LAN by pengxiang



In the past, all of the articles that I have written for this Web site have been intended for use by
administrators with at least some level of experience. Recently though, there have been requests for
articles targeted toward those who are just getting started with networking and that have absolutely no
experience at all. This article will be the first in a series targeted toward novices. In this article series, I will
start with the absolute basics, and work toward building a functional network. In this article I will begin by
discussing some of the various networking components and what they do.
Network Adapters

The first piece of hardware that I want to discuss is a network adapter. There are many different names
for network adapters, including network cards, Network Interface Cards, NICs. These are all generic
terms for the same piece of hardware. A network card’s job is to physically attach a computer to a
network, so that the computer can participate in network communications.

The first thing that you need to know about network cards is that the network card has to match the
network medium. The network medium refers to the type of cabling that is being used on the network.
Wireless networks are a science all their own, and I will talk about them in a separate article.

At one time making sure that a network card matched the network medium was a really big deal, because
there were a large number of competing standards in existence. For example, before you built a network
and started buying network cards and cabling, you had to decide if you were going to use Ethernet,
coaxal Ethernet, Token Ring, Arcnet, or one of the other networking standards of the time. Each
networking technology had its strengths and weaknesses, and it was important to figure out which one
was the most appropriate for your organization.

Today, most of the networking technologies that I mentioned above are quickly becoming extinct. Pretty
much the only type of wired network used by small and medium sized businesses is Ethernet. You can
see an example of an Ethernet network card, shown in Figure A.

    Figure A: This is what an Ethernet card looks like

Modern Ethernet networks use twisted pair cabling containing eight wires. These wires are arranged in a
special order, and an RJ-45 connecter is crimped onto the end of the cable. An RJ-45 cable looks like the
connector on the end of a phone cord, but it’s bigger. Phone cords use RJ-11 connectors as opposed to
the RJ-45 connectors used by Ethernet cable. You can see an example of an Ethernet cable with an
RJ-45 connector, shown in Figure B.

    Figure B: This is an Ethernet cable with an RJ-45 connector installed

Hubs and Switches

As you can see, computers use network cards to send and receive data. The data is transmitted over
Ethernet cables. However, you normally can’t just run an Ethernet cable between two PCs and call it a

In this day and age of high speed Internet access being almost universally available, you tend to hear the
term broadband thrown around a lot. Broadband is a type of network in which data is sent and received
across the same wire. In contrast, Ethernet uses Baseband communications. Baseband uses separate
wires for sending and receiving data. What this means is that if one PC is sending data across a
particular wire within the Ethernet cable, then the PC that is receiving the data needs to have the wire
redirected to its receiving port.

You can actually network two PCs together in this way. You can create what is known as a cross over
cable. A cross over cable is simply a network cable that has the sending and receiving wires reversed at
one end, so that two PCs can be linked directly together.

The problem with using a cross over cable to build a network is that the network will be limited to using no
more and no less than two PCs. Rather than using a cross over cable, most networks use normal
Ethernet cables that do not have the sending and receiving wires reversed at one end.

Of course the sending and receiving wires have to be reversed at some point in order for communications
to succeed. This is the job of a hub or a switch. Hubs are starting to become extinct, but I want to talk
about them any way because it will make it easier to explain switches later on.

There are different types of hubs, but generally speaking a hub is nothing more than a box with a bunch
of RJ-45 ports. Each computer on a network would be connected to a hub via an Ethernet cable. You can
see a picture of a hub, shown in Figure C.

    Figure C: A hub is a device that acts as a central connection point for computers on a network

A hub has two different jobs. Its first job is to provide a central point of connection for all of the computers
on the network. Every computer plugs into the hub (multiple hubs can be daisy chained together if
necessary in order to accommodate more computers).

The hub’s other job is to arrange the ports in such a way so that if a PC transmits data, the data is sent
over the other computer’s receive wires.

Right now you might be wondering how data gets to the correct destination if more than two PCs are
connected to a hub. The secret lies in the network card. Each Ethernet card is programmed at the factory
with a unique Media Access Control (MAC) address. When a computer on an Ethernet network transmits
data across an Ethernet network containing PCs connected to a hub, the data is actually sent to every
computer on the network. As each computer receives the data, it compares the destination address to its
own MAC address. If the addresses match then the computer knows that it is the intended recipient,
otherwise it ignores the data.

As you can see, when computers are connected via a hub, every packet gets sent to every computer on
the network. The problem is that any computer can send a transmission at any given time. Have you ever
been on a conference call and accidentally started to talk at the same time as someone else? This is the
same thing that happens on this type of network.

When a PC needs to transmit data, it checks to make sure that no other computers are sending data at
the moment. If the line is clear, it transmits the necessary data. If another computer tries to communicate
at the same time though, then the packets of data that are traveling across the wire collide and are
destroyed (this is why this type of network is sometimes referred to as a collision domain). Both PCs then
have to wait for a random amount of time and attempt to retransmit the packet that was destroyed.

As the number of PCs on a collision domain increases, so does the number of collisions. As the number
of collisions increase, network efficiency is decreased. This is why switches have almost completely
replaced hubs.

A switch, such as the one shown in Figure D, performs all of the same basic tasks as a hub. The
difference is that when a PC on the network needs to communicate with another PC, the switch uses a
set of internal logic circuits to establish a dedicated, logical path between the two PCs. What this means
is that the two PCs are free to communicate with each other, without having to worry about collisions.

    Figure D: A switch looks a lot like a hub, but performs very differently
Switches greatly improve a network’s efficiency. Yes, they eliminate collisions, but there is more to it than
that. Because of the way that switches work, they can establish parallel communications paths. For
example, just because computer A is communicating with computer B, there is no reason why computer
C can’t simultaneously communicate with computer D. In a collision domain, these types of parallel
communications would be impossible because they would result in collisions.

In the first part of this article series, I talked about some basic networking hardware such as hubs and
switches. In this article, I want to continue the discussion of networking hardware by talking about one of
the most important networking components; routers.

Even if you are new to networking, you have probably heard of routers. Broadband Internet connections,
such as those utilizing a cable modem or a DSL modem, almost always require a router. A router's job
isn't to provide Internet connectivity though. A router's job is to move packets of data from one network to
another. There are actually many different types of routers ranging from simple, inexpensive routers used
for home Internet connectivity to the insanely expensive routers used by giant corporations. Regardless of
a router’s cost or complexity, routers all work on the same basic principles.

That being the case, I'm going to focus my discussion around simple, low budget routers that are typically
used to connect a PC to a broadband Internet connection. My reason for doing so is that this article series
is intended for beginners. In my opinion, it will be a lot easier to teach you the basics if I am referencing
something that is at least somewhat familiar to most people, and that is not as complicated as many of
the routers used within huge corporations. Besides, the routers used in corporations work on the same
basic principles as the routers that I will be discussing in this article. If you are wanting a greater level of
knowledge though, don’t worry. I will talk about the science of routing in a whole lot more detail later in
this article series.

As I explained earlier, a router's job is to move packets of data from one network to another. This
definition might seem strange in the context of a PC that's connected to a broadband Internet connection.
If you stop and think about it, the Internet is a network (actually it's a collection of networks, but that's
beside the point).

So if a router's job is to move traffic between two networks, and the Internet is one of those networks,
where is the other one? In this particular case, the PC that is connected to the router is actually
configured as a very simple network.

To get a better idea of what I am talking about, take a look at the pictures shown in Figures A and B.
Figure A shows the front of a 3COM broadband router, while Figure B shows the back view of the same

Figure A: This is the front view of a 3COM broadband router

Figure B: A broadband Internet router contains a set of RJ-45 ports just like a hub or switch

As you can see in the figures, there is nothing especially remarkable about the front view of the router. I
wanted to include this view anyway though, so that those of you who are unfamiliar with routers can see
what a router looks like. Figure B is much more interesting.

If you look at Figure B, you’ll see that there are three sets of ports on the back of the router. The port on
the far left is where the power supply connects to the router. The middle port is an RJ-45 port used to
connect to the remote network. In this particular case, this router is intended to provide Internet
connectivity. As such, this middle port would typically be used to connect the router to a cable modem or
to a DSL modem. The modem in turn would provide the actual connectivity to the Internet.

If you look at the set of ports on the far right, you’ll see that there are four RJ-45 ports. If you think back to
the first part of this article series, you’ll recall that hubs and switches also contained large groups of RJ-45
ports. In the case of a hub or switch, the RJ-45 ports are used to provide connectivity to the computers on
the network.

These ports work the exact same way on this router. This particular router has a four port switch built in.
Remember earlier when I said that a router’s job was to move packets between one network and
another? I explained that in the case of a broadband router, the Internet represents one network, and the
PC represents the second network. The reason why a single computer can represent an entire network is
because the router does not treat the PC as a standalone device. Routers treat the PC as a node on a
network. As you can see from the photo in Figure B, this particular router could actually accommodate a
network of four PCs. It’s just that most home users who use this type of configuration only plug one PC
into the router. Therefore a more precise explanation would be that this type of network routes packets of
data between a small network (even if that network only consists of a single computer) to the Internet
(which it treats as a second network).
The Routing Process

Now that I've talked a little bit about what a router is and what it does, I want to talk about the routing
process. In order to understand how routing works, you have to understand a little bit about how the
TCP/IP protocol works.

Every device connected to a TCP/IP network has a unique IP address bound to its network interface. The
IP address consists of a series of four numbers separated by periods. For example, a typical IP address
looks something like this:

The best analogy I can think of to describe an IP address is to compare it to a street address. A street
address consists of a number and a street name. The number identifies the specific building on the street.
An IP address works kind of the same way. The address is broken into the network number and a device
number. If you were to compare an IP address to a Street address, then think of the network number as
being like a street name, and at the device number as being like a house number. The network number
identifies which network the device is on, and the device number gives the device an identity on that

So how do you know where the network number ends and the device number begins? This is the job of
the subnet mask. A subnet mask tells the computer where the network number portion of an IP address
stops, and where the device number starts. Subnetting can be complicated, and I will cover in detail in a
separate article. For now, let's keep it simple and look at a very basic subnet mask.

A subnet mask looks a lot like an IP address in that it follows the format of having four numbers separated
by periods. A typical subnet mask looks like this:

In this particular example, the first three numbers (called octets) are each 255, and the last number 0.
The number 255 indicates that all of the bits in the corresponding position in the IP address are a part of
the network number. The number zero indicates that none of the bits in the corresponding position in the
IP address are a part of the network number, and therefore they all belong to the device number.

I know this probably sounds a little bit confusing, so consider this example. Imagine that you had a PC
with an IP address of and a subnet mask of In this particular case, the first
three octets of the subnet mask are all 255. This means that the first three octets of the IP address all
belong to the network number. Therefore, the network number portion of this IP address is 192.168.1.x.

The reason why this is important to know is because a router’s job is to move packets of data from one
network to another. All of the devices on a network (or on a network segment to be more precise) share a
common network number. For example, if 192.168.1.x was the network number associated with
computers attached to the router shown in Figure B, then the IP addresses for four individual computers
might be:

As you can see, each computer on the local network shares the same network number, but has a
different device number. As you may know, whenever a computer needs to communicate with another
computer on a network, it does so by referring to the other computer’s IP address. For example, in this
particular case the computer with the address of could easily send a packet of data to the
computer with the address of, because both computers are a part of the same physical

Things work a bit differently if a computer needs to access a computer on another network. Since I am
focusing this particular discussion on small broadband routers that are designed to provide Internet
connectivity, let’s pretend that one of the users on the local network wanted to visit the Web site. A Web site is hosted by a server. Like any other computer, a Web server
has a unique IP address. The IP address for this particular Web site is

You can easily look at this IP address and tell that it does not belong to the 192.168.1.x network. That
being the case, the computer that’s trying to reach the Web site can’t just send the packet out along the
local network, because the Web server isn’t a part of the local network. Instead, the computer that needs
to send the packet looks at its default gateway address.

The default gateway is a part of a computer’s TCP/IP configuration. It is basically a way of telling a
computer that if it does not know where to send a packet, then send it to the specified default gateway
address. The default gateway’s address would be the router’s IP address. In this case, the router’s IP
address would probably be

Notice that the router’s IP address shares the same network number as the other computers on the local
network. It has to so that it can be accessible to those computers. Actually, a router has at least two IP
addresses. One of those addresses uses the same network number as your local network. The router’s
other IP address is assigned by your ISP. This IP address uses the same network number as the ISPs
network. The router’s job is therefore to move packets from your local network onto the ISPs network.
Your ISP has routers of its own that work in exactly the same way, but that route packets to other parts of
the Internet.

So far in this article series, I have talked a lot about networking hardware and about the TCP/IP protocol.
The networking hardware is used to establish a physical connection between devices, while the TCP/IP
protocol is essentially the language that the various devices use to communicate with each other. In this
article, I will continue the discussion by talking a little bit about the computers that are connected to a

Even if you are new to networking, you have no doubt heard terms such as server and workstation.
These terms are generally used to refer to a computer’s role on the network rather than the computer’s
hardware. For example, just because a computer is acting as a server, it doesn’t necessarily mean that it
has to be running server hardware. It is possible to install a server operating system onto a PC, and have
that PC act as a network server. Of course in most real life networks, servers are running specialized
hardware to help them to be able to handle the heavy workload that servers are typically subjected to.
What might make the concept of network servers a little bit more confusing is that technically speaking a
server is any computer that hosts resources over a network. This means that even a computer that’s
running Windows XP could be considered to be a server if it is configured to share some kind of resource,
such as files or a printer.

Computers on a network typically fall into one of three roles. Usually a computer is considered to be
either a workstation (sometimes referred to as a client), server, or a peer.

Workstations are computers that use network resources, but that do not host resources of their own. For
example, a computer that is running Windows XP would be considered a workstation so long as it is
connected to a network and is not sharing files or printers.

Servers are computers that are dedicated to the task of hosting network resources. Typically, nobody is
going to be sitting down at a server to do their work. Windows servers (that is, computers running
Windows Server 2003, Windows 2000 Server, or Windows NT Server) have a user interface that is very
similar to what you would find on a Windows workstation. It is possible that someone with an appropriate
set of permissions could sit down at the server and run Microsoft Office or some other application. Even
so, such behavior is strongly discouraged because it undermines the server’s security, decreases the
server’s performance, and has the potential to affect the server’s stability.

The last type of computer that is commonly found on a network is a peer. A peer machine is a computer
that acts as both a workstation and a server. Such machines typically run workstation operating systems
(such as Windows XP), but are used to both access and host network resources.

In the past, peers were found primarily on very small networks. The idea was that if a small company
lacks the resources to purchase true servers, then the workstations could be configured to perform
double duty. For example, each user could make their own files accessible to every other user on the
network. If a user happens to have a printer attached to their PC, they can also share the printer so that
others on the network can print to it.

Peer networks have been traditionally discouraged in larger companies because of their inherent lack of
security, and because they cannot be centrally managed. That’s why peer networks are primarily found in
extremely small companies or in homes with multiple PCs. Windows Vista (the successor to Windows XP)
is attempting to change that. Windows Vista will allow users on traditional client/server networks to form
peer groups that will allow the users and those groups to share resources amongst themselves in a
secure manner, without breaking their connection to network servers. This new feature is being marketed
as a collaboration tool.

Earlier I mentioned that peer networks are discouraged in favor of client/server networks because they
lack security and centralized manageability. However, just because a network is made up of workstations
and servers, it doesn’t necessarily guarantee security and centralized management. Remember, a server
is only a machine that is dedicated to the task of hosting resources over a network. Having said that,
there are countless varieties of servers and some types of servers are dedicated to providing security and

For example, Windows servers fall into two primary categories; member servers and domain controllers.
There is really nothing special about a member server. A member server is simply a computer that is
connected to a network, and is running a Windows Server operating system. A member server might be
used as a file repository (known as a file server), or to host one or more network printers (known as a
print server). Member servers are also frequently used to host network applications. For example,
Microsoft offers a product called Exchange Server 2003 that when installed on a member server, allows
that member server to function as a mail server. The point is that a member server can be used for just
about anything.

Domain controllers are much more specialized. A domain controller’s job is to provide security and
manageability to the network. I am assuming that you’re probably familiar with the idea of logging on to a
network by entering a username and password. On a Windows network, it is the domain controller that is
responsible for keeping track of usernames and passwords.

The person who is responsible for managing the network is known as the network administrator.
Whenever a user needs to gain access to resources on a Windows network, the administrator uses a
utility provided by a domain controller to create a user account and password for the new user. When the
new user (or any user for that matter) attempts to log onto the network, the users credentials (their
username and password) are transmitted to the domain controller. The domain controller validates the
user’s credentials by comparing them against the copy stored in the domain controller’s database.
Assuming that the password that the user entered matches the password that the domain controller has
on file, the user is granted access to the network. This process is called authentication.

On a Windows network, only the domain controllers perform authentication services. Of course users will
probably need to access resources stored on member servers. This is not a problem because resources
on member servers are protected by a set of permissions that are related to the security information
stored on domain controllers.

For example, suppose that my user name was Brien. I enter my username and password, which is sent to
a domain controller for authentication. When the domain controller authenticates me, it has not actually
given me access to any resources. Instead, it validates that I am who I claim to be. When I go to access
resources off of a member server, my computer presents a special access token to the member server
that basically says that I have been authenticated by a domain controller. The member server does not
trust me, but it does trust the domain controller. Therefore, since the domain controller has validated my
identity, the member server accepts that I am who I claim to be and gives me access to any resources for
which I have permission to access.

As you’ve probably guessed, the process of being authenticated by a domain controller and gaining
access to network resources is a little more complicated than what I have discussed here. I will be
discussing authentication and resource access in much greater detail later in the series. For right now, I
wanted to keep things simple so that I could gradually introduce you to these concepts. In the next part of
this article series, I will be discussing domain controllers in much more detail. As I do, I will also discuss
the role that domain controllers play within the Active Directory.

In the previous article in this series, I talked about the roles of various computers on a network. As you
may recall, one of the roles that I talked a little bit about was that of a domain controller. In this article, I
will talk more about what domain controllers are and how they fit into your network infrastructure.

One of the most important concepts in Windows networking is that of a domain. A domain is basically a
collection of user accounts and computer accounts that are grouped together so that they can be centrally
managed. It is the job of the domain controller to facilitate this central management of domain resources.

To see why this is important, consider that any workstation that’s running Windows XP contains a handful
of built in user accounts. Windows XP even allows you to create additional user accounts on the
workstation. Unless the workstation is functioning as a standalone system or is a part of a peer network,
these workstation level user accounts (called local user accounts) are not used for controlling access to
network resources. Instead, local user accounts are used to regulate access to the local computer. They
act primarily as a mechanism which insures that administrators can perform workstation maintenance,
without the end users having the ability to tamper with workstation settings.

The reason why local user accounts are not used to control access to resources outside of the
workstation that they reside on is because doing so would create an extreme management burden. Think
about it for a minute. Local user accounts reside on each individual workstation. This means that if local
user accounts were a network’s primary security mechanism, then an administrator would have to
physically travel to the computer containing an account any time a change is needed to be made to the
account’s permissions. This might not be a big deal on smaller networks, but making security changes
would be extremely cumbersome on larger networks or in situations in which a change is needed to be
applied globally to all accounts.

Another reason why local user accounts are not used to control access to network resources is because
they don’t travel with the user from one computer to another. For instance, if a user’s computer crashed,
the user couldn’t just log on to another computer and work while their computer was being fixed, because
the user’s account is specific to the computer that crashed. In order for the user to be able to do any
work, a new account would have to be created on the computer that the user is now working with.

These are just a few of the reasons why using local user accounts to secure access to network resources
is impractical. Even if you wanted to implement this type of security, Windows does not allow it. Local
user accounts can only be used to secure local resources.

A domain solves these and other problems by centralizing user accounts (and other configuration and
security related objects that I will talk about later in the series). This allows for easier administration, and
allows users to log onto the network from any PC on the network (unless you restrict which machines a
user can login from).

With the information that I have given you so far regarding domains, it may seem that the philosophy
behind domains is that, since the resources which users need access to reside on a server, you should
use server level user accounts to control access to those resources. In a way this idea is true, but there is
a little more to it than that.

Back in the early 1990s I was working for a large insurance company that was running a network with
servers running Novell NetWare. Windows networking hadn’t been invented yet, and Novell NetWare was
the server operating system of choice at the time. At the time when I was hired, the company only had
one network server, which contained all of the user accounts and all of the resources that the users
needed access to. A few months later, someone decided that the users at the company needed to run a
brand new application. Because of the size of the application and the volume of data that the application
produced, the application was placed onto a dedicated server.

The version of Novell NetWare that the company was running at the time used the idea that I presented
earlier in which resources residing on a server were protected by user accounts which also resided on
that server. The problem with this architecture was that each server had its own, completely independent
set of user accounts. When the new server was added to the network, users logged in using the normal
method, but they had to enter another username and password to access resources on the new server.

At first things ran smoothly, but about a month after the new server was installed things started to get
ugly. It became time for users to change their password. Users didn’t realize that they now had to change
their password in two different places. This meant that passwords fell out of sync, and the help desk was
flooded with calls related to password resets. As the company continued to grow and added more
servers, the problem was further compounded.

Eventually, Novell released version 4.0 of NetWare. NetWare version 4 introduced a technology called
the Directory Service. The idea was that users should not have a separate account for each server.
Instead, a single user account could be used to authenticate users regardless of how many servers there
were on the network.

The interesting thing about this little history lesson is that although domains are unique to Microsoft
networks (Novell networks do not use domains), domains work on the same basic principle. In fact, when
Windows 2000 was released, Microsoft included a feature which is still in use today called the Active
Directory. The Active Directory is very similar to the directory service that Novell networks use.

So what does all of this have to do with domains? Well, on Windows servers running Windows 2000
Server, Windows Server 2003, or the forthcoming Longhorn Server, it is the domain controller’s job to run
the Active Directory service. The Active Directory acts as a repository for directory objects. Among these
objects are user accounts. As such, one of a domain controller’s primary jobs is to provide authentication

One very important concept to keep in mind is that domain controllers provide authentication, not
authorization. What this means is that when a user logs on to a network, a domain controller validates the
user’s username and password and essentially confirms that the user is who they claim to be. The
domain controller does not however tell the user what resources they have rights to.

Resources on Windows networks are secured by access control lists (ACLs). An ACL is basically just a
list that tells who has rights to what. When a user attempts to access a resource, they present their
identity to the server containing the resource. That server makes sure that the user’s identity has been
authenticated and then cross references the user’s identity with an ACL to see what it is that the user has
rights to.

As I explained in Part 5 of this article series, domains are not something new. Microsoft originally
introduced them in Windows NT Server. Originally, domains were completely self contained. A single
domain often housed all of the user accounts for an entire company, and the domain’s administrator had
complete control over the domain and anything in it.

Occasionally though, having a single domain just wasn’t practical. For example, if a company had offices
in several different cities, then each office might have its own domain. Another common scenario is when
one company buys another company. In such situations, it is not at all uncommon for both companies to
already have domains.

In situations like these, it is sometimes necessary for users from one domain to access resources located
in another domain. Microsoft created trusts as a way of facilitating such access. The best way that I can
think of to describe trusts is to compare them to the way that security works at an airport.

In the Untied States, passengers are required to show their drivers license to airport security staff before
boarding a domestic flight. Suppose for a moment that I were going to fly somewhere. The security staff
at the airport does not know who I am, and they certainly don’t trust me. They do however trust the state
of South Carolina. They assume that the state of South Carolina has exercised due diligence in verifying
my identity before issuing me a drivers license. Therefore, I can show them a South Carolina drivers
license and they will let me on the plane, even though they don’t necessarily trust me as an individual.

Domain trusts work the same way. Suppose that I am a domain administrator and my domain contains
resources that users in another domain need to access. If I am not an administrator in the foreign domain
then I have no control over who is given user accounts in that domain. If I trust the administrator of that
domain not to do anything stupid, then I can establish a trust so that my domain trusts members of the
other domain. In a situation like this, my domain would be referred to as the trusting domain, and the
foreign domain would be known as the trusted domain.

In the previous article, I mentioned that domain controllers provide authentication, not authorization. This
holds true even when trust relationships are involved. Simply choosing to trust a foreign domain does not
give the users in that domain rights to access any of the resources in your domain. You must still assign
permissions just as you would for users in your own domain.

At the beginning of this article, I mentioned that in Windows NT a domain was a completely self contained
environment, and that trusts were created as a way of allowing users in one domain to access resources
in another domain. These concepts still hold partially true today, but the domain model changed
dramatically when Microsoft created the Active Directory. As you may recall, the Active Directory was first
introduced in Windows 2000, but is still in use today in Windows Server 2003 and the soon to be released
Longhorn Server.

One of the primary differences between Windows NT style domains and Active Directory domains is that
domains are no longer completely isolated from each other. In Windows NT, there was really no
organizational structure for domains. Each domain was completely independent of any other domain. In
an Active Directory environment, the primary organizational structure is known as a forest. A forest can
contain multiple domain trees.

The best way that I can think of to compare a domain tree is to compare it to a family tree. A family tree
consists of great grandparents, grandparents, parents, children, etc. Each member of a family tree has
some relation to the members above and below them. A domain tree works in a similar manner, and you
can tell a domain’s position within a tree just by looking at its name.

Active Directory domains use DNS style names, similar to the names used by Web sites. In Part 3 of this
article series, I explained how DNS servers resolve URLs for Web browsers. The same technique is used
internally in an Active Directory environment. Think about it for a moment. DNS stands for Domain Name
Server. In fact, a DNS server is a required component for any Active Directory deployment.

To see how domain naming works, let’s take a look at how my own network is set up. My network’s
primary domain is named I don’t actually own the Internet domain name,
but it doesn’t matter because this domain is private and is only accessible from inside my network.

The domain is considered to be a top level domain. If this were an Internet domain, it
would not be a top level domain, because .com would be a top level domain and would
be a child domain of the .com domain. In spite of this minor difference, the same basic principle holds
true. I could easily create a child domain by creating another domain name that encompasses For example, would be considered to be a child domain of the domain. You can even create grandchild domains. An example of a grandchild domain of would be As you can see, you can easily tell a domain’s
position within a domain tree just by looking at the number of periods in the domain’s name.

Earlier I mentioned that an Active Directory forest can contain domain trees. You are not limited to
creating a single domain tree. In fact, my own network uses two domain trees; and The domain contains all of the servers that I monkey around with while experimenting
with the various techniques that I write articles about. The domain contains the servers
that I actually use to run my business. This domain contains my mail server and some file servers.

The point is that having the ability to create multiple domain trees allows you to segregate your network in
a way that makes the most sense from a management prospective. For example, suppose that a
company has offices in five different cities. The company could easily create an Active Directory forest
that contains five different domain trees; one for each city. There would most likely be a different
administrator in each city, and that administrator would be free to create child domains off of their domain
tree on an as needed basis.

The beauty of this type of structure is that all of these domains fall within a common forest. This means
that while administrative control over individual domains or domain trees might be delegated to an
administrator in another city, the forest administrator ultimately maintains control over all of the domains in
the forest. Furthermore, trust relationships are greatly simplified because every domain in the forest
automatically trusts every other domain in the forest. It is still possible to establish trusts with external
forests or domains.

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