Teen Pregnancy Rates

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					TEEN PREGNANCY RATE COMPARISONS TO AZ                           1




       TEEN PREGNANCY RATE COMPARISONS TO AZ




               Glendale Community College, Fall Semester 2010


                              Psychology 230
TEEN PREGNANCY RATE COMPARISONS TO AZ                                                                 2


       In the United States many teens are becoming pregnant during their adolescent years; the

rate of teen pregnancy is commonly defined as the count of adolescent females who delivered a

live infant, had an induced termination of pregnancy, or delivered a fetal death by the total

number of adolescent females in a population during a given year (ADHS, 2009). Teen

pregnancy has been a heavily studied topic of recent years, and the results have proven some

alarming facts. Nearly one-half (46%) of all 15 to 19-year-olds in the United States have had sex

at least once (Abma, 2004). A sexually active teen that does not use contraceptives has a 90%

chance of becoming pregnant within one year (Harlap, 1991). Studies have found that each year,

in the United States alone, almost 750,000 women between the ages of 15 and 19 become

pregnant. Overall, 71.5 pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15-19 occurred in 2006; the rate

declined 41% from its peak in 1990 to a low of 69.5 in 2005 (Guttmacher, 2010). Eighty-two

percent of teen pregnancies are unplanned; they account for about one-fifth of all unintended

pregnancies annually (Finer, 2006). In 2008, the rate of teen pregnancy in Arizona was 31.6

pregnancies per 1,000 females age 19 years and younger (ADHS, 2009). Since 1999 the teen

pregnancy rate, in Arizona, for 15-19 year old teens has declined 26 percent; 85.7 to 63.2

pregnancies per 1,000 females (ADHS, 2009). Declining teen birth rates have significantly

improved overall child well-being in Arizona, all states, and the District of Columbia, according

to a new state-by-state analysis released by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy

(Albert, 2005). Specifically, declines in the teen birth rate have played a major role in improving

child poverty in Arizona (Albert, 2005). The purpose of this study is to determine how the teen

pregnancy rate in Arizona compares to the United States average, utilizing the most current data

and research. I hypothesize that Arizona is significantly different in teen pregnancy rates when

compared to the teen pregnancy rate in the other forty-nine states.
TEEN PREGNANCY RATE COMPARISONS TO AZ                                                                                  3


         The source of my data is the Online Version of the 50-State and National Comparisons of

Teen Pregnancy Rate from The National Campaign, which was last updated Jan. 2010. The Z-

scores were calculated for the number of teen pregnancies per 1,000 teens for each state. The

data was analyzed using both Microsoft Excel and SPSS. The alpha is .05 with a critical value of

+1.96 and -1.96.


         The mean teen pregnancy rate in the United States (all 50 states) is 64.6 pregnancies per

1,000 teens with a standard deviation of 14.1464 (14.14637763). The descriptive statistics for

teen pregnancy rates are listed in Table 1 and Table 2. In Figure 1, the distribution is shows that

teen pregnancy in the United States is negatively skewed. Table 3 is showing the number of teen

pregnancies per every one-thousand teen girls and the z-scores for all fifty states in the US. My

analysis shows that the Arizona teen pregnancy rate is not significantly different than the

average pregnancy rate among other states in the US, however Arizona falls within the top 3

states of having the highest teen pregnancy rate, with a z-score of z = 1.72, p > 0.5.




                                         Table 1: Descriptive Statistics

                           N         Minimum      Maximum       Mean       Std. Deviation          Skewness

                        Statistic    Statistic    Statistic    Statistic      Statistic      Statistic    Std. Error

TeenPregnancyRate               50           33           93       64.60            14.290         .016         .337

Valid N (listwise)              50
TEEN PREGNANCY RATE COMPARISONS TO AZ            4



                  Table 2: Statistics

TeenPregnancyRate

N         Valid                            50

          Missing                           0

Mean                                     64.60

Std. Error of Mean                       2.021

Median                                   62.50

Mode                                       62

Std. Deviation                          14.290

Skewness                                  .016

Std. Error of Skewness                    .337

Minimum                                    33

Maximum                                    93

Sum                                      3230




Figure 1
      TEEN PREGNANCY RATE COMPARISONS TO AZ                                                                  5


                Teen Pregnancy                                          Teen Pregnancy
    STATE                           z-score               STATE                             z-score
                     Rate                                                    Rate
Alabama               73          0.593791585        Montana                  56          -0.60792948
Alaska                61          -0.25448211        Nebraska                 50         -1.032066327
Arizona               89          1.724823177        Nevada                   90          1.795512651
Arkansas              80          1.088617906        New Hampshire            33         -2.233787393   ~~
California            75          0.735170534        New Jersey               68          0.240344213
Colorado              69          0.311033688        New Mexico               93          2.007581074   **
Connecticut           57          -0.53724001        New York                 77          0.876549483
Delaware              83          1.30068633         North Carolina           76          0.805860009
Florida               77          0.876549483        North Dakota             45         -1.385513699
Georgia               80          1.088617906        Ohio                     62         -0.183792634
Hawaii                71          0.452412636        Oklahoma                 76          0.805860009
Idaho                 55          -0.67861895        Oregon                   57         -0.537240006
Illinois              67          0.169654739        Pennsylvania             53         -0.819997904
Indiana               62          -0.18379263        Rhoda Island             62         -0.183792634
Iowa                  51          -0.96137685        South Carolina           79          1.017928432
Kansas                60          -0.32517158        South Dakota             51         -0.961376852
Kentucky              66          0.098965264        Tennessee                79          1.017928432
Louisiana             70          0.381723162        Texas                    88          1.654133702
Maine                 43          -1.52689265        Utah                     47          -1.24413475
Maryland              65          0.02827579         Vermont                  40         -1.738961071
Massachusetts         49           -1.1027558        Virginia                 61         -0.254482108
Michigan              60          -0.32517158        Washington               59         -0.395861057
Minnesota             43          -1.52689265        West Virginia            62         -0.183792634
Mississippi           85          1.442065279        Wisconsin                47          -1.24413475
Missouri              63          -0.11310316        Wyoming                  65           0.02827579
                                                     MEAN                    64.6
                                                     Population SD       14.14637763
                                                     N                        50


                                  ** = over the mean, significant finding

                                 ~~ = below the mean, significant finding

      Table 3. Teen Pregnancy rate by state, compared to every 1,000 teens, source from Kost, 2010
TEEN PREGNANCY RATE COMPARISONS TO AZ                                                                6


       The analysis of the statistics does not support my hypothesis; the teen pregnancy rates are

not significantly different in Arizona in comparison to the rest of the United States. There are

two states that are p < .05; New Mexico is significantly higher than the mean with a z-score of

2.0076, and New Hampshire was significantly lower than the mean with a z-score of -2.2338.

This data reveals that although Arizona does not show a significant difference among the average

teen pregnancy rates in the United States, it does show that Arizona is one of the top 3 states of

having the highest overall teen pregnancy rate. Analyzing the teen pregnancy rate across the

United States, the southern states have the highest overall pregnancy rates, while the north-

eastern states have the lowest overall pregnancy rates. The geographical locations may be

something to continue future research with to identify more specific causes as to why there is a

difference between the southern and northern states teen pregnancy rates. This study was a

simplistic-study on the basis of looking at the teen pregnancy rates in every state; I did not

consider race, ethnicity, geographical locations in the US, rich vs. poor, or educated vs. non-

educated. The data results may vary when considering different populations and situations.


       As stated previously, declining teen pregnancy rates and birth rates contribute to

improvements in child well-being in Arizona (and the US); specifically, declines in pregnancy

rates have played a major role in improving child poverty in Arizona (Albert, 2005). With

continued focus on the awareness and prevention on teen pregnancy, our future may continue to

see more declines in the teen pregnancy rates.
TEEN PREGNANCY RATE COMPARISONS TO AZ                                                                7


                                           References


Abma JC et al., Teenagers in the United States: sexual activity, contraceptive use, and

       childbearing, 2002, Vital and Health Statistics, 2004, series 23, No. 24

       http://womensissues.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=womensissues&cdn=new

       sissues&tm=8&gps=238_344_1111_855&f=00&tt=3&bt=1&bts=0&st=14&zu=http%3

       A//www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_ATSRH.html%23n25


Albert, B. (2005). The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Declining Teen Birth

       Rates Contribute to Improvements in Child Well-Being in Arizona. Retrieved from

       http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/national.../Arizona_press_release_FINAL.pdf


Arizona Department of Health Services. (2009). Teen Pregnancy in Arizona [Data file].

       Retrieved from http://www.azdhs.gov/404.htm


Finer LB et al., Disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States, 1994 and 2001,

       Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 2006, 38 (2): 90-96

       http://womensissues.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=womensissues&cdn=new

       sissues&tm=8&gps=238_344_1111_855&f=00&tt=3&bt=1&bts=0&st=14&zu=http%3

       A//www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_ATSRH.html%23n25


Guttmacher Institute, U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births and Abortions: National and State

       Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity, accessed Nov. 2010

       http://womensissues.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=womensissues&cdn=new

       sissues&tm=8&gps=238_344_1111_855&f=00&tt=3&bt=1&bts=0&st=14&zu=http%3

       A//www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_ATSRH.html%23n25
TEEN PREGNANCY RATE COMPARISONS TO AZ                                                         8


                                         References


Harlap S, Kost K and Forrest JD, Preventing Pregnancy, Protecting Health: A New Look at

       Birth Control Choices in the United States, New York: AGl, 1991.

       http://womensissues.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=womensissues&cdn=new

       sissues&tm=8&gps=238_344_1111_855&f=00&tt=3&bt=1&bts=0&st=14&zu=http%3

       A//www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_ATSRH.html%23n25


Kost, K., Henshaw, S., & Carlin, L. (2010). U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births and Abortions:

       National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity, 50-State and National

       Comparisons. Retrieved from http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/state-data/state-

       comparisions.asp?id=3&sID=18

				
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