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                                                              & tAKe it
                                                              WitH You
                                  HYDROGEN & OTHER NEW TECH
                                   COMING TO YOUR DRIVEWAY

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• Which fuel? LPg, petrol, ethanol or diesel?             en Ar
• How environmentally friendly is your car?            re c
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• drive further on one tank of fuel
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• calculate your carbon footprint
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                                                                                          TABLE OF CONTENTS
  Drive’s Green Motoring Guide is not about                                                03 The small-car boom
  walking to work and driving boring cars.                                                FUELS ANALYSIS
                                                                                           05 Which fuel?
                                                                                           07 Ethanol: the pros and cons
  Welcome to Drive’s eMagazine dedicated to the environment.                               09 LPG: should you convert?

  Adding a tinge of green to your car (and, no, we’re not talking about the colour)       DRIVING TIPS
  is the latest thing in an era of climate change. There’s little doubt the environment    10 How to drive economically
  is one of the key focuses of car makers across the world.                                25 ‘Green’ driver’s logbook
  Yes, the environment is very much headline news in the 21st century.                    DRIVE’S BEST ‘GREEN’ CARS
  In this eMag we give you everything you need to know about green motoring. We            13   Introduction
  dispel the myths and give you the facts about different kinds of fuels, choosing an      14   Civic Hybrid v Prius
  environmentally friendly car and even how you help by driving for the environment.       15   Light cars
                                                                                           16   Small and medium cars
  Drive’s Green Motoring Guide is not about walking to work and driving boring,
  underpowered cars; we realise people need and want cars, and that enjoyment is           17   Luxury sedans and small 4WDs
  often part of the equation.
  Instead, it’s about adding another dimension to your next vehicle choice and shedding    20 Comparison test
  light on what is becoming an increasing focus when it comes to cars.
                                                                                          THE FUTURE
  Cheers, The Drive Team                                                                   30 Hydrogen and fuel cells
                                                                                                                              3 Drive.com.au


       The winds of change
       Australians are increasingly turning to more fuel-efficient
       alternatives, writes PETER McKAY.
       WITh peTrol hoverInG ArounD                      market for the fourth year in a row. Annual       The availability of improved quality
       or above $1.30 per litre and fuel-price          scooter sales have now more than tripled in     diesel fuel with low sulphur levels has
       volatility a fact of life for Australian         just three years.                               encouraged more makers to enter the
       motorists, it’s no surprise that economical        Then there’s the charge of diesel. In         diesel market.
       small cars are selling in unprecedented          2006 diesel passenger car sales jumped            Adherents of diesels point to impressive
       numbers.                                         17.9 per cent (and 10-fold from 2004 to         fuel consumption figures, although this is
          Droves of Australians are downsizing to       2006) on the back of diesel’s fuel efficiency   countered a little by a slightly higher price
       the cheap-to-buy-and-run vehicles in the         reputation, which overwhelmed traditional       of diesel fuel over regular unleaded.
       light (Toyota Yaris-sized) and small (Toyota     disadvantages of being sluggish, noisy,           Those of a green tinge will be pleased
       Corolla) segments.                               smelly, and expensive to buy.                   too that modern diesels have much
          Some families are moving out of their
       favoured big, roomy six-cylinders with
       some reluctance; for them it’s a grudge                        Eco-friendly petrol-electric hybrids (such
       purchase pushed by economic necessity.
          others, though, find to their relief and                   as the Toyota Prius) are selling well. They
       delight that today’s littlies are surprisingly
       pleasant to own and drive. Sensible                        almost doubled in 2006, from 1,604 to 3,174
       commuter cars in the big cities, they are
       also pretty handy on the highways, too.
          Airbags come as standard issue on all            usually aided by a turbocharger, diesel-     cleaner exhaust emissions than in the past.
       of today’s tiddlers. life-saving electronic      powered cars win over once sceptical            Though they still emit some carcinogenic
       stability programs (eSp) are also filtering      motorists with their strong torque spread,      particulates, they produce less carbon
       down to these tiny tots.                         which gives easy cruising at low revs, and      dioxide, responsible for greenhouse gases.
          other, cheaper transport possibilities are    impressive fuel economy.                           engine longevity is another strong suit;
       also coming on to the radar.                        once the domain of trucks and off-           generally diesels will chalk up 300,000 -
          Scooters are experiencing a boom (see         roaders, diesel power is now prominent in       400,000km without requiring attention.
       our story on page 20). Scooters are the          all passenger car segments, including the          But car shoppers have found that in
       highest-selling category of the road bike        tiny tots.                                      most cases diesel passenger cars are
                                                                                                                                                    4 Drive.com.au

 SMAll-CAR bOOM                                                               RISE OF THE SMALL CAR - 1997 TO 2006

Toyota's new Corolla
outsold Commodore

                                                                              Units, 000s
in June

              priced higher than the petrol equivalents.                   the large-4WD market is growing.                   Ten years ago, the Australian new-car
              Depending on the annual usage, it may                          hip pocket sensitivity was already             landscape was quite different.
              take years of ownership to cover that                        evident last year with one in every three          In an overall 1996 new-vehicle market of
              extra cost.                                                  new vehicle sales being light or small           650,049 led by Ford, Aussies still favoured
                 eco-friendly petrol/electric hybrids are                  cars, according to official figures from the     their big cars.
              also selling well – they almost doubled                      Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries.          But the strength was with the upper
              last year, from 1604 to 3174 - but won’t                       Across Australia last year, 116,086 light      medium segment (Commodore and Falcon)
              be a serious alternative to economical                       cars (12.1 per cent of total market and          where close to 200,000 cars were sold,
              petrol and diesel cars until they lose                       our fastest-growing segment) and 219,358         taking a dominant 40.4 per cent chunk.
              their price premium.                                         small cars (22.8 per cent) were sold.              light cars (47,796 sold in the 1996
                 The third-generation prius, due in 2009,                    The small car segment is now the biggest       calendar year) were often frowned upon for
              is expected to get a cheaper lithium-ion                     among passenger cars.                            safety and comfort reasons and took just a
              battery system.                                                large family cars, while still popular         9.7 per cent share of passenger car market.
                 In 2006, lpG-powered vehicles leapt by                    with fleets and some private buyers, picked      Small cars sales attracted 135,581 and
              65 per cent to 13,698 (mainly to fleets) but                 up sales last year to 136,606, but the           grabbed a 27.6 per cent share.
              this source is invariably used in large cars.                segment’s market share has shrunk over             These days there is certainly no stigma
                 2007 is on track for a record of more                     the last decade and now sits at round            attached to owning and driving a small
              than one million new vehicle sales, all but                  14 per cent.                                     economy car.

                                                                                                                                             Suzuki sales are surging,
                                                                                                                                             mainly thanks to its cutely
                                                                                                                                             styled and economical
                                                                                                                                             Swift light car

                                     Toyota Prius
                                     4.4L / 100 Klms
                                                                                            Toyota Corolla
                                                                                            7.3L / 100 Klms
                                                                                                                               Toyota Camry
                                                                                                                               8.9L / 100 Klms
                                                                                                                                                        9282 8888
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                                                                                                                                                      NATIONAL TREE DAY
                                                                                                                                                                29 JULY 2007

Yellow stars indicate vehicle rating out of 5 for Greenhouse Emissions greenvehicleguide.com.au                           Due for a service? Call us now 9282 8800
                                                                                                                           5 Drive.com.au


      Fuel fighters
      Ethanol, petrol, LPG or diesel?
      Drive looks at the advantages and
      drawbacks of each type of fuel.
                                 PRO-PETROL                                                            ANTI-PETROL
        petrol’s main attraction is its extensive availability, which         oil is a dwindling resource and petrol produces more
        means refuelling is quicker. Making petrol engines                    greenhouse gases than diesel or liquified petroleum gas (lpG).
        more efficient can deliver immediate and wide-reaching                The price of petrol is likely to keep rising as reserves dry up.
        environmental benefits. BMW’s latest technology, direct-              It is not as efficient as diesel and it contains carcinogens such
        injection, 3.0-litre v6 produces fewer emissions and uses less        as benzene. Crude oil spills can have disastrous environmental
        fuel than the small, four-cylinder Mazda3. petrol produces            consequences, while petrol spills have been known to
        fewer nitrogen oxides and particulate matter than diesel.             contaminate ground water supplies.

                                  PRO-DIESEL                                                           ANTI-DIESEL
        Diesel engines are around 30 per cent more efficient than             The Australian Greenhouse office says diesel engines are a
        petrol, which means you will spend less on fuel. per-litre diesel     major source of particle matter emissions, which have been
        creates more Co2 emissions than petrol, but because you use           linked to cancer and respiratory disease. Diesel is a petroleum
        less diesel than petrol it contributes less to global warming.        product and has many of the same drawbacks as petrol. Diesel
        low sulfur diesel and modern particulate filters have made            fuel is often more expensive than petrol and diesel cars are
        diesel cleaner in recent years.                                       more expensive than their petrol equivalents.

                                PRO-ETHANOL                                                           ANTI-ETHANOL
        ethanol’s main attraction is its renewability. It is made from        Corn and grain are food sources, raising the ethical question
        corn and grain, which can be regrown, unlike oil. researchers         of using them for fuel while children are starving. ethanol
        at the university of California estimate that replacing petrol        production also creates its own greenhouse gas emissions;
        with ethanol will reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 13 per           farmers drive diesel tractors, and electricity is used in the
        cent. ethanol also produces up to 50 per cent fewer smog-             refining process. production also requires plenty of water
        forming emissions than petrol. The growing of crops has a             – another scarce resource. ethanol fuel contains less energy
        carbon offset effect, as the plants absorb carbon dioxide (Co2)       than petrol, which means you need more of it (about 20-30
        from the atmosphere while they grow.                                  per cent) to travel the same distance you would using petrol.

                                   PRO-LPG                                                               ANTI-LPG
        lpG vehicles emit between 10 and 15 per cent lower greenhouse         lpG is a less efficient fuel than petrol. An lpG Falcon uses
        gas emissions than petrol vehicles and create only 20 per cent        15.1l/100km, compared with 10.7l/100km for the petrol
        of petrol’s air toxic emissions. lpG is also cleaner than diesel,     version. lpG versions of the Toyota Aurion and holden
        emitting far fewer particulates. lpG is cheaper than both diesel      Commodore are $4400 and $3900 more expensive than their
        and petrol. The Government has incentives of up to $2000 to           petrol equivalents. lpG engines are generally not as responsive
        switch from petrol to gas. As a gas, lpG does not produce land        as petrol engines, while the tanks take up boot space.
        and water pollution. Australia has abundant resources of lpG.

                        PRO-HYBRID/ALTERNATIVES                                               ANTI-HYBRID/ALTERNATIVES
        hybrid petrol-electric engines are cleaner and more efficient         hybrids are much more expensive than petrol vehicles. It takes
        than diesel and petrol vehicles. In traffic, hybrids can run solely   a long time for the cheaper fuel to pay you back for your initial
        on electric power, reducing emissions dramatically. electric          outlay. Batteries are expensive to replace. electric vehicles
        vehicles can be recharged overnight and emit no emissions,            are also limited in their range and indirectly use fossil fuels
        while fuel-cell and hydrogen-powered vehicles emit only water         through the electricity grid. Fuel-cell and hydrogen vehicles
        from their tailpipes.                                                 can experience problems with cold starts.
                                                                                                                                6 Drive.com.au


      Call me RON
      An instant expert’s guide to the research
      octane number.

      research octane number, or ron, is
      loosely defined as a measure of how much
      power a fuel can deliver in an engine. The
      higher the ron, the more power a fuel can
         unleaded petrol generally comes in three
      ron ratings: 91 for basic unleaded, 95 for
      premium unleaded, and 98 for use in some
      high-performance engines. There is also a
      100 ron mix available.
         unleaded petrol contains about 32
      megajoules of energy per litre. one joule
      is the amount of energy it takes to lift a
      one-kilogram weight by 10 centimetres.
      As a rule of thumb, the lower the number
      of joules a fuel has, the more fuel a car’s
      engine has to burn to cover the same
      distance as a higher joule fuel.
         lpG is a blend of propane and butane
      gas. It has a ron of between 90-110, but
      has less stored energy than petrol, about
      22 MJ/l.
         pure ethanol has a ron of about 115 and
      produces about 19 MJ/l. An e10 mix of 10
      per cent ethanol and 90 per cent unleaded
      petrol has a ron of about 95 and produces
      about 23 MJ/l.

                                                    With petrol prices on the rise, it seems everyone’s talking about diesel today.
                                                    For BMW it’s a conversation that started some time ago. Of course, our
                                                    conversation began a little differently. In typical BMW fashion we asked the kind
                                                    of hard engineering question you would expect from a company with the German
                                                    word for engine, motoren, in its name. “How can we coax BMW performance out
                                                    of a technology historically known only for economy?” Our answer was to win the
                                                    Nürburgring 24-Hour Race with a diesel 3 Series using innovative Common Rail
                                                    injection technologies. And we did it 8 years ago. Today this technology, now in its
                                                    second generation, is found in the five different models in our range that end with
                                                    the letter d. Each one delivers unexpected power, reduced emissions, excellent
                                                    mileage and a driving experience that’s uniquely BMW. A diesel that drives like a
                                                    BMW? That’s the power of d.
                                                                                                                           7 Drive.com.au


               Energy (mostly coal-burning): 48%
               Other: 21.5%
               Agriculture: 18%
               Cars: 8%
               Trucks: 4.5%
               Source: Australian Greenhouse Office 2003 Emissions Report

      Pollution: The dirty 10
      Carbon dioxide is known as the greenhouse gas, but there are
      various other pollutants.
      1. Carbon monoxide: 5.6 million tonnes annually                         6. Nitrogen: 240,000 tonnes annually
      Most prevalent pollutant in Australia. It is an odourless, poisonous    produced most commonly by agriculture in the Murray-Darling
      gas that’s lethal in comparatively low concentrations. Motor vehicles   basin (48.4 per cent of total emissions).
      are the largest contributor (39.7 per cent) followed by fires (34%).
                                                                              7. Ammonia: 130,000 tonnes annually
      2. Volatile organics: 3.1 million tonnes annually                       usually produced by livestock, which account for 59.5 per cent
      A precursor to ozone, is mainly released by natural, or biogenic,       of the total.
      processes in the soil, which accounts for 75.2 per cent of national
      emission. Motor vehicles come a distant second, at 8.4 per cent.        8. Hydrochloric acid: 52,000 tonnes annually
                                                                              overwhelmingly (93.5 per cent) produced by electricity generation.
      3. Oxides of nitrogen: 1.4 million tonnes annually
      usually produced during electricity generation (35.3 per cent of the    9. Toluene: 34,000 tonnes annually
      total). Cars (25.5 per cent) are second.                                Is most often produced by motor vehicles (52.5 per cent). Solvents
                                                                              and aerosols are the second most common source, accounting for
      4. Sulphur dioxide: 1.4 million tonnes annually                         7.8 per cent of the total.
      Causes acid rain and is most commonly emitted by electricity
      generation (46 per cent) and non-ferrous metal manufacturing (27.8      10. Phosphorous: 30,000 tonnes annually
      per cent).                                                              Is mainly produced by water supply and sewage systems (30.5
                                                                              per cent) followed by cropping in the Murray-Darling basin (20.3
      5. Airborne particles: 1.1 million tonnes annually                      per cent).
      Metal ore mining produces 21.6 per cent of the total, then burning.

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                                                                                                                               8 Drive.com.au

ETHANOl                                                                                                        Swedish car maker Saab is pushing
                                                                                                               its BioPower vehicles that can run
                                                                                                               on 85 per cent ethanol (E85)

      Climate sweetener?
      Ethanol is produced from crops such as sugar cane and is claimed
      to be greenhouse neutral. So why isn’t it the perfect fuel?
      onCe ConSIDereD DAnGerouS To                       Brazilian drivers in dual-fuel ethanol           starches or sugars. In Australia the main
      engines, ethanol is now seen as something       and petrol cars can buy whatever is                 sources of ethanol production are wheat
      of an environmental saviour. But is this        cheapest on the day.                                and sugar cane.
      eco-friendly fuel the answer to the world’s        holden exports an e25 Commodore to                  Australian ethanol production for fuel
      environmental problems?                         Brazil, as the Chevrolet omega.                     use is heavily subsidised. An AusIndustry
         ethanol is produced from agricultural           Saab – another General Motors affiliate          scheme introduced in 2003 has paid
      crops such as sugar cane and corn, or forest    – now has an e85 version of its 9-5 (called         back the 38.143 cents a litre in excise
      residues. It is claimed to be greenhouse        the Biopower) in Sweden, where it is its            that ethanol – and petrol – producers are
      neutral – the carbon dioxide produced           biggest seller. It’s also available in Australia,   charged. The subsidy, which cuts out in
      when it’s burned as a fuel is balanced by       although finding the fuel is difficult.             2011, has handed more than $50 million
      the carbon dioxide it extracts from the            The Biopower uses 2.0- or 2.3-litre              back to ethanol producers since 2003. A
      atmosphere, using photosynthesis, in its        turbocharged engines, which can run on              litre of ethanol can be made for about 70
      original, growing state.                        e85, pure petrol, or any blend in between.          cents once the excise is reimbursed.
         prime Minister John howard’s $1.6               e85 has a higher octane number – 104                last financial year, about 40 megalitres
      billion energy plan includes grants of up       ron – than petrol so the engines produce            of fuel-grade ethanol was produced in
      to $20,000 to service stations to encourage     more power than their petrol counterparts.          Australia - enough to fill about 16
      them to upgrade their pumps to ethanol-         however, as with lpG, ethanol contains              olympic-sized swimming pools.
      blended fuel.                                   less energy by volume than petrol or
         Australians can buy e10 – unleaded with      diesel, so consumption increases by about           Can I use ethanol?
      a 10 per cent ethanol blend – which is safe     30 per cent.                                        Most post-1986 vehicles are able to run on
      to use in most cars built after 1986. Beyond       Any chance of an e85 Commodore in                up to e10-grade fuel without complications
      10 per cent, problems can occur with            holden’s future?                                      The Federal Chamber of Automotive
      corrosion of components in the fuel system.        “When the market is ready for it … we            Industries (see link at end of page) has an
      ethanol, being an alcohol, is hygroscopic (it   can certainly do it,” holden told Drive.            online list of vehicles, including motorbikes,
      absorbs water), which is what does                 Does Australia have enough arable land           that are able to use either e5- or e10-grade
      the damage.                                     to produce sufficient crops for ethanol and         fuel. europe limits ethanol use to e5 grade,
         Fuel systems are relatively easily           feed ourselves as well? That’s another story.       affecting some imported cars.
      modified to cope with higher percentages                                                              If you are unsure about using ethanol,
      of ethanol and some countries have              Why is ethanol cheaper?                             you should contact your vehicle’s
      embraced it. Brazil, for example, has now       ethanol in petrol in low concentrations is          manufacturer.
      mandated an e25 ethanol blend; e85 is           regarded more as a fuel extender than a
      also available, as is e100.                     fuel alternative. ethanol is made from grain        link: www.fcai.com.au
                                                                                                                              9 Drive.com.au


                                                                                     The Federal Government is offering
                                                                                     a $2000 grant to those who want to
                                                                                     have their car converted to LPG.

       LPG or not LPG?
       Liquified petroleum gas is cheaper than fuel and is in plentiful
       supply. But should you convert?
       Buy new
       Don’t get too excited about the Federal
       Government grant for switching to lpG.                     As a rule, larger vehicles make more sense for
       only about half of the top 20 new vehicles
       sold in Australia are listed as being lpG-                   lPG conversion because they use more fuel
       compatible.                                                     and have more space to fit the lPG tank.
          holden and Ford sell lpG versions of
       their respective Commodore and Falcon
       models, while aftermarket kits are available     while holden’s lpG system for the new               Some suppliers also give extended
       for the Mitsubishi 380, Ford Territory,          Commodore, which is installed off-line at        warranties on their systems.
       Toyota prado and landCruiser. Toyota             holden By Design, carries a $2000 rebate.           lpG Australia has a list of accredited
       stopped selling an lpG system on the               holden’s fuel-injection system is superior     suppliers on its website: http://www.
       Camry v6 and the Avalon at the end of last       to Ford’s older, less efficient, carburettor     lpgautogas.com.au.
       year and is not a fan of the fuel, although it   style system. But fleets prefer the Ford            parnell lp Gas Systems has announced
       still has an lpG option on the hiace van.        system because it is lpG-only, removing          a new gas injection system suitable for the
          no systems are available for popular          the temptation for fleet drivers to drive        conversion of holden Commodore vZ (both
       smaller cars such as Toyota’s Camry,             on petrol-only.                                  six-cylinder and v8), Toyota prado and
       Corolla and Yaris, Mazda3, hyundai                                                                hilux and Mitsubishi pajero, among
       Getz or honda Civic. one company has             Buy used                                         other models.
       developed an lpG option for the Mitsubishi       Thinking of upgrading your car to lpG?              other well-known aftermarket suppliers
       lancer. An older, carburettor-style system       here’s what you need to know.                    include Apollo, vialle (distributed through
       on a new car will cost you about $2300             As a rule, larger vehicles make more sense     Boral), Impco and SprintGas.
       to $2800, while more modern, vapour              for lpG conversion because they use more            The lpG Australia website has a list of
       injection systems are selling for between        fuel and the cost of conversion is smaller as    vehicles that are suitable for conversion to
       $3500 and $3750.                                 a percentage of the total cost of the car.       lpG, although it is by no means exhaustive.
          The Ford Falcon is the only car in              Smaller cars also can’t readily                   The site, also has a payback calculator
       Australia with a factory-fitted lpG option       accommodate the extra space needed for           that provides a rule of thumb guide to lpG
       and at the moment it costs no more than          lpG tanks.                                       cost savings versus petrol.
       a petrol system. The lpG system has a              About 80 per cent of all conversions              It also lets you find the nearest installer
       ticket price of $1400, but the Government’s      are large cars, four-wheel-drives and            by postcode and plan a trip with lpG
       $1000 rebate has been matched by a $400          commercial vehicles such as one-tonner           service stations along the way.
       discount by Ford dealers.                        utes. But there are also conversion kits for
          The Ford system is the cheapest available     older model Camrys and Avalons.
       because it is a single fuel system and doesn't     phil Westlake, lpG Australia’s industry
       have a petrol tank or duplicated fuel lines.     development manager, says it pays to shop          Drive.com.au
          But Ford has been handed the thin end         around.
       of the wedge in the Government’s rebate            “Don’t accept the first quote and, like         Fuel for thought
       program. Because it is factory-fitted, the       most things, the cheapest system isn’t            LPG: should you convert?
       Ford system only attracts a $1000 rebate,        always the best,” he says.                        Who can use ethanol?
                                                                                                                          10 Drive.com.au


          Economy drive
          Don’t let rising fuel prices get you down. The Drive team reveals
          10 ways to stop your car costing the earth.

        CurrenTlY, The BeST WAY To reDuCe              222g/km by 2010 and is ahead of this           motorists can help, without necessarily
        the impact of cars on the environment          target.                                        selling the family sedan. here are 10 ways
        will be to get the most out of the internal      The strong growth in car sales in recent     to make your current car more efficient.
        combustion engine. The car-buying public       years means that, despite lower emissions
        is already making its own contribution.        on a per-car basis, cars are contributing      1. DON’T DrIVe AS muCH
           petrol price hikes have created a huge      more to global warming than they did a         It’s not rocket science but cutting out short
        shift in buying patterns, with consumers       decade ago because, quite simply, there        journeys in the car can help the planet,
        shunning larger cars in favour of more         are more of them.                              your wallet and your health.
        economical alternatives which, not               Figures from the 2004 national                  research in Britain has found that a
        coincidentally, emit fewer greenhouse gases.   Greenhouse Gas Inventory show that             quarter of all car journeys are less than
           This trend already has created a            emissions from cars have grown by 18           three kilometres. Cycling or walking to
        reduction in greenhouse gas emissions per      per cent since 1990. Yet passenger cars        the shops can make a big difference in
        car. The Federal Chamber of Automotive         make up just 7 per cent of Australia’s total   the amount of carbon dioxide you are
        Industries says the average carbon dioxide     greenhouse gas emissions.                      responsible for putting into the atmosphere.
        output from motor vehicles has fallen from     Cows and sheep make up 11.5 per cent              Short journeys have more impact on the
        250 grams a kilometre in 2002 to 230.5         and burning coal to create electricity         environment for each kilometre because
        grams last year.                               accounts for almost 50 per cent.               fuel consumption and emissions are higher
           The industry has a voluntary target of        The good news is there are ways that         during a car’s warm-up period. Your car
                                                                                                                                11 Drive.com.au


        also pollutes more in the warm-up period          back on the throttle once the car has gained     drive off as soon as the car is started you’ll
        because its catalytic converter, which            enough initial speed.                            save fuel and lower your car’s emissions.
        reduces nitrogen oxide and particulate               If you race to every intersection and         If you have passengers, don’t start the car
        matter emissions, doesn’t work effectively        plant your foot on the brake at the last         until they are all inside.
        until it heats up.                                minute, you will use more fuel than if you          The same applies to heavy traffic. Idling
                                                          look ahead and try to anticipate the flow        in gear at traffic lights can use more fuel
        2. DITCH THe SeCOND CAr                           of traffic. The more you maintain your           than driving normally, so if you’re in a
        If you drive less than 10,000km a year,           momentum, the less you have to use the           traffic jam, switch the car off when possible.
        sharing could be a suitable alternative to        accelerator. It’s the shifting of a large mass
        owning a second car. It may even be better        from idle that uses the most petrol.             6. TrAVel lIgHT
        financially to simply catch a cab or public          on the open road, knocking 10km/h off         extra weight means more fuel
        transport for longer commutes.                    your top speed can significantly reduce fuel     consumption. The Green vehicle Guide
        The cost of fares would be less than the          consumption, because your car is pushing         calculates an extra 50kg can reduce fuel
        running cost of a car. About 120,000              less air out of the way.                         efficiency by 2 per cent.
        people already car-share in europe and               Don’t bother with “angel-gearing”                Don’t carry anything heavy in the car for
        the united States.                                (putting the car in neutral down hills) or       longer than you need to. At the end of each
           In Sydney, GoGet has more than 40              turning the engine off. The latter can be        trip, clear out any golf clubs, tool boxes or
        outlets, mainly in the inner west and             dangerous as modern braking and steering         bicycles. Always remove roof racks, bicycle
        eastern suburbs. once you’ve signed up and        systems are power assisted.                      racks and roof storage boxes when they’re
        been given a key, you can book a car from                                                          not being used and don’t tow a trailer
        a pool of vehicles either over the phone or       4. WIND DOWN THe WINDOW                          unless you have to – they add to weight
        online.                                           There’s some debate about whether it is          and aerodynamic drag and mean higher
           The cars can be booked for as little as        more fuel-efficient to have the windows          fuel bills.
        an hour and are parked in reserved spots          wound down or the air-conditioner on to
        in council car parks. Monthly membership          keep cool.                                       7. AVOID PeAk HOur
        varies from $15 to $30, depending on                It is generally accepted that air-             Driving in peak hour can have a disastrous
        which plan you choose. The casual rate is         conditioning increases fuel consumption by       effect on your car’s fuel consumption.
        $6.60 an hour, while frequent users pay           up to 10 per cent – but winding down the            Drive recently drove a family sedan along
        $4.40 an hour.                                    windows increases drag, which is also an         the same route in and out of peak hour and
                                                          enemy of good fuel consumption.                  the results were astonishing. In peak hour
        3. CHANge yOur DrIVINg STyle                        Some experts say driving with the              we used 4 litres/100km more and the 10km
        The way you drive has a huge effect on fuel       windows down on the highway can                  route took 12 minutes longer.
        consumption. If you race from every set of        increase consumption by as much as 20 per           If it is practical, working from home once
        traffic lights, you will use significantly more   cent.                                            or twice a week can reduce emissions. If
        petrol.                                             The Government’s Green vehicle Guide           you’re not at work, try to avoid driving
           If you drive a manual, changing gears at       says air-conditioning is a better option at      in peak hours if possible. If you’re going
        the right time will improve your mileage.         speeds above 80km/h; other experts say           somewhere unfamiliar, plan the route
        As a general rule, experts recommend              50km/h.                                          beforehand.
        changing up at about 2500rpm for a petrol-
        engined car and 2000rpm for a diesel.             5. DON’T IDle                                    8. mAINTAIN yOur CAr
           With an automatic transmission, shifts         Modern cars don’t need to be left idling         A regularly serviced car will emit fewer
        will be smoother and quicker if you ease          when you start them in the morning. If you       greenhouse gases and pollutants. have
                                                                                                    1 Drive.com.au


                                                                                your oil changed regularly and make sure
                                                                                there’s plenty of water in the radiator.
          TOP TIPS: DrIvIng yOur DOllar furTher                                 oil and filters should also be replaced at
                                                                                regular intervals.
                                                                                   If an engine runs outside its normal
          High petrol prices shouldn’t be the only motivation for Australians   temperature range it will be less efficient
          to strive to drive economically. The well-being of Mother Earth,      and pollute more.
          and the reality that supply of fossil fuels is running low, should       Tyre pressures are another, often
          encourage motorists to go easy on the right foot. Here are some       overlooked, cause of excess fuel
                                                                                consumption. If your tyres are under-
          tips for reducing your fuel useage:                                   inflated they create more rolling resistance
                                                                                (friction with the road surface) and your
          • If your car is less than 20 years old, don’t bother                 car uses more fuel.
                                                                                   If you’re carrying additional passengers
            warming it up                                                       or extra weight, it’s a good idea to stop
                                                                                pump the tyres up a little. Your car’s service
          • Use the throttle smoothly when accelerating; depress                manual will have recommended pressures
            the pedal lightly and slowly                                        for heavier loads. on top of that, most tyres
                                                                                can run marginally above manufacturer’s
          • Select high gears and low revs when ever possible                      under-inflated tyres, as well as those out
                                                                                of alignment, also wear more quickly, which
          • Look ahead to maintain momentum where possible                      means you are consuming more rubber and
                                                                                adding to pollution.
          • Switch your engine off if caught in a traffic jam or                9. NOTe fuel CONSumPTION
            roadworks                                                           A lot of modern cars have average fuel
                                                                                consumption read-outs in their trip
                                                                                computers. If yours doesn’t, you can still
          • At slower speeds consider winding the window down                   work out your fuel consumption manually
            instead of using the air-conditioning                               (see page 22).
                                                                                   Do this for a month and you will begin
          • Consider travelling slightly slower on freeways to reduce           to take more notice of your driving style.
                                                                                Filling up with premium unleaded petrol
            wind drag                                                           and low viscosity (thickness) oils can
                                                                                produce fuel consumption savings in some
          • Remove unnecessary weight from your car, like golf clubs or         instances.
            toolkits and remove roof racks when not in use                      10. uSe All THe SeATS
                                                                                A third row seat is a bit like a four-wheel
          • Avoid using your car for short trips and avoid peak hour where      drive system. Most people say they want it
            practical                                                           but very few use it, which means it ends up
                                                                                being dead weight.
                                                                                  Car company research shows that more
          • Ensure your vehicle is serviced and properly maintained,            than 60 per cent of people who own seven
            especially the tyre pressures; check your car’s tyre pressures      seaters never use the third row. less than
            regularly and ensure they’re towards the upper end of the           10 per cent say they use them often. But
                                                                                a seven seater 4WD can be a fuel-efficient
            manufacturer’s recommendation                                       way of transporting people if all the
                                                                                available seats are taken.
                                                                                                                                                13 Drive.com.au


                                                                                                                                                Lexus's GS450h petrol-
                                                                                                                                                electric sedan proves
                                                                                                                                                that 'green' cars don't
                                                                                                                                                have to be boring

       Choosing a ‘green’ car
       The environment and fuel consumption now rate as leading
       factors when people look to buy their next car.
       CAr MAkerS Are ACuTelY AWAre oF                                      per litre, for example, diesel produces         has listed the most environmentally
       the push towards environmentally-friendly                          more carbon dioxide when burnt than               efficient vehicles in various vehicle
       vehicles, especially as the environment                            petrol. (Carbon dioxide is regarded as            categories.
       continues to make front-page news. So                              the main greenhouse gas, the one that’s              We also realise that environmental
       it’s no surprise motorists are rating fuel                         causing global warming and the one that’s         friendliness is not the only factor when
       efficiency and the environment as leading                          had so much media attention lately.)              considering a new vehicle. So we’ve
       considerations when shopping for a car.                              But diesel vehicles typically use around        compiled some of our multi-car road tests
          like the energy-efficiency ratings on                           30 per cent less fuel than a similarly-sized      themed with environmental efficiency.
       fridges and washing machines, all new                              petrol car, so overall you’ll generally be           GvG lists here. With links to road tests
       cars must have a fuel consumption label                            producing less carbon dioxide.                       According to the Government’s Green
       on the windscreen in the dealership. If the                          Diesels aren’t, however, the golden bullet      vehicle Guide, only eight new cars sold
       environment is on your agenda, this should                         for green motoring. There’s a lot more            in Australia achieve a maximum five-star
       be high on your list when looking for a fuel                       to the diesel story than carbon dioxide.          rating. of the top 50 ‘greenest’ vehicles,
       efficient vehicle. While there’s much debate                       Diesels still emit more potentially deadly        none are diesel and the top of the charts
       about the accuracy of these claims in real-                        carcinogens than petrol vehicles                  is dominated by small, front-wheel-drive
       world driving, the ratings at least provide a                        To read more, see Drive’s report on The         machines.
       comparative rating against other vehicles.                         Truth About Diesels and the associated               only Jeep’s Compass bucks the trend,
          As a general rule, the smaller the car, the                     story about Petrol versus Diesel.                 making a surprise appearance in the top
       more fuel efficient it will be. That’s because                       other factors also come into play, such as      40 as the Guide’s most environmentally-
       it’s carrying around less weight, which                            what emissions regulations it meets.              friendly four-wheel-drive. What the
       requires more fuel to move it every time                             To get a clearer picture of your car’s          Compass lacks in fuel efficiency it makes
       you accelerate.                                                    environmental friendliness, check the             up for by meeting the latest emissions
          When searching for a ‘green’ vehicle,                           Government’s Green vehicle Guide website,         standards. (Click here to learn how
       though, you’ll need to look further than just                      www.greenvehicleguide.com.au.                     the Green vehicle Guide rankings are
       the fuel rating.                                                     To save you some of the legwork, Drive          calculated).


                  Vehicle                                                         GVG rating        Engine               Fuel type         Fuel consumption

                  Toyota Prius                                                    5                 1.5L, 4cyl hybrid    ULP               4.4L/100km
                  Fiat Punto 1.4 (six-speed manual)                               5                 1.4L, 4cyl           PULP              5.7L/100km
                  Fiat Punto 3/5-door 1.4 (5spd man.)                             5                 1.4L, 4cyl           PULP              5.9L/100km
                  Peugeot 207CC GT                                                5                 1.6L, 4cyl           PULP              5.8L/100km
                  Citroen C3 NFU                                                  5                 1.6L, 4cyl           PULP              6.2L/100km
                  Mercedes-Benz A150                                              5                 1.5L, 4cyl           PULP              6.7L/100km
                  Holden Astra CD/CDX manual                                      4.5               1.8L, 4cyl           ULP               7.4L/100km
                  Honda Civic VTi manual                                          4.5               1.8L, 4cyl           ULP               6.9L/100km
                  Honda Civic VTi automatic                                       4.5               1.8L, 4cyl           ULP               7.2L/100km
                  Mercedes-Benz A200                                              4.5               2.0L, 4cyl           PULP              7.4L/100km

       * List compiled in June 2007. Green Vehicle Guide is updated constantly.
                                                                  14 Drive.com.au


      Best ‘green’ cars
      Drive conducts more back-to-back, multi-car comparisons than any other
      media outlet in Australia; it’s the best way to distinguish between new
      vehicles. On the following pages is a selection of those comparisons that
      focus on more environmentally-friendly vehicles – of all sizes.

      Crude oil heading towards $uS100 a
      barrel? Bring it on. While oil industry
      observers guess where Australian fuel prices
      could end up, at least two car makers are
      unfazed by the doom and gloom forecasts.
      Toyota and honda, the makers of the only
      two affordable petrol-electric economy cars
      sold locally, are selling their hybrid vehicles
      faster than they can import them.
         Toyota’s prius has been the biggest-
      selling hybrid in Australia - and the world
      - for the past three years. The waiting list
      here is now down to about four months.
      Demand for the prius is so strong that low-
      kilometre ex-government examples are
      fetching close to new-car prices.
         Coincidentally, $32,000 is the price
      of the newest petrol-electric car on the
      market, the honda Civic hybrid. having
      made a disappointing debut with the
      previous Civic hybrid, honda has high
      hopes for the new model. It has returned to
      the segment with a bigger car and a more
      advanced hybrid system.
         The philosophies of the prius and the
      Civic hybrid are similar but the two cars
      are different in the way they go about their
      environmentally friendly business.
         Both have small petrol engines
      complemented by an electric motor, which
      is recharged as the brakes are applied. But
      after driving these two cars back-to-back in
      this Australian exclusive first test, we were
      surprised just how different they are.
         read the full story.
                                                                                                                       15 Drive.com.au


      These are the new darlings of the             have up to $2000 of extra value compared       threatening injury. The Barina hatch was
      Australian car market: they’re small and      with last year; others are less attractive     subsequently crash tested by the Australian
      beautiful, but when you add on the $40        propositions.                                  nCAp organisation and scored only two
      or $50 cost of filling the tank they become     one car we drove but didn’t rate is          stars out of five.
      drop-dead gorgeous, which might explain       the holden Barina, which is a rebadged           The Barina is the only new car in
      why sales are booming.                        Daewoo kalos that holden imports from          Australia with such a poor nCAp rating.
         Small cars are the most cost-conscious     korea. Since our previous comparison, the      Despite respectable sales (thanks to
      sector of the market, so the players are      Barina sedan - a left-hand-drive model sold    an attractive starting price) we won’t
      always tweaking prices and equipment          in europe as the Chevrolet Aveo - scored       recommend it at any price. Most of these
      lists to maintain a competitive edge. We      two stars out of five in euro nCAp crash       cars we’re more confident about.
      dissected the class last october, but much    tests. one star carried a strike-through,
      has changed since then. Some models now       which indicates a significant risk of life-    read Drive's light-car comparison tests.

         Lexus's GS450h petrol-
         electric sedan proves
         that 'green' cars don't
         have to be boring

      After years as the ugly duckling of           cars still outnumber diesels by more than      cars, offsetting the higher purchase price.
      automotive fuels, diesel is now fashionable   30 to one but sales of diesel passenger cars     To see what the fuss is about, Drive took
      in Australia. For years it was the working    almost doubled last year.                      four small european diesel hatches for a
      man’s fuel, pumped into semi-trailers,          Turbo-diesels typically produce more low-    country drive. We pitted the top-selling
      workhorse utes and heavy duty four-wheel-     end torque than their petrol counterparts,     volkswagen polo diesel against oil-burning
      drives at a segregated bowser away from       which means they are generally zippier         versions of the all-new peugeot 207, the
      polite society in the service station.        off the mark and can cope better with          Fiat punto and the Citroen C4, which has
        recently, prestige european brands have     hills. They also emit fewer greenhouse         just received an all-new automated manual
      rushed to import a range of small hatches,    gases than petrol but more particle matter     gearbox.
      sedans and luxury sedans powered by           pollution and there is growing evidence
      diesel. Sales of petrol-powered passenger     that diesels are fetching a premium as used    See how these cars compare.
                                                                             16 Drive.com.au

COMPARISONS                                               SMALL CARS
                                                         It wasn’t always so but Australians now
                                                         buy more small cars than any other vehicle
                                                         type. over the past 10 years we’ve turned
                                                         away from “big cars for a big country” and
                                                         embraced hatchbacks and compact sedans
                                                         for the daily grind in increasingly congested
                                                            Between 1996 and 2006, sales of
                                                         hatchbacks and compact sedans increased
                                                         by 56 per cent, according to figures from
                                                         the Federal Chamber of Automotive
                                                            For small cars, the growth spurt is
                                                            The Toyota Corolla has been around for
                                                         40 years and for more than a decade has
                                                         been the small-car sales leader. With the
                                                         new, 10th-generation model now arriving
                                                         in dealerships we gathered the Corolla’s
                                                         likely rivals in their most popular and most
                                                         affordable guises (base model automatics)
                                                         to see how they compare.

                                                         read Drive's small-car comparison tests.

      Sales of diesel-powered passenger cars
      continue to grow as more families are
      forced to consider the price of petrol. until
      recently diesel engines were usually found
      in big 4WDs or more expensive luxury cars.
         That all changed when volkswagen
      released a diesel version of the latest
      generation Golf. Sales of the new-look
      diesel Golf took off. It accounts for almost
      30 per cent of all Golf sales.
         Since its release, and subsequent
      popularity, new diesel models have been
      popping up everywhere. There are now
      more than 10 diesel hatchbacks under
      $50,000 on sale in Australia and recently
      holden released its Astra diesel.
         This test is essentially about what is
      under the bonnet. We wanted to find out
      how these cars stack up against their petrol
      equivalents. Yet, as with all tests, the fit and
      finish, ergonomics and general value for
      money had a part to play as well.

      See how these cars compare.

                                                          MEDIuM CARS, PART 1
                                                         Start shopping for a medium-sized sedan
                                                         and you’ll soon realise there aren’t enough
                                                         weekends in the year to do thorough
                                                         research. The market is overflowing with
                                                         options, with everything from a hyundai
                                                         to a baby BMW amid a smorgasbord of
                                                         offerings below $50,000.
                                                           priced between $32,990 and $39,990,
                                                         the volkswagen Jetta (essentially a
                                                         Golf with a boot) competes against the
                                                         established mid-sized sedans from honda,
                                                         Subaru and Mazda. Drive decided it was
                                                         time to get reacquainted with the lot.
                                                           In each case we’ve tested the flagship
                                                         model, keeping prices as close to $40,000
                                                         as possible.

                                                         See how these cars compare.
                                                                                                                             17 Drive.com.au

COMPARISONS                                                                         MEDIuM CARS, PART 2
                                                                                  As their name suggests, medium cars tend to be middle-of-the-
                                                                                  road when it comes to excitement. They’re the cars we have to
                                                                                  have, instead of the ones we lust after.
                                                                                     But there is obviously some appeal. Sales of mid-sized cars have
                                                                                  increased 81 per cent in the past six years and sales of large cars
                                                                                  have decreased 46 per cent in the same period.
                                                                                     The rising price of petrol isn’t the only reason for the change
                                                                                  in buyer preferences (most mid-sized sedans have four-cylinder
                                                                                  power). They are affordable, well-equipped and relatively roomy.
                                                                                     The market has been buoyed by a raft of new models such as
                                                                                  the Mazda6, honda Accord euro, and the Toyota Camry, which
                                                                                  has been the biggest seller in its class for the last 13 years.
                                                                                     With that in mind it’s big news when a new player arrives on
                                                                                  the medium-car scene – especially when that player is holden.
                                                                                  holden has been weak in medium-car sales; its european-built
                                                                                  vectra was generally well regarded but it was overpriced and
                                                                                  buyers stayed away in droves.
                                                                                     holden’s answer to this dilemma is the korean-built epica. But
                                                                                  is it good enough to challenge the longstanding players and its
                                                                                  korean peers, hyundai and kia? To find out, we gathered the
                                                                                  $30,000-something mid-sized sedans - the cheap seats in the
                                                                                  medium-car class - and put the epica to the test.

                                                                                  See how these cars compare.

      What better way to test the mettle of five prestige sedans, with a
      combined valued of more than $500,000, than an overnight trip from
      Sydney to Bourke and back?
         The drought-stricken town is roughly 700km north-west of Sydney
      as the crow flies, so there and back again in two days is a sizeable
      undertaking. And that’s before we take long and winding roads less
      travelled - for reasons of photography. All up, we covered nearly
      2000km in each car in two very long days.
         This trip was always meant to be more than a five-car comparison set
      against a harsh country. It was also meant to test the perceived benefits
      of diesels versus petrol-electric hybrids as economical alternatives to
         Is more economical diesel a passenger fuel force to be reckoned
      with, or a european staple Australia does not want? Diesel is 30 per
      cent more efficient than petrol and new models land every week yet
      diesels account for barely one in 50 passenger car sales locally.
         And what happens when we add a healthy dose of luxury to the
      pot? Are Australians with $100,000 to spend on a prestige car really
      concerned about fuel economy? Some say no but the car companies
      think so, judging by the burgeoning number of prestige diesels hitting
      our roads.

      read Drive's comparison test.

                                                                                   SMALL 4WDs
                                                                                  one of the great ironies of modern motoring is that most people
                                                                                  who buy off-road vehicles spend 99 per cent of their time on the
                                                                                    Manufacturers sell vehicles on the dream of the great outdoors
                                                                                  adventure, all the while knowing that the reality is the peak-
                                                                                  hour crawl. For years people have bought it, handing over large
                                                                                  amounts of cash for technology they don’t need.
                                                                                    But buyer tastes are coming full circle. After jumping out of cars
                                                                                  and station wagons into 4WDs during the late ‘90s, Australian
                                                                                  motorists increasingly want their 4WDs to behave more like the
                                                                                  cars they abandoned.
                                                                                    new-generation soft-roaders are more about space, versatility,
                                                                                  driving position and road handling than ground clearance and
                                                                                  differential locks. They are giving people more of what they want
                                                                                  and less of what they don’t need. And they seem to have hit the
                                                                                  mark with buyers.
                                                                                    For this test, we’ve chosen a batch of family-friendly soft-
                                                                                  readers, each with a price tag close to $40,000.

                                                                                  See how these cars compare.
                                                                                                                          18 Drive.com.au


       Carbon calculators
       What impact is your vehicle having on the environment? You can
       find out by doing some fairly simple mathematics.
       WorkInG ouT hoW Green Your CAr                   For example, a Toyota Corolla automatic        lPg-POWereD VeHICleS
       is a complex calculation.                      hatch using an average 7.7l/100km                lpG is a relatively cheap fuel and one that
          But a good way to work out what impact      would consume 1540 litre of unleaded             doesn’t emit much carbon dioxide per
       your vehicle is having on global warming       over 20,000km of driving. Therefore, that        litre burnt. It’s also pretty clean; the lpG
       is to calculate how much carbon dioxide it     Corolla would emit 3542 tonnes of carbon         industry claims it produces around one-
       emits.                                         dioxide into the atmosphere.                     fifth of the toxic emissions of petrol.
          Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse                                                           The downside is that lpG-powered
       gas, the one that is responsible for global    DIeSel VeHICleS                                  vehicles typically consume around 40
       warming. And, while cars are by no means       For every one litre of diesel burnt 2.7 litres   per cent more fuel than a similar petrol-
       the primary producers of carbon dioxide        of Co2 is emitted. however, because diesel-      powered vehicle.
       (that mantle goes to electricity stations,     powered vehicles can use around 30 per              For every one litre of lpG consumed,
       industry and other outlets), they’re still     cent less fuel than a petrol vehicle, a diesel   1.5 litres of carbon dioxide is emitted.
       a contributor.                                 will produce less greenhouse-producing              To work out how much Co2 your lpG-
          To work out how much carbon dioxide         gases.                                           powered vehicle is producing:
       your car emits, you need to know how             remember, though, diesel-powered                  (Number of litres used) x 1.5
       much fuel you’re using.                        vehicles emit more of the harmful gases             For example, a Ford Falcon e-Gas
          Then it’s a simple calculation. Choose      (including carcinogens). To learn more,          (running on lpG) using an average
       your poison and follow the guide below.        see Drive’s detailed report highlighting The     15.1l/100km would consume 3020 litres of
                                                      Truth About Diesel.                              lpG over 20,000km of driving. Therefore,
       PeTrOl VeHICleS                                  To work out how much Co2 your diesel-          that Falcon would emit 4530 tonnes of
       For every one litre of petrol burnt 2.3        powered vehicle is producing:                    carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
       kilograms of Co2 are emitted into the            (Number of litres used) x 2.7                     That’s more than the examples above,
       atmosphere. petrol is, however, a relatively     For example, a volkswagen Golf                 but the Falcon is also a much larger, more
       clean form of fuel compared with diesel,       1.9 diesel automatic using an average            powerful vehicle. To put it in perspective,
       emitting less in the way of noxious gases.     5.8l/100km would consume 1160 litres of          a regular, petrol-powered Falcon
          To work out how much Co2 your petrol-       diesel over 20,000km of driving. Therefore,      would consume 2180 litre of unleaded
       powered vehicle is producing:                  that Golf would emit 3132 tonnes of carbon       (10.9l/1000km) and emit 5014 tonnes
          (Number of litres used) x 2.3               dioxide into the atmosphere.                     of carbon dioxide over the same distance.
                                                                                                                          19 Drive.com.au


       pollution from motor vehicles is a lot more     emissions standards on July 1, 2008.            consumption rating is provided. Typically
       than just carbon dioxide. There are many           however, many new petrol vehicles            these figures are conservative – that is,
       other gases – such as carbon monoxide,          already meet the euro Iv standards. So if       you’ll probably use more than the figures
       hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide - that are      you want a choose an even cleaner car, go       claim in real-world driving.
       harmful to humans and our environment.          for one that meets the more stringent euro        So, as a general rule, take more notice
          As a general rule, the newer a vehicle,      Iv emissions standards, further reducing        of the “city” figure rather than the
       the cleaner it will be – and not just by        the noxious gases you’re belching into the      “highway” one.
       a little bit. That’s because emissions          environment.                                      For cars built from 2004 onwards,
       regulations have been getting stricter          looking to upgrade your car? Check              use the Government’s Green vehicle
       over the years; to see just how far our         below to see how much fuel your car is          Guide database to compare claimed fuel
       emissions standards have come, have a           likely to use.                                  consumption ratings. The GvG database
       look at the Government’s table outlining                                                        also gives a more detailed account of a
       the regulations since 1972. (http://www.        uSeD CArS                                       vehicle’s environmental friendliness.
       dotars.gov.au/roads/environment/impact/         If you’re looking at buying a second-hand
       emission.aspx)                                  car built between 1986 and 2003 you can         NeW CArS
          The latest emissions regulations for light   check the Government database to see its        To get an idea of how much fuel a new
       diesel vehicles is the euro Iv standard,        claimed fuel useage. The more fuel a car        car will use and its environmental impact,
       which came into play in 2006. petrol-           uses, the more carbon dioxide it will emits.    go to the Government’s Green vehicle
       engined vehicles will have to meet euro Iv         For most cars, a “city” and “highway” fuel   Guide database.
                                                                                                                         0 Drive.com.au


      Saddlin’ up
      Scooters can provide fuel-efficient transport for the city while you keep
      your car in the garage. Drive tests a group of the best two-wheelers.
      ApArT FroM BeInG CheekIlY TrenDY                with no deposit, repayments would range         enough to hold its own on the motorways,
      again these days, fuel-thrifty motor scooters   between $35-$40 a week.                         and says four-stroke engines are the go
      are also popular with city commuters              This is not far removed from the price        because they’re not as smelly. Gardner also
      dismayed by soaring fuel prices.                of a weekly train or bus ticket. And with       suggests buying a machine with big wheels
        The cost of public transport, and ever-       public transport, there’s nothing left at the   “so it doesn’t fall in the potholes”.
      present traffic snarls, are also helping        end to show for it.                               naturally, scooters are not the
      scooter sales.                                    Then there are the associated lower           complete solution to road transport and
        In some states – South Australia,             running costs, which flows right through        environmental issues.
      northern Territory, West Australia and          to insurance, parking and servicing.              Yes, they’re easier to park, but they’re
      Queensland - you can ride 50cc scooters on        Surprisingly perhaps, Wayne Gardner,          also not much fun on a cold, wet day.
      car licences, but all machines in the class     the 1987 world motorcycle champion, is            Still, if you need a large family car, a
      are speed limited to 50km/h.                    a scooter fan. “If I were a regular Sydney      scooter can make a good addition for
        using as an example the purchase of a         commuter, I’d ride a 250cc scooter all the      those shorter, solo trips.
      new vespa lX125 ($6690 including $700           time. They’re nimble and comfortable and          Drive tested some popular scooters
      on-road costs comprising rego, stamp duty,      you’re shielded from the wind.”                 on the road to find out which is the best
      plate fee and dealer delivery) on finance,        he recommends a 250cc which is fast           two-wheeler for the city.
                                                                                                         1 Drive.com.au


       HYOSuNG SF50R RALLY – $2490*
      Taiwan-based hyosung is a relative newcomer to the
      Australian market. now attempting to reinvent itself
      as a performance bike badge, its roots are in motor
      scooters. The SF50r rally’s mix of red, black and grey
      body work give it a hotchpotch look.
      Switchgear inside the grips includes high and low-
      beam lights, indicators with audible signal and cancel
      button, emergency indicators and an engine cut-off.
      oddly, it also has a passing light to flash the high-
      beam. There’s no fuel gauge, only a fuel warning light.
      The awkward analog speedo and warning light cluster
      sit in front of the handlebars. on the road, the rally
      performed quite well, with good acceleration and a
      firm ride. The lack of a top box is disappointing, but
      under-seat space is enough to take a full-face helmet.
      Self-retracting side-stands like that fitted to the rally
      are convenient, but it only takes one bump to bring
      the bike crashing down.

       PEuGEOT LuDIX SNAKE – $2990*
                                                                     By far the coolest-looking bike on the block. At 80kg,
                                                                     the peugeot is the lightest of the bikes tested, but for
                                                                     that you sacrifice just about all useful luggage space.
                                                                     The tall, thin stance makes the ludix look aggressive
                                                                     and the performance squeezed from the tiny engine
                                                                     capacity makes a good effort at supporting the looks.
                                                                     The big tyres and large suspension travel easily soak
                                                                     up the worst bumps. But the fight against weight has
                                                                     another victim; there’s no side-stand, only the centre
                                                                     stand. A good grab rail to help pull it onto the stand
                                                                     is a poor compromise. The luggage hook under the
                                                                     handlebars is good, but the high ridge in the centre
                                                                     of the floor means the shopping will hang on one
                                                                     side or the other. The front light is a small but bright
                                                                     projector lamp. The speedometer and indicator lights
                                                                     are mounted on the front of the bike and you have
                                                                     to peer over the handlebars to see them. Switchgear
                                                                     includes indicators with cancel button and - a horn.
                                                                     That’s it. The ludix has a traditional petcock over a
                                                                     low-fuel warning light.

       PIAGGIO ZIP 50 – $1990*
      The Italian-made Zip 50 was in the top three in terms
      of weight, tipping our pre-test scales at 95kg. Its
      styling suggests it is something akin to a cut-down
      vespa. There’s fewer gauges, less switch gear, only
      average pulling power and a very good, comfortable
      ride. There’s a running light on each side of the main
      headlight, which has both high and low beam. The
      indicators are good, but set low on the front and
      controlled by a hard-to-reach switch with a cancel
      button. Finding the Zip 50’s hidden ignition slot is
      tricky, but once there a gentle push of the key opens the
      good-sized but fussy glove box. This bike has the best-
      looking - and functional - shopping-bag hook, a sort of
      split circle that swings out of the front firewall.
      on the well-located instrument cluster, a low-fuel
      warning light replaces a fuel gauge. Filling up is a
      risky affair; the filler pipe is right beside the under-seat
      storage space. one splash and it’s all over the contents
      of the space under the seat.


       SYM Mio 50 – $2790*                                                         TGB 101S – $1990*
      The korean-made Mio 50 (right, top)                                        like the hyosung, the TGB (left, bottom)
      wraps a good overall package in a retro                                    – its name is derived from the company
      look. At 90kg, it’s not impressively powered                               that makes the bike, Taiwan Golden Bee
      and the bike tips into corners willingly,                                  – deviates from the traditional road-bike
      but it has a few nice touches including a                                  look. The sticker on the side of the 90kg
      colour-matched top box (with a separate                                    bike describes it as an off-road adventurer,
      key) and a clever little cover that closes off                             but it’s certainly competent on the road.
      the ignition system. Switch gear includes                                  The suspension provides a good, firm
      low and high beam, engine cut-off and                                      ride while the brakes are below par, but
      an audible indicator, which makes up for                                   overall its performance was up with the
      the lack of an indicator cancel button. The                                best of them. The twin front headlights are
      rear-mounted fuel filler cap is operated by                                complemented by twin rear brake lights,
      turning the ignition switch anti-clockwise,                                and indicator lamps are mounted high.
      an d several laps on our test route were                                   There’s no shopping-bag hook in front of
      made with an open fuel cap after the                                       the rider, but there is a top box that uses a
      ignition was turned too far. Filling the                                   separate key. Switch gear includes indicator
      bike with fuel is awkward due to the large                                 with cancel button and audible signal, high
      overhang of the top box. other rider aids                                  and low beam and engine cut-off, and on
      include a shopping-bag hook, fuel gauge                                    the dash there’s a fuel gauge. under the
      and a headlight and running light on the                                   seat there’s room for a full-faced helmet.
      front. under the seat is roomy and can take                                The one drawback is the fuel filler cap. To
      a full-faced helmet, and the top box has                                   access it, you first have to unlock and lift
      room for a half-face helmet. There’s also a                                the seat, and then unlock the fuel cap
      small under-seat storage shelf.                                            cover at the back of the seat.

       VESPA LX50 – $3890*

                                                                   Wow, look at that price! And for it, at 100kg, you also
                                                                   get the heaviest bike of this lot. The retro styling of
                                                                   the Italian-made vespa harkens back to the scooter
                                                                   maker’s roots and still provides a functional vehicle.
                                                                   The front indicator lamps sit low on the body and
                                                                   in traditional vespa style the headlight swings with
                                                                   the handlebars. The floor pan on the bike has a high
                                                                   centre ridge, and there’s no shopping-bag hook. like
                                                                   the piaggio, the switches on the handlebars are placed
                                                                   too far away from the rider’s hands, as our more petite
                                                                   testers discovered. Switches include high and low
                                                                   beam and indicator with cancel button. Instruments
                                                                   include a digital clock and fuel gauge. There’s that
                                                                   pesky self-retracting side-stand again, but the seat and
                                                                   chromed rear grab rail are excellent. The fuel filler cap,
                                                                   like the piaggio, is under the seat, but at the rear, well
                                                                   away from the under-seat storage area. Storage is big
                                                                   enough for a full-faced helmet. The vespa’s on-road
                                                                   performance is good, with excellent ride and
                                                                   adequate acceleration.

      It’s easy to rush in and pick the vespa as the stand-
      out all-rounder of the lot tested here, but bankrolling
      that decision is where it all falls apart. All our testers
      liked the peugeot, but, as an everyday ride, the lack of
      stowage is an issue that just won’t go away.
      The TGB has promise, but again it’s the lack of
      everyday practicality that lets it down slightly. The
      hyosung lacks practicality, but at least it can take an
      after-market top box. The SYM Mio 50 tries hard, and
      is a well-presented package, but the thought of all that
      petrol gushing out the accidentally opened filler cap
      haunts us. That leaves us with the piaggio Zip 50. It’s
      a decent all-rounder that borrows all the best bits
      from the vespa without the price premium. And for
      us, that’s enough.
                                                                                                                         3 Drive.com.au


                                                                                                            Chevrolet’s 2007 Volt concept car
                                                                                                            relies almost entirely on electricity,
                                                                                                            with a petrol engine acting as a
                                                                                                            generator if daily use exceeds 60km.

       Electric dreams
       The environment is now regular headline news, prompting the
       automotive industry to get serious about building earth-friendly
       vehicles powered by electricity and hydrogen.
       When IT CoMeS To The envIronMenT,               But it’s generally accepted that using        electricity, with the only by-product being
       vehicles have made massive advances in the    hydrogen as a fuel is the preferred option      water and heat. In reality, it’s a different
       last few decades. Back in the 1960s, cars     when it comes to negating the impact            story.
       were spewing out all manner of noxious        of vehicles on the environment. And,              Fuel cells are popular in concept cars,
       gases, and carbon dioxide (Co2) emissions     while hydrogen can be used in a regular         as manufacturers sprout their green
       weren’t even a consideration.                 internal combustion engine, it’s fuel           credentials. They’ve also been used in
          In 2007 cars meet much stricter
       emissions standards.
          Moving forward, the goal is for a zero                 Different car manufacturers are going down
       emissions vehicle. Indeed, some thought
       the automotive industry would have                      very different paths in the quest for the same
       already achieved the seemingly impossible              environmental goal of a zero-emissions vehicle.
       goal of building cars that produce nothing
       harmful in their everyday use (actually
       constructing the vehicle is another part of   cells that hold the most hope, prompting        some commercial applications (buses,
       the equation altogether), but the reality     the likes of Toyota, honda, Mercedes-           for example) and tested in cars driven by
       seems a long way off.                         Benz, volkswagen, Ford, General Motors          ‘regular’ people.
          Different manufacturers are going down     and others to invest heavily in further            But affordable, viable fuel cells are a
       very different paths in the quest for the     developing the technology.                      long way off. They’re hugely expensive
       same, environmentally friendly goal of          In theory, a fuel cell is quite simple – it   to produce (up to $1 million for a single
       producing a zero-emissions vehicle.           performs a chemical reaction to create          motor), which is by far their biggest hurdle.
                                                                                                                               4 Drive.com.au


                                                                                                            works like a generator, recharging the
                 Industry predictions are that 2020 is a likely                                             batteries.
                                                                                                               of course, there are many other
                    timeframe for the first commercially viable                                             alternative fuels, all capable of offering
                fuel-cell-powered vehicles to reach dealerships                                             various environmental benefits.
                                                                                                               ethanol is one such fuel. Being derived
                                                                                                            from plant products, ethanol can lay
          Another negative with a fuel cell is that      to automobiles.                                    claim to not producing any carbon
       it can require a lot of energy to produce the        Toyota already leads the world in the           dioxide when burnt, prompting various
       hydrogen they require, negating the benefits      production of hybrid vehicles, recently            oil companies to offer a blend of ethanol
       made when it’s used in the vehicle.               notching more than 1 million sales, led            (typically 10 per cent) with regular petrol.
          Still, it hasn’t stopped honda promising       predominantly by the prius hybrid. honda,             There’s also bio-diesel which, as its
       it will have an affordable fuel cell on the       too, has a firm foot in the hybrid side of the     name suggests is a cleaner form of diesel
       market by circa-2010.                             green ‘race’.                                      produced from plants.
          Well informed predictions from industry           Another shorter-term take on the zero              There’s little doubt the environment
       pundits are that 2020 is a more likely            emissions vehicle is a hybrid adapted to           will continue to be the focus of car makers
       timeframe for the first commercially-             work almost purely as an electric vehicle.         for years to come, in much the same way
       viable fuel cell-powered vehicles to arrive       one such vehicle, the Chevrolet volt, was          as safety was a focus during the 1990s.
       in dealerships. And even that could be            previewed as a concept car at the 2007                It’s an exciting race and a new
       optimistic.                                       Detroit motor show, prompting some                 challenge for the automotive industry.
          In the meantime, expect car makers to          comments of “why didn’t we think of that”.         Who wins that race and how remains
       invest heavily in the development of hybrid          The volt is relatively simple in its concept,   to be seen. We can’t wait for the
       vehicles. once seen as a stepping stone,          but supremely effective in its potential           chequered flag.
       hybrids are increasingly considered a very        promise of reducing emissions.
       effective way of reducing vehicle emissions.         The volt still has a regular petrol engine      Drive.com.au
          As the name suggests, a hybrid combines        but, for the majority of its life, that petrol
       two technologies – a regular engine with an       engine is never used. Instead, it’s plugged
       electric motor – to deliver economy benefits      in to a powerpoint at home (or work) and           Hybrids breaking sales records
       of up to 50 per cent.                             recharged each night, allowing a range of          How to beat bowser blues
          Some of the world’s biggest car makers,        around 60km of city driving, more than             Cut fuel bills and insurance costs
       including General Motors, Ford, Mercedes-         satisfying most people’s daily needs. If you       Geneva show looks to the future
       Benz and volkswagen are working to                need to drive further, or want to take the         New York motor show thinks green
       add or boost their hybrid offerings as the        volt on a longer journey, there’s back-up          Rubbery figures
       environmental heat is increasingly applied        from the petrol engine, which effectively

                                          Fuel cells, which perform a
                                          chemical reaction to turn hydrogen
                                          into heat and electricity, have been
                                          previewed in many concept cars
                                          – including the 2006 Honda FCX
                                          (above). But they’re a long way
                                          off being commercially viable.
                                          Left: The fuel-cell stack from the
                                          hydrogen-powered FCX.
                                                                                                                                         5 Drive.com.au


      Green driver’s logbook
      Keep track of your car’s environmental performance. By monitoring
      your fuel useage, you can see how much carbon dioxide your car is
      producing. The less the better. You can also use the logbook to spot
      trends changed by your driving habits or driving conditions.
      Kilometres travelled   Fuel used (litres)   Average fuel (L/100km)   Kilograms of carbon          Driving conditions            Extra weight on board
                                                                           dioxide produced             (city, highway, hilly, hot,   (number of persons x
                                                                           multiplied by total litres   cold, etc)                    80kg) plus extra kg
                                                                           of fuel used: x 2.7
                                                                           (diesel) or 2.3 (petrol)
                                                                           or 1.5 (LPG)

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