity).

Every organism requires a set of instructions for specifying its traits. Heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.
Hereditary information is contained in genes, located in the chromosomes of each cell. Each gene carries a single unit of information. An inherited
trait of an individual can be determined by one or by many genes, and a single gene can influence more than one trait. A human cell contains many
thousands of different genes.

The characteristics of an organism can be described in terms of a combination of traits. Some traits are inherited and others result from interactions
with the environment.

5. Understand and apply knowledge of the basic components and functions of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems.

Living systems at all levels of organization demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function. Important levels of organization for
structure and function include cells, organs, tissues, organ systems, whole organisms, and ecosystems.

All organisms are composed of cells. Most organisms are single cells; other organisms, including humans are multi-cellular.

Cells carry on the many functions needed to sustain life. They grow and divide, thereby producing more cells. This requires that they take in
nutrients, which they use to provide energy for the work that cells do and to make the materials that a cell or an organism needs.

Specialized cells perform specialized functions in multi-cellular organisms. Groups of specialized cells cooperate to form a tissue, such as muscle.
Different tissues are, in turn, grouped together to form larger functional units, called organs. Each type of cell, tissue, and organ has a distinct
structure and set of functions that serve the organism as a whole.




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DMPS Graduate Ends Statements:
Graduates demonstrate strategies for lifelong learning

• They exhibit competent thinking
• They exhibit intuitive thinking
• They understand systems and processes, including the understanding of underlying structures
• They exhibit creative and innovative thinking
• They anticipate future trends
• They demonstrate critical thinking and problem solving abilities


Graduates demonstrate knowledge and understanding of a rigorous curriculum integrated into all content areas

• They demonstrate proficiency in science, including life, earth and physical science


Graduates possess technological and information literacy

• They can access and evaluate information from a variety of sources to continue their learning
• They understand, manage and create oral, written and multimedia communication
• They utilize appropriate technology to apply or analyze information




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                                                                                     8th Grade Science Curriculum 2011

National Core Science Literacy Standards____________________________________
Reading In Science

Key Ideas and Details

   1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts.

   2. Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.

   3. Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.

   4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context
   relevant to grades 6–8 texts and topics.

   5. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to an understanding of the topic.

   6. Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text.

   Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

   7. Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart,
   diagram, model, graph, or table).

   8. Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text.

   9. Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the
   same topic.

   Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

   10. By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.


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Writing in Science
Text Types and Purposes

1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

        A. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons
           and evidence logically.
        B. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using
           credible sources.
        C. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
        D. Establish and maintain a formal style.
        E. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

    2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.

        A. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to
           achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
        B. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
        C. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
        D. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
        E. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.
        F. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.


    Production and Distribution of Writing

    4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.


    5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a
    new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.


    6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and
    efficiently.




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Research to Build and Present Knowledge

7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional
related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.


8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source;
and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Range of Writing

10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of
discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.




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Unit 1: Science Skills
Approximate Timeline: 4 weeks
  Content         Content Objectives          Iowa Core Statements    Common Student-Centered Learning                Common          Graduate Ends
 Standards                                                                       Targets                             Assessments
                Measurement and              Identify and generate                                                During Week 5   Graduates
Scientists
                 conversions within the       questions that can be   Skills and Concepts:                         (Sept. 26-30)   demonstrate
observe,
                 metric system                answered through                                                                     strategies for lifelong
measure and
compare         Observation and inference    scientific              1A: I can distinguish among and make         Q# 1, 2         learning
natural         Collect, graph and analyze   investigations.         qualitative and quantitative observations.
properties       data                                                                                                              Graduates
and             Test/ experimental design     Design and conduct     1B: I can measure length, volume and         Q# 3, 4, 5      demonstrate
                Inquiry skills               different kinds of      mass using appropriate equipment.                            knowledge and
phenomena.
                Lab safety and proper        scientific                                                                           understanding of a
                 equipment use                investigations.         1C: I can convert between common             Q# 6, 7
                                                                                                                                   rigorous curriculum
                                                                      units within the metric system.
                                                                                                                                   integrated into all
                                               Understand that
                                                                                                                                   content areas
                                              different kinds of      1D: I can recognize and design a fair        Q# 8
                                              questions suggest       experiment to test a scientific question.
                                                                                                                                   Graduates
                                              different kinds of
                                                                                                                                   demonstrate
                                              scientific              1E: I can demonstrate proper safety          Q# 9, 10
                                                                                                                                   proficiency in science,
                                              investigations.         procedures.
                                                                                                                                   including life, earth
                                                                                                                                   and physical science
                                               Select and use         1F: I can create an appropriate scientific   TBA
                                              appropriate tools and   graph using a given data set.
                                              techniques to gather,                                                                Graduates possess
                                              analyze and interpret   1G: I can recognize and generate logical     Q# 11, 12       technological and
                                              data.                   inferences based on observations.                            information literacy

                                               Incorporate            1H: I can analyze a given data set to        Q# 13, 14, 15
                                              mathematics in          recognize and produce a valid
                                              scientific inquiry.     conclusion.

                                               Use evidence to        1I: I can communicate scientific inquiry     TBA
                                              develop descriptions,   and findings in a clear and fair way.
                                              explanations,
                                              predictions, and
                                              models.



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                                                     8th Grade Science Curriculum 2011
                             Think critically and
                             logically to make the
                             relationships between
                             evidence and
                             explanations.

                              Recognize and
                             analyze alternative
                             explanations and
                             predictions.

                              Communicate and
                             defend procedures
                             and explanations.

                              Use appropriate
                             safety procedures
                             when conducting
                             investigations.




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Unit 2: Motion & Forces
Approximate Timeline: 8 Weeks
   Content          Content Objectives        Iowa Core Statements      Common Student-Centered                 Common           Graduate Ends
  Standards                                                                Learning Targets                   Assessments
Net forces        Motion                    Understand and apply                                            During Week      Graduates
cause change      Speed/average speed       knowledge of forms of                                           12               demonstrate strategies
in motion.        Velocity                  energy and energy       Skills and Concepts:                    (Nov. 21-23)     for lifelong learning
                  Acceleration              transfer
                     Positive/negative                              2A. I can compare/contrast motion,      Q# 1, 2, 3, 4    Graduates
                  Forces                    Understand and apply    speed, velocity and acceleration.                        demonstrate
                     Balanced               knowledge of motions                                                             knowledge and
                     Unbalanced             and forces              2B. I can explain how net forces        Q# 5, 6, 7       understanding of a
                     Net force                                      affect an object’s motion.                               rigorous curriculum
                     Newtons                                                                                                 integrated into all
                  Friction (including air                           2C. I can explain the effect of         Q# 8, 9
                                                                                                                              content areas
                   resistance)                                       friction on motion.
                  Gravity                                                                                                    Graduates
                                                                     2D. I can relate the force of gravity   Q# 10, 11
                  Gravity & Motion                                                                                           demonstrate
                                                                     to an object’s mass and distance.
                  Newton’s Laws                                                                                              proficiency in science,
                  Weight vs mass                                    2E. I can explain the effect of         Q# 12
                                                                                                                              including life, earth
                  Momentum                                          gravity on falling objects.
                                                                                                                              and physical science

                                                                                                                              Graduates possess
                                                                     2F. I can apply Newton’s 3 laws of      Q# 13, 14, 15,
                                                                     motion to predict a situation.          16               technological and
                                                                                                                              information literacy
                                                                     2G. I can differientate between mass    Q# 17, 18
                                                                     and weight.

                                                                     2H. I can predict how mass and          Q# 19, 20
                                                                     velocity affect momentum.



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                                                                         8th Grade Science Curriculum 2011
Unit 3: Energy
Approximate Timeline: 6 Weeks
   Content              Content Objectives      Iowa Core Statements       Common Student-Centered                Common           Graduate Ends
  Standards                                                                   Learning Targets                  Assessments
Energy exists        Forms of energy           Understand and apply                                           During Week      Graduates
in many              Energy conversions        knowledge of forms of                                          18               demonstrate strategies
forms and can        Conservation of energy    energy and energy       Skills and Concepts:                   (January 9-13)   for lifelong learning
be transferred       Energy resources          transfer
in a variety of         Fossil fuels                                                                                           Graduates
ways.                   Nuclear                                        3A. I can differentiate between        Q# 1, 2, 3       demonstrate
                        Solar                                          potential, kinetic and light energy.                    knowledge and
                        Water                                                                                                  understanding of a
                        Wind                                           3B. I can recognize examples of        Q# 4, 5, 6       rigorous curriculum
                        Geothermal                                     energy conversions in real
                                                                                                                                integrated into all
                        Biomass                                        situations.
                                                                                                                                content areas
                     Heat vs. temperature
                     Thermal energy transfer                           3C. I can summarize and apply the      Q# 7, 8
                                                                                                                                Graduates
                        Convection                                     law of conservation of energy.
                                                                                                                                demonstrate
                        Conduction                                                                                             proficiency in science,
                        Radiation                                      3D. I can evaluate the advantages      Q# 9, 10
                                                                                                                                including life, earth
                                                                        and disadvantages of various energy
                                                                                                                                and physical science
                                                                        resources.
                                                                                                                                Graduates possess
                                                                        3E. I can distinguish between heat     Q# 11, 12
                                                                        and temperature.                                        technological and
                                                                                                                                information literacy
                                                                        3F. I can explain how thermal          Q# 13, 14, 15
                                                                        energy is transferred.



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Unit 4: Waves & Light
Approximate Timeline: 4 Weeks
   Content             Content Objectives             Iowa Core Statements       Common Student-Centered                 Common           Graduate Ends
  Standards                                                                         Learning Targets                    Assessments
Light is a          Types of waves                   Understand and apply                                             During Week     Graduates
form of                Transverse vs.                knowledge of forms of                                            22              demonstrate strategies
energy that is             Longitudinal               energy and energy                                                (Feb. 13-17)    for lifelong learning
transmitted in         Mechanical vs.                transfer.               Skills and Concepts:
waves.                     Electromagnetic                                                                                             Graduates
                    Characteristics of waves                                 4A. I can distinguish between types      Q# 1, 2         demonstrate
                       Amplitude                                             of waves.                                                knowledge and
                       Frequency                                                                                                      understanding of a
                       Wavelength                                            4B. I can describe the characteristics   Q# 3, 4, 5      rigorous curriculum
                    Electromagnetic spectrum                                 of waves.
                                                                                                                                       integrated into all
                    Wave interactions with matter                                                                                     content areas
                       Reflection                                            4C. I can compare and contrast           Q# 6, 7, 8, 9
                       Refraction                                            transmission, absorption, reflection,
                                                                                                                                       Graduates
                       Absorption                                            refraction and scattering of light.
                                                                                                                                       demonstrate
                       Scattering                                                                                                     proficiency in science,
                       Transmission                                          4D. I can trace the route light must     Q# 10, 11, 12
                                                                                                                                       including life, earth
                    Eye                                                      take in order to be seen and the role
                                                                                                                                       and physical science
                       Function                                              the eye plays in vision.
                       Pathway of light                                                                                               Graduates possess
                       Receptor cells                                        4E. I can explain how the color of       Q# 13, 14, 15
                                                                              an object is determined.                                 technological and
                    Color and the visible spectrum                                                                                    information literacy




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                                                                             8th Grade Science Curriculum 2011

Unit 5: Astronomy
Approximate Timeline: 8 Weeks
   Content              Content Objectives           Iowa Core Statements       Student-Centered Learning                 Common            Graduate Ends
  Standards                                                                              Targets                         Assessments
Objects in our      Gravity                         Understand and apply                                               During Week      Graduates
universe are        Structure of the universe       knowledge of the                                                   30               demonstrate strategies
interrelated           Light year                   components of our       Skills and Concepts:                       (April 16-20)    for lifelong learning
and changes            Galaxies                     solar system
to one object          Stars                                                                                                            Graduates
may affect             Planetary systems            Understand and apply    5A. I can identify the principle           Q# 1, 2          demonstrate
others.                     Moons                   knowledge of forms of   structures of the solar system and                          knowledge and
                            Asteroids               energy and energy       describe their rotations and the
                                                                                                                                         understanding of a
                            Meteors                 transfer                relative positions of their orbits.
                                                                                                                                         rigorous curriculum
                            Comets                                                                                                      integrated into all
                                                                             5B. I can describe the sun as being an     Q# 3, 4
                    Sun/Earth/moon interactions                                                                                         content areas
                                                                             average star, and also the central and
                       Tides                                                largest object in the solar system.
                       Seasons                                                                                                          Graduates
                       Rotation & revolution                                5C. I can define a light year.             Q# 5             demonstrate
                       Eclipses                                                                                                         proficiency in science,
                       Effects of solar radiation                           5D. I can compare and contrast small       Q# 6, 7, 8, 9    including life, earth
                          on earth                                           bodies (comets and asteroids),                              and physical science
                                                                             moons, planets, stars, galaxies and the
                                                                             universe.                                                   Graduates possess
                                                                                                                                         technological and
                                                                             5E. I can explain the role of gravity in   Q# 10, 11, 12,
                                                                                                                                         information literacy
                                                                             governing the tides, the motions of        13
                                                                             objects in the solar system, and the
                                                                             motion of celestial objects in general.

                                                                             5F. I can explain the astronomical         Q# 14, 15, 16,
                                                                             basis for days, months, years, phases      17, 18, 19
                                                                             of the moon, eclipses, and seasons.

                                                                             5G. I can explain the effects of solar     Q# 20
                                                                             radiation on the Earth.


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Unit 6: Heredity & Classification
Approximate Timeline: 6 Weeks
   Content                Content Objectives              Iowa Core Statements         Common Student-Centered                 Common          Graduate Ends
  Standards                                                                               Learning Targets                   Assessments
Cells are the        Cell Theory                          Understand and apply                                             During Week     Graduates
basic building       Cell parts (structure & function)    knowledge of the basic                                           36              demonstrate strategies
blocks of life.             Cell membrane                 components and                                                   (May 29-June    for lifelong learning
                            Organelles                    functions of cells,      Skills and Concepts:                    1)
                            DNA                           tissues, organs, and                                                             Graduates
                            Cytoplasm                     organ systems            6A. I can identify the components       Q# 1            demonstrate
An                   Cellular energy (reactants &                                  of the Cell Theory.                                     knowledge and
organism’s            products)                            Understand and apply                                                             understanding of a
characteristics             Photosynthesis                knowledge of how         6B. I can describe the basic            Q# 2, 3, 4      rigorous curriculum
can arise from              Cellular respiration          different organisms      structures and functions of the cell.
                                                                                                                                            integrated into all
genetics,            Cell cycle/cell division             pass on traits
                                                                                                                                            content areas
environment,         Heredity                             (heredity)               6C. I can compare and contrast the      Q# 5, 6
or an                       Genes/ alleles/                                        reactants and products of cellular
                                                                                                                                            Graduates
interaction of                 chromosomes                Understand and apply      respiration and photosynthesis.
                                                                                                                                            demonstrate
both.                       DNA                          knowledge of:
                                                                                                                                            proficiency in science,
                            Dominant/recessive             Interdependency        6D. I can compare/contrast the          Q# 7, 8
                                                                                                                                            including life, earth
                            Genotype/ phenotype              of organisms,         products of mitosis and meiosis.
                                                                                                                                            and physical science
                            Punnett Squares                  changes in
                            Traits & inheritance             environmental         6E. I can explain the role of DNA       Q# 9
                                                                                                                                            Graduates possess
                     Natural Selection                       conditions, and       in heredity.
                                                                                                                                            technological and
                            Adaptation & Mutation            survival of
                                                                                    6F. I can construct and complete a      Q# 10, 11, 12   information literacy
                                                              individuals and
                                                              species               Punnett Square, and use the results
                                                                                    to determine the offsprings’
                                                                                    genotypes and phenotypes.

                                                                                    6G. I can apply the concept of          Q# 13, 14, 15
                                                                                    natural selection in relationship to
                                                                                    a species over many generations.




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                         8th Grade Science Curriculum 2011




14 Revised Spring 2011

				
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