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Ch. 15 Exercise and Sports Psychology


									Chapter 15
Exercise and sports psychology

                Vicki Klopf
            Rachael Ervin-Korte
   Explain how the sub disciplines of exercise and sports psychology
    fits within the discipline of exercise science

   Distinguish among the various areas of study that usually fall under
    exercise and sports psychology

   Describe the prominent approaches for studying personality,
    including some of the major issues and findings from the area

   Explain arousal and it’s effects on performance

   Describe the prominent motivational theories in exercise and
    sports, including representative findings from motivational research.

   Describe how exercise influences thoughts and emotions
Brief history of Exercise and Sports
   Ancient Greeks expressed importance of both physical and
    mental health

   1600th century book by Mendez Book of Bodily Exercise
    which stated effects of exercise on the mind

   Although our ancestors recognized the intimate link
    between mind and body it wasn’t until the 1960s and 1970s
    that any systematic investigations were done in relation to
    exercise and sports psychology

   This field has borrowed many theories and methods from
    other parent disciplines, especially it’s primary parent
    discipline psychology
 ◦ Exercise and Sports psychology is concerned with the
   psychology of human movement as it is reflected by
   the behavior, thoughts and feelings of individuals
   engaging in that movement.

    Exercise Psychology is the application of the educational,
     scientific, and professional contributions of psychology to the
     promotion, explanation, maintenance and enhancement of
     behaviors related to physical work capacity.

    Sports Psychology is the educational, scientific, and
     professional contributions of psychology to the promotion,
     explanation, maintenance and enhancement of sports related
Exercise and Sports Psychology
   Two Primary research objectives:
    ◦ Determination of the psychological antecedents
      of participation in sports and Physical Activity
       Research attempts to determine what personality factors
        might lead someone to participate in sports or PA
       Research that examines the effects of pre competition anxiety
        or confidence on performance.
    ◦ Determination of the psychological consequences
      of participation in sports and Physical Activity
       Research examines how an exercise training program might
        influence anxiety, depression or well being
       Research in how sports performance might influence feelings
        of self confidence or self efficacy
   Example research questions for
        Exercise Psychology
     Does exercise have an effect on
        psychological well being?

 Does exercise influence emotions and

 Can exercise be used as a treatment for
   people suffering from mental illness?

       Can exercise be addictive?
Example research questions for Sports
   What is the relationship between anxiety
               and performance?

  How does attention influence performance?

     Are there psychological predictors of
                 athletic injury?

   Does relaxation have a role in improving
             sports performance?
Framework of Exercise and Sport
   Exercise and Sports
    Psychology is
    composed of 4 related
         Health
         Exercise
         Sports
         Rehabilitation
Analysis in Exercise and Sports
   There is a large variety of analytical methods used in attempt to
    answer questions
    ◦ Constructionists: roots in the tradition of cognitive psychology
       Great deal of weight is given to individual’s subjective experience

   The major analytical strategy used is Self Report
    ◦ Use of standardized questionnaires or psychological inventories
         Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
         Profile of Mood States
         Beck Depression Inventory
         Sport competition Anxiety Test
         Competitive State Anxiety inventory 2
         Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style in sports

   Observation
    ◦ Watch what people do and record their observations
       Coaching Behavior Assessment System
           Requires extensive training for proper observation so results are all relatively accurate –
            very unpopular
          Focus on Science
Personality: Definition and Overview
◦ Statements are derived from the belief that personality
  plays a role in performance and behaviors

◦ There is little consensus about how to define personality
   One way to understand personality is to examine how it is
     One way is to look at personality as multilayered; with the inner layers
      being the most stable and outer layers most easily and ready to change

       The center is the psychological core, which is the most stable and
        least changeable aspect of change
         Developed from early interactions with the environment( i.e. parents,
         Develops a sense of what the external world is like
         Develops a sense of self: thoughts, beliefs, basic attitudes, values,
          interests, and motives.
            Also known as our Self Concept
     The next level is the typical responses which are behaviors
      that are consistent with our core and usually stay consistent
      over time

     The next layer is a buffer zone from the social environment:
      Role related behaviors.
       This layer is the most changeable because behaviors are
        based on the situation or surroundings a person might be
          Important to note that these behaviors will still run
           concurrent with the basic core and typical responses.

◦ Bottom line: Personality is relatively stable over
   time but is open for change and modifications
Approaches to Studying Personality
 ◦ There are numerous studies that can be used to study
   exercise and sports psychology.
    Two most prominent are the dispositional approach and the
     learning approach, otherwise known as the interactionist
     approach to studying personality.
      Dispositional focuses on the person
        Target biologic theories and trait theories
          Classic views of dispositional theories come from the ancient Greeks
           with their beliefs that personality was intimately linked to the body’s
           “humors” or fluids. Meaning that depending on how much or how
           little of a fluid within one’s body determined personality.
             For example if you had a lot of blood it was a sign of cheerfulness
               where as if you had more black bile you were more melancholy or
             One can only imagine the fairly gruesome scenes resulting from this
               practice due to the belief that to fix personality you must alter
               these bodily fluids.
      Learning focuses on the environment
        Target conditioning or behaviorist theories and social learning theories.
Dispositional approach
   Classic views of dispositional theories come from the
    ancient Greeks with their beliefs that personality was
    intimately linked to the body’s “humors” or fluids.
    Meaning that depending on how much or how little of a
    fluid within one’s body determined personality.

    For example if you had a lot of blood it was a sign of
     cheerfulness where as if you had more black bile you
     were more melancholy or depressed.

    One can only imagine the fairly gruesome scenes
     resulting from this practice due to the belief that to
     fix personality you must alter these bodily fluids.
Learning Approach

 Learning focuses
  on the
   Target
    conditioning or
    theories and
    social learning
Approaches to Studying Personality
 ◦ Another popular approach to studying
   personality is the trait theory.
    Traits are relatively enduring and highly consistent
     internal attributes that an individual possesses.
       Such as moody, anxious, touchy, restless, optimistic, active,
        social, outgoing, lively, carefree, calm and even tempered
Trait theory
 16 Personality Factors
  Questionnaire (16PF)
 Cattell proposed that
       of 16 factors
       that were
       derived through
Trait theory
  Another psychologist named Eysenck favored an approach that
   examined relationships among traits; especially ones he termed
   Superordinate dimensions and all the dimensions had a biologic
         He believed personality could be captured most effectively
          with only three dimensions, So he broke down Cattell’s work
          down into three basic dimensions:

           Extroversion-introversion(outgoing, social vs. shy, inhibited)

           Neuroticism-stability ( anxious, excitable vs., even
            tempered, easy going)

           Psychoticism-superego (egocentric, impulsive vs.
            cooperative, caring)

    This approach was widely used in the 1960s and 1970s especially
     in sports.
          Interactionist approach to studying
 Hot Topic: Person-Situation Debate
   Vigorous debate in the study of personality which discusses
    whether focusing on the person or the situation is the more
    effective way to study personality

       Personal perspective is referred to as the trait approach
        which emphasizes that personality is derived from stable,
        enduring attributes of the individual; which lead to
        consistent responses over time and across situations.

       Situation perspective emphasizes that behavior is best
        explains by examining the environment and the individual’s
        reaction to that environment.

       Current thought is that a mixture of both views is the best
        way to understand the influence
   Interactionist Approach
 Another important issues involved the distinction
  between states and traits

     Traits are seen as relatively enduring dispositions that exert
      a consistent influence on behavior in a variety of situations.
           Example: A highly trait anxious person would tend to
            be a worrisome, nervous individual regardless of the

     States are viewed as the psychological reaction to the
      situation in which the individual finds him/herself and are
      consistent with the individual’s traits.
            Example: When placed in a situation such as standing at
             the free throw line in the closing seconds of a close
             game, this individual would be expected to response
             with a high amount of state anxiety
Problems with these studies of
   ◦ Major problems with these studies are that most of
     them are conducted out of convenience.

      For example, a group of athletes are asked to take a
       questionnaire or multiple personality inventories and then
       the data is collected, analyzed and a conclusion is drawn
       from this study.

      From these studies it has been concluded that there is no
       relationship between personality and athletic performance

         If a more useful approach, such as one that involves using a
          theoretical framework, deriving testable hypotheses from that
          framework and then using a measurement tool and a subject sample
          that will allow testing of the hypothesis, results have shown some
          consistent relationships between personality and performance.
 ◦ What drives individuals to stick to an exercise program with a
   fervent regularity while another drops out within with 3months
   of beginning?

 ◦ What leads and individual to continue in a sport even though he
   or she has experienced a series of failures and disappointments?

 ◦ What leads another to become involved in sports and physical
   activity while another one avoids it?

 ◦ All these questions relate to the topic of motivation.

     What is it, what pushes people to do or not do certain
   Motivation is made up of three
    ◦ Choices we make to participate or avoid

    ◦ How much effort is put into the activity

    ◦ How persistent is the individual with the
Approaches to studying Motivation
 Most often studied from an achievement framework approach

   Initially studies by the McClelland-Atkinson model which is one of the
    earliest and most influential models.

          The model its self proposes a complex mathematical approach to
           predict and explain the need for achievement, a concept developed
           within the model, using both personality ( individual ) and
           situational ( environment ) factors.

   Many social-psychological theories of motivation have grown out of this
    model, most of which have adopted a cognitive approach to achievement
    motivation wherein strivings for achievement are assumed to be caused by
    cognitive mechanisms.

          Most important of these cognitive constructs is self-confidence or
           the perception an individual has of her or his own ability.

               Self confidence is the belief an individual has that he or she can
                successfully execute an activity or plan.
Approaches to studying motivation

 There are two social psychological theories in
  exercise and sport psychology.

   Bandura’s social cognitive theory of which self perception of
                        ability is paramount

                   Weiner’s attribution theory
Social cognitive theory
 Major component of this theory is self efficacy

   Self efficacy is the convictions or beliefs an individual has that he
    or she can carry out a course of action to achieve a particular
             This belief is not concerned with the skills that individuals
              actually possess but is instead centered on their own
              judgment of what they can do with those skills

     Self efficacy is essentially self confidence that is specific to a
      particular situation
            This concept is a KEY factor in determining behavior.

     Self efficacy is important when determining choice of activities,
      effort put into those activities and the persistence in the activity
            For example when a individual with low self efficacy is
              more likely to drop out of an exercise program when faced
              with difficulties like an unsupportive spouse than is a high
              efficacious person.
Self efficacy
Self efficacy is derived from four factors
 Past performances/ Mastery accomplishments
   Most influential and most dependable factor affecting self
      Past success = increased efficacy judgments
      Past failures = decreased efficacy judgments
 Vicarious Experiences/ or Observing others doing the same
   Determine efficacy judgments
   Used when an individual is less experienced with a given task
 Social Persuasion
 Physiological arousal
   Appraisal by individuals of their own physiologic state
      For example, an individual may interpret increased heart
       rate and butterflies in the stomach as negative, leading to a
       fear that he or she cannot perform where as another
       individual experiencing the same physiologic responses may
       interpret them as positive, as in being ready to perform –
       being psyched up.
 Self Efficacy
 In conclusion, Self efficacy determines behaviors in
  terms of choice, effort, persistence, thoughts and
  emotional reactions and the relationship between self
  efficacy and behavior is reciprocal

 The Self efficacy model is one model that is consistently
  changing as new information is introduced

 Also it has been shown to be an important determinant
  of physical activity and sports behavior.
     It is estimated to account for approximately 25% of
      all the available possibilities for explaining
      performance and the maintenance of moderate and
      vigorous activity in a variety of populations
    Attribution theory
 Attribution theory attempts to explain how a person
  interprets achievement outcomes and how that
  interpretation influences future behaviors

    In other words after engaging in a behavior that leads to
     some outcome the person begins a search to explain
     why the outcome happened as it did.

          For example after missing a crucial free throw, an
           athlete would attempt to determine why he or
           she missed the short. The failure might be
           attributed to being distracted by fans or being too
           nervous. These reasons for the outcome are
           referred to as causal attributions.
   Attribution theory
 There are four classic attributions;
        Ability
        Effort
        Task difficulty
        Luck or chance

 Although attributions themselves are interesting, by
  themselves they are relatively unimportant.
         The model focuses more on identifying common
          properties or dimensions underlying the
   Attribution theory
 There are three causal dimensions

    Locus of causality
        Whether the cause or attribute is perceived to
         reside within(internal) or outside (external) of the

    Stability
        Variability of the attribution over time

    Controllability
       Whether the attribution is under the individual’s
        control or controlled by someone or something
   Attribution theory
 Bottom line:
     When an outcome occurs, an individual experiences an
      emotion, referred to in the model as an Outcome-
      dependent effect.
         Feelings good = outcome was successful
         Feeling bad = failure

     Which then leads to a causal search to determine the
      reason that the outcome occurred as it did

     After the search it is them placed among the three

     These dimensions influence future behaviors through the
      mediation of emotional reactions and expectations
  Attribution theory
 Another important factor: Self-serving bias

    A bias set by the need to preserve self esteem, which
     leads to internal attributions after success to enhance
     self esteem and attributions that protect self esteem
     after failure.

        Winners associate success with abilities or effort
         where losers tend to blame situational causes,
         such as the sun was in my eyes
Summary of Attribution Theory
    Answers questions such as why people stick or drop
       out of regular exercise programs and activities

     Exercisers have usually shown that they have higher
    perceptions of control of their health, an internal locus
     of causality, and more controllability of their exercise

   There is much more research needed to be done in this
     field to further explain and understand this complex
Arousal and Performance
    ◦ Overview and Definition
       Arousal is defined in exercise and sport psychology as responsible for
        energizing an individual for action, varying along a continuum of deep
        sleep to extreme excitement

       Arousal is an ongoing state and the body is consistently functioning at
        some level of it
               Has multiple dimensions:
                      Valence: how positive or negative, good/bad something is
                      Intensity: low or high
       Arousal is controlled by the central nervous system (the brain) and
        interacts with the peripheral nervous system (rest of the body)

       Arousal involves the perception of the individual within a situation.
          For example, a particular situation could be either viewed as a challenge or a threat,
           both of these things are called stressors
            Stressors are perceived by the individual and the fight or flight response is triggered
             into action
 Arousal and Performance
 Common mistake in research is to say that all stressors
  are negative – This is not true!

   If the individual interpretation of a stressor is not negative then
    the stressor is not negative i.e. some people hate the loudness
    of the crowds, other people thrive on it

   If the stressor is seen as negative it is a threat which triggers

     There are many levels of anxiety; therefore there are
      varieties of measurements of anxiety.
              Brain activity
              Heart rate
              Cortisol – a stress hormone released during
               encounters with a stressor
              Self report
     Models of Arousal and Performance
 Two major models have been proposed to explain the
  effects of arousal on performance:

    Drive theory
      Drive theory predicts that performance increases in a
       linear fashion as arousal increases. In other words,
       drive theory predicts that performance is a function
       of the interaction between habits and drive (arousal)
               Habit refers to the dominance of the
                most well learned response, whether or
                not it is the correct responses

      As arousal increases the likelihood of using a habit
               When new skills are being learned the
                habit is usually seen as the incorrect skill
               As the skill is practiced overtime it
                becomes the habit which in turn
                increases arousal which facilitates

      Although this theory makes theoretical sense, it is
       not usually supported due to the complexity of the
       results of research and the fact it is very questionable
Models of Arousal and Performance
 Inverted U hypothesis
    This theory states that
     as arousal increases
     from low to moderate
     so does the
     performance levels. As
     they continue past this
     point the performance
     levels begin to

    This theory accounts
     for performance
     decreases under high
     levels of anxiety where
     as the drive theory
     does not conclude the
     true facts that high
     anxiety is detrimental
     to performance levels
     Models of Arousal and Performance
 Another hot topic within this theory: Optimal Arousal

   Important two factors of this sub theory:

      Task characteristics
        Task complexity and type of the task
           A simple task requiring few decisions will be less affected by higher levels of
            arousal than complex tasks
           I.E: Fine motor movements require much less arousal for optimal
            performance that a gross motor task such as speed, strength or endurance.

      Individual differences
        Personality factors: Extro/Introversion, Neuroticism
        Experience
           Experienced individuals can handle higher levels of arousal
           Individuals who are highly aroused in normal situations ie introverts will not
             be able to tolerate much additional arousal without suffering in their
             performance levels.

                                     Bottom line
         Further research can lead to clearer understanding of performance enhancement
         in optimal arousal theories and arousal has the potential to influence motor
•A   vital aspect of athletic performance
     •Having a successful performance is based on ignoring
       irrelevant stimuli while focusing on the important
     •Typically a person will switch from an effortful,
     conscious mode of performing to an automatic,
     unconscious mode with more practice
        •When playing with a decent tennis or golf player
        (in automatic- mode) ask them if they are inhaling or
        exhaling on their backswing. This will bring them back to
How do you measure attention?
 There is no uniform strategy for studying
 Many methodologies involve disruption of
    ◦ This is an undesirable effect when examining athletic
   Arousal can have important effects on attention
    ◦ As arousal increases, the attentional field is narrowed
       This can be advantageous to an extent to help ignore
        irrelevant stimuli. The more aroused the person is, the more
        the attentional field narrows, enabling the person to forget
        pre- task routines that are critical to the performance.
Behavioral Measures of Attention
   Dual- task paradigm’s (a pattern, archetype, or
    set of rules, especially as related to a set way of
    viewing or doing things within one’s world view)
    are used to compete for the subjects attention.

   The assumption in this experiment is that the
    individual has a certain amount of attentional
    ◦ There is only so much attention to go around
Behavioral Measures of Attention
   If the first task uses up a sizeable amount
    of the attention capacity there is no
    attention left for the second task.
    ◦ Is dual- task technique good to use in sports?
      The technique reveals a good deal of processing
       information, but not an excessive amount about
       attentional processes in real sports situations.
        It is debatable whether there is actually a limit to attentional
         capacity, the assumption in which this test is based on.
Self- Report Measures of Attention
 Also referred to as attentional style
 Different people are affected in different ways
  by task demands and situational factors
 It is a major assessment strategy
    ◦ Usually via questionnaire
   Nideffer’s TAIS is the most prevalent attention
    scale used in sports
    ◦ Attention is looked at as being “two- dimensional”
       Width (narrow vs. wide)
       Direction (internal vs. external)
Self-Report Measures of Attention
 ◦ Very useful and commonly used, but is a poor
   predictor of sports performance
 ◦ The best aspect is measuring the width of attention
 ◦ Self- report suffers from more limitations…
    It is rare to find someone who can recall exactly what he/ she
     was thinking when they performed this attentionally-
     demanding task and to put it into words
      The athletes usually respond “I don’t know”
    Athletes will not generally complete the questionnaire
     when it is most important (ie. immediately before the
     performance) and if they do, it will change the
     performance outcome.
Psychophysiologic Measures of
   Psychological construct of attention can
    be determined based on physiologic
    response of the body immediately prior
    to the performance

   Assessments of bodily response during
    this period-prepatory period is also
    potentially less disruptive to performance.
Anxiety and Depression
 Mental  health has been known to be
  linked to physical health for
 Exercise is associated with
  reductions in anxiety and depression
    Both aerobic and anaerobic exercises
     reduce depression, but only aerobic reduces
Exercise and Mental Health
 ◦ There has been little research done on dose-
   response effects on exercise
    Entails how doses of exercise, in terms of intensity,
     duration, and frequency affect psychological status
    To reduce anxiety and depression, an exerciser
     must work out for at least 20 minutes at no less
     than 60% of maximum heart rate or oxygen
 ◦ Carrying exercise to extremes may lead to
   depression or anxiety
    Athletes in sports like swimming and distance
     running can overtrain easily.
Psychological Well- Being
   There is growing evidence that exercise
    enhances and improves positive
    psychological states.
    ◦ Walking increases energy vs. eating a candy bar
      or smoking a cigarette
   Psychological Well-Being- positive
    emotion and happy thoughts overcoming
    negative emotion
    ◦ Exercise has been shown to also increase self-
      confidence, self- esteem, and cognitive functioning
How Does Exercise Produce
Psychological Changes?
 It is clear that exercise produces positive
  effects, how and why this happens is still a
 Four classic explanations for how and
    ◦   Distraction hypothesis
    ◦   Endorphin hypothesis
    ◦   Thermogenic hypothesis
    ◦   Monoamine hypothesis
Distraction Hypothesis
 Most popular hypothesis
 Only hypothesis that is strictly
 Theory: The reason for improved
  emotion after exercise is that the act of
  exercising provides a distraction from
  normal cares and daily worries.
 Exercise provides a timeout from usual
  concerns, it is a chance to leave them
  behind for a while.
Endorphin Hypothesis
 Created the biggest stir
 Best known from popular magazines
 Theory: Body makes it’s own natural
  painkillers, this is why exercise makes us
  feel better.
 Endorphins- a class of stress hormones
  are released during exercise because
  working out is a stressor on the body
    ◦ The good feeling that we experience is the
      lasting effects of the endorphines.
Thermogenic hypothesis
   Theory: with moderate intensity
    exercise and duration the body
    temperature will elevate
    ◦ as high as a fever with the flu
   Increased body temperatures are thought
    to have positive effects such as being in a
    sauna or hot tub
    ◦ Muscle relaxation
    ◦ Psychological changes
Monoamine hypothesis
   Theory: Places emphasis on changes in
    brain chemistry(ie. Neuro- transmitters)
    as the mechanism for exercise- induced
    emotional changes
    ◦ emotion- influencing neuro- transmitters are
      norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin
    ◦ These neuro- transmitters effect localized
      brain structures that play a critical role in
      emotion (frontal lobes and amygalda)
Sports Personality Research
 Schurr et al. did an experiment of a sample of about 2000
  male collegiate athletes and non-athletes
 He subdivided the athletes based on levels of success and
  sports types
 Sport types were divided into aggression then duration.
     ◦ The complex statistical analyses is a unique feature of this
   Schurr found that no personality profile could differentiate athletes
    from non-athletes, but numerous accounts were found when the
    athletes were divided into subcategories.
   The fact that it was identified from expected relationships indicates
    how important classification can be in a sports domain.
     ◦ Using sophisticated analyses increases the chance of uncovering
       relationships among highly complex human behaviors
Psychological Approaches to
Studying Attention
   Have been adopted as a way of avoiding problems in self- report and behavioral tests for
    studying attention
    ◦   Disruption of performance
    ◦   Inaccurate verbal reports of what happened
    ◦   Inability to measure attention when it is most important
   The two most common classes of measurement are cardiac responses and electorcortical
    (brain) responses
   A phenomenon occurs when individuals direct their attention to either environmental
    cues or internal factors
    ◦   As attention is diverted toward the environment, heart rate slows (cardiac deceleration) in an
        attempt to capture relevant cues from the situation
    ◦   When that situation is directed internally the heart rate will speed up (cardiac acceleration) to
        reject situational cues
   Environmental stimulus makes the heart rate decrease by focusing on a bull’s eye or the
    starter’s pistol.
    ◦   The heart change is very minute (5-10 beats per minute)
   The changes in the heart facilitates attentional processes by regulating the amount of
    information sent to the CNS, which results in increased or decreased sensorimotor
   Direction and magnitude of the cardiac response and its relationship to performance are
    good indicators of individual’s attentional state
   Athlete’s can train enough to eliminate cardiac deceleration
    ◦   This is important because it can be used to examine attention in real sports situations with out
        disrupting the performance
Psychologic Approches to Studying
Attention continued…
   Besides cardiac responses, changes in brain activity
    have also been proven to indicate attentional
    ◦ The most common measure of brain activity is the
      electroencephalogram (EEG)
       This is a recording, on the scalp, that reads electrical activity
        within the brain.
    ◦ EEG successfully differentiates varying states of attentional
      focus and is a stable and reliable measure
       By using EEG, there has been a new research on the brain
       The brain uses the otherside to perform this way there are no
        distractions for performing
    ◦ Scientists and coaches agree that excessive self-talk and
      thinking disrupt performance
       “Just do it”- get in the optimal performance mind set and do
        what you are there to do
Exercise and Brain Function
   How brain function(thoughts and feelings)
    are affected by exercise
   Blood flow to the brain changes from exercise
    depending on the region of the brain
   Electrical activity in the brain can have
    effects of feeling better after exercise
    ◦ The more activity in the left hemisphere is
      related to more positive feelings after exercise
    Regular exercise of older, physically active adults
      was much more similar to a group of younger
      adults than the group of sedentary adults
   Exercise psychology is the science of how psychological principles can be used in the promotion, explanation,
    maintenance, and enhancement of physical activity behaviors
   Sports psychology is the science of how psychological principles can be used in the promotion, explanation,
    maintenance and enhancement of sports- related behaviors
   Phenomena in exercise and sports psychology can be analyzed from multiple levels, including self-report,
    observation, and psychophysiology
   Personality dimensions of extroversion- introversion and neuroticism-stability have been shown to be related to
    both exercise and sports behaviors. Extroverts typically do better in sports; regular exercise can lead to less
    neuroticism and greater emotional stability
   The evidence supports the notion that independent, extroverted individuals gravitate toward sports as opposed
    to sports participation leading to independent, extroverted personalities
   Motivation is composed of choice, intensity, and persistence
   Self-efficacy, a person’s belief that he or she can perform some activity to achieve a goal, has been consistently
    shown to be related to performance.
   Causal attributions are reasons people give for why things happen. The classic categories include ability, effort,
    luck, and task difficulty
   The most consistent relationship between arousal and performance has been explained according to the
    inverted U hypothesis. This states that as arousal increases from low to moderate levels, performance increases;
    as arousal continues to more extreme levels, performance deteriorates
   Attention research in sports psychology typically involves either a self- report or behavioral approach, both of
    which have limitations. Psychophysiology approaches to attention have revealed consistent changes in heart rate
    and brain activity immediately before task performance. Such physiologic changes have been related to actual
   Exercise has been shown to reduce negative mental health and to enhance psychological well-being. The
    explanation for such changes are currently unknown.
   One of the most promising areas of current research in exercise and sports psychology involves the study of
    brain function at multiple levels(e.g., neurochemical, metabolic, electrical), how such function is influenced by
    exercise, and how it relates to psychological events.

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