WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN by xiuliliaofz

VIEWS: 1 PAGES: 120

									THE STATE STATISTIC DEPARTMENT
OF THE MINISTRY OF MACROECONOMICS AND STATISTICS
OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN




WOMEN AND MEN
OF UZBEKISTAN
STATISTICAL COLLECTION




TASHKENT • 2002
The collection of sex-segregated statistics “Women and Men of Uzbekistan”
is the result of joint collaboration of the group of specialists representing
the State Statistics Department of the Ministry of Macroeconomics and Sta-
tistics of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Women’s Committee of the Republic
of Uzbekistan and the Association of Businesswomen.

Publication and printing of the statistics’ collection was made possible
with the support of the Asian Development Bank Resident Representative
mission and the UNDP/Government of Uzbekistan “Development Support
Services to the Government of Uzbekistan” programme.

Tashkent, 2002




Translators: Elena Petrova, Umida Rizayeva
Computer design: Kakhramon Abidjanov

2                      WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
                       statistical collection
CONTENTS


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Health service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Employment and labor market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Gender aspects of entrepreneurship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

State administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Time budget . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Social security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

Criminality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117




                                                                                            3
    INTRODUCTION


    We must always remember — the way the society treats women illustrates
    the level of culture, spirituality of the society, as well as the achievements
    of the society on the path of democratic transformations
                                                                     Islam Karimov

    Gender equality is one of the conditions for achieving justice and sustainable
    human development. It is a crucial issue for newly independent nations that
    are advancing towards market economy and overcoming serious difficulties
    of transitional period.
    The achievement of gender equality and gender balance in modern society,
    consideration of needs and interests of both sexes, provision of equal opportu-
    nities implies the improvement of position of both women and men, effective
    economic development, strengthening of family and improvement of physi-
    cal, moral and ethical upbringing of children.
    In the majority of countries women comprise over 50 % of population and their
    participation in the decision making process and economy is an integral com-
    ponent of socially equitable sustainable development.
    In 1995, the 4th World Women’s Conference in Beijing had determined
    the priorities of global movement of women in improving the position of women
    and the fundamental way of ensuring the achievement of actual gender equal-
    ity — support and protection of women by the state. These priorities were
    confirmed at the UN General Assembly’s special session in June 2000.
    Having joined UN as a full member, Uzbekistan ratified the Convention “On the Eli-
    mination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women” and other interna-
    tional treaties and conventions ensuring protection of equality of women.
    The legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan, developed during the years
    of independence, establishes political, economical, legal and organizational



4
mechanisms and demonstrates adherence of the nation to the policy of equal
gender opportunities in all spheres of the society.
The laws of Republic of Uzbekistan guarantee equal rights for women and men
in labor as an integral right of all people; right for equal access to employment
opportunities, free choice of profession, education, right for social security
in case of retirement, unemployment, sickness and disability as well as the right
for health protection and safe working conditions.
The mechanisms establishing favorable conditions for successful development
of women’s movement and full implementation of women’s potential are cur-
rently under way in the country.
Thus, the President of Republic of Uzbekistan has issued a special decree dated
March 2, 1995 “On measures to enhance the role of women in the state building
and societal development of the Republic of Uzbekistan” which introduces
the position of the Deputy Prime-Minister in charge of Women’s Affairs
and corresponding positions of Deputy Khokims at regional, city and district
levels in order to stimulate the participation of women in socio-economical
and cultural development of the nation, strengthen social protection of family,
motherhood and childhood and coordinate activities of local governing authori-
ties, ministries and agencies of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Secretariats
on Social Protection of Family, Motherhood and Childhood have been estab-
lished and are operated in the Cabinet of Ministers and in the communities.
The process of harmonization of gender relations is an integral part of the gene-
ral process of democratization. However, democratization per se is not going
to automatically lead to the solution of gender problems. The extreme com-
plexity of gender problems requires a comprehensive approach to their reso-
lution as well as an extended and step-by-step advancement towards
the intended objectives. It is extremely important to engage general public
in this process and raise the awareness of civil society and each individual
on importance of active participation in provision of:
• Rights and freedoms of women together with the rights and freedoms
    of men;
• Conditions for full participation of women and men in decision making
    processes at all levels of governance;
• Equal rights and opportunities in labor market, in business and finance;
• Health protection of women and men and extension of life expectancy;
• Conditions for active involvement of men in nurturing children and house-
    hold activities;
• Education and promotion of rights of women among population.


INTRODUCTION                                                                   5
    In order to assess gender disparities in the country, develop policies with gender
    perspective, monitor their implementation and take measures to support gen-
    der in development, it is vital to receive accurate and complete information
    on the progress of these processes on a regular basis.
    In accordance with article 206a of the Beijing Platform of Action adopted
    by the 4th World Conference on Women in 1995, national statistical services
    are expected to provide collection, processing, analysis and submission of statis-
    tical data pertaining to people with the breakdown by sex and age, so that
    it reflects the problems and issues related to the status of men and women
    in the society.
    In order to adequately reflect the situation with regards to gender issues
    in Uzbekistan within the framework of official statistics, and to implement
    the country’s obligations to develop gender desegregated statistics, an inter-
    sectoral branch of statistics — gender desegregated statistics — has been es-
    tablished and is currently being developed. The present publication is in fact
    the second, amended and further elaborated edition of this kind in a series
    of works on gender desegregated statistics, prepared jointly with the govern-
    ment and nongovernmental organizations dealing with the issues of gender
    development and equality.
    The preparation of the present book encompassed governmental and institu-
    tional statistical data, household survey materials, and research by non-gov-
    ernmental organizations on gender issues.
    In the process of preparation of the statistical reference book, the authors made
    an effort to follow international standards and requirements in developing
    the content and composition of indieces that reflect real processes of gender
    development in the country.
    The present publication will be a source of information and the foundation
    for planning and evaluation of efforts to develop gender equality, as well
    as the basis for educational work on harmonizing gender relations.
    The book comprises 9 sections. It contains information on population and its
    migration flows, common diseases and sickness rate, education and employ-
    ment through “gender lens”. It is the first attempt to present statistically sub-
    stantiated state of affairs with regards to women and men in power authorities
    and their involvement in political life and business. However, due to the lack
    of adequate information sources, not all characteristics of gender development
    were sufficiently reflected in present work and the work towards its sophisti-
    cation would be continued. It is also important to point out that some data
    on a number of indexes is a preliminary one and could be specified later.


6   WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
    statistical collection
This publication has been made possible with the support of the Asian Devel-
opment Bank Resident mission in Uzbekistan and UNDP/Government of Uz-
bekistan “Development Support Services to the Government of Uzbekistan”
programme. The overall preparation of the publication and data collection were
provided by the State Department of statistics under the Ministry of Macro-
economics and Statistics, the Women’s Committee of Uzbekistan, and the Asso-
ciation of Business Women of Uzbekistan “Tadbirkor Ayol”. The final version
has been prepared with the assistance of Dona Abdurazakova, UNDP Gender
Adviser, and Mekhri Khudayberdiyeva, Gender Specialist of the Asian Devel-
opment Bank Resident mission in Uzbekistan.




INTRODUCTION                                                                7
    POPULATION


    This section presents the data on the number of population, age and sexual
    composition of population, the number of born and dead, including a cause
    of death, the number of marriages and divorces, migration flows in the context
    of gender.
    Current evaluation of population has been carried out on the basis of the last
    census plus the number of newly born and migrated to this area and minus
    the number of dead and those who left this area.
    Data on newly born and dead is based on the annual statistical ata development
    presented in the statements on civil status drown by the civil register offices.
    The number of newly born means the number of born alive.
    The data on migration of population is based on the statistical data regarding
    registration of people arriving to and leaving their permanent place of residence
    submitted by the agencies of internal affairs.
    The data on the age composition of the population is developed and presented
    in conformity with the number of permanent residents, including temporary
    absent as of the moment of census.
    General ratio of fertility and mortality — the ratio between the number
    of born (alive) and the number of dead respectfully within the calendar year
    and the average annual number of permanent residents. Shall be calculated
    as per mile.
    Ratio of natural growth — discrepancy between the general ratio of fertility
    and mortality.
    Ratio of infant mortality is calculated as a sum of two multipliers the first
    of which is the ratio between the number of infants aged under one year
    of the generation of those born in the year under calculation and the total number
    of infants born during this year; the second one is the ratio of the number
    of infants aged under one year of the generation born in the preceding year


8
and the total number of infants born in the preceding year. Shall be calculated
as per mile.
The current statistic data shows that the number of women-permanent resi-
dents of the Republic of Uzbekistan was 12,449.2 thousand and the number
of men 12,363.9 thousand respectfully as of the beginning of 2001, that is
50.2 % and 49.8 % of total population.
For the last ten years the number of women has increased by 2029.5 thousand
(19.5 %), men — by 2175.9 thousand (21.4 %).
The age and sex composition of population in Uzbekistan was affected
by the changes taking place in the process of fertility and migration. The dec-
rease in the process of fertility caused the drop of the number of infants
and teenagers (aged 0–15) in the total population (from 43.1 % as of 01/01/1991
to 39.8 % as of 01/01/2001), ratio of aging has remained at the level of the year
1990 (6.45 % in 1990 and 6.47 % in 2000), i. e. according to the scale of Mr. Ras-
set, polish demographer, the population of Uzbekistan is young.
The ratio of women and men is generally improving in Uzbekistan. So, as of the be-
ginning of 1991 1023 women accounted for 1000 men, and as of the beginning
of 2001 women accounted 1007.
At the same time sex disproportion is a bit higher among aged people. Among
the population of 50 and above women account 1.2 times as much as men,
at the age of 65 and above — in 1.4 times. The overbalance of women among
aged groups is caused not only by the loss of life during the war but also
by a higher rate of mortality among men.
The reproductive ability of women is of great importance for the country. Cur-
rently the situation in Uzbekistan is characterized by the decrease of fertility.
The ratio of fertility in 2000 was 21.3 per mile, as compared to 33.7 in 1990.
Among the reasons fairly predetermining the decrease of fertility within the last
decade it is necessary to mention the drop of the number of women at the most
favorable reproductive age (20–29). Within the period from 1991 to 2001
(as of the beginning of 2001) this rate has dropped from 50.6 % to 49.6 %.
In addition to certain structural factors the decrease of fertility was also affect-
ed by the drop of the intensity of child bearing. Total ratio of fertility has
dropped from 4.199 in 1991 to 2.585, that is on 38.4 %. The fall of fertility
has affected almost all age groups.
The most widely spread means of family planning is the use of contraceptives
though the number of abortions is still rater high (in 2000 11.8 abortions ac-
counted for 100 deliveries). The number of abortions is dropping more quick

POPULATION                                                                        9
     than the number of deliveries (including still-born). In 2000 the number
     of abortions decreased by 27.3% as compared to 1997. And the number
     of deliveries (including still-born) has dropped by 13.3%.
     The last years are characterized by the drop of marriages. 168.9 thousand
     marriages were registered in 2000, that is 101.4 thousand less than in 1991.
     The number of divorces registered in 2000 was 12.2 thousand less than in 1991.




10   WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
     statistical collection
                                                                                                                                        Permanent residents
                                                                                                                                    as on the beginning of the year
POPULATION




                                                 1991       1992         1993       1994       1995       1996       1997       1998       1999       2000       2001

             Thousand people

               Total                         20,607.7    21,106.3   21,602.2     22,091.9   22,461.6   22,906.5   23,348.6   23,772.3   24,135.6   24,487.7   24,813.1

                  women                      10,419.7    10,662.5   10,907.1     11,143.8   11,326.3   11,535.6   11,747.7   11,952.4   12,127.4   12,294.4   12,449.2

                  men                        10,188.0    10,443.8   10,695.1     10,948.1   11,135.5   11,370.9   11,600.9   11,819.9   12,008.2   12,193.3   12,363.9
               Urban population               8,305.2     8,450.0      8,526.0    8,614.8    8,670.9    8,768.1    8,878.4    8,993.2    9,086.5    9,165.5    9,225.3

                  women                       4,236.6     4,308.4      4,344.7    4,385.6    4,416.9    4,458.2    4,511.3    4,566.5    4,610.0    4,643.6    4,669.5

                  men                         4,068.6     4,141.6      4,181.3    4,229.2    4,254.0    4,309.9    4,367.1    4,426.7    4,476.5    4,521.9    4,555.8
               Rural populatio               12,302.5    12,656.3   13,076.2     13,477.1   13,790.7   14,138.4   14,470.2   14,779.1   15,049.1   15,322.2   15,587.8

                  women                        6,183.1    6,354.1      6,562.4    6,758.2    6,909.4    7,077.4    7,236.4    7,385.9    7,517.4    7,650.8    7,779.7

                  men                         6,119.4     6,302.2      6,513.8    6,718.9    6,881.3    7,061.0    7,233.8    7,393.2    7,531.7    7,671.4    7,808.1
             Ratio of men an w omen in the total population, percent

               Total                            100.0      100.0        100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0

                  women                          50.6        50.5        50.5        50.4       50.4       50.4       50.3       50.3       50.2       50.2       50.2

                  men                            49.4        49.5        49.5        49.6       49.6       49.6       49.7       49.7       49.8       49.8       49.8
               Urban population                 100.0      100.0        100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0

                  women                          51.0        51.0        51.0        51.0       51.0       50.8       50.8       50.8       50.7       50.7       50.6

                  men                            49.0        49.0        49.0        49.0       49.0       49.2       49.2       49.2       49.3       49.3       49.4
               Rural population                 100.0      100.0        100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0      100.0

                  women                          50.2        50.2        50.2        50.1       50.1       50.0       50.0       50.0       50.0       49.9       49.9

                  men                            49.8        49.8        49.8        49.9       49.9       50.0       50.0       50.0       50.0       50.1       50.1
 11
                12




                                                                                                                            Dynamics of population
                                                                                                                                    thousand of people
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                  Existing population*            Number of new ly born               Number of dead
                              Years
                                              both sexes          w omen         men both sexes    w omen         men both sexes   w omen        men
                              1991                20,702.8        10,475.3   10,227.5     723.4      351.2        372.2    130.3     61.0        69.3
                              1992                21,201.3        10,718.1   10,483.2     710.5      345.5        365.0    140.1     66.8        73.3
                              1993                21,697.2        10,962.8   10,734.4     692.3      336.7        355.6    145.3     70.1        75.2
                              1994                22,186.9        11,199.5   10,987.4     657.7       315.1       342.6    148.4     71.6        76.8
                              1995                22,556.7        11,382.0    11,174.7    678.0      328.3        349.7    145.4     69.6        75.8
                              1996                23,001.6        11,591.4    11,410.2    634.8      308.0        326.8    144.8     68.9        75.9
                              1997                23,443.7        11,803.5    11,640.2    602.7      292.7        310.0    137.3     65.4        71.9
                              1998                23,867.4        12,008.2    11,859.2    553.7      268.8        284.9    140.5     68.0        72.5
                              1999                24,230.6        12,183.1   12,047.5     544.8      264.7        280.1    130.5     62.2        68.3
                              2000                24,582.8        12,350.1   12,232.7     527.6      256.3        271.3    135.6     64.8        70.8
                              2001                24,908.2        12,504.9   12,403.3


                              * as of the beginning of the year
                                                                    Number of permanent residents by sex as on January 1, 1998
                                                                                                                           thousand people
POPULATION




                                                           Total population               Urban population                Rural population
                                            both sexes    w omen         men both sexes   w omen       men both sexes    w omen       men

             Republic of Uz bekistan         23,772.3    11,952.4    11,819.9   8,993.2   4,566.5   4,426.7   14,779.1   7,385.9   7,393.2
               Republic of Karakalpakstan      1,459.1     731.2       727.9      701.8    354.7     347.1      757.3     376.5      380.8
               Provinces:
                 Andijan                       2,114.9    1,062.0     1,052.9     632.7    320.4     312.3    1,482.2     741.6      740.6
                 Bukhara                      1,380.8      694.2       686.6      437.9    220.1     217.8      942.9     474.1      468.8
                 Djizak                         943.7      473.5       470.2      288.6    147.2     141.4      655.1     326.3      328.8
                 Kashkaarya                   2,075.8     1,037.5     1,038.3     534.4    266.7     267.7    1,541.4     770.8      770.6
                 Navoi                          768.1      382.7       385.4      311.9    153.8     158.1      456.2     228.9      227.3
                 Namangan                     1,858.0      928.0       930.0      700.0    350.6     349.4    1,158.0     577.4      580.6
                 Samarkand                    2,586.7     1,298.1     1,288.6     717.0    363.5     353.5    1,869.7     934.6      935.1
                 Surkhanddarya                1,666.4      828.7       837.7      334.7    167.6     167.1    1,331.7     661.1      670.6
                 Sirdarya                       627.6      313.4       314.2      203.9      99.1    104.8      423.7     214.3      209.4
                 Tashkent                     2,303.3     1,162.7     1,140.6     942.7    482.0     460.7    1,360.6     680.7      679.9
                 Fergana                      2,585.9     1,300.0     1,285.9     753.2    385.7     367.5    1,832.7     914.3      918.4
                 Chorezm                      1,276.5      643.3       633.2      308.9    158.0     150.9      967.6     485.3      482.3
               Tashkent city                  2,125.5     1,097.1     1,028.4
 13
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                                                                                     Number of permanent residents by sex as on January 1, 1999
                                                                                                                                            thousand people
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                            Total population               Urban population                Rural population
                                                             both sexes    w omen         men both sexes   w omen       men both sexes    w omen       men

                              Republic of Uz bekistan         24,135.6    12,127.4    12,008.2   9,086.5   4,610.0   4,476.5   15,049.1   7,517.4   7,531.7
                                Republic of Karakalpakstan     1,478.8      740.8       738.0      713.9    360.8     353.1      764.9     380.0      384.9
                                Provinces:
                                  Andijan                      2,151.7     1,079.6     1,072.1     642.6    325.4     317.2     1,509.1    754.2      754.9
                                  Bukhara                      1,400.8      704.2       696.6      438.3    220.2     218.1      962.5     484.0      478.5
                                  Djizak                         958.4      480.7       477.7      291.2    148.5     142.7      667.2     332.2      335.0
                                  Kashkaarya                    2,119.6    1,059.3     1,060.3     542.7    270.9     271.8    1,576.9     788.4      788.5
                                  Navoi                          775.5      386.4        389.1     314.2    155.0     159.2      461.3     231.4      229.9
                                  Namangan                     1,890.7      943.5       947.2      711.4    355.9     355.5    1,179.3     587.6      591.7
                                  Samarkand                    2,627.3     1,318.0     1,309.3     720.7    365.3     355.4    1,906.6     952.7      953.9
                                  Surkhanddarya                1,701.8       846.1      855.7      340.0    170.2     169.8    1,361.8     675.9      685.9
                                  Sirdarya                       635.4      317.2       318.2      205.3     99.7     105.6      430.1     217.5      212.6
                                  Tashkent                     2,326.9     1,173.8     1,153.1     945.4    482.9     462.5    1,381.5     690.9      690.6
                                  Fergana                      2,627.3     1,320.1     1,307.2     766.6    392.4     374.2    1,860.7     927.7      933.0
                                  Chorezm                      1,298.7      654.2       644.5      311.5    159.3     152.2      987.2     494.9      492.3
                                Tashkent city                  2,142.7     1,103.5     1,039.2
                                                                    Number of permanent residents by sex as on January 1, 2000
                                                                                                                         thousand of people
POPULATION




                                                           Total population               Urban population                Rural population
                                            both sexes    w omen         men both sexes   w omen       men both sexes    w omen       men

             Republic of Uz bekistan         24,487.7    12,294.4    12,193.3   9,165.5   4,643.6   4,521.9   15,322.2   7,650.8   7,671.4
               Republic of Karakalpakstan     1,503.0      752.2       750.8      724.2    365.8     358.4      778.8     386.4      392.4
               Provinces:
                 Andijan                      2,186.2     1,096.4     1,089.8     657.5    332.8     324.7     1,528.7    763.6      765.1
                 Bukhara                      1,419.3      713.4       705.9      440.7    221.0     219.7      978.6     492.4      486.2
                 Djizak                         974.8      488.5       486.3      294.7    150.1     144.6       680.1    338.4      341.7
                 Kashkaarya                   2,166.8     1,082.6     1,084.2     551.3    275.2     276.1     1,615.5    807.4      808.1
                 Navoi                          783.3       390.1      393.2      316.7    156.0     160.7      466.6     234.1      232.5
                 Namangan                     1,924.3      960.5       963.8      722.6    361.5     361.1     1,201.7    599.0      602.7
                 Samarkand                    2,670.3     1,339.1     1,331.2     724.1    366.8     357.3     1,946.2    972.3      973.9
                 Surkhanddarya                1,736.7      863.0       873.7      344.8    172.5     172.3     1,391.9    690.5      701.4
                 Sirdarya                       642.2      320.5       321.7      206.1    100.1     106.0       436.1    220.4      215.7
                 Tashkent                     2,350.2     1,184.5     1,165.7     949.7    484.5     465.2     1,400.5    700.0      700.5
                 Fergana                      2,664.4     1,337.3     1,327.1     776.1    396.7     379.4     1,888.3    940.6      947.7
                 Chorezm                      1,323.9      666.6       657.3      314.7    160.9     153.8     1,009.2    505.7      503.5
               Tashkent city                  2,142.3     1,099.7     1,042.6
 15
                16




                                                                                     Number of permanent residents by sex as on January 1, 2001
                                                                                                                                          thousand of people
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                            Total population               Urban population                Rural population
                                                             both sexes    w omen         men both sexes   w omen       men both sexes    w omen       men

                              Republic of Uz bekistan         24,813.1    12,449.2    12,363.9   9,225.3   4,669.5   4,555.8   15,587.8   7,779.7    7,808.1
                                Republic of Karakalpakstan     1,527.0      764.0       763.0      738.4    372.8     365.6      788.6     391.2      397.4
                                Provinces:
                                  Andijan                      2,216.5     1,110.7     1,105.8     665.6    336.9     328.7     1,550.9    773.8      777.1
                                  Bukhara                      1,437.7      722.7       715.0      442.6    221.8     220.8       995.1    500.9      494.2
                                  Djizak                         991.5      496.7       494.8      298.2    152.0     146.2      693.3     344.7      348.6
                                  Kashkaarya                   2,212.5     1,105.1     1,107.4     559.1    279.0     280.1     1,653.4    826.1      827.3
                                  Navoi                          791.1      393.7       397.4      319.1    157.0     162.1      472.0     236.7      235.3
                                  Namangan                     1,953.2      974.4       978.8      731.8    365.7     366.1     1,221.4    608.7      612.7
                                  Samarkand                    2,710.0     1,358.3     1,351.7     727.6    368.4     359.2     1,982.4    989.9      992.5
                                  Surkhanddarya                1,770.4      879.3        891.1     349.3    175.0     174.3     1,421.1    704.3      716.8
                                  Sirdarya                       649.9      324.3       325.6      207.9    101.0     106.9      442.0     223.3      218.7
                                  Tashkent                     2,370.2     1,193.5     1,176.7     950.4    484.3     466.1     1,419.8    709.2      710.6
                                  Fergana                      2,697.5     1,353.1     1,344.4     780.8    398.7     382.1     1,916.7    954.4      962.3
                                  Chorezm                      1,347.7      678.3       669.4      316.6    161.8     154.8     1,031.1    516.5      514.6
                                Tashkent city                  2,137.9     1,095.1     1,042.8
                                                                 Age composition of the population as of January 1
                                                                                                              thousand of people
POPULATION




                                                         1998                  1999                  2000                  2001
                                           w omen        men     w omen        men     w omen        men     w omen        men
             Total populationЌ
             Total                         11,952.4   11,819.9   12,127.4   12,008.2   12,294.4   12,193.3   12,449.2   12,363.9
                including at the age of:
                     0–2                     911.5      960.3      853.6       901.1     811.3      853.4      774.4      814.4
                     3–5                     954.6      997.6      943.5      986.4      923.3      969.4      902.3      949.3
                     6–7                     655.8      679.6      664.4      688.5      645.8      673.9      624.0      651.9
                     8–15                   2,380.3    2,438.0    2,435.0    2,502.2    2,497.0    2,570.1    2,534.3    2,613.8
                     16–17                    493.1     502.6       512.1     520.3      530.0      536.6      555.3      564.2
                     18–19                   463.7       471.1     476.2      484.9      490.2       501.1     508.8      517.9
                     20–24                  1,049.0    1,065.8    1,071.9    1,085.9    1,101.5    1,117.6    1,126.2    1,144.5
                     25–29                   946.3      937.2      961.4      965.4      984.6      990.0      999.2     1,013.6
                     30–34                   867.3      829.7      871.7      832.8      867.5      835.2       878.1      848.1
                     35–39                   821.8      801.5      839.0      812.8      851.2      822.3      856.3      820.8
                     40–49                  1,023.0     986.9     1,102.9    1,065.5    1,177.7    1,137.2    1,242.9    1,201.1
                     50–59                   526.2       512.1     520.4       505.1     520.6      505.5      542.4      523.7
                     60–69                   486.5      426.9      492.3      432.6      497.7      438.6      502.7      448.7
                     70 and above            373.3      210.6      383.0      224.7      396.0      242.4      402.3      251.9
 17
                18




                                                                                                                           continuation
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                     1998                1999                2000                 2001
                                                         w omen      men     w omen      men     w omen      men     w omen       men
                              Urban population
                              Total                      4,566.5   4,426.7   4,610.0   4,476.5   4,643.6   4,521.9   4,669.5   4,555.8
                              including at the age of:
                                      0–2                 283.5     298.0     266.2     281.3     252.2     266.8     241.1      253.7
                                      3–5                 297.8     313.0     291.7     305.8     288.7     302.8     282.2      296.5
                                      6–7                 209.5     216.8     213.2     221.1     202.4     212.3     191.9      201.8
                                      8–15                805.1     827.4     815.0     839.8     828.0     854.3     831.9      859.8
                                      16–17               172.4     176.6     177.2     181.4     183.9     186.8     192.6      196.2
                                      18–19               169.3     171.1     172.9     176.4     176.8     182.6     180.9      186.8
                                      20–24               401.5     405.9     406.0     408.0     411.3     415.6     415.1      422.0
                                      25–29               380.1     408.3     386.6     413.4     391.0     405.4     390.7      399.3
                                      30–34               339.1     330.1     340.8     337.5     339.5     349.9     347.3      365.0
                                      35–39               341.7     326.7     343.7     327.6     343.8     329.6     340.2      326.0
                                      40–49               478.9     445.7     505.4     472.0     527.3     492.8     546.0      510.6
                                      50–59               262.7     236.1     259.6     233.3     261.6     236.6     270.1      244.5
                                      60–69               231.6     181.3     233.8     184.3     234.4     185.7     235.5      190.3
                                      70 and above        193.3      89.7     197.9      94.6     202.7     100.7     204.0      103.3
                                                                                                             continuation
POPULATION




                                                       1998                1999                2000                 2001
                                           w omen      men     w omen      men     w omen      men     w omen       men
             Rural population
             Total                         7,385.9   7,393.2   7,517.4   7,531.7   7,650.8   7,671.4   7,779.7   7,808.1
                including at the age of:
                     0–2                    628.0     662.3     587.4     619.8     559.1     586.6     533.3      560.7
                     3–5                    656.8     684.6     651.8     680.6     634.6     666.6     620.1      652.8
                     6–7                    446.3     462.8     451.2     467.4     443.4     461.6     432.1      450.1
                     8–15                  1,575.2   1,610.6   1,620.0   1,662.4   1,669.0   1,715.8   1,702.4   1,754.0
                     16–17                  320.7     326.0     334.9     338.9     346.1     349.8     362.7      368.0
                     18–19                  294.4     300.0     303.3     308.5     313.4     318.5     327.9      331.1
                     20–24                  647.5     659.9     665.9     677.9     690.2     702.0      711.1     722.5
                     25–29                  566.2     528.9     574.8     552.0     593.6     584.6     608.5      614.3
                     30–34                  528.2     499.6     530.9     495.3     528.0     485.3     530.8      483.1
                     35–39                  480.1     474.8     495.3     485.2     507.4     492.7     516.1      494.8
                     40–49                  544.1     541.2     597.5     593.5     650.4     644.4     696.9      690.5
                     50–59                  263.5     276.0     260.8     271.8     259.0     268.9     272.3      279.2
                     60–69                  254.9     245.6     258.5     248.3     263.3     252.9     267.2      258.4
                     70 and above           180.0     120.9     185.1     130.1     193.3     141.7     198.3      148.6
 19
                20




                                                     Women and men ratio by age groups
                                                                   as of the beginning of the year,                                        Types of families
                                                         number of women accounted for 1000 men                                        data of census of 1989
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                           1998      1999        2000        2001                                               In percentage
                              Total                       1,011     1,010       1,008       1,007     One married couple with children                   49.0
                              including at the age of:                                                One married couple without children                 8.9
                                  under 5                   952       951         951         949     One married couple
                                                                                                      with children and without children
                                  6–7                       964       961         961         960     and other relatives                                 8.8
                                  8–19                      980       976         973         968
                                                                                                      Two and more married couples
                                  16–17                     983       984         982         984     with and without children
                                                                                                      and other relatives                                14.7
                                  18–19                     984       987         986         984
                                  20–24                   1,010       996         995         986     Mothers with children                               7.5

                                  25–29                   1,045     1,047       1,039       1,035     Fathers with children                               1.1

                                  30–34                   1,025     1,032       1,035       1,043     Mothers (fathers) with children,
                                                                                                      with one of the parents of mother
                                  35–39                   1,027     1,026       1,028       1,029     (father) and other relatives                        1.2
                                  40–49                   1,049     1,048       1,047       1,042     Other families                                      8.8
                                  50–59                   1,016     1,045       1,057       1,064     Total:
                                  60–69                   1,036     1,017         997         992         in %                                          100.0
                                  70 and above            1,076     1,079       1,090       1,087         thousand fam ilies                          3,415.4
                                                                                                Marital status of population by age
                                                                                                                  data of census of 1989
POPULATION




                                     N ever                                                                                       Total
                               been married            Married            Widow s            Divorced
                                                                                                                  %     thousand people
                            w omen     men    w omen     men     w omen      men    w omen       men    w omen   men    w omen     men
             15 years         16.9     13.2        -         -        -       0.1        -          -      3.5    3.8    209.9    214.0
             16–19 years      54.3     47.3      2.8       0.3      0.1       0.3      1.0        0.2     13.1   13.8     779.1   779.7
             20–24 years      19.3     31.5     16.7       9.7      0.6       1.1     10.4        7.2     15.2   15.7    904.9    885.7
             25–29 years       5.0      5.1     20.2      20.4      1.4       2.1     17.9       18.9     14.8   15.6     885.1   880.0
             30–34 years       1.8      1.3     16.1      17.2      2.1       2.1     17.2       17.3     11.6   12.3     693.1   692.5
             35–39 years       0.8      0.6     11.6      12.5      2.8       2.3     14.4       15.4      8.5    8.9    508.0    501.6
             40–49 years       0.6      0.5     13.0      14.9      7.2       7.1     17.0       19.9      9.9   10.7    591.8    602.0
             50–59 years       0.5      0.3     12.2      14.2     17.4      22.6     13.5       14.9     10.4   10.4     620.1   585.1
             60–69 years       0.5      0.1      5.7       7.2     28.9      25.6      6.4        4.7      7.3    5.5     434.1   309.1
             70 and above      0.3      0.1      1.7       3.6     39.5      36.7      2.2        1.5      5.7    3.3     340.1   184.1
 21
                22




                                                                         Some indicators
                                                              of the demographic situation
                                                                            as of January 1, 2001                             Total fertility rate
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                       Population,   Total fertility                Total       Urban        Rural
                                                                  thousand people             ratio    Years   population   population   population
                                                                                         number
                                                             w omen          men      of children      1991         4.199        3.130        4.994
                              Republic of Uz bekistan        12,449.2     12,363.9              2.6    1992         4.004        3.000        4.726
                                Republic of Karakalpakstan     764.0         763.0              2.8    1993         3.800        2.792        4.500
                                Provinces:                                                             1994         3.537        2.693        4.091
                                  Andijan                     1,110.7      1,105.8              2.3    1995         3.596        2.802        4.125
                                  Bukhara                      722.7         715.0              2.3    1996         3.308        2.623        3.759
                                  Djizak                       496.7         494.8              3.2    1997         3.082        2.453        3.491
                                  Kashkadarya                 1,105.1      1,107.4              3.3    1998         2.815        2.259        3.175
                                  Navoi                        393.7         397.4              2.3    1999         2.720        2.189        3.061
                                  Namangan                     974.4         978.8              2.5    2000         2.585        2.095        2.894
                                  Samarkand                   1,358.3      1,351.7              2.9
                                  Surkhandarya                 879.3         891.1              3.3
                                  Syrdarya                     324.3         325.6              2.8
                                  Tashkent                    1,193.5      1,176.7              2.3
                                  Fergana                     1,353.1      1,344.4              2.3
                                  Khorezm                      678.3         669.4              2.7
                                Tashkent city                 1,095.1      1,042.8              1.8
                                                                              Number of born alive, by age and sequence of birth in 2000
POPULATION




                                                      Total population                                Urban population                              Rural population
                                number      including the sequence of birth     number      including the sequence of birth   number      including the sequence of birth
                                 of born                                         of born                                       of born
                                children    1 child   2 children 3 and more     children    1 child   2 children 3 and more   children    1 child   2 children 3 and more

             Total             527,580 186,397 152,257 188,926 163,834                     65,796      48,515     49,523 363,746 120,601 103,742 139,403
                15–19           28,179     26,294       1,827           58      10,217      9,513         680           24    17,962     16,781       1,147           34
                20–24          228,743 122,237         86,080     20,426        69,369     39,569      24,724       5,076 159,374        82,668      61,356     15,350
                25–29          160,082     27,298      49,392     83,392        48,315     11,458      16,436      20,421 111,767        15,840      32,956      62,971
                30–34           78,316      7,509      11,304     59,503        25,084      3,684       4,938     16,462      53,232      3,825       6,366      43,041
                35–39           26,866      2,520       3,054     21,292         9,095      1,281       1,445       6,369     17,771      1,239       1,609     14,923
                40–44            4,979        538         542       3,899        1,639        291         269       1,079      3,340        247         273       2,820
                45–49              348           1          41        306           96            -         17          79       252           1          24        227
                50–54               49            -         14          35          16            -          5          11        33            -          9          24
                55 and above        18            -          3          15            3           -           1          2        15            -          2          13
 23
                24




                                                                     Death rate, by sex in 2000 and major death reason
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                         Number, individuals     Per 100,000 of population
                                                                     w omen            men       w omen              men
                              Total                                  64,804          70,794        521.4            574.7
                                 Cardio-vascular diseases            37,884          33,503        304.8            271.9
                                 Accidents, poisoning, traumas        2,739            7,941        22.0              64.4
                                 Tumors                               4,704            4,979        37.8              40.4
                                 Respiratory diseases                 7,217            8,489        58.0              68.9
                                 Digestion diseases                   3,323            4,241        26.7              34.4
                                 Infections and parasitic diseases    1,839           3,275         14.7              26.5
                                 Other diseases                       7,098           8,366         57.1              67.9
                                                                                                           Death rate, by age and sex in 2000
POPULATION




                                                                                            Number of dead                 Per 100,000 of populatio
                                                                      w omen, 16–54              men, 16–59       w omen, 16–54        men, 16–59
             Total                                                           11,390                  24,354               177.9              372.4
                Cardio-vascular diseases                                         2,953                7,581                46.1              115.9
                Accidents, poisoning, traumas                                    1,339                5,661                20.9                86.5
                Tumors                                                           1,843                2,123                28.7                32.4
                Respiratory diseases                                              820                 1,340                12.8                20.4
                Digestion diseases                                               1,285                2,326                20.0                35.5
                Infections and parasitic diseases                                 966                 2,184                15.0                33.3
                Other diseases                                                   2,184                3,139                34.1                47.9




                                                                                                                         Mortality rate in 2000
                                         an average annual number of dead individuals accounted to 1000 of population of the respective age and sex


                                                                                    Women, at the age                              Men, at the age
                                                              total     15–19        20–24        25–29        total    15–19     20–24      25–29
             Total population                                5.238       0.532           0.980     1.260      5.766     0.947     1.554      2.173
                Urban population                             6.214       0.499           0.886     1.223      7.093     0.990     1.884      2.542
                Rural population                             4.649       0.550           1.035     1.284      4.987     0.924     1.360      1.925
 25
                26




                                                                                       Maternal mortality*
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                        1992    1993     1994    1995      1996    1997    1998    1999    2000    on 100,000 infants born alive

                              Number of w omen died from a complicated pregnancy,
                              child-birth and post-natal period, total

                                        360.0   289.0   253.0   219.0      132.0   174.0   158.0   170.0   182.0
                              Accounted to 100,000 of infants born alive
                                         51.0    40.6    38.6     32.2      20.7    28.5    28.6    31.2    34.5


                              * Data of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan




                                                                                            Infant mortality

                                        1992    1993     1994    1995      1996    1997    1998    1999    2000
                              Number of dead at the age under one accounted to 1000 new ly born
                              girls
                                         32.3    27.4    24.5     22.4      21.6    19.8    18.7    17.3    16.6
                              boys
                                         42.2    36.4    31.5     29.3      26.7    25.6    24.7    22.9    21.2
                                                                                            Infant mortality rate
                                              number of dead at the age under one year accounted to 1000 of born alive
POPULATION




                                             1997                  1998                   1999                  2000
             Total population                22.8                   21.8                  20.2                   18.9
                 Urban population            25.2                   24.3                  23.2                   22.4
                 Rural population            21.7                   20.6                  18.9                   17.3




                                                                             Life expectancy at birth, by sex
                                                                                                      number of years


                                                    1997                          1998                          1999
                                    w omen          men         w omen            men            w omen          men
             Total population         72,7           68,1           73,0           68,2            73,1          68,2
             out of them:
                 Urban population     74,0           69,1           74,1           69,1            74,2          69,1
                 Rural population     71,4          66,8            71,6           66,9            71,6          66,9
 27
                28




                                                                        Number of women and men at highest fertility age (20–39)
                                                                                                        as of January 1, 2001
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                        Thousand people       % of the total population       Women
                                                                                                                           accounted
                                                              w omen               men       w omen               men     to 100 men
                              Republic of Uz bekistan         3,859.8            3,827.0        50.2              49.8       1,009.0
                                 Republic of Karakalpakstan    245.8              242.8         50.3              49.7       1,012.0
                                 Provinces:
                                     Andijan                   358.0              351.7         50.4              49.6       1,018.0
                                     Bukhara                   237.3              231.7         50.6              49.4       1,024.0
                                     Djizak                    145.4              142.1         50.6              49.4       1,023.0
                                     Kashkaarya                327.2              312.4         51.2              48.8       1,047.0
                                     Navoi                     124.6              129.5         49.0              51.0         962.0
                                     Namangan                  305.9              301.6         50.4              49.6       1,014.0
                                     Samarkand                 400.9              389.1         50.7              49.3       1,030.0
                                     Surkhanddarya             258.8              256.8         50.2              49.8       1,008.0
                                     Sirdarya                    98.1              98.5         49.9               50.1        996.0
                                     Tashkent                  364.6              368.3         49.7              50.3         990.0
                                     Fergana                   429.9              425.1         50.3              49.7       1,011.0
                                     Chorezm                   218.6              213.8         50.6              49.4       1,022.0
                                 Tashkent city                 344.7              363.6         48.7              51.3         948.0
                                                         Number of registered marriages and divorces
                                                                                                 thousand
POPULATION




                                      Number of marriages                              Number of divorces
             Year
                    total   in urban area     in rural area         total   in urban area     in rural area
             1991   270.3           102.4            167.9          33.3             23.4               9.9
             1992   235.9            87.4            148.5          32.8             24.5               8.3
             1993   225.4            82.4            143.0          27.0             19.6               7.4
             1994   176.3            67.0            109.3          24.3             18.0               6.3
             1995   170.8            62.6            108.2          21.2             16.0               5.2
             1996   171.7            63.3            108.4          20.2             14.7               5.5
             1997   181.1            68.2            112.9          21.5             15.6               5.9
             1999   175.9            66.4            109.5          22.3             14.7               7.6
             2000   168.9            65.1            103.8          19.9             12.2               7.7
 29
                30




                                                                                                                Number of marriages by age in 2000
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                         Total                                                                        Age of a fiance
                              Age of a fiancee      number of
                                                    marriages      u n d er 18   18–19    20–24    25–29    30–34   35–39   40–44    45–49 ab o ve 50
                              Total                      168,908         158     8,625   102,113   41,332   8,139   3,369    1,911   1,118      2,143
                              including at the age of:
                                  under 18                 9,606           51    1,711     6,732    1,032      69       8       3        -          -
                                  18–19                   52,422           87    5,600   38,985     7,320     361      55       7        1         6
                                  20–24                   84,289           19    1,280   54,562    25,189   2,631     416     144       30        18
                                  25–29                   13,386            1       33     1,669    7,135   3,129     944     305      103        67
                                  30–34                    4,351             -       1      147      558    1,659   1,124     467      207       188
                                  35–39                    2,103             -       -       14       85      238     675     528      257       306
                                  40–44                    1,134             -       -         1      13       41     122     343      261       353
                                  45–49                     626              -       -         -        -       9      22      94      193       308
                                  50 and above              991              -       -        3         -       2       3      20       66       897




                                       on 1000 population
                                                     Number of married by sex, age and preceding marriage status in 2000
POPULATION




                                                                 Married w omen                                           Married men
             Age                 n ever
                                                                      did not show
                                                                                           n ever
                                                                                                                           did not show
                                          w idow s        divorced   their marriage                 w idow s   divorced   their marriage
                          being married                                      status being married                                 status

             Total            161,660      1,016            5,726             506       156,944      2,160       8,840             964
             including:
               under 20         61,935         14              70                9         8,760          4         19                 -
               20–24            83,300       103              815               71      101,192          95        742               84
               25–29            11,521       147            1,571             146         38,707       197       2,181             247
               30–34             2,869        191           1,181             110          5,353       323       2,202              261
               35–39             1,103       123              790              87          1,524       329       1,343             173
               40–44               497         82             509              46            638       294         891               88
               45–49               173         95             340              18            297       236         547               38
               50–54               125         84             223                8           181       156         321               26
               55–59                47         62              81                5           101       126         210               17
               above 60             90        115             146                6           191       400         384               30
 31
                32



                                                Number of divorces by age of divorced and the duration of these marriages in 2000

                                                             Total number                             Including the duration of marriage
                              Age, years                       of divorces   Less then 1    1–4        5–9         10–19    20 and more
                              Women
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                 under 20                             379           141     238          -              -              -
                                 20–24                               4,801          303    3,427     1,071                             -
                                 25–29                              6,009           150    1,373     4,043           443               -
                                 30–34                              3,557            46     385      1,224         1,902               -
                                 35–39                              2,224            32     168        368         1,568             88
                                 40–44                               1,341           22      83        133           565            538
                                 45–49                                783            25      57         70           191            440
                                 50–54                                409             4      33         28            69            275
                                 55–59                                156             3      18         16            26             93
                                 60 and above                         244             6      23         33            46            136
                              Men
                                 under 20                              40            18      22          -              -              -
                                 20–24                              2,012           256    1,614       142              -              -
                                 25–29                              5,984           229    2,748     2,945            62               -
                                 30–34                              4,810            97     767      2,745          1,201              -
                                 35–39                              3,059            39     315        673         2,009             23
                                 40–44                              1,729            32     122        236           994            345
                                 45–49                              1,026            27      83        100           283            533
                                 50–54                                539            14      35         52           121            317
                                 55–59                                258             6      24         34             41           153
                                 60 and above                         446            14      74         61            96            201
                                                                                                 Migration of the population
                                                                                           number of people, distribution against sex
POPULATION




                                       Number of arrived                    Number of leaving                       Migration grow th
                    number of people       in percentage number of people       in percentage number of people         in percentage
                     w omen     men w omen         men w omen       men w omen           men w omen         men w omen          men
             1991   166,472 168,709        49.7     50.3 216,294 206,199        51.2     48.8   -49,822   -37,490      57.1     42.9
             1992   159,276 147,971        51.8     48.2 194,434 181,245        51.8     48.2   -35,158   -33,274      51.4     48.6
             1993   149,105 147,428        50.3     49.7 180,042 175,081        50.7     49.3   -30,937   -27,653      52.8     47.2
             1994   112,276 107,346        51.1     48.9 178,425 181,078        49.6     50.4   -66,149   -73,732      47.3     52.7
             1995    83,060   83,516       49.9     50.1 134,270 121,610        52.5     47.5   -51,210   -38,094      57.3     42.7
             1996    75,273   72,027       51.1     48.9 102,456   95,798       51.7     48.3   -27,183   -23,771      53.3     46.7
             1997    76,173   69,628       52.2     47.8 102,071   92,518       52.5     47.5   -25,898   -22,890      53.1     46.9
             1998    76,883   66,438       53.6     46.4 103,848   89,426       53.7     46.3   -26,965   -22,988      54.0     46.0
             1999    90,280   72,279       55.5     44.5 126,031   98,625       56.1     43.9   -35,751 -26,346        57.6     42.4
             2000    82,245   63,635       56.4     43.6 118,977   93,495       56.0     44.0   -36,732   -29,860      55.2     44.8
 33
     PUBLIC HEALTH

     This section presents statistical data regarding the morbidity rate of the popu-
     lation, including children, youth, women and men; the material and human
     resources of the medical service institutions and etc.
     Morbidity — the ratio of firstly diagnosed patients and number of average
     resident population.
     For processing statistical data on population morbidity, the International Sta-
     tistic Classification of Diseases, Personal injuries and the Death Reasons (the IX
     version of 1975) has been applied to allow comparisons between the states
     with regard of morbidity and mortality.
     The total number of medical proffesionals includes all doctors possessing
     higher medical education as of the end of the year, operating in the hospitals,
     medical preventive health care and recreational institutions, as well as institu-
     tions of upgrading professional qualifications, social security, scientific re-
     search and educational institutions, in public health offices and others.
     Medical service institutions or hospitals provide medical service
     to the hospitalized patients. Medical service institutions mean hospitals, medi-
     cal centers, clinics provided with permanent establishments and other institu-
     tions, which are supplied with beds to provide twenty-four hour medical service
     to the patients it in the number of beds equipped and ready to serve patients,
     which is the subject to statistic collection at the end of the year regardless of their
     occupation by patients.
     Policlinics and primary health care institutions are such institutions which
     provide primary and preventive assistance to the population, both when they
     attend these institutions and at home (policlinics, ambulances, dispensaries,
     policlinics under the hospitals, medical units, independent first-aid stations,
     rural emergency stations, antenatal clinics included into the medical
     and policlinic institutions). The capacity of ambulances and policlinics is as-
     sessed the number of patients per shift. The planned capacity of the ambulance
     and policlinics means their designed power to serve a certain by the number


34
of patients per shift through a specially equipped premises with all necessary
premises, equipment, personnel medicines and transport able to provide med-
ical assistance during certain working hours.
The Population’s health is the most important indicator of the welfare of the
society.
The specific indicators pinpointing the level of economic, moral and psycho-
logical status and the tension of public processes is of morbidity and mortality
ratio of the population caused by social diseases. This includes: tuberculosis,
sexually transmitted diseases, alcohol consumption, drug addiction and drug
abuse, suicides, violent death and so on.
In 2000 the number of women died in the republic was 64,804 and the number
of men — 70,794. As compared to 1990, the death rate among women has
decreased by 6.5 % and men — by 12.7 %.
Among the major diseases causing death, the first place is occupied by cardio-
vascular diseases (58.5 % of women and 47.3 % of men who have died). The
second reason of mortality both among women and men is the respiratory dis-
eases (11.1 % and 12 % respectfully), tumors occupy the third place among
women (7.3 % out of all dead women) and among men it is accidents, poison-
ing and injuries (11.2 % out of all dead men). The mortality among men caused
by almost all above reasons (except cardio-vascular diseases) is visibly higher
than among women.
More than 34.4 % of all men who died in 2000 were able-bodied people
(for women this index is 17.6 %).
The discrepancy in mortality rates causes the difference lifetime for men
and women. At present this rate among women is 4.9 years longer than among
men and is 73.1.
The number of cases of active form of tuberculosis both among men and women
is slowly increasing (counting upon 100 thousand of population). Among those
who are suffering from the active form of tuberculosis, the sickness rate of men
is visibly higher than the rate of women. In 2000, the rate of women suffering
from the active form of tuberculosis and being diagnosed for the first time was
40.7 %, the rate of men — 59.3 %. The mortality among women suffering from
tuberculosis has increased from 4.9 per 100 thousand women 1990 to 8.1
in 2000, and among men from 8.1 to 19.1 respectfully.
The morbidity rate by tbc among people aged 18–34 is the highest, that is,
42.4 % and 43.7 % of women and men have been suffering from the active
form of tuberculosis in 2000 (40 % of them are women, 60 % — men).


HEALTH SERVICE                                                               35
     The morbidity rate of cancer, both among men and women, is also growing
     steadily but (not best) slowly.
     The level of morbidity and the share of women suffering from tumors is high-
     er than the share of men (as per 100,000 of population). In 2000, the share
     of women suffering from this disease was 53.1 % and the rate of men — 46.9 %.
     The sickness rate by sexually transmitted diseases has diverse trends. Thus
     the number and rate of syphilis is decreasing both among men and women.
     The rate of syphilis among women (as per 100 thousand women) is lower than
     among men, however the share of women in the total number of people suf-
     fering from this disease in 2000 is higher than this of men: 50.5 % against
     49.5 %.
     The highest sickness rate both among men and women is in the age group of
     21–29 (43.2 % of all sick women and 36.9 % of all sick men).
     The rate of gonorrhea among women is going up while the rate of men suf-
     fering from the same disease is going down. Among people suffering from
     gonorrhea in 2000, there were 49.7 % of women, and — 50.3 % of men. How-
     ever among children and teenagers (0–14) the percent of girls suffering from
     this disease was 87.5.
     Mental disorders both among women and men are going up, diseases caused
     by heavy alcohol consumption are going down (as per 100 thousand people).
     The ratio of men suffering from diseases caused by heavy alcohol consump-
     tion, as well as from drug addiction, drug abuse and mental disordess is higher
     than that of women.




36   WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
     statistical collection
                         Sickness rate of active form of tuberculosis                              Incidence of oncological diseases,
                                                      by age, in 2000                                                 by age, in 2000
HEALTH SERVICE




                                   Distribution by age,   Distribution by sex,                      Distribution by age,   Distribution by sex,
                                                   in %                  in %                                      in %                      in

                                    w omen        men      w omen        men                         w omen        men      w omen        men
                 0–14                  14.9       12.9        44.1       55.9    0–14                    2.4         3.6       43.5       56.5
                 15–17                  5.0         4.2       45.1       54.9    15–17                   1.0         1.8       38.1       61.9
                 18–34                 42.4       43.7        40.0       60.0    18–44                  27.4       18.9        62.2       37.8
                 35–64                 31.9       34.5        38.8       61.2    45–64                  38.7       38.7        53.1       46.9
                 65 and above           5.8         4.7       46.0       54.0    65 and above           30.5       37.0        48.3       51.7
                 Total                                                           Total
                   in %               100.0      100.0        40.7       59.3      in %                100.0      100.0        53.1       46.9
                   thous. people        6.6         9.6                            thous. people         9.4         8.3
  37
                38




                                                Syphilis morbidity by age, in 2000                           Gonorrhoea morbidity by age, in 2000
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                Distribution by age,   Distribution by sex,                      Distribution by age,   Distribution by sex,
                                                                in %                  in %                                       in %                  in %

                                                 w omen        men      w omen        men                         w omen        men      w omen        men
                              0–14                   0.3         0.5       38.7       61.3    0–14                     1,1        0,2       87,5       12,5
                              15–17                  1.8         0.9       66.0       34.0    15–17                   3,0         2,2       57,1       42,9
                              18–20                  9.3         5.6       62.8       37.2    18–20                  10,4        11,6       46,9        53,1
                              21–29                 43.2       36.9        54.5       45.5    21–29                  48,2       47,5        50,0       50,0
                              30–39                 27.4       31.2        47.3       52.7    30–39                  23,2       24,8        48,0       52,0
                              40 and above          18.0       24.9        42.5       57.5    40 and above           14,1       13,7        50,4       49,6
                              Total                                                           Total
                                in %               100.0      100.0        50.5       49.5      in %                100,0      100,0        49,7       50,3
                                thous. people        3.8         3.7                            thous. people         3,7         3,8
                                                                                          Drug abuse and mental diseases in 2000
HEALTH SERVICE




                                                                                  As per 100,000 people      Distribution by sex, in %
                                                                               w omen             men       w omen               men
                 Number of registered patients diagnosed for the first time:
                     Mental abnormality                                         109.2             182.4        37.6               62.4
                     Alcoholism and dipsomania                                    3.2              27.8        10.4               89.6
                     Drug addiction and rug abuse                                 2.7              43.2         5.9               94.1




                 Mental abnormality,                                            alcoholism and dipsomania
                 on 100,000 population                                          on 100,000 population
  39
                40




                                                                        The sickness rate of population aged 15 and above,
                                                                                        by some infection diseases in 2000
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                            As per 100,000 people     D istribution by sex, in %
                                                                         w omen             men      w omen                men
                              Acute enteri c i nfecti on                  169.7             192.7       47.0               53.0
                                   Includi ng bacteri al dysentery         18.9              20.8       47.8               52.2
                              Vi ral hepati ti s                          222.9             246.5       47.7               52.3
                              D i phtheri a                                  0.0              0.0       25.0               75.0
                              Scarlet fever                                  1.9              2.5       43.2               56.8
                              C hi cken pox                                 22.1             23.8       48.4               51.6
                              Paroti t                                     15.0              21.3       41.2               58.8
                              Measles                                        0.3              0.3       53.4               46.6
                              German measles                                 1.9              2.2       46.5               53.5
                              Meni ngi ti s i nfecti on                      0.3              0.5       39.0               61.0
                              Acute i nfecti on of respi ratory tract    3,997.4          4,360.7       48.0               52.0
                              Influenza                                    17.2              25.7       40.3               59.7
                              S ca b                                       23.7              28.9       45.2               54.8
                              Mi crospori a                                  0.7              1.1       39.6               60.4
                                                                                                        Incidence of diseases among women
HEALTH SERVICE




                                                                                                   Number                    As per 100,000 w omen
                                                                     1997        1998      1999      2000      1997      1998      1999      2000
                 Number of registered patients diagnosed for the first time:
                     cancerous growth                                8,619       9,081     9,308     9,380     72.7      75.4      76.2       75.8
                         mamma                                       1,391       1,479     1,521     1,590      11.7     12.3      12.5       12.9
                         uterus                                      1,561       1,732     1,710     1,592     13.2      14.4      14.0       12.9
                         uterus                                        435        451       476       493        3.7       3.7       3.9       4.0
                     active form of tuberculosis                     5,628       6,208     6,391     6,574     47.5       52.1     52.3       53.1
                     alcoholism and alcoholic psychosis                590        414       528       398        5.0       3.4       4.3       3.2
                     syphilis                                        5,760       5,614     4,760     3,782     48.6      46.6      39.0       30.6
                     gonorrhea                                       3,049       3,283     3,595     3,715     25.7      27.3      29.4       30.0
                     erosion of cervix of uterus, thous. people    45,400       44,200    44,900    39,600    383.1     367.1     367.7      320.1
                     menstruation disorder, thousand people        23,900       28,200    28,400    30,100    201.7     234.2     232.6      243.3
                     sterility, thousand people                    10,000       11,800     9,700    10,300     84.4      98.0      79.4       83.3
                     complicated pregnancy, childbirth
                     and post natal period, thousand people       212,400      175,200   160,200   172,400   3,637.6   2,912.2   2,584.9   2,702.5
  41
                42




                                                                                                                                  Abortion rate
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                    1997       1998       1999             2000
                              Abortion — total, thousand                                             85.2       74.5       66.1             61.9
                                  including mini-abortion                                            10.7        8.6        6.6              5.7
                                      number of abortion per 1000 women                               7.2        6.2        5.4              5.1
                                      number of abortion per 100 childbirt                           14.1       13.5       12.2             11.8
                                  number of abortion among women aged:
                                      under 15                                                       13.0       15.0       13.0              9.0
                                      15–19                                                       6,230.0    4,929.0    3,950.0          3,316.0
                                      20–34                                                      62,085.0   54,783.0   49,555.0         46,668.0
                                      35 and above                                               16,842.0   14,783.0   12,547.0         11,900.0
                                  number of abortion per 1000 among women aged:
                                      15–19                                                           5.2        4.0        3.1              2.5
                                      20–34                                                          21.8       19.0       16.9             15.7
                                      35 and above                                                    5.3        4.5        3.7              3.4
                                      abortion among women pregnant for the first time, thous.        7.0        6.4        6.3              6.2
                              Number of deliveries (including still-born)
                                  total, thousand                                                   603.1     550.6       541.1           523.0
                                  per 1000 women aged (15–49)                                      103.3        91.5       87.3             82.0
                                                                               Number of abortions, by regions
                                                                                             including mini-abortion
HEALTH SERVICE




                                                               Total   As per 1000 w omen    As per 100 deliveries
                                                    1999       2000    1999         2000      1999            2000
                 Republic of Uz bekistan         66,065.0   61,893.0    5.4           5.1      12.2            11.8
                    Republic of Karakalpakstan    2,469.0    2,276.0    3.3           3.0       7.1             6.3
                    Regions:
                        Andijan                   4,801.0    3,838.0    4.4           3.5      10.1             8.8
                        Bukhara                   2,355.0    2,083.0    3.3           2.9       8.6             7.4
                        Djizak                    1,430.0    1,571.0    3.0           3.2       5.9             6.6
                        Kashkadarya               2,258.0    2,105.0     2.1          1.9       3.9             3.7
                        Navoi                     3,351.0    2,997.0    8.6           7.7      22.2            19.8
                        Namangan                  3,543.0    4,253.0    3.7           4.4       7.9            10.5
                        Samarkand                 7,237.0    7,771.0    5.4           5.8      11.2            12.8
                        Surkhandarya              2,117.0    1,963.0    2.5           2.3       4.7             4.4
                        Sirdarya                  1,342.0    1,296.0     4.1          4.0       9.1             9.1
                        Tashkent                  5,550.0    4,640.0    4.7           3.9      12.6            10.8
                        Fergana                   5,146.0    4,107.0    3.9           3.0       9.1             7.8
                        Khorezm                   2,341.0    2,188.0    3.5           3.3       7.1             6.9
                    Tashkent city                22,125.0   20,805.0    20.1         19.0      68.6            67.3
  43
                44




                                                              The health status of women in pregnancy and birth. The health status of newborns
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                                     1997            1998    1999    2000
                              Number of women whose period of pregnancy is over, thousand peopl                     587.5           541.4    526.7   513.7
                                  on term childbirth                                                                542.0           499.9    488.8   478.5
                                  premature birth                                                                     16.7            16.0    16.2    15.2
                                  spontaneous abortion and abortion due to the medical recommendations                22.4            19.5    15.0    14.1
                              Out of women whose period of pregnancy is over the following patients have been suffering from, in percents
                                  Anemia                                                                              50.4            58.6    60.4    61.1
                                  Cardio-vascular diseases                                                             1.5             1.3     0.9     0.8
                                  Diabetes                                                                             0.0             0.0     0.0     0.0
                                  Late toxicosis                                                                       2.6             2.4     2.2     2.0
                                  Urine-genital diseases                                                               4.4             4.3     3.8     3.7
                                  Venous complications during the period of pregnancy                                  1.5             1.2     1.1     1.0
                              Complicate childbirth, on 1000 childbirth:
                                  Anemia                                                                            357.0           291.5    240.3   240.2
                                  Cardio-vascular diseases                                                             9.0            12.7     6.9     6.6
                                  Diabetes                                                                             0.1             0.1     0.1     0.1
                                  Late toxicosis                                                                      44.5            40.4    40.0    38.2
                                  Urine-genital diseases                                                              34.4            33.3    25.6    26.1
                                  Venous complications during the period of pregnancy                                  7.7             6.8     5.6     5.2
                                  Flood during the under childbirth and after childbirth period                       53.5            44.3    61.4    44.2
                                  Anomaly of birth activity                                                           67.5            57.0    54.9    53.0
                                                                                                                                 continuation
HEALTH SERVICE




                                                                                                     1997        1998    1999          2000
                 Number of children born with certain disease OR aquiring sickness (weighing 1000 g and above)
                     total, thousand                                                                 107.0       108.5   110.1         105.7
                     in percentage against the number of babies born alive                            18.4        20.2   20.2           20.0
                     out of them with certain disease:
                         inborn anomaly                                                                0.7         0.6    0.6            0.6
                         certain health state appearing during the perinatal period                   19.5        22.1   22.2           22.5
                 The rate of premature infants out of total number of newly born:
                     total, thousand                                                                  27.5        27.5   18.5           17.3
                     in percentage against the number of born                                          4.7         5.1    3.5            3.3
  45
                46




                                                                                                                   Health status of women
                                                                               according to the data of the sampling examination of women in 2000
                                                                                                                                     in percentage
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                                                        Including
                                                                                              Total
                                                                                                                    urban                   rural
                              Total                                                           100.0                  100.0                  100.0
                                  do not experience any problems                               70.5                   57.2                   80.3
                                  experience some health problems at times                     20.9                   29.6                   14.4
                                  constantly experience some health problems                    5.2                    8.0                    3.2
                                  suffer from serious chronicle diseases                        3.0                    5.0                    1.5
                                  others                                                        0.4                    0.2                    0.6
                                                                                      Medical service institutions and medical professionals
                                                                                                                         as of the end of the year
HEALTH SERVICE




                                                                                                     1997        1998       1999            2000
                 Number of medical institutions                                                    1,230.0     1,175.0    1,178.0         1,162.0
                 Number of beds, thousand                                                           155.3       140.5       138.1           138.6
                     per 10,000 of populatio                                                         65.3        58.2        56.4            55.9
                 Out of total number of beds fo
                     sick children, thousan                                                           35.1       30.5        29.8            30.1
                         per 10,000 children (0–14                                                   37.2        32.4        31.8            32.5
                     pregnant women and women in childbirth, thousan                                 27.9        27.7        26.8            26.2
                         per 10,000 women (15–49)                                                    47.0        45.3        42.6            40.5
                     gynecological, thousan                                                            5.5         5.0        5.1             4.9
                         per 10,000 women                                                              4.6         4.1        4.2             3.9
                 Number of ambulances and primary health                                           4,074.0     4,291.0    4,643.0         4,847.0
                     capacity of ambulances and policlinics, number of visits per shift             353.5       368.0       380.3           391.4
                     per 10,000 population                                                          148.7       152.5       155.3           157.7
                 Number of antenatal clinic                                                        1,852.0     1,980.0    2,020.0         2,074.0
  47
                48




                                                                                                        Continuation
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                            1997      1998      1999           2000
                              Number of infant clinics and ambulance      2,018.0   2,072.0   2,205.0       2,519.0
                              Number of infant sanatorium                   35.0      32.0      30.0           30.0
                                  number of beds in them, thousand        5,275.0   5,171.0   4,930.0       4,585.0
                                  number of recovered infants, thousand     32.7      20.6      21.9            22.1
                              Number of doctor’s/obstetrical aid posts    5,235.0   4,495.0   4,098.0       3,800.0
                              Number
                                  physicians, thousand                      81.6      81.8      81.2           81.5
                                       per 10,000 of populatio              34.3      33.9      33.2           32.8
                                  pediatrist, thousan                       13.2      12.9      12.8           12.9
                                       per 10,000 infants                   14.0      13.7      13.7           13.9
                                  accoucheur-gynaecologist, thousand          6.0       6.2       6.4           6.4
                                       per 10,000 women                       5.0       5.1       5.2           5.2
                                  hospital staff, thousand                 256.4     254.2     256.9          259.7
                                       per 10,000 of population            107.9     105.3     104.9          104.7
                                  accoucheurs, thousand                     20.8      20.5      20.5           20.9
                                       per 10,000 women of fertile age       35.1     33.6      32.6           32.8
                                                                            Distribution of physicians by categories, in 2000
HEALTH SERVICE




                                                                                By categories, in %               By sex, in %
                 Qualification categories
                                                                           w omen             men      w omen             men
                 Categories
                       higher                                                14.0              15.6       48.9            51.1
                       I                                                     26.3              29.3       48.9            51.1
                       II                                                     4.4               4.0       54.0            46.0
                       do not possess qualification category*                55.3              51.1       53.5            46.5
                 Total
                       in %                                                 100.0             100.0       51.6            48.4
                       thousand people                                     35,901           33,708


                 *
                     No professional with less than five year experience
  49
                50




                                                                                                         Distribution of physicians by specific spheres
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                          Thousand people          As per 10,000 of population
                                                                                           1997   1998      1999     2000   1997      1998     1999      2000
                              Total                                                        81.6   81.8       81.2    81.5   34.3       33.9     33.2      32.8
                                 Therapeutists                                             18.9   18.7       19.7    19.5    7.9        7.8      8.0       7.8
                                 Surgeon                                                    9.3    9.3        9.3     9.2    3.9        3.9      3.8       3.7
                                 accoucheur-gynaecologist                                   6.0    6.2        6.4     6.4    5.0        5.1      5.2       5.2
                                 Pediatrist                                                13.2   12.9       12.8    12.9   14.0       13.7     13.7      13.9
                                 Ophthalmologist                                            1.3    1.3        1.4     1.3    0.5        0.5      0.6       0.5
                                 Otolaryngology specialist                                  1.3    1.3        1.3     1.3    0.5        0.6      0.5       0.5
                                 Neuropatholog                                              1.8    1.7        2.0     1.9    0.8        0.7      0.8       0.8
                                 Psychiatrist and expert in narcology                       1.2    1.2        1.3     1.3    0.5        0.5      0.5       0.5
                                 Tuberculosis specialist                                    1.1    1.2        1.2     1.2    0.5        0.5      0.5       0.5
                                 Dermatologist-venerologist                                 1.0    1.0        1.1     1.1    0.4        0.4      0.4       0.5
                                 Oncologist                                                 0.5    0.6        0.6     0.6    0.2        0.2      0.2       0.2
                                 Radiologist                                                1.0    1.0        0.9     1.0    0.4        0.4      0.4       0.4
                                 Specialists in therapeutic physical training and sports    0.2    0.2        0.2     0.2    0.1        0.1      0.1       0.1
                                 Sanitary inspectors and antiepidemiologists                4.0    4.1        4.0     4.1    1.7        1.7      1.7       1.7
                                 Dentists                                                   6.6    7.2        7.3     6.8    2.6        3.0      3.0       2.7
                              Rate of women among the total number of physicians           40.2   42.8       41.8    41.5   16.9       17.7     17.1      16.8
                                                 Provision of pregnant women and women in child birth with beds
                                                                                 at medical service institutions
HEALTH SERVICE




                                                                                      Total      As per 10,000 w omen (15–49)
                                                        1997      1998      1999      2000    1997    1998     1999     2000
                 Republic of Uzbekistan              27,871.0 27,671.0 26,781.0 26,209.0      47.0    45.3     42.6      40.5
                    Republic of Karakalpakstan        1,543.0   1,577.0   1,505.0   1,537.0   41.9    41.4     38.2      37.8
                    Regions:
                        Andijan                       3,102.0   3,130.0   3,090.0   3,025.0   57.9    56.6     54.2      51.5
                        Bukhara                       1,947.0   1,836.0   1,761.0   1,736.0   54.6    49.9     46.4      44.3
                        Djizak                        1,224.0   1,237.0   1,191.0   1,181.0   55.2    54.2     49.4      47.4
                        Kashkadarya                   2,327.0   2,314.0   2,205.0   2,212.0   47.4    45.4     41.6      40.1
                        Navoi                          961.0     932.0     911.0     906.0    49.5    46.7     44.4      43.0
                        Namangan                      2,373.0   2,353.0   2,353.0   2,353.0   52.1    49.9     48.3      46.8
                        Samarkand                     2,804.0   2,685.0   2,661.0   2,541.0   45.1    41.8      40.1     37.0
                        Surkhandarya                  1,864.0   1,942.0   1,840.0   1,794.0   48.4    48.5     44.2      41.4
                        Sirdarya                       976.0     989.0     912.0     887.0    60.8    59.8     55.2      52.1
                        Tashkent                      2,173.0   2,137.0   2,112.0   1,997.0   37.3    35.8     34.5      31.9
                        Fergana                       3,186.0   3,177.0   3,157.0   3,037.0   49.3    47.7      46.1     43.1
                        Khorezm                       1,316.0   1,317.0   1,316.0   1,281.0   40.7    39.3     37.9      35.7
                    Tashkent city                     2,075.0   2,045.0   1,767.0   1,722.0   35.7    34.7     29.9      29.0
  51
                52




                                                              Provision of chidlren with beds at medical service institutions
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                Total      As per 10,000 children (0–14)
                                                                  1997      1998      1999      2000    1997   1998      1999      2000
                              Republic of Uzbekistan           35,138.0 30,523.0 29,808.0 30,094.0      37.2    32.4      31.8     32.5
                                 Republic of Karakalpakstan     1,529.0   1,220.0   1,104.0   1,151.0   25.9    20.9      19.1     20.2
                                 Regions:
                                     Andijan                    4,068.0   3,442.0   3,504.0   3,338.0   48.9    41.2      42.2     40.7
                                     Bukhara                    1,496.0   1,392.0   1,340.0   1,421.0   28.0    26.2      25.6     27.6
                                     Djizak                     1,035.0    994.0    1,013.0    963.0    25.9    24.9      24.9     23.8
                                     Kashkadarya                2,564.0   2,311.0   2,264.0   2,444.0   27.7    24.9      24.3     26.4
                                     Navoi                        943.0    897.0     911.0     862.0    31.6    30.5      31.5     30.4
                                     Namangan                   3,693.0   2,983.0   2,965.0   3,041.0   48.2    38.9      38.8     40.2
                                     Samarkand                  3,730.0   3,443.0   3,396.0   3,345.0   33.8    31.3      31.0     30.8
                                     Surkhandarya               1,505.0   1,267.0   1,252.0   1,110.0   20.0    16.8      16.6     14.8
                                     Sirdarya                     985.0    936.0     909.0     932.0    36.3    34.8      35.5     37.0
                                     Tashkent                   3,010.0   2,754.0   2,622.0   2,760.0   35.5    32.7      31.5     33.8
                                     Fergana                    4,793.0   3,962.0   3,882.0   3,848.0   47.2    39.0      38.4     38.6
                                     Khorezm                    1,434.0   1,163.0   1,163.0   1,203.0   27.7    22.5      22.6     23.6
                                 Tashkent city                  4,353.0   3,759.0   3,483.0   3,676.0   73.0    63.6      60.5     65.6
EDUCATION


This section contains statistical information on educational status of popula-
tion, the breakdown of the number of female and male students by each type
of state educational institutions, state secondary and higher vocational estab-
lishments, branch specialization and professional distribution; the number
of female professionals involved in scientific and research activities, project
development and engineering, as well as hi-tech areas with the breakdown
by each branch of science and specialization, and the number of female and male
professors and instructors employed in state educational institutions.
Preschool educational establishment are implementing general education pro-
grams for children of preschool age with various specialization as well as provi-
ding care, supervision fitness activities, child rearing and education for children
under 7 years old.
General education schools include elementary school, incomplete secondary
education, secondary education schools as well as schools for children with men-
tal and physical disabilities.
Gymnasiums and lyceums are considered to be secondary (complete) general
education schools.
The total number of students of higher and special secondary educational insti-
tutions does not include international students attending schools in Republic
of Uzbekistan.
Colleges are included in the system of secondary special educational institu-
tions.
The development of educational system is a priority goal in building the demo-
cratic civil society.
The laws of Republic of Uzbekistan “On Education” and “National Program
on Human Resource Training” (1997) have stipulated principles and strategic
directives of comprehensive reformation of the entire system of education.


                                                                                53
     The main principles of the reform include:
     • Continuous education that could be achieved through constant expansion
        and up-to-date approach to general education and professional develop-
        ment as well as consistency of education and rearing.
     • Integrity between education and upbringing, science, production and prac-
        tice, and devotion of this process to the development of cohesive and resour-
        ceful personality.
     • National mainstreaming of education, i.e. commitment to national history,
        traditions and customs, preservation and enrichment of Uzbek culture, rec-
        ognition of education as one of the most important tools of national devel-
        opment as well as respect towards the history and culture of other ethnic
        groups.
     • Human advancement of education, the acknowledgement and reinforce-
        ment of a human being as the supreme social entity, development of hu-
        man skills and abilities, the satisfaction of various educational needs,
        ascertaining the significance of humanitarian values, harmonization of rela-
        tionship between humans and environment, society and nature.
     • Humanitarian approach to education: development of comprehensive un-
        derstanding of the world, high ethical and moral norms, cultural and cos-
        mopolitan thinking.
     • Succession and consistency of all stages of education, establishment of op-
        portunities for wide variety of alternatives with regards to forms of educa-
        tion, higher educational institutions, methods of education and upbringing
        that would satisfy the needs and capabilities of individuals; differentiation
        and individual approach to teaching and rearing process.
     • Combination of mass education with privileged forms on each stage of edu-
        cation; identification of endowed and talented youth, development of condi-
        tions for consequent access to fundamental and special knowledge
        on the highest possible level in the leading educational establishments, in-
        cluding possibilities of studying abroad in educational institutions of deve-
        loped foreign countries.
     The national program of personnel training includes the following strategic
     trends:
     At the level of infant school — arrangement of conditions for spiritual
     and moral development of the preschool aged children, effective training
     for school.
     The new structure of nine year secondary education provides the disclosure
     of intellectual and moral potential of pupils, particularly, the introduction
     of differentiated methods of training responding to the mental abilities
     of the high school students.

54   WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
     statistical collection
Three year senior secondary and vocational training is also based
on the differentiated methods aimed at the disclosure of the potential abilities
of the students.
The academic lyceum under the higher educational institutions of Uzbeki-
stan (for gifted students) provide the extensive intellectual development
and profound vocational training meeting the requirements of the profession
they have choused.
Vocational colleges alongside with the fundamental general education train
their students in different modern professions and allow them to get profound
knowledge in theory of general professional and specified disciplines.
The graduated of vocational colleges preserve the right the enter the higher
educational institution.
General secondary, senior secondary and vocational education (9+3=12)
is compulsory.
The higher education currently is bimodal (Bachelor and Master Degree)
and provides the extension of independent higher educational institutions, in-
troduction of social management, application of modern technology and means
of individual training, self and distance education aimed at achievement of
human and liberal education.
In conformity with the national program of professionals training the academic
lyceums and vocational colleges are being founded in Uzbekistan. 46 academic
lyceums and 221 vocational colleges have been functioning to the beginning
of 2000/2001 academic year. The number of students was 9.8 and 59.5 thousand
students respectfully, including 37.5 % of girls and 62.5 % of boys.
Alongside with the educational institutions of a new type 194 secondary spe-
cial educational institutions are operating in the Republic, the number
of students of which is 254.8 thousand including 52.4 % of girls and 47.6 %
of boys. 16.1 thousand teachers 48.4 % of women and 51.6 of men) are work-
ing in these institutions. At that 93 percent of them have higher education.
There are 61 higher education institutions in the Republic where more than
183.6 thousand students are enrolled. Out of them 37.8 % are women
and 62.2 % are men.
Starting with the academic year 1999/2000 the process of transferring the higher
institutions to the multilevel system of education is under implementation
as well as training of professionals accounting the international standards
in the sphere of education. The state standard of “Higher education” and “Na-
tional glossary of higher educational courses and professions based


EDUCATION                                                                    55
     on the international standard classifier ISCED–97 have been developed
     and approved. Given that the higher educational institutions are subdivided
     into two stages: graduating from the first stage the students get the bachelor
     degree and the second stage is the magistrates.
     41.9 thousand students entered the higher educational institutions providing
     them with the bachelor degree, 21.3 thousand — on a paid contract basis
     (50.7 % of the total number of students). Out of the total number of the above
     students 37.4 % are girls and 62.6 are boys) 25 higher institutions were given
     the right to provide the students with the Master’s degree. 2694 students en-
     tered the magistrates in 2000/2001 academic year and 1295 of them —
     on a contract paid basis (48.1 %. Lectures at the higher institutions of the Re-
     public are delivered in many national languages (Uzbek, Russian, Karakalpac,
     Kazakh, Tajik, Turkmen and English). Out of the total number of students 35 %
     are women and 65 % are men.
     Academic lyceums and vocational colleges together with the traditional edu-
     cational institutions provide the continuity of education.
     Currently the total number of students of higher educational institutions
     is more than 6.5 million including 3170.4 thousand of women (48.4 %)
     and 3374.7 thousand of men (51.6 %)
     The republic realizes the targeted program on general and professional train-
     ing of gifted children and talented youth abroad. It is carried out through
     a special Fund “Umid” which has just been created for this purpose. A great
     number of students from Uzbekistan are trained abroad. To provide a trainee
     status and professional development of young lecturers of higher institutions
     of Uzbekistan a special Fund “Ustoz” have been founded.
     Leading professors from Japan, USA, Germany, England and other countries
     are delivering lectures at the educational institutions of all levels, that is higher,
     secondary and vocational ones.
     The input of Uzbekistan to the development of education is about the level
     of the leading countries of the world. Today about 7 million people are getting
     education in the Republic of Uzbekistan in different educational institutions.
     The National Program of professionals training provides and preserves equal
     access towards education both for men and women from the infant school
     and up to the post graduate institutions.
     The data of population census in 1998 testifies the high level of education
     of men and women in Uzbekistan and relatively equal level of their educa-



56   WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
     statistical collection
tion. Thus the level of literacy among women is 92.8 % and among men —
96.5 %.
Both men and women have equal access towards education. Thus the number
of women trained in all kinds of educational institutions as on the beginning
of the academic year 2000/2001 was 48.7 % and men — 51.3 %. The number
of women in the secondary special institutions is 52.4 % and men — 51.3 %.
But at the same time the number of women trained at the higher institutions
is lower: 37.8 % (as compared to the number of men which is 62.2 %),
at the post graduate courses (40.8 % and 59.2 % respectfully), PHD (38.6 %
and 61.4 %)
The choice of profession by men and women is considerably different. As a rule,
women-students of secondary special and higher institutions prefer such spheres
as education, health service, while men prefer industry, agriculture, construc-
tion and education.
The choice of profession largely depends on the mentality, i. e. division of labor
on that typical for men and women, family traditions and economical factors
as well.




EDUCATION                                                                      57
                58




                                                                        Standard of education of population
                                                                             by the data of population census in 1989
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                        T h o u san d                          As per 1000 persons
                                                         of people        total          w omen                 men
                              Total                          11,727        943               918                 965
                                 complete higher              1,074         92                76                 108
                                 incomplete higher              226         19                17                  22
                                 secondary special            1,765        151               142                 159
                                 secondary                    4,780        408               394                 422
                                 incomplete secondary         2,328        199               203                 194
                                 elementary                     863         74                86                  60
                                                        Distribution of population by type of education
                                                              in conformity with the data of population census in 1989
EDUCATION




                                                              In % of the total            Distribution by sex, in %
                                                     w omen               men             w omen                 men
            Total                                     100.0              100.0               50.9                49.1
               complete higher                          5.6                7.8               42.8                57.2
               incomplete higher                        1.2                1.6               44.2                55.8
               secondary special                       10.5               11.5               48.6                51.4
               secondary                               29.1               30.5               49.8                50.2
               incomplete secondary                    15.8               14.7               52.5                47.5
               elementary                              19.1               17.8               52.7                47.3
               not possessing elementary education     18.7               16.1               54.7                45.3
59
                60




                                                                                                                Number of people studying
                                                                                              at different types of educational institutions
                                                                                             as of the beginning of 2000/2001 school year
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                      In % of the total   Distribution by sex, in %
                                                                                            w omen                men     w omen              men
                              Total number of people being trained at:
                                  educational institutions                                    88.3                88.4       48.8              51.2
                                  educational institutions of primary vocational training       5.5                4.8       43.0              57.0
                                  secondary special educational institutions                    4.0                3.4       52.4              47.6
                                  higher educational institutions                               2.1                3.3       37.8              62.2
                                  post graduate courses*                                        0.1                 0.1      40.8              59.2
                                  doctoral courses*                                             0.0                0.0       38.6              61.4
                              Total
                                  in %                                                       100.0               100.0
                                  thousand people                                           3,322.6            3,487.9


                              * as of the end of 2000
                                                                           Students of secondary senior educational institutions
                                                         by sectoral specialization as on the beginning of 2000/2001 school year
EDUCATION




                                                                                       In % of the total    Distribution by sex, in %
            Professional groups
                                                                              w omen               men     w omen               men
            Education                                                           27.8                5.2       85.5               14.5
            Public health, physical culture and sports                          38.9                6.0       87.8               12.2
            Art and cinematography                                               1.8                2.9       40.8               59.2
            Economy and law                                                      8.1               16.9       39.7               60.3
            Industry and construction                                           15.5               34.7       33.0               67.0
            Agriculture                                                          6.6               25.6       22.2               77.8
            Transport and communication                                          1.3                8.7       14.5               85.5
            Total
                in %                                                           100.0              100.0       52.4               47.6
                thousand people                                                133.6              121.2
61
                62




                                                                                                        Students of higher educational institutions
                                                                           by sectoral specialization as on the beginning of 2000/2001 school year
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                          In % of the total    Distribution by sex, in %
                              Professional groups
                                                                                                w omen                men     w omen               men
                              Education                                                            68.2               47.6       46.5               53.5
                              Public health, physical culture and sports                           13.2                7.7       51.1               48.9
                              Art and cinematography                                                1.0                0.8       41.9               58.1
                              Economy and law                                                       4.0                8.2       22.8               77.2
                              Industry and construction                                             8.7               18.8       21.9               78.1
                              Agriculture                                                           2.6                9.7       14.1               85.9
                              Transport and communication                                           2.3                7.2       16.4               83.6
                              Total
                                  in %                                                            100.0              100.0       37.8               62.2
                                  thousand people                                                  69.4              114.2
                                                                               Number of children attending permanent infant schools
                                                                                                                          as of the end of the year
EDUCATION




                                                                                           Urban population                     Rural population
                                                            Total
                                                                                   girls                b o ys          girls                b o ys
            1997                                         681,191                179,362              203,312         145,559              152,958
            1998                                         615,795                168,353              188,573         123,780              135,089
            1999                                         608,517                171,083              191,806         119,335              126,293
            2000                                         624,652                174,316               199,121        119,602              131,613




                                                                                                   Number of pupils entering the first form*
                                                                                                                          as of the end of the year


                                                                                             In % of the total          Distribution by sex, in %
                                                            Total
                                                                                   girls                b o ys         girls                 b o ys
            1997/1998                                    665,528                320,470              345,058            48.2                  51.8
            1998/1999                                    677,446                335,001              342,445            49.5                  50.5
            1999/2000                                    647,399                316,141              331,258            48.8                  51.2
            2000/2001                                    629,047                308,458              320,589            49.0                  51.0


            * Except pupils of schools and classes for children with corporal or mental defect
63
                64




                                                                         Number of students and teachers of daily general schools by class groups
                                                                                                                  as of the beginning of 2000/2001 school year
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                    Thousand people         In % of the total       Distribution by sex, in %
                                                                                w omen         men     w omen           men          w omen              men
                              Total number of students                          2,942.1      3,075.5    100.0          100.0            48.9             51.1
                                 in urban area                                   927.1        995.3     100.0          100.0            48.2             51.8
                                 in rural area                                  2,015.0      2,080.2    100.0          100.0            49.2             50.8
                                 including
                                      pupils of 1–4 forms                       1,270.7      1,327.2     43.2           43.2            48.9             51.1
                                          in urban area                          396.0        423.0      42.7           42.5            48.4             51.6
                                          in rural area                          874.7        904.2      43.4           43.5            49.2             50.8
                                      pupils of 5–9 forms                       1,477.3      1,548.9     50.2           50.4            48.8             51.2
                                          in urban area                          408.5         511.1     51.8           51.4            48.5             51.5
                                          in rural area                          996.8       1,037.8     49.5           49.9            49.0             51.0
                                      pupils of 10–12 forms                      186.7        185.9       6.3            6.0            50.1             49.9
                                          in urban area                           44.9         50.8       4.8             5.1           46.9             53.1
                                          in rural area                          141.8        135.1       7.0            6.5            51.2             48.8
                                      pupils of schools and classes
                                      for children with corporal
                                      or mental defect                              7.4        13.5       0.3            0.4            35.4             64.6
                                          in urban area                             5.7        10.4       0.7            1.0            35.4             64.6
                                          in rural area                             1.7          3.1      0.1             0.1           35.4             64.6
                              Total of teachers (excluding by-workers)           285.7        157.3     100.0          100.0            64.5             35.5
                                 in urban area                                    90.6          24.1     31.7           15.3            79.0             21.0
                                 in rural area                                   195.1        133.2      68.3           84.7            59.4             40.6
                                                                                             Secondary special educational institutions
                                                                                           as of the beginning of 2000/2001 school year
EDUCATION




                                                                                   Total by sex             In % of total   Distribution by sex, %
                                                                         w omen           men     w omen            men      w omen          men
            Number of students                                           133,552       121,269      100.0          100.0         52.0         48.0
            of secondary special educational institutions, individuals
                day classes                                              109,951        83,430       82.3           68.8         56.0         44.0
                night classes                                               740          1,858        0.6            1.5         28.5         71.5
                by correspondence                                         22,861         35,981      17.1           29.7         38.9         61.1
            Number of students per 10,000 of population                     108             98
            Number of students admitted                                   41,673        31,866      100.0          100.0         56.7         43.3
                day classes                                               34,607        22,136       83.0           69.5         61.0         39.0
                night classes                                               160            352        0.4             1.1        31.0         69.0
                by correspondence                                          6,906         9,378       16.6           29.4         42.0         58.0
            Graduated, individuals                                        44,676        34,623      100.0          100.0         56.3         43.7
                day classes                                               36,289        22,637       81.2           65.4         61.6         38.4
                night classes                                               228            452        0.5            1.3         33.5         66.5
                by correspondence                                          8,159        11,534       18.3           33.3         41.4         58.6
            Graduated per 10,000 of population                               36             28
65
                66




                                                                                                                                 Higher educational institutions
                                                                                                                                       as of the beginning of school year
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                  1999/2000                    2000/2001           In % of total Distribution by sex, %
                                                                         w omen        men            w omen       men        w omen      men        w omen         men
                              Total of students, thous. people             62.2       104.2             69.4       114.2       100.0     100.0          37.8         62.2
                                  day classes                              49.7        75.7             55.2        86.7        79.5       75.9         38.9         61.1
                                  night classes                             0.1         0.3              0.0         0.1         0.1        0.1         23.1         76.9
                                  by correspondence                        12.4        28.2             14.2        27.4        20.4       24.0         34.1         65.9
                              Number of students
                              on 10,000 of population, individuals         51.0        86.0             56.0        93.0




                                                                     Admittance to the higher educational institutions by sex and type of training
                                                                                                                                                               individuals


                                                                                                                  1999/2000                                    2000/2001
                                                                                         w omen                        men               w omen                     men
                              Total number of admitted students                           15,925                     25,758               16,679                  28,032
                                  day classes                                             13,655                     21,698               15,197                  25,568
                                  by correspondence                                           2,270                   4,060                1,482                   2,494
                                                                 Admittance structure to the higher educational institutions
                                                                    by sex and type of education in 2000/2001 school year
EDUCATION




                                                                               In % of total                   Distribution by sex, %
                                                                 w omen                men            w omen                    men
            Total number of admitted students                     100.0               100.0             37.3                     62.7
               day classes                                         91.1                91.2             37.3                     62.7
               by correspondence                                    8.9                 8.8             37.6                     62.4




                                                Number of professionals graduated from the higher educational institutions
                                                                           by sex and type of education, thousand people

                                                                                               1999                             2000
                                                                          w omen               men       w omen                 men
            Total number of professionals graduated                         13.8               21.6        12.4                  19.2
               day classes                                                  11.2               16.1            9.6               12.7
               night classes                                                 0.2                0.4             0.1               0.2
               by correspondence                                             2.4                5.1            2.7                6.3
            Professionals graduated as on 10,000 of population              11.0               18.0        10.0                  16.0
67
                68




                                                                 Structure of professionals graduated from the higher educational institutions
                                                                                                         by sex and type of education in 2000
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                In % of total             Distribution by sex, in %
                                                                                   w omen               men           w omen                  men
                              Total of professionals graduated                      100,0              100,0            39,2                   60,8
                                 day classes                                         77,4               66,2            43,0                   57,0
                                 night classes                                        0,8                1,2            29,3                   70,7
                                 by correspondence                                   21,8               32,6             30,1                  69,9
                                                               Assignment of students of higher educational institutions by sex
                                                                                                               as of the beginning of school year
EDUCATION




                                                                     1997/1998            1998/1999            1999/2000               2000/2001
                                                            w omen        men    w omen        men    w omen        men      w omen         men
            Total                                           59,940      98,216   60,449      98,237   62,238     104,228      69,388     114,188
               industry                                      4,994      19,351    4,709      18,868    4,800      18,663       5,726      20,281
               construction                                    279       1,217      271       1,120      239       1,040         281       1,147
               transport                                       994       4,121    1,029       4,133    1,031       4,259         975       4,649
               communication                                   591       2,290      607       2,529      586       2,967         628       3,516
               agriculture                                   1,736      12,539    1,794      11,548    1,829      11,017       1,813      11,021
               economy                                       1,585       5,978    2,329       5,576    2,181       6,149       2,277       6,948
               law                                             366       1,554      404       1,773      438       2,155         521       2,368
               public health                                 6,693       6,394    7,285       6,299    8,500       7,627       8,980       7,569
               physical culture and sports                     136        654       159        812       192         994         213       1,217
               education                                    42,088      43,470   41,272      44,882   41,890      48,486      47,911     54,499
                     out of them pedagogical institutions   13,640       8,254   10,395       6,184    4,448       3,652       4,692       4,027
               art and cinematography                          478        698       590        698       552         871         703        973
69
                70




                                                                                 Assignment of students of higher educational institutions by sex
                                                                                                                                 as of the beginning of school year
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                       1997/1998            1998/1999            1999/2000               2000/2001
                                                                              w omen        men    w omen        men    w omen        men      w omen         men
                              Total                                             37.9        62.1     38.1        61.9     37.4        62.6        37.8        62.2
                                 industry                                       20.5        79.5     20.0        80.0     20.5        70.5        22.0        78.0
                                 construction                                   18.6        81.4     19.5        80.5     18.7        81.3        19.7        80.3
                                 transport                                      19.4        80.6     19.9        80.1     19.5        80.5        17.3        82.7
                                 communication                                  20.5        79.5     19.4        80.6     16.5        83.5        15.2        84.8
                                 agriculture                                    12.2        87.8     13.4        86.6     14.2        85.8        14.1        85.9
                                 economy                                        20.9        79.1     29.5        70.5     26.2        73.8        24.4        75.6
                                 law                                            19.6        80.4     18.6        81.4     16.9        83.1        18.0        82.0
                                 public health                                  51.1        48.9     53.6        46.4     52.7        47.3        54.3        45.7
                                 physical culture and sports                    17.2        82.8     16.4        83.6     16.2        83.8        14.9        85.1
                                 education                                      49.2        50.8     47.9        52.1     46.4        53.6        46.5        53.5
                                       out of them pedagogical institutions     62.3        37.7     62.7        37.3     60.3        39.7        60.4        39.6
                                 art and cinematography                         40.9        59.1     45.8        54.2     38.8        61.2        41.9        58.1
                                                 Structure of professionals graduated from the higher educational institutions
                                                                                                 by sex and type of education
                                                                                                                  as of the beginning of the year
EDUCATION




                                                                     1997/1998            1998/1999            1999/2000               2000/2001
                                                            w omen        men    w omen        men    w omen        men     w omen          men
            Total                                            100.0       100.0    100.0       100.0    100.0       100.0       100.0       100.0
               industry                                        8.3        19.7      7.8        19.2      7.7        17.9         8.3        17.8
               construction                                    0.5         1.2      0.4         1.1      0.4         1.0         0.4         1.0
               transport                                       1.7         4.2      1.7         4.2      1.7         4.1         1.4         4.0
               communication                                   1.0         2.3      1.0         2.6      0.9         2.8         0.9         3.1
               agriculture                                     2.9        12.8      3.0        11.7      2.9        10.6         2.6         9.7
               economy                                         2.6         6.1      3.9         5.7      3.5         5.9         3.2         6.1
               law                                             0.6         1.6      0.7         1.8      0.7         2.1         0.8         2.1
               public health                                  11.2         6.5     12.1         6.4     13.7         7.3        12.9         6.6
               physical culture and sports                     0.2         0.7      0.3         0.8      0.3         1.0         0.3         1.1
               education                                      70.2        44.2     68.1        45.7     67.3        46.5        68.2        47.6
                     out of them pedagogical institutions     22.8         8.4     17.2         6.3      7.1         3.5         6.8         3.5
               art and cinematography                          0.8         0.7      1.0         0.8      0.9         0.8         1.0         0.9
71
                72




                                                                           Number, admission and graduation of post-graduate students by sex
                                                                                                                                         individuals
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                      1997            1998             1999                    2000
                                                                           w omen     men    w omen    men    w omen   men     w omen          men
                              Number of post-graduate students               1,174   2,737    1,375   2,548    1,550   2,341    1,478         2,147
                              Admission to the post-graduate courses          400      775      448    727       475    761       346           479
                              Graduated from the post-graduation courses      205      702      291    670       279    681       358           519
                                 including those defending the theses            -       -        -       -       37     80        32            43




                                                                           Number, admission and graduation of post-graduate students by sex
                                                                                                                                        in % of total


                                                                                      1997            1998             1999                    2000
                                                                           w omen     men    w omen    men    w omen   men     w omen          men
                              Number of post-graduate students                30.0    70.0     35.0    65.0     40.0    60.0     41.0          59.0
                              Admission to the post-graduate courses          34.0    66.0     38.0    62.0     38.0    62.0     42.0          58.0
                              Graduated from the post-graduation courses      23.0    77.0     30.0    70.0     29.0    71.0     41.0          59.0
                                 including those defending the theses            -       -        -       -     32.0    68.0     43.0          57.0
                                       Post-graduate students segregated by sex and research area as of the end of 2000

                                                                           In % of total                 Distribution by sex, %
                                                             w omen                men          w omen                    men
            Philological                                        15.6                6.4           62.5                     37.5
            Psychological                                         2.6               0.8           69.1                     30.9
            P e d a g o g i ca l                                10.4                4.6           60.9                     39.1
EDUCATION




            Pharmaceutical                                        0.7               0.4           57.9                     42.1
            Sociological                                          0.7               0.2           68.8                     31.2
            Fine arts                                             2.3               0.4           79.1                     20.9
            Medical                                             15.8               10.9           50.0                     50.0
            Biological                                            7.2               4.9           50.2                     49.8
            Philosophic                                           2.6               1.6           52.1                     47.9
            Geographic                                            0.9               1.2           33.3                     66.7
            Chemical                                              4.4               3.7           45.1                     54.9
            Historical                                            5.3               4.8           43.1                     56.9
            Architecture                                          0.7               0.5           50.0                     50.0
            Economical                                          32.9               33.1           40.7                     59.3
            Agricultural                                          2.2               5.7           20.8                     79.2
            Veterinary                                            0.2               0.7           17.6                     82.4
            Political science                                     1.0               1.4           34.1                     65.9
            Geology-mineralogical                                 0.9               1.2           34.2                     65.8
            Law                                                   1.4                4.1          18.7                     81.3
            Physics and mathematics                               4.0               8.8           23.9                     76.1
            Technical                                             8.7              17.8           25.1                     74.9
            Total:
                  in %                                         100.0              100.0           40.8                     59.2
                  thousand of people                          1,478.0           2,147.0
73
                74




                                                              Post-graduates segregated by sex and regions as of the end of 2000
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                Number, individuals               Distribution by sex, %
                                                                      w omen                  men        w omen                    men
                              Republic of Uz bekistan                   1,478                 2,147        40.8                     59.2
                                 Republic of Karakalpakstan               74                    70         51.4                     48.6
                                 Regions:
                                     Andijan                              28                     61        31.5                     68.5
                                     Bukhara                              37                    97         27.6                     72.4
                                     Djizak                                 -                   13            -                   100.0
                                     Kashkadarya                          27                    33         45.0                     55.0
                                     Namangan                             26                    32         44.8                     55.2
                                     Samarkand                           105                   188         35.8                     64.2
                                     Surkhanarya                           3                    13         18.9                     81.1
                                     Syrdarya                              11                    8         57.9                     42.1
                                     Tashkent                             25                   119         17.4                     82.6
                                     Fergana                              45                    58         43.7                     56.3
                                     Chorezm                              15                    29         34.0                     66.0
                                 Tashkent city                          1,082                 1,426        43.1                     56.9
                                        Doctorate degree candidates segregated by sex and region as of the end of 2000
EDUCATION




                                                                      Number, individuals               Distribution by sex, %
                                                            w omen                  men        w omen                    men
            Republic of Uz bekistan                            129                   205         39.0                     61.0
               Republic of Karakalpakstan                        2                     7         22.0                     78.0
               Regions:
                   Andijan                                       7                     3         70.0                     30.0
                   Bukhara                                       6                     11        35.0                     65.0
                   Samarkand                                     8                    29         22.0                     78.0
                   Tashkent                                      2                     5         29.0                     71.0
                   Fergana                                       1                     11         8.0                     92.0
                   Khorezm                                        -                    3            -                   100.0
               Tashkent city                                   103                   136         43.0                     57.0
75
                76




                                                                                              Researchers and scientists segregated by sex
                                                                                                                                       individuals
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                  1997              1998              1999                  2000
                                                                        w omen    men     w omen    men     w omen    men     w omen         men
                              Professional researchers and scientists    8,716   14,355    9,031   14,303    9,255   15,063    9,938      15,145

                                 out of them possessing
                                 scientific degree

                                     doctor of science                     227    1,694      217    1,719      237    1,692      263        1,746
                                     candidate of science                2,297    5,967    2,315    5,855    2,159    5,775    2,284        5,908




                                                                                              Researchers and scientists segregated by sex
                                                                                                                                       in percents


                                                                                  1997              1998              1999                  2000
                                                                        w omen    men     w omen    men     w omen    men     w omen         men
                              Professional researchers and scientists     38.0     62.0     39.0     61.0     38.0     62.0     40.0         60.0

                                 out of them possessing
                                 scientific degree

                                     doctor of science                    12.0     88.0     11.0     89.0     12.0     88.0     13.0         87.0
                                     candidate of science                 28.0     72.0     28.0     72.0     27.0     73.0     28.0         72.0
                                                                     Number of professional researchers and scientists
                                                                       segregated by sex and scientific sphere in 2000
                                                                                                                          individuals
EDUCATION




                                                                                                                     Out of them
                                                                                    Total
                                                                                            doctors of science candid. of science
                                                                          w omen     men      w omen      men    w omen         men
            Total                                                          9,938   15,145       263     1,746     2,284       5,908
               natural science                                             2,316    3,882        64       512       618       1,648
                   mathematics, mechanics                                    302      859         4        80        82         467
                   physics, astronomy                                        386      955        10       117        74         369
                   chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry                       598      640        14       116       212         260
                   biology, phsycho-physiology                               528      644        23       119       193         296
                   geology-mineralogy                                        374      535         6        58        37         146
                   geography, except economic, social an political           128      249         7        22        20         110
               technical science                                           2,013    3,994        20       256       124       1,306
               medical science                                             1,631    1,619        89       356       510         700
               agricultural science                                          578    1,568        12       125        78         510
               social science                                              1,357    2,030        31       230       411         952
                   economy                                                   567      928        10       119       172         447
                   jurisprudence                                             122      275         -        32        36          96
                   pedagogical science                                       425      492        20        35       119         270
                   psychology                                                118      134         1        28        64          81
                   sociology                                                  24       47         -         4         2          13
                   political science                                          51      110         -         8        14          33
                   other social sciences                                      50       44         -         4         4          12
               humanitarian science                                        2,043    2,052        47       267       543         792
                   history                                                   249      504        14        71        82         212
                   philosophy                                                158      351        10        68        69         181
                   philology                                               1,407      977        17       107       346         335
                   fine art and history of architecture                      229      220         6        21        46          64
77
                78




                                                             Number of teachers by sex and type of educational institution
                                                                                                                       in percents
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                     Of daily general educational   Of secondary special educational          Higher educational
                                                         schools                          institutions                institutions
                                       w omen               men            w omen                men     w omen              men
                              1997        62.6              37.4               42.9               57.1     34.9               65.1
                              1998        63.6              36.4               43.8              56.2      36.4              63.6
                              1999        63.3              36.7               46.5              53.5      38.9               61.1
                              2000        64.5              35.5               48.6              51.4      39.2              60.8
                                                    Principals of daily general educational schools
                                               by sex as of the beginning of 1997/1998 school year
EDUCATION




                                                           In % of total         Distribution by sex, %
                                                w omen             men        w omen              men
            Principals
                elementary school                   0.6             0.4         38.8               61.2
                incomplete secondary schools        4.0             9.9          13.1              86.9
                secondary schools                  21.7            36.5          18.1              81.9
            Deputy Principals
                incomplete secondary schools        7.1             8.5         23.7               76.3
                secondary schools                  66.6            44.7         35.6               64.4
            Total
                in %                              100.0           100.0          27.1              72.9
                thousand of people                6,223          16,756
79
                80




                                                                      Principals of daily general educational schools
                                                                 by sex as of the beginning of 2000/2001 school year
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                             In % of total         Distribution by sex, %
                                                                  w omen             men        w omen              men
                              Principals
                                  elementary school                   1.0             0.4         56.7               43.3
                                  incomplete secondary schools        4.3            10.6         15.8               84.2
                                  secondary schools                  21.5            37.2         21.0               79.0
                              Deputy Principals
                                  incomplete secondary schools        8.2             8.4          31.1              68.9
                                  secondary schools                  65.0            43.4         40.8               59.2
                              Total
                                  in %                              100.0           100.0         31.6               68.4
                                  thousand of people                7,311          15,839
EMPLOYMENT
AND LABOR MARKET


This section presents the data on the number and composition of economically
active population working in different economic spheres, the number
of unemployed and job placement of the population.
Economically active population — is that part of population which provides
the work force for the production of goods and services. The number
of economically active population means both those occupied in different eco-
nomic spheres and unemployed.
Individuals occupied in different economic spheres are those who during
the period under review have been working for a wage as well as performing
an independent profitable work or have been working jointly with one or several
partners both attracting or not wage earners. Individuals who have been working
without any remuneration at a family enterprise as well as individuals being
absent to work due to some disease, annual leave or week ends, training leave
or classes, unpaid or partially paid leave at the initiative of the administration
or those who have been caring after sick family members are included
into the number of employed.
As it is stipulated in the legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan un-
employed individuals mean capable individuals from the age of sixteen
and till the age they achieve the right to get provision of pensions, who have
neither job nor earnings (earned income), registered at the local labor agencies
as persons ready to work and to be trained or retrained.
The rate of unemployment is determined as the ratio between unemployed
and the number of economically active population.
The rate of economical activity of the population is determined as the ratio
between the economically active individuals and the total population
of the respective age group.


                                                                               81
     3955.1 thousand women and 5027.9 thousand men (respectfully 44 %
     and 56 %) were occupied in the economy of the republic in 2000.
     As a whole the rate of economic capability of women is lower than that of men,
     65.7 % and 81.5 % respectfully.
     The traditional work spheres for women are the following: public health,
     education, culture, art, science and services (the rate of women occupied in these
     spheres is 70–86 %).
     Though the rate of education of women is higher than that of men
     (in the year 2000 the ratio of women who received higher education in the total
     number of employed women was 18.0 %, and men — 17.3 %), it is evident
     that women fall behind men in the business carrier. The rate of women among
     the managers is 24.4 %, particularly there are few women in the governmental
     bodies and among professionals the rate of women is 57.9 %.
     The rate both of men and women working under unfavorable working
     conditions is rather low in the republic. Thus as of the beginning of 2001 only
     14.7 % of women (out of total number occupied in industry) and 25.8 of men
     worked under unfavorable conditions. 23.0 % of women and 77 % of men
     (out of total number of employed in industry) have been working under
     unfavorable conditions.
     Out of the total number of women working under unfavorable working
     environment 31.1 % of them have been working under the conditions of a high
     level of noise, 2.4 % — under the high level of vibration, 39.8 % — in dusty
     and gas laden air, 25.1 % — under high temperature, humidity and other factors.
     Out of the total number of women working under unfavorable environment
     79 % have been working under conditions which do not meet the sanitary
     requirements, and 21 % — were occupied in a backbreaking work, the rate
     of men working under similar conditions was 68.6 % and 31.4 % respectfully.
     The ratio of women was 47.6 % and men — 52.4 % out of total number
     of individuals registered in the labor agencies as those who are looking for a job.
     The key reasons of unemployment both among men and women are the dis-
     charge on the ground of the request of the employee, inability to find job
     after finishing general schools, discharge on the ground of staff reduction.
     The rate of women discharged according to the request of the employee
     is 45.8 %, the rate of men is 54.2 %, discharged on the ground of staff
     reduction is 42.9 % and 57.1 % respectfully. However the rate of women among

82   WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
     statistical collection
those who are not able to find job after school is higher than that of men (55.6 %
of women and 44.4 % of men).
The rate of women among officially unemployed is 62 % and the rate of men
is 38 % as of the beginning of 2001.
The average period of time necessary for women to find job is longer than that
for men. Thus more than 88 % of unemployed unable to find job within a year
are women.




EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR MARKET                                                    83
               84




                                                                                                  Number of economically active population
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                        Thousand people                      In percentage terms
                                                                      1997      1998      1999       2000    1997    1998       1999       2000
                              Economically active population        8,708.8   8,833.3   8,924.1    9,018.4   100.0   100.0      100.0      100.0
                                women                               3,836.1   3,900.3   3,944.2    3,977.0    44.0    44.2       44.2       44.1
                                men                                 4,872.7   4,933.0   4,979.9    5,041.4    56.0    55.8       55.8       55.9
                              Out of total number of economically
                              active population
                                occupied in economic spheres        8,680.0   8,800.0   8,885.0    8,983.0   100.0   100.0      100.0      100.0
                                  women                             3,819.0   3,879.0   3,918.0    3,955.1    44.0    44.1       44.1       44.0
                                  men                               4,861.0   4,921.0   4,967.0    5,027.9    56.0    55.9       55.9       56.0
                                unemployed, officially registered     28.8      33.3       39.1      35.4    100.0   100.0      100.0      100.0
                                  women                                17.1     21.3      26.2       21.9     59.4    64.0       67.0       61.9
                                  men                                  11.7     12.0      12.9       13.5     40.6    36.0       33.0       38.1
                                  out of them individuals getting
                                  the unemployment benefit            16.8      20.6      21.8       20.2    100.0   100.0      100.0      100.0
                                      women                           10.5      12.7      13.2       12.9     62.5    61.7       60.6       63.9
                                      men                               6.3       7.9       8.6        7.3    37.5    38.3       39.4       36.1
                                                                             The rate of economically active population by sex
                                                                                                                   in percentage terms
EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR MARKET




                                                                              1997           1998          1999                 2000
                              Women                                            68.3          68.9           67.3                 65.7
                              Men                                              83.5          84.3           82.7                 81.5




                                                            Employment by the principle place of business, sex and age groups
                                                                                                                   in percentage terms


                                                                              1997           1998          1999                 2000
                              Employed population — total
                              Total                                           100.0         100.0          100.0                100.0
                                 under 16                                       0.4           0.3            0.3                   0.1
                                 16–24                                         15.1          14.6           15.1                 14.9
                                 25–29                                         21.4          22.0           21.9                 21.4
                                 30–39                                         29.3          29.4           29.9                 30.1
                                 40–49                                         22.0          22.4           22.9                 23.3
                                 50–54                                          8.0           7.6            6.5                  6.9
                                 55 and above                                   3.8           3.7            3.4                  3.3
                              Average age                                      35.0          35.0           34.7                 35.0
85
               86




                                                                        continuation
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                1997    1998    1999          2000
                              Women
                              Total             100.0   100.0   100.0         100.0
                                 under 16         0.3     0.2     0.3            0.1
                                 16–24           16.1    16.1    16.4          15.9
                                 25–29           23.4    24.0    23.3          22.7
                                 30–39           29.1    30.3    30.4          30.8
                                 40–49           22.3    21.4    22.1          23.2
                                 50–54            6.8     6.0     5.7           5.4
                                 55 and above     2.0     2.0     1.8           1.9
                              Average age        34.2    33.9    34.0          34.1
                              Men
                              Total             100.0   100.0   100.0         100.0
                                 under 16         0.5     0.3     0.4            0.1
                                 16–24           14.2    13.4    14.0          13.9
                                 25–29           19.7    20.2    20.7          20.2
                                 30–39           29.5    28.7    29.5          29.4
                                 40–49           21.8    23.2    23.6          23.5
                                 50–54            9.0     8.9     7.2           8.3
                                 55 and above     5.3     5.3     4.6           4.6
                              Average age        35.7    35.9    35.4          35.7
                                                                        Employment by sex and standard of education
                                                                                              as of the end of the year, in %
EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR MARKET




                                                                      1997          1998           1999                  2000
                              Employed population, total              100.0        100.0          100.0                  100.0
                                 higher                                15.6         16.2           16.6                   17.6
                                 specialized secondary                 19.9         19.9            21.1                  21.7
                                 secondary and incomplete secondary    64.5         63.9           62.3                   60.7
                              Women                                   100.0        100.0          100.0                  100.0
                                 higher                                15.3         15.4           16.8                   18.0
                                 specialized secondary                 21.5         21.3           22.9                   24.2
                                 secondary and incomplete secondary    63.2         63.3           60.3                   57.8
                              Men                                     100.0        100.0          100.0                  100.0
                                 higher                                15.8         16.9           16.4                   17.3
                                 specialized secondary                 18.6         18.7           19.5                   19.4
                                 secondary and incomplete secondary    65.6         64.4            64.1                  63.3




                                                                                                           in 2000,
                                                                                                           in percents
87
               88




                                                                           Employment by economic spheres an average index for the year 2000
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                       In % of totalЌ   Distribution against sex, in %
                                                                                             w omen             men        w omen                men
                              Industry                                                         12.6             12.9           43.5               56.5
                              Agriculture                                                      33.2             35.4           42.5               57.5
                              Construction                                                      2.3              11.6          13.7               86.3
                              Transport and communication                                       1.8               6.2          18.1               81.9
                              Commerce, public catering,
                              logistics, procurement                                            8.2               8.6          42.8               57.2
                              Housing entities, non productive spheres of consumer
                              service of population                                             2.3               3.2          36.0               64.0
                              Public health, physical culture,
                              social security                                                  11.2               2.8          75.6               24.4
                              Education, culture, art, science
                              and scientific service                                           21.0               6.3          72.5               27.5
                              Finance, credits, insurance                                       0.6               0.5          47.5               52.5
                              Management office                                                  1.1              2.0          29.4               70.6
                              Other spheres                                                     5.7             10.5           30.0               70.0
                              Total
                                  in %                                                        100.0            100.0           44.0               56.0
                                  thousand people                                            3,955.1         5,027.9
                                                                         Number of workers and employees by regions and sex
                                                                                                       distribution against sex, in %
EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR MARKET




                                                                       1997            1998            1999                    2000
                                                              w omen   men    w omen   men    w omen   men      w omen         men
                              Republic of Uz bekistan           41.0   59.0     41.0   59.0     42.3   57.7         43.1        56.9
                                 Republic of Karakalpakstan     43.9   56.1     43.4   56.6     43.5   56.5        43.5         56.5
                                 Regions:
                                     Andijan                    45.8   54.2     41.8   58.2     44.6   55.4        46.3         53.7
                                     Bukhara                    39.7   60.3     44.2   55.8     45.1   54.9        44.3         55.7
                                     Djizak                     30.8   69.2     30.1   69.9     30.4   69.6        32.7         67.3
                                     Kashkadarya                36.2   63.8     36.3   63.7     36.9   63.1        37.5         62.5
                                     Navoyi                     38.9   61.1     39.5   60.5     42.5   57.5        42.0         58.0
                                     Namangan                   33.9   66.1     36.9   63.1     32.9   67.1        37.9         62.1
                                     Samarkand                  39.6   60.4     40.2   59.8     46.4   53.6        46.0         54.0
                                     Surkhandarya               34.7   65.3     34.0   66.0     35.9   64.1        36.0         64.0
                                     Syrdarya                   34.3   65.7     39.4   60.6     38.6   61.4        37.9         62.1
                                     Tashkent                   43.5   56.5     44.6   55.4     44.1   55.9        44.8         55.2
                                     Fergana                    45.0   55.0     44.5   55.5     48.0   52.0         47.1        52.9
                                     Khorezm                    42.4   57.6     39.7   60.3     42.5   57.5        46.0         54.0
                                 Tashkent city                  45.6   54.4     45.4   54.6     44.8   55.2        46.2         53.8
89
               90




                                                                                   Working conditions in industry as of the beginning of 2001
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                              Ratio of people w orking        Distribution by sex,
                              Types of impact produced by the production factors         under unfavorable conditions                        in %
                                                                                            w omen               men     w omen              men
                              Worked under the conditions that did not meet
                              the requirements of sanitary standards                           98.4               93.0     24.0              76.0
                                noise level                                                     31.1              24.9     27.2              72.8
                                vibration level                                                  2.4               8.8      7.5              92.5
                                dust content and gas laden atmosphere
                                of working site                                                39.8               34.4     25.7              74.3
                                temperature, humidity,
                                other factors                                                   25.1              24.9     23.2              76.8
                              Backbreaking work                                                  1.3               6.7      5.5              94.5
                              Worked at the equipment which does not meet
                              the requirements of safety facilities                              0.3               0.3     26.7              73.3
                                                                Working conditions in the sphere of construction as on the beginning of 2001
EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR MARKET




                                                                                            Ratio of people w orking
                              Types of impact produced                                 under unfavorable conditions     Distribution by sex, in %
                              by the production factors
                                                                                          w omen               men     w omen               men
                              Worked under the conditions that did not meet
                                                                                             79,0               68,6       5,7               94,3
                              the requirements of sanitary standards
                                 noise level                                                 17,6               13,7       6,3               93,7
                                 vibration level                                               3,7               3,7       5,0               95,0
                                 dust content and gas laden atmosphere
                                                                                             43,2               41,3       5,2               94,8
                                 of working site
                                 temperature, humidity,
                                                                                             14,5                9,9       7,2               92,8
                                 other factors
                              Backbreaking work                                              21,0               31,4       3,4               96,6
91
               92




                                                                               Unemployed being registered by the labor agencies as being jobless*
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                        Thousand people            In percentage terms out of total
                                                                                                1999               2000                1999                   2000
                                                                                w omen           men    w omen     men    w omen       men      w omen        men

                              Number of people being registered
                                                                                   180.8        207.0    200.5    220.9    100.0       100.0      100.0      100.0
                              as people looking for job — total

                                discharged according to their request               85.0         93.4     86.5    102.3     47.0        45.1       43.1       46.3
                                discharged due to the staff reduction               11.0         13.6     12.1     16.1     20.6        18.0       20.7       15.0
                                graduates from general educational
                                                                                    37.3         37.3     41.4     33.1      6.8         6.0        6.5         5.0
                                institutions
                                graduates from higher and secondary                 12.3         12.4     13.1     11.0      4.3         4.7        4.8         3.7
                                vocational educational institutions
                                graduates from vocational schools                     7.8         9.8      9.5      8.2     15.2        19.6       18.9       22.7
                                other                                               27.4         40.5     37.9     50.2
                                out of those being registered
                                the following have education
                                  higher                                            11.3         15.0     12.5     12.7      6.2         7.2        6.2         5.7
                                  secondary special                                 33.7         36.8     40.8     37.9     18.7        17.8       20.4       17.2
                                  secondary (complete)                             109.2        122.5    125.6    143.0     60.4        59.2       62.6       64.7
                                  do not have secondary (complete)
                                  education                                         26.6         32.7     21.6     27.3     14.7        15.8       10.8       12.4


                              * Data of the Ministry of labor and social protection of the population
                                                                                                                                continuation
EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR MARKET




                                                                                 Thousand people            In percentage terms out of total
                                                                          1999              2000                1999                   2000
                                                                 w omen   men    w omen     men    w omen       men      w omen        men
                              Out of being registered as those
                              who are looking for job are aged
                                 16–18                             21.0   21.6     17.9     17.0     11.6        10.4        8.9         7.7
                                 18–30                             87.4   98.9    102.4    103.6     48.3        47.8       51.1       46.9
                                  30–50                            69.4   76.0     76.7     92.5     38.4        36.7       38.3       41.9
                                  under retirement age              2.1    7.8      2.5      6.6      1.2         3.8        1.2         3.0
                                  retirement age and above          0.9    2.7      1.0      1.2      0.5         1.3        0.5         0.5
                              Out of being registered as those
                              who are looking for job
                                  employees and professionals      37.3   48.2     47.4     44.1     20.6        23.3       23.7       20.0
                                  workers                          79.5   98.1     85.8    113.2     44.0        47.4       42.8       51.5
                                  without any profession           64.0   60.7     67.2     62.9     35.4        29.3       33.5       28.5
93
               94




                                                            Being registered by the labor agencies as those who are looking for a job in 2000*
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                                 In % of total    Distribution by sex, in %
                              Reasons of unemployment
                                                                                                        w omen           men     w omen               men
                              Discharged due to the staff reduction                                        6.0            7.3       42.9               57.1
                              Discharged according to their request                                       43.1           46.3       45.8               54.2
                              Are not employed after graduating from
                                general educational institutions                                          20.7           15.0       55.6               44.4
                                vocational schools                                                         4.8            3.7       53.4               46.6
                                secondary vocational and higher educational institutions                   6.5            5.0       54.4               45.6
                                other reasons                                                             18.9           22.7       43.1               56.9
                              Total
                                in %                                                                     100.0          100.0       47.6               52.4
                                thousand people                                                          200.5          220.9


                              * Data of the Ministry of Labor and Social protection of the Population
                                                                           Pattern of unemployed by the period of time spent in search job
EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR MARKET




                                                                         1997              1998              1999             2000
                                                                       w omen     men    w omen    men     w omen   men     w omen    men
                              In % of total
                              Period of time spent in search for job    100.0    100.0    100.0   100.0     100.0   100.0    100.0   100.0
                                  less than 1 month                      18.1     22.9      9.7    13.3      13.8     7.1     14.4    16.7
                                  from 1 to 3 months                     44.6     52.4     33.4    26.9      24.7    45.7     27.6    38.0
                                  from 3 to 6 months                     29.6     16.4     45.7    44.2      47.8    36.8     45.9    35.4
                                  from 6 months to one year               5.6      5.9      9.8     11.1      9.6     7.7      7.8     9.0
                                  more than a year                        2.1      2.4      1.4     4.5       4.1     2.7      4.3     0.9
                              Distribution against sex, in %
                              Period of time spent in search for job     56.1     43.9     54.7    45.3      57.8    42.2     62.5    37.5
                                  less than 1 month                      50.3     49.7     46.8    53.2      72.6    27.4     58.9    41.1
                                  from 1 to 3 months                     52.1     47.9     60.0    40.0      42.6    57.4     54.7    45.3
                                  from 3 to 6 months                     69.8     30.2     55.5    44.5      64.1    35.9     68.3    31.7
                                  from 6 months to one year              54.4     45.6     51.6    48.4      63.2    36.8     59.2    40.8
                                  more than a year                       53.0     47.0     27.4    72.6      67.3    32.7     88.2    11.8
95
               96




                                                          Unemployed being registered by the standard of education as of January 1, 2001
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                  In % of total     Distribution by sex, in %
                                                                                       w omen             men      w omen               men
                              Unemployed — total
                                 thousand people                                          21.9            13.5
                                 in percentage term s                                    100.0           100.0        62.0               38.0
                                     do not have secondary education                      17.0            16.6        62.6               37.4
                                     general secondary education                          51.2            51.4        61.9               38.1
                                     specialized secondary education                      24.8            25.1        61.7               38.3
                                     higher education                                      7.0             6.9        62.1               37.9
GENDER ASPECTS
OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP

The participation of women and men in entrepreneurial activity is one
of the central ways of adaptation to new, market model of behavior, expansion
of employment and an approach to gain higher revenues.
The legislation of Republic of Uzbekistan provides equal rights to women
and men to engage in entrepreneurial activity.
One of the key conditions for the development of entrepreneurship in general
and female entrepreneurship in particular in Uzbekistan is considered to be
a free access to resources and especially to finances. In this regard, Uzbekistan
has adopted normative and legal acts making provisions for the improvement
of financing of small and medium-sized enterprises. Thus, on March 21, 2000,
the President of Republic of Uzbekistan had passed a decree “On measures
of further liberalization and reformation of banking system, which is intended
for the establishment of a soft loan fund for micro-companies, small and me-
dium sized enterprises and private farms, advanced technology and innovational
projects within commercial banks which would be generated by allotment of up
to 25 % of bank profits.
In order to induce the performance of commercial banks in an effort to boost
their internal resources intended for the crediting of small and medium sized
enterprise, the proceeds of commercial banks from crediting small and medium
sized enterprises are free of tax for 5-year period. For the same reason
the floating refinancing rates of Central Bank were introduced as of April 1,
2000 with monthly adjustments based on the dynamics of inflation rate
and monetary market supply and demand. Commercial banks are recommended
to decrease interest rates on loans for micro companies, small and medium-
sized enterprises based on the dynamics of inflation.
The decree had also stipulated that the interest rates set up by commercial banks
on short term deposits for individuals should not go below 75 % and not less
than 50 % of Central Bank’s actual rate of refinancing for legal entities



                                                                              97
     with interest rate to be kept constant on existing deposits for an entire period
     of deposit agreement.
     The procedure of credit issuance for entrepreneurs has been simplified con-
     siderably which is stipulated by documentation on crediting adopted in 2000
     such as “The procedure of issuing micro-credits in national and foreign cur-
     rency by commercial banks for private entrepreneurs and dehkhan farms acting
     as a non-legal entities” and “The procedure of credit issuance for farms
     and subjects of small and medium-sized enterprises by commercial banks
     in national currency”.
     However, despite the numerous efforts, the access of female entrepreneurs
     to credits is still insignificant. The analysis of findings on micro-credits issued
     in 2001 shows that out of the total amount of credits issued to entrepreneurs
     only 15 % were given to female entrepreneurs and 85 % — to men. The indirect
     data* available at hand also confirms that participation of women in entre-
     preneurship is also quite limited. Thus, among entrepreneurs listed in the data-
     base of Republican Chamber of Commodity Manufacturers and Entrepreneurs
     (as of July 1, 2000), only 14.2 % comprised by women while 86.8 % —
     by men. Based on the expert evaluation, economical activity of majority
     of female entrepreneurs evolves around small businesses. Women are pre-
     dominantly involved into service-oriented businesses, trade and public catering.
     The share of women in material production industries is exceedingly low. Same
     situation could be observed with regards to employment in informal sectors
     of economy, which is primarily represented by trade and paid public services.
     According to findings of the survey on female entrepreneurs which was
     conducted in 2000 by sociological group “Sharkh” in several regions of Uzbeki-
     stan (Republic of Karakalpakstan, Andijan, Namangan, Samarqand, Fergana
     and Tashkent regions), among restraining factors (along with such problems
     as lack of start-up capital and high tax rates) the respondents have named
     limited access to credits and difficulties in satisfying conditions for their
     issuance (high interest rates, repayment of the loan by a bank transfer), the lack
     of knowledge on preparation of business-plans, absence of collateral
     and no access to the information on the sources of crediting.
     The potential for the development of female entrepreneurship in future is fairly
     high which is validated by (among other factors) active participation of women
     in the life of society. The research conducted by State Department of Statistics
     of the Ministry of Macroeconomics and Statistics of Republic of Uzbekistan

     *
         There is no statistical or institutional data available on entrepreneurs on the basis of sex
         and other characteristics.


98   WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
     statistical collection
revealed, that only 21 % of surveyed working women expressed their readi-
ness to quit their job if their salary was not needed by the family, and 67.8 %
of women-respondents said they would prefer to stay employed.
The achievement of equality between women and men on the labor market
along with measures taken by the state and protectionist policy of the govern-
ment requires the provision of equal opportunities in the family. It implies
transformation of some views that are customary for family and matrimonial
relations, the shift in the understanding of the role of women and men
in the family and distribution of responsibilities between women and men
in the process of upbringing their children and performance of general house-
hold activities.




GENDER ASPECTS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP                                          99
               100




                                                                                                                    Entrepreneurs, by sex and regions
                                                                                                      that received micro credits as of January 1, 2002*
                                                                                                                                                    million sums
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                             Number of credits issued                  In % of total   Distribution by sex, in %
                                                                                 w omen            men       w omen            men       w omen            men
                              Republic of Uz bekistan                           14,397.0       81,429.5        100.0          100.0         15.0            85.0
                                 Republic of Karakalpakstan                        920.5         2,682.8         6.4            3.3         25.5            74.5
                                 Regions:
                                     Andijan                                       857.6         7,586.5         6.0            9.3         10.2            89.8
                                     Bukhara                                     1,031.6         4,457.9         7.2            5.5         18.8            81.2
                                     Jizzakh                                       263.1         2,711.3         1.8            3.3           8.8           91.2
                                     Qashqadarya                                   482.6         4,355.9         3.4            5.3         10.0            90.0
                                     Navoi                                         549.9         4,059.9         3.8            5.0          11.9           88.1
                                     Namangan                                      462.2         2,908.7         3.2            3.6         13.7            86.3
                                     Samarqand                                   1,184.0       10,656.3          8.2           13.1         10.0            90.0
                                     Surkhandarya                                  776.0         3,067.9         5.4            3.8         20.2            79.8
                                     Syrdarya                                      353.1         2,246.2         2.5            2.8         13.6            86.4
                                     Tashkent                                    1,483.7         7,435.7        10.3             9.1        16.6            83.4
                                     Fergana                                     1,388.5         6,381.4         9.6            7.8         17.9            82.1
                                     Khorezm                                       655.8         2,063.5         4.6            2.5          24.1           75.9
                                 Tashkent city                                   3,988.4       20,815.5         27.7           25.6          16.1           83.9


                              * Findings of Association of Business Women of Uzbekistan “Tadbirkor Ayol”
STATE ADMINISTRATION


The legislative and representative branches of power are comprised of depu-
ties of Oliy Majlis of Uzbekistan, Zhokargy Kenes of Republic of Karakalpak-
stan, regional, district and city Councils of People’s Deputies.
Executive power authorities include senior officials of Cabinet of Ministers
of Uzbekistan, Cabinet of Ministers of Karakalpakstan, khokims (mayors)
and deputy khokims of regions and city of Tashkent, districts and cities.
Judicial power authorities include judges of Constitutional Court of Republic
of Uzbekistan, Supreme Court of Republic of Uzbekistan, Supreme Economic
Court of Republic of Uzbekistan, Supreme Court of Republic of Karakalpakstan,
Economic Court of Republic of Karakalpakstan, regional courts, Tashkent city
court, district courts, city courts and economic courts.
As of beginning of year 2002, among members of top state power authorities,
women comprise 13,7 % and men — 86,3 %, with women in legislative
and representative authorities comprising 12,3 % and men — 87,7 %, execu-
tive bodies — 15, 3 % women and 84,7 %, judicial bodies — 20,3 % women
and 79,7 % men.




                                                                         101
                102




                                                                            Gender composition of the state power authorities as of January 1, 2002
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                              % of total number   Distribution by sex, %
                                                                                                           w omen          men    w omen           men
                              Total number of people in state pow er authorities                             100.0        100.0      13.7           86.3
                                legislative and representative power authorities (deputies)                   64.1         72.6      12.3           87.7
                                  Oliy Majlis (Parliament of the Republic of Uzbekistan)                       1.9          2.8       9.9           90.1
                                  Zhokargy Kenes (Parliament of the Republic of Karakalpakistan)               0.6          1.1       8.0           92.0
                                  Councils of People’s Deputies of the regions and the city of Tashkent        4.7          8.0       8.5           91.5
                                  Regional Councils of People’s Deputies                                      46.7         51.0      12.7           87.3
                                  City Councils of People’s Deputies                                          10.2          9.7      14.3           85.7
                                in the executive power authorities (upper tier)                               20.0         17.5      15.3           84.7
                                  Cabinet of Ministers of Republic of Uzbekistan                               0.2          0.1      16.7           83.3
                                  Cabinet of Ministers of Republic of Karakalpakstan                           0.1          0.1      12.5           87.5
                                  Khokims (mayors) and deputy khokims of regions and Tashkent city             1.1          1.3      11.9           88.1
                                  Khokims and deputy khokims of districts                                     16.0         13.9      15.4           84.6
                                  Khokims and deputy khokims of cities                                         2.6          2.1      16.3           83.7
                                in the judicial bodies (judges)                                               15.9          9.9      20.3           79.7
                                  Constitutional Court                                                         0.1          0.1      20.0           80.0
                                  Supreme Court of Republic of Uzbekistan                                      0.5          0.5      14.6           85.4
                                  Supreme Court of Republic of Karakalpakstan, regional courts,                4.7          2.9      20.4           79.6
                                  Tashkent city court
                                  District and city courts                                                     8.1          5.0      20.4           79.6
                                  Supreme Economic Court of Republic of Uzbekistan                             0.2          0.2      15.8           84.2
                                  Economic Courts of Republic of Karakalpakstan and regions                    2.3          1.2      22.6           77.4
                                                                              Number of women and men employed on managerial positions,
                                                                                                 by branches of economy as of 1/01/2001*
STATE ADMINISTRATION




                                                                            Number of individuals    % of the total number   Distribution by sex, %
                                                                         holding leading positions
                                                                            w omen           men     w omen          men     w omen           men
                       Total                                                 49,225       152,473     100.0          100.0      24.4           75.6
                           industry                                           8,407        30,056       17.1          19.7      21.9           78.1
                           agriculture and forestry                           1,201        16,541        2.4          10.8       6.8           93.2
                           transportation                                     1,166         7,317        2.4           4.8      13.7           86.3
                           communication                                       874          2,357        1.8           1.5      27.1           72.9
                           construction                                       2,875        12,845        5.8           8.4      18.3           81.7
                           sales, public catering, logistics,
                           procurement                                        2,719         9,986        5.5           6.5      21.4           78.6

                           public utilities and communal services,            1,314         5,666        2.7           3.7      18.8           81.2
                           municipal consumer services
                           health protection, physical culture, sport,
                           social welfare                                     2,571         6,006        5.2           3.9      30.0           70.0

                           education                                         20,919        33,190      42.5           21.8      38.7           61.3
                           culture and art                                    1,448         2,237        3.0           1.6      39.3           60.7
                           science and scientific service                      782          1,913        1.6           1.3      29.0           71.0
                           finance, credit and insurance                      1,335         3,504        2.7           2.3      27.6           72.4
                           administrative apparatus                           3,068        18,576        6.2          12.2      14.2           85.8
                           other industries                                    546          2,279        1.1           1.5      19.3           80.7


                       * Classification adopted by state statistics
103
                104




                                                The composition of members of political parties of Republic of Uzbekistan as of 1/01/2002
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                                       Distribution by sex, %
                                                                                                                    w omen              men
                              People-Democratic Party of Uzbekistan                                                    30.5              69.5
                              Social-Democratic Party of Uzbekistan “Adolat”                                           36.2              63.8
                              National-Democratic Party “Fidokorlar”                                                   15.6              84.4
                              Democratic Party of National Renaissance of Uzbekistan “Milliy Tiklanysh”                27.3              72.7
TIME BUDGET


The survey of time utilization both by men and women of capable age carried
out by the state statistical agencies in 1997 shows that time consumption on non-
paid work (house keeping work and care-taking activities of other family mem-
bers) is 2.9 times higher among women as compared to men. Almost 63 %
of time used by women for house keeping work is spent for cooking, dish
washing, laundering, ironing, and small cloth repairing, while men spend only
11.5 % of their time for the same kind of work. Time spent by women for taking
care after children and aged members of their families is as much as 1.8 times
as compared to men.
Yet, time spent by women for productive activities is 15 % less than time spent
by men. This discrepancy is explained by different amount of time dedicated
to education and leisure. Also, women tend to allocate more time for personal
care which is 11 % more than that of men.
There is no big differences in the way of free time utilization — women spend
97,7 % and men — 93,6 %, for entertainment and rest. The largest portion
of this time women and men dedicate to TV watching. Women spend three
times less time going in for sports, than men.
Women spend 3.2 less time attending religious institutions.




                                                                             105
                106




                                                                      Time spent by economically active population for different kinds of activity
                                                                                                                           in hours and minutes per day
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                                      Women                       Men
                              Total                                                                                      7.63                     5.49
                                 non-paid work                                                                           4.23                     1.48
                                      house-keeping                                                                      3.36                     1.00
                                      taking care of family members                                                      0.87                     0.48
                                 non productive activity                                                                 2.91                     3.40
                                      personal care                                                                      0.51                     0.46
                                      education                                                                          0.01                     0.03
                                      leisure                                                                            2.39                     2.91
                                 other kinds                                                                             0.49                     0.61
                                                                          Time spent for house keeping
                                                                                 in hours and minutes per day
TIME BUDGET




                                                                            Women                       Men
              Work to be done at home                                          4.23                     1.48
                 cooking, dish washing                                         1.59                     0.11
                 laundering, ironing, small clothes repairing                  1.07                     0.06
                 caring after apartment, furniture, domestic appliances        0.67                     0.64
                 children nursing                                              0.73                     0.39
                 looking after aged family members                             0.14                     0.09
                 other kinds of house keeping work                             0.03                     0.19
107
                108




                                                                                        Free time spent by families
                                                                                                    in percentage terms
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                        Women                     Men
                              Free time                                                   100.0                  100.0
                                 rest and entertainment                                    97.7                   93.6
                                     visit to the theatre, cinema and concert halls         0.6                    0.5
                                     TV watching                                           57.9                   52.3
                                     reading newspapers, magazines and fiction             10.5                   11.9
                                     walking                                                7.6                    8.7
                                     visiting and receiving guests                         15.2                   11.9
                                     going in for sports                                    1.2                    4.6
                                     other kind of rest                                     4.7                    3.7
                                 visit to the religious institutions (mosque, church)       1.7                    5.5
                                 attendance of some educational courses                     0.6                    0.9
SOCIAL SECURITY


This section contains the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of social
security of the population, such as types and kinds of benefits, pensions, number
of pensioners, registered by the social security agencies, number of individuals,
diagnosed as disabled for the first time, amount of social guarantees, provided
for the population by the Government and so on.
System of social security of the population of the republic includes pension
provision, unemployment benefits, sick benefit, maternity allowance, aids
to families with law income, welfare to invalids and single aged people, fringe
benefits to some specific groups of population as well as training and retraining
of unemployed. Micro credits provided by the Government to some people
with the view of developing entrepreneurship and thus increasing the number
of jobs and live standard of the population is also one of the means of social
security.
Social security targets low-income families. High level of “addressness” is
achieved due to the unique system of social security, founded in Uzbekistan
and known as “Makhalla System”.
Social security of the population is provided mainly by the Government allo-
cating budget funds to the population through Makhalla Committees. Off-budget
funds as well as different charity funds are also used for the same purpose.
3087 thousand pensioners, among them 53 % of women and 47.0 % of men
were registered by the social security agencies in the republic as of the begin-
ning of the year 2001. Out of the total number of pensioners at the pension age
69.5 % are women, and 48 %, are men. Disability pension is received by 19.0 %
and 18.2 % respectfully.
An average amount of retirement benefits went up as much as 3.8 times during
the last three years and disability pension went up as much as 3.7 times.




                                                                             109
      Monthly child support for children under two has tripled, the minimum amount
      of scholarship (as of October 1) of students of higher and specialized secondary
      educational institutions went up as much as 3.8 times.
      The ratio between the average amount of monthly pensions and average wage
      was 68.7 % in 2000 as compared to 53.7 % in 1997.




110   WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
      statistical collection
                                                        Number of pensioners registered by the social security agencies
                                                                                            by sex and type of pension
                                                                                                                           as of the en of the year
SOCIAL SECURITY




                                                                 1997                1998                          1999                      2000
                                                     w omen      men     w omen      men         w omen            men        w omen         men
                  Total number of pensioners         1,512.3   1,395.9   1,604.7   1,367.0       1,649.5      1,405.1          1,636.1     1,450.9
                   retirement benefit                1,114.8    683.6    1,165.7    642.2        1,174.1           644.2       1,136.9      696.8
                   disability                         273.5     203.2     285.2     226.4         303.8            249.4        310.2       264.2
                   in case of bread-winner loss,
                                                           -    457.9          -    456.3              -           462.0               -    462.4
                   for each disabled family member
                   other                              124.0      51.2     153.8       42.1        171.6             49.5        189.0         27.5




                                                        Number of pensioners registered by the social security agencies
                                                                                    by sex and type of pension in 2000

                                                                                                 In % of total             Distribution by sex, %
                                                                                      w omen               men              w omen           men
                  Total number of pensioners                                            100.0              100.0                53.0          47.0
                   retirement benefit                                                    69.5               48.0                62.0          38.0
                   disability                                                            19.0               18.2                54.3          45.7
                   in case of bread-winner loss,                                             -              31.8                   -        100.0
                   for each disabled family member
                   other                                                                 11.5                2.0                87.3          12.7
111
                112




                                                           Average amount of social guarantees granted to the population by the Government
                                                                                                                                     soums
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                    1997       1998        1999       2000
                              Average amount of pension
                                  retirement benefit                                                1,972      3,101      5,100      7,433
                                  disability-total                                                  1,926      2,913      4,730      7,109
                                      1 group                                                       2,776      4,290      6,790      9,840
                                      2 group                                                       2,057      3,115      5,118      7,818
                                      3 group                                                       1,131      1,615      2,544      3,675
                                  bread-winner loss                                                 1,826      2,820      4,458      6,635
                                  social pensions                                                   1,269      1,938      3,131      4,413
                                      disable child
                                           1 group                                                  1,400      2,100      3,340      4,675
                                           2 group                                                  1,400      2,100      3,340      4,675
                                      women aged 60 an men age 65                                    850       1,269      2,024      2,835
                              Monthly child support for every infant under                          1,013      1,388      2,249      3,063
                              Minimum amount of scholarship, as of October 1
                                  student of higher educational institutions                        1,400      2,560      3,585      5,377
                                  students of senior secondary educational institutions             1,375      2,440      3,465      5,200
                                                                             Spending on education and children upbringing
                                                                                                                       million soums
SOCIAL SECURITY




                                                                                             1997       1998        1999       2000
                  General education, upbringing of infants an teenagers                   56,041.2   79,380.6   121,485.1 162,016.9
                     out of them
                         pre-schools                                                      11,944.8   16,179.1   25,060.0    33,339.4
                         children’s home and boarding schools for children
                         with mental and physical deficiency                                282.5      383.4       580.2      794.0

                         general educational institutions of all types                    38,238.8   57,094.2   86,751.9 115,443.3
                  Training of professionals                                               15,038.0   24,785.3   37,936.4    56,376.9
                     out of them
                         higher educational institutions                                   3,953.2    7,297.4   10,567.7    15,370.0
                         senior secondary educational institutions                         4,059.1    6,779.8    10,198.1   11,730.4
                         vocational education                                              5,608.4    8,814.3   14,881.8    15,852.5
113
                114




                                                                         Number of women and men firstly diagnosed as invalids
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                          Total            As per 10,000 of population
                                                                        1997              1998             1997                  1998
                                                              w omen    men     w omen    men     w omen   men     w omen        men
                              Republic of Uz bekistan         40,294   40,688   41,321   40,372     33.7    34.4       34.1       33.6
                                 Republic of Karakalpakstan    2,335    2,579    2,450    2,832     31.9    36.8       33.1       38.4
                                 Regions
                                     Andijan                   4,881    4,142    4,967    4,241     46.0    39.3       46.0       39.6
                                     Bukhara                   2,279    2,229    2,233    2,146     32.8    32.5       31.7       30.8
                                     Djizak                    1,366    1,303    1,341    1,343     29.5    28.3       28.5       28.7
                                     Kashkadarya               2,521    2,642    2,660    2,702     24.3    25.4       25.1       25.5
                                     Navoyi                    1,303    1,174    1,318    1,109     34.0    30.5       34.1       28.5
                                     Namangan                  2,522    2,621    2,791    2,532     27.2    28.2       29.6       26.7
                                     Samarkand                 4,316    4,327    4,272    4,148     33.2    33.6       32.4       31.7
                                     Surkhandarya              1,830    2,309    1,845    2,369     22.1    27.6       21.8       27.7
                                     Syrdarya                  1,630    1,075    1,438    1,049     50.3    33.2       43.9       31.9
                                     Tashkent                  3,186    3,803    3,061    3,601     27.4    33.3       26.1       31.2
                                     Fergana                   5,518    5,571    6,333    5,266     42.4    43.3       48.0       40.3
                                     Khorezm                   2,132    1,652    1,988    1,751     33.1    26.1       30.4       27.2
                                 Tashkent city                 4,475    5,161    4,624    5,283     40.8    50.2       41.9       50.8
                                                                                                               continuation
SOCIAL SECURITY




                                                                               Total            As per 10,000 of population
                                                            1997               1998             1997                  1998
                                                  w omen    men     w omen     men     w omen   men     w omen        men
                  Republic of Uz bekistan         40,023   40,392   34,250    36,461     32.6    33.1       27.5       29.5
                     Republic of Karakalpakstan    2,493    2,995    2,449    2,844      33.1    39.9       32.0       37.3
                     Regions:
                         Andijan                   4,322    3,779    3,347     3,261     39.4    34.7       30.1       29.5
                         Bukhara                   2,334    2,204    2,331    2,197      32.7    31.2       32.3       30.7
                         Djizak                    1,281    1,335    1,282    1,273      26.2    27.4       25.8       25.7
                         Kashkadarya               2,705    2,588    2,355    2,529      25.0    23.9       21.3       22.8
                         Navoyi                    1,598    1,438    1,497    1,310      41.0    36.6       38.0       33.0
                         Namangan                  2,609    2,446    2,283     2,241     27.2    25.4       23.4       22.9
                         Samarkand                 4,093    4,223    3,352    3,577      30.6    31.7       24.7       26.5
                         Surkhandarya              1,830    2,330     1,611    2,191     21.2    26.7       18.3       24.6
                         Syrdarya                  1,283    1,097    1,192    1,046      40.0    34.1       36.8       32.1
                         Tashkent                  3,147    3,826    2,986    3,613      26.6    32.8       25.0       30.7
                         Fergana                   5,216    4,710    3,834    3,825      39.0    35.5       28.3       28.4
                         Khorezm                   1,965    1,800    1,813    1,888      29.5    27.4       26.7       28.2
                     Tashkent city                 5,147    5,621    3,918    4,666      46.8    52.9       35.8       44.7
115
                116




                                                              Number of disabled registered by the institutions of social security of population
                                                                                                                                            as of the end of year
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                  1997             1998             1999                   2000
                                                                                w omen            men     w omen   men     w omen   men     w omen          men
                              Number of disabled people
                                  total, thousand people                          144.7           161.8    160.8   166.0    166.7   166.3      166.4       160.8
                                  per 10,000 of population                         121.1          136.9    132.6   138.3    135.6   136.4      133.6       130.0
                              Number of people firstly diagnosed as disabled
                                  total, thousand people                            40.3           40.7     41.3    40.4     40.0    40.4       34.2        36.5
                                  per 100,000 of population                         33.7           34.4     34.1    33.6     32.6    33.1       27.5        29.5
                              Number of people receiving social benefits
                                  total, thousand people                          139.4            84.1    145.8    97.3    163.7   104.5      156.5       105.4
                                  per 1000 of population                            11.8            7.2     12.1     8.1     13.3     8.6       12.6         8.6
                              out of them disabled children under 16 receiving disability grant
                                  total, thousand people                            72.4           33.6     78.6    45.1     94.4    53.2       88.5        55.3
                                  per 1000 of population                             6.1            2.9      6.5     3.8      7.7     4.4        7.1         4.5
CRIMINALITY


This section contains the data regarding the individuals who have committed
a crime and were convicted for their crime, including individuals under age.
The number of individuals convicted includes those against whom the Court
has passed a sentence which has come into validity.
The section is based on the data provided by the Ministry of Internal Affairs
of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
65,989 crimes were committed in the republic in the year 2000, including
7,649 by women and 58,340 by men. Out of every 100 crimes 12 are commit-
ted by women and 88 — by men.
Among people convicted in 2000 6,446 are women and 53,721 are men, so out
of every 100 convicted 10.7 are women and 89.3 are men.
Most typical crimes involving women are so called “economic” ones — swin-
dle, theft, hooliganism, drugs production and sale.




                                                                         117
                118




                                                                                     Number of individuals committing crime in 1997
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                          Number, individuals            In % of total Distribution by sex, in %
                                                                          w omen        men     w omen           men       w omen          men
                              Premeditated murder and murderous assault     94.0      1,023.0      1.4            2.0          8.4          91.6
                              Premeditated grave bodily harm                65.0        771.0      1.0            1.5          7.8          92.2
                              Rape and attempt to rape                        3.0       784.0      0.0            1.5          0.4          99.6
                              Theft                                        760.0     13,996.0     11.4           27.4          5.2          94.8
                              Robbery and brigandage                       111.0      2,039.0      1.7            4.0          5.2          94.8
                              Swindle                                      209.0        823.0      3.1            1.6         20.3          79.7
                              Hooliganism                                  658.0      3,559.0      9.8            7.0         15.6          84.4
                              Drugs production and sale                    429.0      4,728.0      6.4            9.2          8.3          91.7
                              Crime against economic basis                1,702.0     8,160.0     25.5           16.0         17.3          82.7
                              Other types of crime                        2,658.0    15,229.0     39.7           29.8         14.9          85.1
                                                                     Number of individuals committing crime in 2000
CRIMINALITY




                                                          Number, individuals             In % of total Distribution by sex, in %
                                                          w omen        men     w omen            men       w omen          men
              Premeditated murder and murderous assault    102.0        987.0      1.3             1.7          9.4          90.6
              Premeditated grave bodily harm                77.0        619.0      1.0             1.1          11.1         88.9
              Rape and attempt to rape                        2.0       544.0      0.0             0.9          0.4          99.6
              Theft                                        788.0     16,483.0     10.3            28.2          4.6          95.4
              Robbery and brigandage                       138.0      1,986.0      1.8             3.4          6.5          93.5
              Swindle                                      378.0      1,211.0      5.0             2.1         23.8          76.2
              Hooliganism                                  778.0      3,604.0     10.2             6.2         17.8          82.2
              Drugs production and sale                    850.0      7,005.0      11.1           12.0         10.8          89.2
              Crime against economic basis                1,474.0     8,926.0     19.3            15.3         14.2          85.8
              Other types of crime                        3,062.0    16,975.0     40.0            29.1         22.0          78.0
119
                120




                                                                                                Number of individuals convicted for the crime
WOMEN AND MEN OF UZBEKISTAN
statistical collection




                                                                                                 1997                                            2000
                                                         Number, individuals Distribution by sex, in %   Number, individuals Distribution by sex, in %
                                                         w omen         men       w omen         men     w omen         men       w omen         men
                              Convicted, total           5,423.0    47,433.0         10.3         89.7   6,446.0    53,721.0         10.7         89.3
                              out of them under age       117.0      2,086.0          5.3         94.7    103.0      2,063.0          4.8         95.2




                                                                                Number of arrested individuals who has committed a crime

                                                                                                 1997                                            2000
                                                         Number, individuals Distribution by sex, in %   Number, individuals Distribution by sex, in %
                                                         w omen         men       w omen         men     w omen         men       w omen         men
                              Total number of arrested   6,689.0    51,112.0         11.6         88.4   7,649.0    58,340.0         11.6         88.4
                              out of them                 180.0      2,845.0          6.0         94.0    177.0      2,944.0          5.7         94.3
                              under age

								
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