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					                                     IRELAND




   Strengthening the Linkages:

Consolidating the European Network




           Seminar Report

        Greece September 2002




                                           1
                                                                 Strengthening the Linkages




                                                               Rape Crisis Network Europe –
                                     The Daphne Project ‘Consolidating the European Network’




Contents


1.      Introduction
2.      The Daphne Project
3.      The Trans-national Seminar
4.      The Current Issues
5.      Case Studies
6.      Website
7.      Research
8.      The aims and objectives of the Rape Crisis Network Europe (RCNE)
9.      Country Reports


        Czech Republic
        Denmark
        England and Wales
        Finland
        Germany
        Greece
        Hungary
        Iceland
        Ireland
        Italy
        Scotland
        Sweden
        Turkey


Appendix I:      Guidelines for the Case Studies
Appendix II:     Website Specification
Appendix III:    Greece Seminar Evaluation Sheet
Report of the Seminar held in Greece.


                                                                                           2
1.       Introduction
The seminar began with the lighting of a candle


         'to remember all the survivors of sexual violence from all over the world, including
         those present, who are the core of our being'


This seminar was organised as part of an EU Daphne Project that aims to provide analysis of trends,
identify best practice in service provision, gain recognition for NGO provided training and provide a
central point for information exchange between Rape Crisis Organisations across Europe. The main
aim is to provide a point of contact for victims of sexual assault & rape.


2.       The Daphne Project
The project comprises seven integrated actions to build a sustainable European Network acting as a
resource to national networks, local rape crisis centres, public bodies and survivors.   The actions are
as follows:


1. Development and enlargement of European Network
    Develop aims and objectives
    Identify missing countries
    Access funding


2. Compilation and documentation resources
    Develop a website with links to national networks. Access to services, publication French & English


3. Develop a sticker with logo & website address
    Distribute to/through holiday companies
    Tourist boards
    Provide point of contact


4. Mapping violence across Europe
    Continue research on attrition
    Disseminate on website
    Compile a paper on forensic examinations
5. Training
    Explore NGO provided training
    Develop links with public bodies to develop European wide accredited training


                                                                                                       3
6. Publication
    Identifying key elements of best practice in service response to survivors
    Disseminate as four page summary documents in partner languages


The primary outcome anticipated as a result of this project is that victims will have a point of contact
no matter where the crime occurs in Europe. Members through participation will have a point of
contact for information gathering, provision and support to utilise to raise awareness of rape, build the
network and gain recognition across the EU for accredited training.


Outputs include two trans-national seminars, three project partner meetings, two summary papers
one on attrition and one on forensic examinations and a strategy guide on models of best practice.


3.       The Trans-national Seminar
The aim of the seminar was to bring together the various partners in the project in order to share
information as to developments in each of their countries, assess the progress of the research and
agree the aims and objectives of the network.


In order to situate the work the participants discussed a presentation of the context for the Daphne
Project. Janice Ransom, Project Managers, Rape Crisis Network Ireland explained that the Daphne
project was established to respond to a range of identified needs. Thus, the project involves the
provision of analysis on trends, the identification of models of best practice in service provision, the
identification of routes to recognition for NGO provided training and the provision of a central point for
information exchange. Specific actions include the development of a website with links to local rape
crisis services either directly or through national networks, a publication identifying key elements of
good practice in service response to survivors and disseminated both as a full publication and also as
a four page summary document in partner languages, reports from seminars, continued research into
attrition throughout Europe and a paper on forensic examinations. In addition work to identify NGO
provided training and develop links with public bodies to develop European wide accredited training is
being undertaken.
Significant challenges remaining include the development of a symbol for recognition and its
distribution to holiday companies, Tourist boards, Police authorities, making contacts with the
appropriate agencies in the EU countries not currently represented and the securing funding for the
continuation of this work.


The central objective is to develop a sustainable European network acting as a resource to national
networks, local rape crisis centers, public bodies and most importantly survivors of rape and sexual


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violence.     Actions were being delivered to develop and enlarge the Rape Crisis European Network,
including this seminar to develop the aims and objectives and agree a mission statement for the
Network.


The participants then discussed the challenges and opportunities facing the Rape Crisis Network
Europe (RCNE) and highlighted the following:


   The importance of sharing information about what is actually happening on the ground;
   The need to build an understanding of the differences between countries and how they impact on
    victims as well as discuss the similarities;
   The need to be vigilant in highlighting the reality for the victims and addressing the inadequacies
    of responses;
   The need to contact organisation from all member states;
   The need to tap into the strength that is gained by joining forces to challenge myths, address
    inadequacies in service provision, challenge institutional prejudices and ignorance and prevent
    and address discrimination;
   The growth of trafficking and the importance of networks such as this to prevent it; and
   The importance of highlighting the need for resources in all member states for work on the
    ground with the victims of Rape.


In her paper on attrition Linda Kelly identified that the main reasons that women do not report rape is
that they fear an unsympathetic response, have little faith on the courts and are afraid of further
attack.     The key stages related to attrition are the decision to report itself, the police response and
investigation, referral to prosecutors and trial. Research by Adler found that there were six factors
associated with successful outcomes of trials including:


   Sexually inexperienced victim;
   „Respectable‟ victim;
   No previous consensual contact;
   Resistance and injury;
   Early complaint; and
   Stranger assailant.


The reasons victims/survivors do not report, do not continue with cases and have unsuccessful
outcomes form trials, in other words the reason for low attrition rates are very constant. Problems
associated with initial police contact include the experience for the victim/survivor of disbelief, lack of
respect and tendencies to test the evidence. Problems with prosecutors include victim/survivor not


                                                                                                         5
being kept informed, not being consulted and inaccurate presentations of cases.


The research evidence suggest that priority needs to be given to the establishment of sexual assault
referral centres, specialist teams including prosecutors and police teams, specialist sexual violence
courts and separate representation for the victim/survivor.ienced victim
      „rvictim


4.       The Current Issues
A number of overarching themes emerged from the discussion of recent developments in each
country notably:


    The significance and variance between countries regarding changes in legislation;
    The continued dominance of patriarchy;
    The lack of change in attitude of professionals, particularly the police, the judiciary, the medical
     profession etc; and
    The underlying problem of a lack of resources for the work of the member organisations.


Members highlighted the following issues. The law in the Czech Republic now recognises all sexual
forms of sexualised violence not only intercourse and men are also included. However as highlighted
at a recent national conference about rape the overwhelming conclusion was that the "law respects
the perpetrator more than the victim" and there is very little information for victims and insufficient
punishment for perpetrator.


In Hungary, there was no women's movement as such, but with change from socialism women now
growing as a feminist network. In the recent past the organisation has had to argue with journalists
about the fact that domestic violence exists. At least now people recognise that it does. There is only
one NGO dealing with violence against women, including domestic violence, trafficking has become a
huge problem and „professionals do not learn how to treat women‟.


Importantly the EU accession report is considered an important point of interaction for criticising
governmental policies and lack of action. The hope is that through membership of the EU standards
for policies and service provision will be instigated.


The problem identified by the Finnish members is that even with the existence of what are considered
progressive laws, i.e. good standards, the practice still reflects patriarchal attitudes and behaviours
that discourage women from naming, reporting and prosecuting rape.




                                                                                                       6
The lack of reporting and successful prosecution was highlighted by the members from Wales and
England. Recently, a sex offence review was conducted (for first time in fifty years) which involved an
independent examination of case files held by the Crown prosecution Service and the Police. One of
the significant outcomes is the concrete recommendation of the necessity for specialist prosecutors.
Alongside such work is the funding crisis currently being experienced by groups on the ground.         The
organisation is a networking one that has helped 50,000 women, only 12% of whom reported to the
police yet there is currently a funding crises affecting directly the organisations providing support to
women, with some operated on budgets of £250.00 per annum.


Despite this the groups uphold their ethos which recognises that women's experience of sexual abuse
is entirely individual and requires a gynocentric response which seeks to affirm women, empower
women sometimes using ancient and global healing therapies that impact on the mind, body and spirit
so that the women can totally heal and they do.


In Italy, members highlighted that there is a huge need for information for women and defence
services for women. Women need to talk to other women with similar experiences and so groups are
essential to help women to deal with the range of emotions and feeling they have, for example the
guilt they may feel.


In Denmark, the pressures arising from migration are being felt as services try to assist women from
all over the world. Trafficking is also emerging as a serious concern in Denmark.


In Germany the tension that can arise because of a lack of resources for women‟s issues, between
Rape Crisis Centres and Shelters for victims of domestic violence is an issue as the problem of
organisations competing for limited resources is not going away. The suffering of women who are
victims of sexualised violence is reinforced by the lack of secure funding for centres and shelters.    In
1999 the Federal Government had an action plan against violence against women, which seeks to
reduce incidents, and there is a joint working group of federal and state governments.


In Sweden, the issue of breaking the silence on rape and incest is being addressed and the
organisation have gone directly to the heart of the matter by produced a documentary called
"homesickness" and showing it to politicians in their place of work. The film was premiered at a film
festival and shown in Parliament to members of parliament.             This work is complimented by a
preventative programme for schools but there is much to be done as this programme is not yet on the
curriculum and teachers have indicated that it is an issue that they find difficult to deal with.


In Greece, the victims of torture and trafficking are becoming a major part of the work. There are no


                                                                                                         7
centres that work exclusively with victims of rape however the EU Commissioner noted recently that
she proposes to open a national observatory on violence in Greece.


In Scotland, devolution has provided opportunities and organisations recently received funding for
three years for a national office. The importance of policies was highlighted. There is recognition of
the fact that women experiencing violence experience social exclusion and a commitment in the
strategy document to prioritise the safety of women.    However there is so far very little evidence of
actions and there is no national strategy on rape and sexual assault.


Involvement in national and local social partnership in Ireland has raised issues regarding media
monitoring, legal monitoring and mainstreaming.


The concern is to ensure that whatever is actions are undertaken in whatever circumstances that the
outcomes have a positive impact for the victims, on institutional responses, on prevention, on
reporting of crimes, on defining criminal behaviour and on the societal values that prevail across
Europe.    There are many obstacles to change and participants agreed that there was a need to
develop critical strategies to prevent rape and other forms of sexual violence against women and to
ensure that our responses are sensitive and meet the needs of the victims. One of the most practical
methods for achieving this for those who are working with the victims is to meet to share information
and make links so that policies that are implemented across Europe and are effective.              This
understanding informed the discussion as to the aims and objectives of the Rape Crisis Network
Europe.




5.        Case Studies
The guidelines for the case studies (see Appendix II) were discussed. It was agreed that the aim of
this publication is to identify models of best practice in service delivery of rape crisis and provide a
menu of actions.     The hope is that this publication will inform funders, policy makers and decision-
makers. The publication will be launched at the seminar in Ireland in 2003 along with the website
and other reports.


The members discussed for a lengthy period the problems associated with working in a number of
languages in this area of work because of the way in which some words are gendered in some
European languages. In other languages, especially English they rarely if ever are and this can cause
misunderstandings, particularly when there are no resources for interpreters. Given the limited
resources, members agreed, especially the English speaking members to be cautious about this and




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check regularly that there are no misinterpretations.      Following discussion the participants agreed
that the following are the most useful headings for each of the case studies:


        Background
        Briefly describe
           the situation in the country,
           the organisation including
                Funding – is there core funding
                Service provision
                Staff – voluntary/paid
                How long in existence
                Client group
                What are the threats/challenges tensions/constraints


        Specific Actions and Methodologies
        Describe what works well & why
           Which of the services you provide are most effective for clients and why
           Which of the services is least effective for clients and why


        Lessons for Mainstreaming
        Outline what is needed to provide the level of service that your clients need and how this can
        be achieved locally, nationally and at the EU level.


        Bibliography - Reference material


        Time frame
        Countries are to go back to their membership to see if they wish to participate and to produce
        a case study.      The work will be completed by January 2003 so that at the management
        meeting in February it can be discussed.


6.      Website
Following discussion of the paper presented at the seminar ( see Appendix III) and workshops it was
agreed that the primary function of the RCNE website (RCNE.com) is to provide a central information
resource for survivors of rape and sexual assault across Europe.


This will necessitate consideration of the following issues:




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    The importance of getting the tone and message right;
    The importance of highlighting healing on the home page and clarifying basic terminology for
     victims;
    The need to ensure accessibility by taking account of language difficulties and literacy levels for
     example, through the use of colours on the map of Europe, auditing for disability access etc.;
    Concerns about pornography and links to offensive sights being out of the control of RCNE;
    The fact that some members do not currently have their own website so will not be accessible
     through the RCNE site;
    The level of work involved in maintaining such a site and keeping it up to date; and
    Specific suggestions about layout including a) having three headings on the home page, i.e.
     Healing; General; What can men do; Campaigns, b) including a Bill of Rights for Women,
     Dispelling the Myths and challenging societies understanding of rape and c) considering
     possibilities in the long-term such as media monitoring.


It was agreed that all of the above would be examined and that work would continue to progress the
website.


7.       Research
In the previous project the research for „Rape: The Forgotten Issue‟ has been completed and the
report published which provides comprehensive insight into the rates of attrition in EU member
countries and outlines the range of common barriers that limit the successful prosecution of rape
across Europe. The researchers conclude among other things that there is a compelling need for a
strong European network as a key method for ensuring that rape is not forgotten or ignored.
Following the presentation of a paper (see Appendix IV) on developments participants discussed the
methods of collecting information in each country and agreed to make contacts to gather the
information on attrition rates in each member state.




8.       The aims and objectives of the Rape Crisis Network Europe (RCNE)
The participants at this conference had set themselves the task of developing and agreeing the aims
and objectives for the Network.      To ensure that the discussion was as participative as possible
members of the network broke into workshop groups and discussed their views, each coming back to
the plenary with an agreed outline of the aims and objectives of the network. These were then put
on the flip chart for all to review and ask questions.   Following the discussion the rappatuer and the
project manager prepared a position for all to discuss. The following was agreed.


The aim of the Rape Crisis Network Europe is to support members and survivors through


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campaigning, education and research and development work to eliminate sexual violence against
women.


This will be achieved through the sharing of information, experiences and good practice and by
conducting research, developing policies, education strategies and delivering training in order to
ensure that women who are sexually assaulted get an immediate and supportive response wherever
they live in Europe.


The RCNE will work, as the diagram below illustrates, to ensure that rape is named, behaviours are
changed and local and international responses are effective from the survivors perspective.


                                   RCNE Transformation Challenge



                       Naming                                 Changing


                       COOPERATION =         RCNE      =      POWER


                       Local                                  International




The objectives of RCNE are to:
1.       Provide information through recording facts, exchanging experiences, disseminating results,
         awareness raising, educating, informing the development of support service and acting as a
         point of contact for survivors/victims and organisations;
2.       Conduct research on EU wide activities, on women‟s experiences, making international
         comparisons and exposing deficiencies and injustices;
3.       Influencing education services through educators, policy makers and improving the
         curriculum;
4.       Providing training for volunteers, workers and professionals and improve delivery through
         networking to establish models of delivery, exchanging practices and materials, mentoring
         and developing guidelines;
5.       International linking for action through support and pressure, strategies to include all
         women, developing international best practice and informing and making an impact on EU
         policy; and
6.       Lobbying for change in legal provisions, service coverage and standards, funding and
         resources for groups and organisations that work with victims/survivors and organising
         campaigns as necessary.


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The following approaches are used in the work of the RCNE:
   Include all women, i.e. we will ensure that practice is developed to include black women, disabled
    women, lesbian women, ethnic women, etc;
   Twinning, i.e. members will match up to assist each other with specific projects, tasks etc;
   Working groups will be formed to progress specific areas of work;
   Mentoring will be organised to ensure that where specific expertise is gained it is shared among
    the members;
   Survivor/victim informed, i.e. members will work to keep that the focus of all of their work;
   Review, monitor and evaluating tools will be utilised throughout; and
   Sustainability will be sought through securing resources for the work, including the possibility of
    acquiring an office and staff.


In so doing the RCNE will work to influence European policy-making and seek to generate standards
of service delivery, policy implementation and legislation through national member state governments,
NGO‟s and the Human Rights agenda. All agreed that they would go back to their organisations,
discuss the aims and objectives and ratify their membership.


Evaluation
Participants completed an evaluation form; the results are contained in Appendix III.




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9.       Country Reports


                                                                                      CZECH REPUBLIC
Civic organisation 
Support Centre for Child (Sexual) Abuse Women Survivors


 was established in 1995 as a non-profit, non-governmental organisation by three women.
The primary mission is to provide support services to adult women, who were victims of incest or any
other form of sexual abuse including rape. Secondary target group for the services are relatives,
especially mothers of victims of sexual abuse and this help consists of family counselling and advisory
services. The Centre focuses also at a third group, i.e. other professionals, educators, health-care
providers, psychologists, and the police who may come into contact with victims of sexual violence,
and organises lectures, seminars and workshops for them.


is the first and only centre of its kind in the Czech republic to provide desperately needed
services and to address a severely misunderstood and denied phenomenon. Statistics indicate that
approximately 33% of all Czech women have been victims of some form of sexual abuse and only 7 in
each 100 cases of rape are ever reported. Social and legal services do not currently have procedures
for dealing with reports of many consequences of sexual abuse.


The staff of  consists of two therapists, a co-ordinator and operation manager, a social
worker, and two students on an internship. The first two years of its existence, the organisation did
not have its own space and had to rent various offices for counselling and therapy. All its members
fully volunteered the services (and maintained full-time jobs elsewhere to support themselves).
Thanks to foreign Foundations  was able to open new and larger spaces, which are good for
clients in December 2001.


From its very beginning up to this date, we have assisted more than to 420 clients which represents
15.563 hours of therapy.     Since we have received low financial support from the state, unfortunately
we have to charge our clients a nominal fee.


What else we do:
-    We uncover the taboo of sexual abuse and discuss it openly;
-    We aim our activities at prevention - i.e. lectures for the lay and specialised public;
-    We strive to implement sex education courses for students at all levels and to influence their
     contents and means of presentation. Children must know that they have the right for their own



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    privacy, and the right to reject anyone who abuses a position of authority over them. Adults must
    learn to respect the intimate boundaries of children whatever their age;
-   We publish books both for adults and children, including special publications for blind and deaf
    people;
-   We enable students of psychology and social work to do internship and research at our
    centre;
-   We established a library and media centre with a collection of specialised publications, short
    and feature film related to the problem of sexual violence, accessible to specialists and the
    general public;
-   We gain experience in working with similar centres abroad in order to share experience and
    knowledge;
-   We make legal activities concerning domestic violence: In many cases, the sexual violence and
    abuse belongs to the category of domestic violence. We provide social and legal consultations, we
    co-operate with several female advocates who handle more complicated causes, and who
    can work with the victims. We are in touch with the female advocates participating in the
    Advocates for Women Project (free-of-charge legal consultations, emergency phone line);
-   We have been collaborating with the police for several years and we still seek to strengthen
    this co-operation.
-   In the co-operation with other women organisations we lobby for changes in legislation - our
    last success was the change of the § 241 - Rape. However, there are still many
    imperfections, many unsatisfactory laws still exist. Therefore, mere coercive actions and public
    hearings are necessary…;
-   We participate in the Co-ordination Circle of Violence Committed on Women Prevention that unites
    five women organisations active in this area. The example of our co-operation is the last large-
    scale event: 16 action days against violence committed on women that took place since the 24 th
    of November to the 10th of December 2001 (the event included: public lectures, three conferences
    - one of them on the Parliament grounds, social evening with media and political party
    representatives, press conferences related both to the individual actions and event as a whole,
    media campaign).


What do we intend to do:
-   We would like to provide a training for a group women-facilitators of self-help groups of
    women survivors of sexual abuse.
-   We would like to work more on the international field, and this Daphne project is the first
    opportunity to co-operate internationally.




                                                                                                  14
                                                                                             th


of December 2001 in the Police Museum in Prague.           The goal of the conference was to inform
specialists about Rape-issues from many different points of view and to encourage both specialists
and laymen to have higher sensibility towards the Rape-issues and the violence against women. The
conference concluded that:


    There is a low public sensitivity to rape, sexual violence, violence against women, which is
     influenced and supported by many deeply rooted prejudices and myths;
    The low social position of the victims due to the negative judgements of the society is
     unacceptable;
    There is little governmental protection of the victims;
    Victims have insufficient knowledge about the procedure of the work of police, court, and what
     happens during the process with the perpetrator;
    Victims have insufficient knowledge about the possibility of the psychotherapeutic care;
    There is low punishment for the perpetrators who committed rape, sexual violence or the other
     violence crime;
    Totally insufficient amount of the policemen-specialists who would be instructed, how to work
     with the victims of rape;
    The lack of sensitive approaches from the police to the crime victims;
    The lack of good and permanent establishments, which would not only put the sexual deviants in
     the isolation, but also provide quality therapy for them;
    No research concentrated on the communication between men and women, which could help for
     example in the prevention of rape.


 There were positive conclusions and possibilities for the future development that were
 discussed. Policemen on the conference encouraged every specialist to co-operate with them, and
 showed us the new plans to improve current situation.         Many participants stressed the importance
 of improving the co-operation with media to change the way of how is the subject of Rape presented
 to the public. And finally, another goal is to form the co-operation between governmental and non-
 governmental organisations to improve the organising of the prevention, protection and assistance
 for the victims. We consider the publishing of the RAPE – Symposium of lectures presented on the 1st
 national conference as very important because it can be one of the ways to inform the public.




                                                                                                     15
                                                                                           DENMARK
Randers Krisecenter


Randers Krisecenter is an organisation for battered women and their children. The crisis center was
established in 1982 by volunteers. There are 10 proffessional staff employed including one working
with the children full time. There is room for 9 women and 16 children between the ages of 0-17.


The women who come can stay for a maximum 120 days. Both the adults and the children are often
suffering from the violence they have been in, sometimes for years.They are deeply traumatized and
many times we have noted how difficult it is for them to live a normal life. They can´t make their own
descions any longer, (were not allowed to) and they don´t how to socialise with other people. They
are tramatized by violence, psychlogical violence and a large number of them are sexually abused.
Often there was abuse in their childhood or they have been raped, somtimes again as adults and very
often by their own husbonds.


When we hear about that part of their lives it seems to happen towards the end of their time with us.
Because they don´t often want to talk about that part. It often it occurs that one or two of the
children has been in the same situation. They have been sexually abused. The strongest example of
that was a mother from Poland (last year we had women from 29 different countries all over the
world), she was held as a slave in the house and in the evenings she was held as an sexual slave. She
was sold to other men by the husbund. Her oldest boy at 15 was sexually abused by this man and
was sold out to other men. The father travelled with him to USA and other places. The youngest boy
at 5 years was going to be in the same situation, and it was at that time the mother found a way out
to go to a crisis center. She had never before dared to. The middle boy seemed somehow to avoid
the abuse. Another example is a Danish mother who arrived to our Crisis center two months ago.
She came to live with us because she coudn´t stand the beating any more.           She brought her 3
children with her.   A few days ago it came to light that the daughter was abused by her father. The
mother was abused herself from her early childhood. And she has been raped two times by different
men.


In Denmark we have at center in Århus at Århus Amtssygehus ( a hospital) where raped women can
come and be helped. It is 3 years since that center started. Shortly before that a center like that was
started in Copenhagen. Before that the women had to go to the police first, they had no right to be
examined by a female police officer and had to be medical examined by a male doctor and often it
was a very bad situation for her because the police and the doctors were not educated to meet
women who were raped.




                                                                                                    16
10 years ago the politicians in Denmark made a new law by which violent peoble could be punished
immediatly. And the punnishment should be harder. There was not a word in this law about
punishment for rape- or punishment for violence against women. It semed like it didn´t exist???


From that time until now the politicians have been talking,- and talking about the problems. Now ,
finally it seems something is going to happen. The goverment are talking about a new law in which
rape and violence against women is named. There has been a lot of focus on the crisis centers in
Denmark (there are 33 very different crisis centers) and the goverment has ordered an investigation
of all crisis centers to find out how many woman and children had to leave their homes because of a
violent man. They have started a project with 3 councils in Denmark to look at the problems. Randers
Crisis center has been asked to be a part of the project together with the two others crisis centers in
Århus Council. At the same time there is going to be education for the police to prepare them to meet
battered and raped women. The education is going to be at the police school and it is women from
the criis center NGO organsations who is going to teach them. It´s a start!!!!


So something is moving- but it is moving very slowly. Rape and violence against women is still a
forgotten issue in Denmark.




                                                                                                    17
                                                                               ENGLAND & WALES
The Rape Crisis Federation (Wales and England)


RCF has been providing a service for its members, non-members and individual callers in terms
of support, advice, training and development of standards of practice since its incorporation in
late 1996. We currently benefit from a membership of 45 rape crisis groups throughout Wales
and England and a mailing support network of 150 groups and individuals.


We are a national organisation representing rape crisis services in the two countries. Our key
aims are to raise the profile of the rape crisis movement, to act as a national voice for female
survivors of sexual violence and abuse and to represent interests of rape crisis groups and their
users at government levels.


The specific services provided by the RCF include a referral service for individuals seeking support
around the issues of rape, incest, abuse and assault. We provide networking and skills sharing
function to our member groups along with daily advice on a range of issues from sexual violence
to fund-raising and good practice guidelines. We carry out and publish statistical analysis within
our membership to help with national audits on the prevalence of sexual violence. RCF has
provided training on a range of issues both for member groups and outside agencies. We
participate in an advisory capacity at central government level and we raise the awareness if the
effects and myths of sexual violence both a community level and through the media.
Campaigning for legislative reforms to improve the access to a fair and representative judicial
process for survivors/victims of sexual violence plays a large role in our current activities.


Our commitment to anti-oppressive practices is in apparent in our work. RCF is proactive in
implementation of equal opportunities through employment policies and rigorous evaluation
procedures for all project activities. We facilitate the Black Women‟s Network, the Lesbian and Bi
Women‟s Network and the Young Women‟s Development Workers Network. We are
endeavouring to develop a network for workers with disabilities and/or workers centres wishing
to provide improved services to disabled survivors. We acknowledge that our work in the area of
anti-oppression is in continuous development and reassessment.


RCF is developing national standards in database statistical analysis through our data
development project. We provide a certificate level in Counselling and Therapeutic Intervention
for Women Overcoming the Experiences of Violence and are currently carrying out a study into
the development of a diploma level in this course. Our newer developments includes a Drug


                                                                                                       18
Assisted Rape Prevention Task Group; Asylum Seeker and Refugee task group; National Helpline
services feasibility Study and national standards for Good Practice in providing services to female
survivors of sexual violence. We are delighted to be working on a European level with the Rape
Crisis Network Europe through Daphne.


Governed by a voluntary Board of Trustees elected by the membership the RCF has an active
management group of 12 women with the option to co-opt experts onto the Board as the need
arises.


   Charity Registration Number 1071098
   Company Limited 3267638
   Registered Office RCF 7 Mansfield Road Nottingham NG1 3FB (administrative base)




                                                                                                      19
                                                                                          FINLAND
Rape Crisis Centre Tukinainen


Unioni, the League of Finnish Feminists, established Tukinainen in 1993. The Finnish Slot
Machine Association primarily finances the operations. Some municipalities and foundations also
finance the work. During the first years Tukinainen operated as a project, but in the year 1999 it
was made permanent. Tukinainen's office is located in the capital of Finland, in Helsinki, but its
function area is the whole country.


Tukinainen influences the professional and legal procedures, authorities and public opinion to
decrease and prevent sexual assaults on women and girls. It co-operates with the media,
researchers and ministries. There are also different projects where Tukinainen is involved.
Tukinainen supplements the social and health care services and official system in its own special
field by co-operating with health care centres, mental health care offices, family health centres,
psychiatric clinics and different associations.


Tukinainen provides consultation and training for professionals, authorities, organisations and
educational institutions in a variety of fields. The training‟s vary from short presentations to vast
complementary training for professionals. Many professionals find it challenging to work with
clients who have been sexually assaulted or abused and they often need training and case
consultation. Tukinainen also offers education to schools to provide information about sexual
violence and its aftermath.


Tukinainen is the only national resource centre in Finland, that provides support and guidance for
women and girls who have been sexually assaulted, abused or harassed, as well as providing
guidance for their families. Rape crisis centre is as near as the nearest telephone in the country.


Our therapeutic and legal services are free of charge. The therapeutic services are free crisis
telephone, different kind of groups, weekend groups and personal appointments with crisis
counsellors. The groups have been meeting in Helsinki, also personal crisis counselling takes
place in Helsinki. Weekend groups have been organised throughout the country, and make it
possible for victims of sexual violence to obtain help in coping from a guided, therapeutic group.
Women and girls can also have an appointment with lawyer and have legal assistance and
support in connection with report of an offence, preliminary investigation and trial.




                                                                                                        20
    There are 19 persons working at Tukinainen. 7 of them are full-time employees and the others
    work on hour basis. Full-time employees are the executive director, lawyer, two crisis counsellors,
    secretary, on-call-counsellor and educational trainer. The other employees are 7 on-call-
    counsellors, two group leaders, two cleaning ladies and payroll clerk. The employees of
    Tukinainen are all women and professionals. All of them have the necessary qualifications for
    their tasks, regular work guidance and an obligation to respect secrecy.


    One of the major achievements in the past few years has been a Finnish Rape Kit. Tukinainen
    has developed, with four other partners, a Finnish rape kit. It includes medical procedures and
    guidance how to meet and take care the victim of rape or attempted rape. There are also a
    leaflet to victim and a leaflet to persons close to victim. The leaflets include information about
    victim's reactions, rights and the services that are available to her. This rape kit was published
    last year and distributed to all Finnish hospitals, emergency rooms and health care centres.


    In the past few years Tukinainen has put emphasis on trying to reach minority groups like
    immigrant women and disabled women. We have organised seminars about human rights and
    Finnish legislation and services to immigrant women. We have also co-operated with several
    associations of disabled.


    In the year 2001 there were nearly 12 000 calls, when all contacts (hang-ups, hoax, silent calls
    and calls that didn't get through) are counted. Below you can see how many first time callers
    (and genuine counselling calls) there have been between 1993 - 2001.

         1200


                                                                                 And their reasons to call were:
         1000

                                                                               consulting

          800                                                                  12,5%

                                                                               domestic v iolence

                                                                               10,5%
          600                                                                                                                      rape
                                                                               v iolence
                                                                                                                                 38,1%
                                                                               3,0%

                                                                               harassing
          400
                                                                               4,0%

                                                                               suspicion of abuse
                                                                                                                        attempted rape
          200                                                                  4,9%
                                                                                                                                  3,5%
                                                                               child's sexual abuse
Count




                                                                                                                   f orc ed to sexual act
                                                                               10,3%
           0                                                                                                                      1,4%
           1993        1994   1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001
                                                                                                                                 incest

                                                                                                                                 11,9%
                year




                                                                                                                         21
                                                                                          GERMANY
Bundesvernetzungsstelle autonomer Frauennotrufe (BaF)


Rape Crisis Centres


BaF (Bundesvernetzungsstelle autonomer Frauennotrufe) is the nationwide information and
coordination center of non-governmental rape crisis centers in Germany. Rape crisis centers work
in each federal area as projects and information centers that are pro-feminist and critical of
patriarchal society. They differ in their form of organization and concentrate on different fields of
activity. They all have in common that they engage for the right of sexual self-determination and
aim at preventing sexual violence against girls and women.


In all the fields of rape crisis activities the relation between sexualized violence and the repression
and brutality of racism, heterosexism, anti-Semitism, bodyism is an important fact.


While every woman experience‟s of violence is individual, rape crisis centers consider sexualized
violence as expression of structural problems of society. This means that in addition to individual
support of girls and women rape crisis centers aim to change the current conditions of life. This
requires further activities such as publicity, prevention and education as well as networking.


The building up of networks between rape crisis centers as well as between institutions and
organisations aims at exchanging information and develop activities for more effective and mutual
strategies against sexualized violence. Rape crisis centers work together with other organizations
in communities and on state level.


Most of them are organized in work groups at federal level and organize an annual nationwide
meeting of rape crisis centres. The information and coordination project of rape crisis centers
(BaF) was founded in September 1999 in order to optimize the nationwide cooperation.


Information and Co-ordination Project of Rape Crisis Centres in Germany
In a three-year project BaF enhances the continuous and structural establishment of a network of
rape crisis centres, which is important for the realisation of common strategies against sexualised
violence.
-   BaF installs an information pool for all kinds of activities of rape crisis centers, these can be
    used regardless of their structural or financial situation and also can be used by outside
    professionals.


                                                                                                          22
-   The compilation of information folders will cover a survey of special themes in the field of
    sexualized violence. This is based on the theoretical and special knowledge of each individual
    rape crisis center as well as on literature and results of research. The information folders will
    be made available to all rape crisis centers and may also be ordered by professional public,
    politicians and the press.


-   BaF sends letters of information to all rape crisis centers, which show the actual state of
    information, development and discussion. The work of the women at a council ensures the
    flow of information between BaF and the individual rape crisis centers.


-   The rape crisis centers try to achieve a more effective capability of action and reaction
    through the coordination by the BaF in order to exert influence on legislation.


-   The network between rape crisis centers and other institutions and projects is to be supported
    by the attendance of BaF staff at meetings and conferences which are of political importance,
    this provides an opportunity to present the special knowledge of rape crisis centers.


-   The rape crisis centers aim to establish ongoing networking with other projects and networks
    on national and European level and BAF will invite them to a European meeting at the end of
    the model project.




The BaF is held by the Verein Notruf und Beratung für vergewaltigte Mädchen und Frauen, Frauen
gegen Gewalt e.V. Kiel and is financed as a model project by the Federal Ministry of Family,
Seniors, Women and Youth.        The BaF works together professionally and substantially with a
council, consisting of representatives of the state working groups of rape crisis centers of all
Lands of Germany.




At the moment, the BaF is consisting of 1 ¾ places of employment, shared by two women. Right
now the BaF is taking care for the financial support from September 2002 on. For this purpose
another society was founded, the “Bundesverband autonomer Frauennotrufe”, which tries to
secure the future work of the BaF by drawing in applications to the government and charity
foundations. Though the financial situation of the BaF is not totally safe at the moment, there is
no doubt that the work of the nationwide information and coordination center will be continued.


                                                                                                        23
                                                                                            GREECE
Research and Support Centre for Victims of Maltreatment and Social Exclusion
(CVME)


The Research and Support Centre for Victims of Maltreatment and Social Exclusion (CVME), is a
civil, independent, humanitarian, non governmental association, established in Ioannina, Greece
in 1994. Its targets are the defence of human rights and the support of victims of maltreatment
and social exclusion. The targets of CVME are:


   The supply of medical, psychological, social and legal support to victims of torture and
    organized violence, victims of maltreatment, victims of trafficking and social exclusion.
   The sensitization of the general population in human rights issues and the transmission of
    knowledge for the existence of the phenomena of violence and social exclusion, and the
    possibilities of coping with them.
   The supply of humanistic assistance to populations that have been subjected to organized
    violence, tortures, maltreatment, social exclusion, not only in Greece but in other countries as
    well.
   The carrying out of scientific researches on violence and torture, maltreatment and the
    phenomenon of social exclusion.
   The contribution to the prevention of torture, maltreatment and social exclusion, through all
    the pre-mentioned targets.


CVME offers its services to those people, or groups of people that have been subjected to
violence, torture, maltreatment or social exclusion. Such people, for example could be:
    -   immigrants and refugees(legal or illegal)
    -   torture victims (ex political convicts)
    -   women and children victims of domestic violence
    -   victims of rape
    -   victims of trafficking and sexual exploitation
    -   Roma people
    -   Beggar children
    -   Homeless people


CVME, is also addressed to the general population aiming at the sensitisation or/and its training
in human rights issues, moreover its active participation in social dialogue. CVME, offers to
victims of maltreatment, social exclusion, and trafficking for free of charge:


                                                                                                       24
    -   social support (advising, solutions to direct needs of living conditions)
    -   psychological support (advising, psychotherapy)
    -   legal advising
    -   Medical assistance (diagnostic, therapeutic, medicines etc.)
        Helpline SOS


Historically, in Greece, rape was considered a crime against the ownership rights of the father or
husband “master” of the rape victim, i.e. the woman and her sexuality were considered his
property, and rape a crime against him. Therefore, rape was not a crime or unjust act against
the woman but towards her master and possessor, in that it was an act that diminished the
worth of his property. Nowadays things have, thankfully, changed. Rape is now considered an
unjust act or crime against the woman and the law protects a woman‟s right over her own body
and sexual freedom.


In 1984 rape according to Greek law changed from being considered a moral or ethical crime, to
being a crime against sexual freedom. Sexual freedom is divided into two fundamental rights:
freedom of choice as to one‟s sexual partner, and freedom of choice as when to engage in sexual
interaction.   According to Greek criminal law, rape is defined as an act in which someone uses
physical force or the threat of significant or direct danger, to force another to submit to or
participate in unwanted sexual acts or debauchery. Rape within marriage is not considered a
crime. Rape is punished by incarceration, and when two or more offenders rape a common
victim, a minimum of ten years is the designated sentence following conviction.


Rape, however, is one of the crimes least reported to the police.            According to research
conducted by Angelos Tsingris (1998), a lawyer who is involved in rape and sexual violence
issues in Greece, only six rapes out of a hundred are reported to the Greek police.           This
percentage is one of the lowest recorded in international victim figures. And only one case out of
a hundred ever reaches the courtroom. Other research in Greece indicates that approximately
4,500 rapes are committed annually in Greece, of which 270 are reported to the police. 183 of
these result in the arrest of a suspect; 47 come to trial; 20 end with a conviction; and, finally,
less than ten offenders are incarcerated for over 5 years.


The alarmingly small percentage of rapes being reported to the police is related to the fact that a
victim is more likely to disclose the rape to a friend rather than to a family member. The victims
are reluctant to disclose the rape to family due to their fears of not being believed, or not
receiving the right kind of support. They are even more reluctant to report the crime to the


                                                                                                      25
police, who have a negative reputation regarding their handling of rape cases, both in their
procedures and effectiveness.


International research into the reporting rates of rape has shown that the victim‟s decision to
report their rape to the police is significantly influenced by social parameters. This means that
victims of rape are extremely influenced by the advice, information, and beliefs of the people in
their immediate and wider social circle. It has been found that the large majority of rape victims,
who have reported the crime to the police, had done so, after listening to the advice or opinions
of family members, colleagues, neighbors, friends or acquaintances.


In Greece, as in other parts of the world, victims tend to keep their rape a secret because rape is
the only crime where the victim is stigmatised more than the offender. The system in Greece is
such that not only does a victim have to contend with the consequences of the traumatic
experience itself, but has also to endure further humiliating and degrading treatment within the
criminal justice system, both by police as well as during the entire trial process. The rape trial is
the only hearing in which the victim is on trial rather than the offender. It is the only criminal
forum where the behavior of the victim before and after the crime is considered more significant
than the behavior of the offender and influences both the verdict and the sentencing.


Other reasons leading to the victim‟s silence and low reporting rates are the feelings of guilt often
associated with such an experience, as well the as fear of what the rapist will do if the rape is
reported. This is ratified by research indicating that the rapes reported to the police are more
often by victims with strong emotions of anger, rage and hatred and a strong desire to see the
offender punished. Furthermore, the closer the relationship between the offender and the victim,
the less likely is the rape to be reported. These and other factors shed some light on a victim‟s
reluctance to report the rape to the police.


Following from this, I would like to refer to the results of research conducted in Greece with
regard to rape and court outcomes. It has been found that rapes occurring in public areas are
more likely to result in a conviction than those occurring in a private domain. Congruently, cases
where the offender is unknown to the victim are also more likely to attain a conviction than cases
where a prior connection exists.


Where a delay has occurred between the offence and its report to the police, it is viewed by the
court as a reason to doubt the victim and often results in a non-conviction of the offender. Cases
that are reported to the police within an hour of the crime‟s occurrence have a greater likelihood


                                                                                                        26
of reaching trial and achieving a conviction. The greater the time period between the rape itself
and its notification to the police, the lesser the likelihood of trial and conviction


Cases where victims have been under the influence of alcoholic substances have a decreased
chance of resulting in a conviction. Likewise, case where victims are considered to have been
dressed in a “provocative” or “seductive” manner, are also unlikely to result in a conviction.
Therefore, the issue of “provocation” in the form of the victim‟s dress and alcohol consumption, is
a significant factor in the decision as to whether a case will proceed to trial, as well as the
process in which the court decides as to the guilt or innocence of the accused.


A victim who does not resist and is therefore not physically injured during the rape is not
considered deserving of legal protection and is believed to have somehow consented to the rape.
The results of the research show that the greater the physical and verbal resistance of the victim
to the rape, the greater the likelihood of conviction. Finally, conviction rates are higher when the
victim is present during the court proceedings.


As this brief snapshot of the legal situation highlights the topic is still largely taboo and no
attempt at information dissemination or awareness raising has yet been made by government
bodies to address this issue. Recently, however, a campaign against domestic violence has been
launched, which indicates a positive direction for social awareness. Sexual violence should be
recognised as an important topic that needs to be addressed at a social, legal and political level,
and placed prominently on the political agenda.           Sexual violence occurs extensively in the
community and is a phenomenon echoed by the mass media, a fact which gives a clear message
to the government of its existence as a social problem and the need for its confrontation.


As far as I have been able to ascertain, there are no service providers in Greece that work
exclusively with victims of rape. These victims are able to seek assistance from general services
available for victims of maltreatment (whether this is physical, sexual or psychological violence).
Unfortunately the number of these centres are still small, so that they exist mainly in the larger
cities, are both government and non-government organisations, and are insufficient in meeting
the existing need for services.     Apart from services that offer social, psychological and legal
support for victims of violence, there are also telephone help lines for victims. Few debates or
forums have been organised on this topic. The lack of services available in Greece, may give a
pessimistic impression, however, it is important to keep in mind that Greece has only been able
to develop its social services relatively recently, compared to countries with greater economic
capabilities.


                                                                                                       27
                                                                                          HUNGARY

NANE

NANE, a Hungarian Women‟s Rights NGO was founded in January 1994, and achieved the status
of a charitable organization in 1999. NANE is primarily dedicated to ending the human rights
violations and the threat of violence against women and children through advocacy, personal
support services and public education.

OUR MAIN ACTIVITIES INCLUDE:

•   running a helpline with volunteers for women and children whom are exposed to physical,
    sexual, economic and emotional violence;

•   lobbying and introducing law-amendment proposals where current regulations need
    enhancement regarding equity, litigating power of women and children, and protection of the
    rights of women;

•   providing legal support (counseling and/or representation) for battered or otherwise abused
    women;

•   cooperating with government and non-government institutions to improve policy;

•   and public education on the roots and effects of violence against women and children, and
    victims‟ rights.

THE HELPLINE operates from 6 to 10 p.m. seven days a week by around 15 trained volunteers
who give callers emotional support, information about their legal options, and referral to other
services if required/available. We get an average of 60 calls a week, and the number is rising.
There are in fact, desperately few resources available for abused women and children in Hungary
at all. Officials and practitioners in the criminal justice system (including attorneys, judges etc.),
the law enforcement and health care professions show little sympathy or understanding for the
victims, as well as virtually no knowledge of the realities of violence against women as a human
rights violation. The equal protection of the law guaranteed by the Declaration of Human Rights
and the Hungarian Constitution is a long way from being realized in practice.

PUBIC DEBATE AND THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE LEGAL BACKGROUND for women‟s rights have always
been a priority for NANE. In 1994 we started a public campaign in the media and by collecting
signatures, to have marital rape included in the definition of rape in the Hungarian criminal code.



                                                                                                         28
In 1995 we petitioned the Constitutional Court to declare this exclusion unconstitutional. Though
the Constitutional Court never managed to pronounce an opinion on this topic, in 1997 the
Hungarian Parliament finally did amend the Penal Code to outlaw marital rape. In 1999, in
cooperation with both Hungarian NGO‟s and an American non-profit organization, we participated
in organizing public debates and a demonstration against the restriction of reproductive rights.
We currently have two law-proposals handed in, one to the Ministry of Justice, the other, through
a Member of Parliament, to the Parliament. Both proposals aim to remedy discrimination of
women and girls (and, in the fist case, sexual minorities), which the current legal regulations
perpetuate. These proposals were worked out and signed in cooperation with other human rights
organisations.

Highly dependent on our funding situation, we nevertheless attempt to provide LEGAL ASSISTANCE
to as many of our clients as possible. Many callers need legal advice, which is either provided by
our trained helpline volunteers, or by lawyers we are in contact with. Some clients need legal
representation, which we usually cover from funding for this purpose. Up to now, funding for this
activity was scarce, but there is a growing need that the organization faces regarding the
provision of legal representation which we are determined to answer. Also part of this activity is
the assistance in the writing of official letters, inquiries etc. in legal cases, accompanying the
client to the court, the police, or to other authorities where she is likely to be treated more lightly
if she is on her own, sometimes even covering travel costs for a client to go to a hearing.

COOPERATING WITH GOVERNMENT AND NON-GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS TO IMPROVE POLICY
consists of training‟s we hold for government officials from such different fields as the police and
the visiting nurses, for example, as well as training‟s/demos at schools (elementary, high schools,
colleges and universities) and other NGO‟s. Apart from an introductory session of about 60-90
minutes usually used in classes at schools and universities, we have three training modules: an
introductory training of 10-15 hours, an advanced training of 30 hours and the full course of 50
hours. It also includes the distribution of our booklet we published in the beginning of the year
2000 on domestic violence and training and talks we are invited to as a follow-up.


PROJECTS CURRENTLY RUNNING

HELPLINE
Since the establishment of NANE in January 1994, our helpline for abused women and children
operates every day all year from 6 to 10 p.m. Since 1999 we have been able to offer a toll-free
number for our callers. There are approximately 6-12 calls per night. The cases often demand




                                                                                                          29
our involvement regarding legal aid, representation and practical help with non-cooperative
institutions.



PEER EDUCATION PROJECT
In this project we aim to reach young people who are also affected by violence but who are still
more flexible to recognize it and change it than many adults are. We have several teens who, as
we are nearing the official end of the project, have an overall understanding of interpersonal
violence, and are capable of speaking about these issues to their peers.

IOM (INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION) HELPLINE
In this joint project with IOM, NANE operated a helpline first 8, later 4 hours every weekday for
women who are planning to work abroad. The purpose of the project was a) to lower the risk
that women face when working abroad, especially forced prostitution and trafficking in women,
b) to offer information on their rights and obligations abroad, and c) to offer information on the
institutions that can be of help, should they need it. The helpline is to restart later this year with
weekly eight hours.

PUBLICATION PROJECT
This project started the publication of books on issues that are closely related to violence against
women and other women‟s rights issues. We will publish a series of books dealing with the
following topics: psychological trauma following rape/incest and other domestic violence-related
crimes and their treatment, assertiveness and self-defense for young people, feminist writings
from the women‟s movement, women‟s health issues, etc.

The IOM-NANE trafficking prevention helpline
IOM Budapest selected NANE Women‟s Rights Association for the information helpline part of its
multimedia information campaign to prevent trafficking in young Hungarian women. The
selection was almost self-evident, since NANE has highly experienced senior staff in helpline
counselling for women victims of violence.


Although the helpline was technically available from February 2000, due to delays in the start of
the media opening (it seems that the media company had difficulties in purveying the
unconventional message of the prevention campaign), significant number of calls was first
registered around mid-March. With the joint regular television appearances of IOM and NANE
staff, the public acquired finally a clear picture of the aims of the helpline and the possible target
groups.




                                                                                                         30
The typical caller profile: mostly women aged 17-30, planning to work abroad. Approximately
equal numbers of them were just starting to look, already contacted one or several agencies, or
had a concrete offer or even a signed contract at the time of their call. Our assistance for the
typical caller included: checking the agency they planned to or did contact on a list of registered
job agencies. We went through a list of safety checks both for the time prior to and after leaving
for the job, talked about legal and illegal jobs, working visas, etc., and when possible, gave the
phone numbers of helping organisations in the target countries.


In some cases, worried mothers called the helpline, often with the direct wish to stop their
(adult) daughters by some means from going abroad. We suggested to these callers that they
share with their daughters the information we gave them, rather than trying to threaten their
daughters. Also, that our number should be with the information they give to their daughter. We
also prepare these mothers for the scenario that their daughter decides to go ahead. That rather
then turning their backs on their daughters is supportive so that their daughters will more likely
stay in touch.


In a few cases, although it was not advertised, we received calls from survivors, mainly wanting
to share their stories to help others. Another small group of callers were relatives, mostly
mothers, who called because their daughters disappeared when working abroad, and because
they tried to get help from the authorities but received only neglect or abuse. In these cases we
gave information on police procedures, and, when applicable, got in touch with our contact at
Interpol Budapest, so that she could do what the local police stations failed to do: bring such
cases to the attention of the Interpol office.


We also notified European organisations working on trafficking about our activities. As a result,
Proyecto Esperanza of Spain contacted us to receive three women coming from them back to
Budapest. Using IOM infrastructure, we received these women at the airport, and stayed in touch
with them after their arrival. We also work together with LEFÖ of Austria regarding their
Hungarian client. This work however, can be only done sporadically since funds are not available
to create a full-scale operation of this sort.


General evaluation of activities: our aim of empowering the women through information about
the facts and realities of their venture was very successful in most cases. Based on our
conversations we can safely state that the women who contacted us received an individualised
confirmation of the information they might have encountered in the leaflets. Their awareness and


                                                                                                      31
alertness regarding safety and legality of jobs abroad has risen significantly. We are convinced
that NANE‟s method of counselling in which we communicated with the caller as with an equal
made it possible that they did not automatically close down when they received information
which was uncomfortable to receive.


General background
Hungary is a country without a women‟s movement, which makes its situation rather unique and
difficult. Without a supporting ideological background, recognition, prevention, and intervention
of violence against women is a monumental task. Apart from the suffragette era of the early 20 th
century, women‟s issues as a political struggle have not been present in the social agenda. It was
only in the 1990‟s that a few women started to organise and publicly discuss women‟s problems.
Although violence against women is a widespread problem, up to this day our organisation, NANE
Women‟s Rights Association, has been the only women‟s NGO in the country dealing with
domestic violence.


Representative surveys confirm that Hungary is in no better position than other European
countries: at one point in her life every fifth woman is battered by her partner, which means that
in a population of 10 million one million women are affected by physical partnership violence. As
for sexual violence and child abuse we can only make guesses about a latency of 10-28 times
higher than the actual number of known cases. Based on our hotline data we can say that both
physical and sexual violence is a major problem in Hungary.


Hungary‟s biggest ethnic minority is the Roma minority adding up to approximately 10 percent of
the overall population. The Roma are generally characterized by a lack of resources, extreme
poverty, and massive discrimination. Roma women are among the least likely to have education
and employment, and we can safely say that they encounter a significantly higher extent of
interpersonal violence both from peer men and majority groups than white women. In general
the majority considers Roma women immoral and good for one thing – rape. This is reflected in
the fact that the vast majority of street prostitutes are Roma girls and women.


Sexual violence
Even though rapes committed against children (especially boys) and women by unknown
perpetrators are the most likely to be understood as rape, most victims choose not to report it.
The services of the police and the trials taking years undoubtedly deter many victims. Old
prejudiced attitudes about the woman being provocative or asking for it still prevail in both public
opinion and institutions


                                                                                                       32
In case of a known perpetrator the process becomes more difficult since many people, including
victims, do not recognize or acknowledge acquaintance and marital rape as sexual violence.
Surveys also show that women do not report forced or coerced sexual encounters with
boyfriends/husbands as rape.


Locally the vast majority of prostitutes are Roma women (see above). An other group especially
vulnerable to prostitution is Roma and non-Roma girls growing up in state homes. These girls are
given a monthly allowance by the state that is collected for them on a separate bank account and
handed over to them on their 18th birthdays. It happens very often that affiliated men await the
birthday of these girls eagerly and cheat them out of their money, thus robbing them of their
only chance to find some kind of shared accommodation. Often these girls find themselves in
prostitution either working on their own or for their prostitutors (so called „boyfriends‟).


In the last few years trafficking of women has also become a known problem. Hungary is both a
sending and receiving country as for trafficking. Every year several hundred Hungarian girls and
women are lured by false advertisements and coerced into prostitution both in Hungary and
abroad.


Sexual violence and the law
The Hungarian law has two major problem areas: old laws reflecting old prejudices and lack of
modern approaches. At present the Hungarian law provides no criminal categories for the
following areas: domestic violence in general, restraining order, sexual harassment, sexual
harassment of youngsters from persons of authority, stalking, and incest.


Age of consent
The age of consent is 12 (!). Between the ages of 12 and 14 a minor may consent or not consent
to a sexual act. Even if s/he consents, the law calls it „debauching of minors‟ and theoretically
punishes perpetrators. This extremely low age limit leaves young girls extremely vulnerable and
unprotected against sexual abuse by older men, which fact is readily exploited by prostitutors
and other perpetrators (i.e. „clients‟).


Incest
Incest is included in the Penal Code under the name of „blood contamination‟ – a derogatory,
victim-blaming term that has been used for centuries. The law explicitly refers to blood relations
between victim and perpetrator, thus and leaving girls less protected by the law against sexual


                                                                                                     33
abuse by foster fathers whose acts qualify to a lesser crime, and providing a way for foster
parents to get away completely free with the rape of „consenting‟ foster daughters above the age
of 14. In case of parent-perpetrators the common institutional response is the „elevate‟ the child
out of the family and put her into a foster home. This practice clearly deters many victims from
reporting the abuse in order to stay with their families and in the meantime punishes the child
victim instead of the perpetrator.


Gay relationships
For gay sexual relations the consenting parties need to be over 18, which is also the official
coming of age. The blatant discrimination towards gay sexual activities is also reflected in the
prejudiced terms of the law that speaks of forced homosexual sexual acts which are „against
nature‟ as if it was homosexuality and not coercion that is „against nature‟.


Marital rape
After long battles and scandalous remarks from politicians, marital rape was finally introduced as
a separate item in the Penal Code in 1997. Recent surveys however show that 45 percent of
women have no knowledge about marital rape being a crime. Since the law was introduced we
have had no knowledge of any test cases.


Law enforcement
By comparing independent survey data and data provided by the Ministry of Interior we
speculate that in Hungary approximately 98,2 percent of reported heterosexual rapes remain
unpunished. The legal process is most often halted by the police (“lack of evidence”) or the
judges themselves. The roots of this inefficiency lie in the complete lack of training of these
professional groups.


Although in the case of underage victims of sexual abuse there seems to be more responsiveness
from both professionals and the public, due to lack of specific training the handling of such
victims if painfully inefficient, and in many cases only adds insult to injury. The whole country has
only one „child interrogation room‟ (to be found in the capital) where sexually abused children in
theory can be privately interrogated and their confessions can be videotaped to avoid secondary
traumatisation. Much as the room is the pride if Hungarian police, we know that it is hardly ever
used, and NANE members themselves have also seen the room showing signs of being out of
use.




                                                                                                        34
Adult victims generally meet even less sympathy. Rape victims get no complex support should
they decide to report the assault. The police are not offering integrated services for women
(gynecologist, peer-counseling, and trained female officers). Instead, countless questions are
raised about the woman‟s dress, intentions, and involvement in the attack. The problems get
even worse if the perpetrator is known to the victim, especially in the case is marital rape.
Children‟s abuse is often dismissed on grounds that they were taught to lie by their mothers in
order to get a more favorable court decision.


Secondary traumatisation is an enormous problem for victims. Ironically, one of the services of
ESZTER AMBULANCIA (see below) is to help the victim assess if there is enough evidence in her
case to press charges or it is more feasible not to report the offender and get more traumatized
in the criminal investigations and endless trial.


Awareness of professional groups
Professional groups who meet victims on a regular basis including police officers, social workers,
nurses, doctors, psychologists, psychiatrists, and teachers are not given specific and compulsory
training about domestic and sexual violence in general and job-specific knowledge in particular.
Types and dynamics of violence against women and children, the physical and psychological
effects of victimization, and efficient techniques to work with such victims are not specifically on
the training agenda of these groups.


Thus myths and victim-blaming are still a major problem for victims of sexual abuse, and
experience shows that professional groups on the whole are unprepared to deal with such victims
effectively. It is rare the problem of abuse is identified by the professionals unless the victimized
client specifically discloses the abuse. The police and the legal professionals often fail to use the
existing legal possibilities in cases of domestic and sexual violence; whereas the law forbids the
beating of a person by an other, this law is not routinely used or the penalty is mitigated in case
of close and intimate relationships like marriage.


In the past few years NANE has managed to establish connections with a small number of
professionals who have access to organising training for such groups. Due to scattered invitations
we have been able to provide introductory courses (1-3 hours) to groups of nurses, doctors,
social workers, psychologists, teachers, and/or students in these professions. However the
number of people we have been able to reach is far from enough to install a change in
professional attitudes.




                                                                                                        35
Healing from sexual abuse
The only professional organisation that explicitly and exclusively deals with child and adult victims
of sexual abuse is a small collective of two psychologists under the name ESZTER AMBULANCIA.
Here two psychologists (one female, one male) offer therapy for victims who can make contact
with the organisation by an answer phone and who are carefully pre-selected.


Although the majority of victims will not seek professional help, those that do with some luck
may end up with an understanding and self-trained therapist. We have spoken to a few girls and
women who reported having found helpful therapists. However, as opposed to the countless
accounts of unsympathetic or even hostile therapists this offers little solace. Many therapists for
example still identify incest as an Oedipal problem of women instead of a social problem of men.


Acquiring help outside the professional mental health system basically means having a supporting
family/friends or finding the hotline of NANE. Although NANE has been planning to start a self-
help group for survivors of domestic and sexual violence, due to lack of funding and staff, so far
we have been unable to do so.


The last option we as a civil organisation have is the equip the survivors with self-help books.
This is a relatively safe way for survivors to find answers and healing, although without the
benefits of a communal interpersonal experience. Susan Forward‟s Toxic Parents has recently
been translated into Hungarian and has proved to be a useful book that we often recommend.
With the forthcoming publication of Judith Herman‟s Trauma and Recovery in the book publishing
project of NANE, we hope to reach many survivors and professionals.




                                                                                                        36
                                                                                         Iceland


STÍGAMÓT


ICELANDIC COUNSELLING AND INFORMATION CENTER FOR SURVIVORS OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE


WHO ARE WE?
Our centre, Stígamót, was opened on the 8th of March 1990. Stígamót is run by a collective of
women, some of who are survivors of different forms of sexual violence. Our understanding and
definitions of sexual violence is based on survivor‟s own experiences, which again reflects and is
in good accordance with feminist definitions and theories on the nature, causes, and the
consequences of sexual violence. The main forms of sexual violence that Stigamot is working
with are incest and rape, but dealing with pornography and prostitution are becoming a more
and more important part of our work.


All services are free of charge. The centre is financed by grants from the state as well as local
government and our own fund-raising.


What do we offer?
We have two equally important aims, to give information and counselling to survivors of sexual
violence and to do political work.


Counselling
We offer individual counselling and support to survivors of sexual violence. We also offer service
information about judicial and social rights. If those who come to Stígamót want to report the
sexual violence to the police, we support them through the police hearings as well as the court
proceedings that may result from a report to the police. In addition, we offer families and
partners of survivors counselling and information.


Self-help groups
After a period of individual counselling most of the survivors choose to participate in our
extensive group work based on self-help principles. We offer separate groups for adult incest and
rape survivors and special groups for teenage girls. In the year 2002 we have started incest
groups for men. Two facilitators, who are survivors, work with each group. The groups, who
meet 15 times with the facilitators, are closed membership groups with 5-6 women participating
in each group.


                                                                                                     37
Information
From the beginning we have collected statistics on the survivors, perpetrators, type of abuse,
effects of the abuse on survivors and have striven to inform both the public and professionals
about sexual violence and its consequences. We offer short courses to professionals and
introductory programs about our work to the public and in the schools. We have also initiated,
organised and taken part in programmes about sexual violence in newspapers and magazines, on
radio and television. We have published booklets about incest and rape for the public as well as
for professionals. All the survivors who use our service, as well as students and professionals
have access to our small but growing library specialising in sexual violence. There is one Rape
Crisis Centre in Iceland and that is in Reykjavik at the hospital Landspitalinn.


PORNOGRAPHY AND PROSTITUTION IN ICELAND
In the past year we have become more and more worried about the development of pornography
and prostitution in Iceland and next fall we will develop an action against it. That is a major issue
this year for Stigamot.




                                                                                                        38
                                                                                             IRELAND
Rape Crisis Network Ireland




MISSION STATEMENT.
"The Rape Crisis Network provides support, information, training and development for all
member     rape   crisis   centres.   Through    setting   standards    it   promotes   accountability,
professionalism and reflexivity. As a resourced, women centred, accessible and informed
organisation, with national recognition, it supports the staff and volunteers of rape crisis centres
in the interests of all survivors of sexual violence. It provides a public voice for survivors of sexual
violence, through raising public awareness and lobbying for change."


Although the Network has been working towards its objectives since 1985 it was only in 1999
that the Network received funding towards the employment of staff and the establishment of a
head office which is in Galway in the West of Ireland. At present the Network employees four full
time staff - National Co-ordinator, a Projects Manager, an Administration and Information worker
and a clerical worker. Funding sources include the Department of Health and Children, Dept of
Justice, Joseph Rowntree fund and the EC Daphne. The core funding is from the Dept of Health
as is the funding for all Rape Crisis Centres this has helped the Network to fulfil many of its
objectives that without such funding would be difficult to achieve.


The Network has 14 member centres with an additional 4 looking for membership in 2002. Staff
and volunteers from each member centre are welcome to attend Network meetings and each
centre has one vote with the centre chairing the meetings. Monthly meetings afford members an
opportunity to exchange and share information regarding service developments, identify areas of
concern in local or national policy development and agree on campaign and lobbying work. This
has proven a very important contact for the staff and volunteers working in Rape Crisis Centres
(RCC‟s). Members also. The staff provides feedback regarding national and international
campaigns and developments.


The Network assists member centres though membership support & information, training, policy
development & lobbying and developing pan transnational links.


   Membership support & Information
The Network published two pieces of research in 2000, "Securing the Future; A Conceptual View
of Employment Policy, Development and Funding of RCCs in Ireland" by Sarah Morton and "An


                                                                                                           39
Investigation of Counsellor Perceived Helpful and Non-Helpful Critical Incidents In The
counselling of Survivors of Sexual Abuse" by Francis Larkin. The Network also produced and
widely circulated the document "A Consideration of the Model of Service Provision Employed by
RCCs". This researched the background origins and evolution of RCCs, the philosophical approach
to the work and the research that has been undertaken regarding survivors of sexual violence
experience of using RCCs. The Network also developed:


   A database - to standardise the collection of data from RCCs nationally. With all RCCs now
    using the database it has proved very valuable and allows the staff of RCCs to concentrate
    on the survivors not the paper work;
   An Employment Manual – to provide models of best practice in employment;
   And an Evaluation Manual – A self-evaluation process in a modular format which all centres
    agreed to put in place; and
   It provides regular information to centres through the use of a news-sheet and is currently
    updating its website.


   Training
The RCNI is an accredited training body for rape crisis training provided by it trainers. It is
currently developing this into a modular training pack for trainers and trainees. It is also looking
to develop specific training aimed at educating the judiciary and police.


   Policy Development & Lobbying
NGO‟s in Ireland are recognised as full social partners along with the trades unions, farmers and
employers sector. As such we participate in structures that develop national social and economic
policy. The RCNI plays a representative role in many arenas but probably the most important is
the National Steering Committee – this committee was established to oversee the implementation
of the findings in the Taskforce report on Violence Against Women. It is an interdepartmental
and multi-agency committee chaired by a Government Minister from the Dept of Justice. The
network makes submissions to government for example to the Dept of Health in their
development of a Health Plan for Women, the Working group on the Jurisdiction of the Courts
and the National Action Plans. Submissions are developed through consultation with members to
ensure that those working closest to the survivor have the opportunity to impact on the national
level.


   Trans-national work




                                                                                                       40
The Network was trans-national partners with the South Essex Rape and Incest crisis Centre, the
Campaign to End Rape and the Women and Child Abuse Studies Unit in a Daphne funded
project; "Rape…. The Forgotten Issue". The project had two elements, research, which looked at
responses to reported rape across Europe and networking, which was to begin to build a
European Network of women's groups working on Rape.
The RCNI was successful in accessing Daphne funding to continue the work of the first project.
We have contacts with many organisations across the globe and with additional links to Europe
through the projects manager who is the Irish representative of the European Anti-Poverty
Network


The context of our work
In a recent report published by the Dublin Rape Crisis Centre 1 it was found that one in five
women reported experiencing contact sexual assault as adults with a further one in twenty
reporting unwanted non-contact sexual experiences.                  Moreover more than four in ten of women
reported some form of sexual abuse or assault in their lifetime. The most serious form of abuse,
penetrative abuse, was experienced by 10 per cent of the women surveyed.                                Disclosures of
sexual violence to the Gardaí in relation to adult sexual assault for women were 7.8% (19 of 224
women in survey) and for men even lower at 1% (1 in 98 men). 2                             However the number of
reported rapes resulting in legal proceedings being commenced has decreased. In the 1980‟s
approximately 53% of all reports resulted in proceedings being commenced whereas in the 1990s
proceedings were commenced in approximately only 39% of cases reported. In the 1980s
approximately 21% of proceedings commenced resulted in a conviction, but in the 1990s only an
approximate 8 % of all proceedings commenced resulted in conviction. Figures from the DPP in
20013 show that there were just under 600 sexual assault cases and 298 rape cases proceeded
with.    Therefore it would appear that while the number of people reporting rape has increased
quite significantly from the 1980s, the number of convictions obtained has at best remained
static if not actually decreased.4


The passing of the 2001 Sex Offender Act introduced two new key pieces of legislation. There is
now provision for Separate Legal Representation for rape victims, however this is only introduced
when the sexual history of the victim is brought into the court. As it has only been used 4 or 5
times we still do not know what the benefits are if any. Secondly the introduction of the sex


1
  The SAVI report Sexual Abuse and Violence in Ireland, the Liffey Press, 2002
2
  Ibid.
3
  DPP Annual Report 2001
4
  Attrition in Sexual Assault Offence Cases in Ireland; A Qualitative Analysis, Report commissioned by the Department of
Justice, Equality and Law Reform 2001



                                                                                                                           41
offender register, with clear sanctions again it is to soon to say how successful this register will
be but the Network is working closely with the probation services and police to monitor its
implementation.   The network is currently running a small pilot project looking to develop a
standard Victim Impact Statement for use with rape and sexual assault. This project is being
developed jointly between the police force, Rape Crisis Centres and the Network and is funded by
the Dept of Justice. The Network has been able to undertake considerable work in the past
because of the funding it receives from national government, however for the Network to
continue to support the needs and bring the voices of the survivors of rape to public awareness
funding needs to be increased.




                                                                                                       42
                                                                                            ITALY
ASSOCIAZIONE NAZIONALE TELEFONO ROSA


The first important “collective” concern on sexual violence against women arose in 1971 in The
United States of America, thanks to the radical feminist movement and Afro-American feminists.
As far as Italy is concerned, the discussion on this crime started in 1977 within the women‟s
movement. And it is indeed thanks to a series of initiatives by the Italian women‟s movement
that rape has become an issue of public interest and concern.


To understand why Italy faced the issue later than other countries, it should be noted that this
crime was regarded in the past as a crime against the victim‟s husband and father - considered
as the woman‟s “man in charge” or “owner” – instead of a crime against the woman herself.
Furthermore, sexual violence against women never really emerged in its dramatic reality because
of a code of silence and the victim‟s renouncing attitude.


It is incredible, but in the 1930 criminal code, which is the code that, apart from some minor
modifications is the code in force in Italy today, sexual violence was considered as a crime
against public morals and not against the person.      Therefore a radical, revolutionary cultural
change was required. Because of this the efforts made in the following years to reform the law
have been slow and difficult.


Starting from the second half of the seventies, women‟s associations began to ask for the right to
act against the rapist, siding with and supporting the raped women. Only in 1989 did the Italian
legislator grant their requests. In effect in the new criminal procedure code, articles 91 and
following articles rule the appearance as a civil plaintiff by associations that protect collective
interests. Although in Italy many steps forward have been made, data on violence and abuse
against women often still has to be detected by analysing the reports given to police stations and
hospital first-aid police, recorded as under the ambiguous heading “accidental events” rather
than rape or sexual violence. In effect even today many crimes of violence and abuse against
women are not prosecuted because they are not denounced and the judicial authority is kept in
the dark about them. This is another reason why crime statistics are inaccurate.


For a long time, violence against women, especially domestic crimes have been considered as
“personal matters”. It wasn‟t until the eighties that sexual violence against women became a
topic of serious concern. In this period, in fact, innovative proposals were developed. The issue




                                                                                                      43
became debated heavily in both Parliament and in local institutions, and thanks to this work,
Parliament finally passed the reform law on sexual violence on February 15 th 1996.


Today surveys carried out by Telefono Rosa and by other Italian association‟s point out that more
than 80 per cent of ill treatment towards women is domestic violence committed by a partner.
And the more worrying data emerging is that these violent partners do not belong to pathological
situations of social, economical or sanitary hardships or to deviancy.       On the contrary, their
violent behaviour seems to belong to an apparent normality. Certainly, in the last thirty years
radical changes in the Italian custom and sexual behaviour have occurred.


As an example, up to the end of the sixties, virginity was considered as a part of the bride dowry.
In the married couple, besides mutual love, there were however well defined roles, the husband
focused on economically supporting his wife, who had complete responsibility of the
management of the household as well as the obligation to fulfil the “bride‟s duty”, that is to
consent to an intimate relationship. According to these accepted social rules, wives had to pay
their “marital debt” each time their husband required it otherwise a breach of the “spouse duty”
would have been the result.      In short, men in a certain sense were fully entitled to sexual
intercourse with their wives.


It was only in 1976 that the Corte di Cassazione (an Italian Supreme Court) modified the
previous general lines in a significant sentence. In this legal act it is authoritatively stated that
“the spouse who compels with violence or threat the other spouse to a sexual knowledge or
intercourse commits a carnal violence crime” that is rape.


Although during the last few decade cultural stereotypes have been questioned, sexual violence
against women has not decreased. Still Italian fathers, brothers or employers are not denounced
by victims in the fear of being even more humiliated or of suffering further devastating damage.
You ought not to prosecute your own husband. In the worst instances, legal separation can be
requested, and is a preferred solution. Furthermore, the outrageous phenomenon of “extreme
sexual violence” perpetrated by fathers, brothers or adults against children – boys and girls – is
much more widespread than one would believe. In Italy these crimes are recorded as about
2,000 per annum but, as the phenomenon is hidden, these statistics are definitely biased.


According to the Italian law (February 15th 1996 number 66) sexual violence is classified as a
crime against the person, whereas previously the Italian criminal code defined it as an offence
against morals. This different classification is the most qualifying part of this new Italian law. It


                                                                                                        44
gives back to victims their status “as a person” and therefore the possibility to appear in court as
the party offended by the crime with more strength and a greater effectiveness, than the
previous abrogated law allowed.


While the former criminal code distinguished between two types of crime – carnal knowledge and
sexual violence – these new laws group them into a single crime: “sexual violence”.             Such
unification gives greater significance to the dignity of a person and highlights the fact that the
freedom of choice for one‟s body for sexual aims is a demonstration of such dignity. The aim of
the law is to punish violent sexual acts or carnal knowledge taken without the victim‟s consent.


The most doubtful part of the law, regards the last paragraph of article 3 – law number 609 bis
of the criminal code – which states that in the cases of least gravity, the penalty can be reduced
up to two thirds. It is a blank rule left to the discretion of the judge. Its aim is to avoid that the
punishment of crimes of different gravity with a universal strict sentence. The fear of some MPs
was that sexual harassment could be treated as rape, since these two different crimes have been
unified by the new Italian law (i. e. after the removal in legal terms of the sexual violence).
Given that amongst violent sexual offences there could be a different range of gravity of action,
the Italian law states the possibility of reducing the penalty up to a maximum of two third for less
serious cases. And again article 3 of the law provides for 5 to 10 years of imprisonment.


It is also specified within the same 1996 law that the same penalty is applied to whoever obliges
the victim to have or suffer sexual acts, by either taking advantage of the victim‟s psychological
or physical inferiority or by deceiving such a person. Instead the former code provided for a
penalty ranging from a minimum of 3 years to a maximum of 10. This situation allowed rapists
to apply to a special rite known as “patteggiamento”.         In practice, what happens when the
penalty is less than two years is that the defendant can agree with the Public Prosecutor upon a
penalty implying the conditional suspension of the penalty, the exclusion of the civil plaintiff, the
automatic reinstatement after five years and no further consequence. Since whoever “ patteggia”
(bargains) has the right to have the penalty reduced by a third (normally already reduced to two
years due to the concession of generic extenuating circumstances), what happened was that
people charged with sexual violence used to agree upon penalties lasting less than two years
without having to face the trial.


This generalised behaviour has raised the need to increase the minimum penalty from 3 to 5
years in order to prevent rapists being almost unpunished.         Article 4 introduces aggravating
circumstances, which increase imprisonment from 6 to 12 years. The prosecution for crimes


                                                                                                         45
connected with sexual violence is ruled by article 8. As a rule, the trial for these crimes can only
take place after legal action by the offended party. In fact the trial, highlighting little known or
even ignored facts in strict connection with the intimate life of people, may turn out to be more
damaging than advantageous to victims, due to the publicity derived. Thus the victims are free
to decide whether to face trial or not.      However, considering the particular delicacy of the
decision in this kind of situation, the deadline for reporting rape has been extended to six
months. This extended deadline – with respect to the 3 months formerly stated by the Italian
criminal code – is justified by the need to allow the victim to recover from the shock caused by
the violence and to decide in a more serene way whether to report or not. Said report, as it was
already stated in the former code, is irrevocable.


As an exception to the former cases, article 8 states that the most serious sexual crimes can be
proceeded by the Court. Article 9 introduces a specific kind of crime: “group sexual violence”.
And states more severe penalties than those adopted when the violence is perpetrated by a
single person. Another innovative law is to oblige the defendant to undergo medical tests to
detect transmittable sexual diseases. The spread of the AIDS syndrome has made necessary the
introduction of this law.


The greatest barrier to developing this project is the fragmentary jurisdiction of judges in Italy
who unfortunately do not work in the same way as judges in America who work only in one
court, the “Family Court”.      But we know that laws and measures alone aren't enough.
Prevention, safety, real support for the anti-violence centres from the Town Council is needed for
effective aid to the women victims of violence. We have to work to change both the culture and
the environment where these crimes grow.        It is also a priority to train counsellors, telephone
operators and police to deal more successfully with these cases.


Telefono Rosa, on February 1988, was created with the goal of shedding light, through the voices
of abused women themselves, on the "hidden" violence of domestic abuse: abuse which often
does not reveal itself in medical or police reports.    The organisation began with five female
volunteers, working in shifts in a tiny room with only pencils and notepads, answering countless
calls from women all over Italy. Their reputation for lending an informed and sympathetic ear
grew and eventually Telefono Rosa was recognised as a new social service.


Today the association is very much an "Information centre for women‟s rights", is able to provide
expert counselling in various specialised areas: legal, financial, medical, psychological, research
and family mediation services. The attention from the mass media, the creation of a support


                                                                                                        46
committee comprised of women holding key jobs in governmental and cultural institutions have
contributed to Telefono Rosa evolution from an emergency service into a full-fledged social
service and political advocacy organisation.


Domestic abuse is widespread at all levels and in all groups of society and often within the
institutions which are commonly perceived as "safe", such as the family, school and the
workplace. This is the alarming conclusion that can be drawn from the calls received by Telefono
Rosa. The response to Telefono Rosa also highlights the fact that women lack information about
the nature of domestic abuse, their rights and their options. As a result, Telefono Rosa has
become a full-fledged public service available to those who want to fight the culture of silence
and sacrifice which is the abusers' essential ally. In addition to its telephone assistance, Telefono
Rosa offers daily legal consultations aimed at increasing awareness of fundamental human and
civil rights and of the means available to redress them when violated. It is a basic premise of
Telefono Rosa that this knowledge is essential to enable women to free themselves from coercion
and violence.


Our Country offers refuges in seventeen Italian cities. In particular in Milano, at the Mangiagalli
Hospital, there is an aid centre for victims of rape and sexual violence. There is an all female
medical team staff at this centre; it is also connected with a refuge. There are four of these
centres in Rome.


However, below Rome, there is nothing, excepted in Lecce where there is just one refuge. New
associations, as Telefono Rosa, are slowly reaching into the South of Italy, but at the moment
there are a lack of aid centres or refuges. Since 1990 Telefono Rosa has organised several
prevention campaign: in 1990 "A plan against violence", a booklet presented to all public
institutions; in 1992 "Violence to women", research with the collaboration of ISPES based on the
data gathered through women telephone calls; in 1993 "The secret voices of violence", research
on the phenomenon of "submerged" violence against women and "A rose against violence", a
tribute to some Sicilian women with a leading role in the fight against that form of violence
named "Mafia"; in 1994 "Naked bait", a pamphlet about the instrumental use of the female body
on the covers of weekly magazines.       Published also was "Red light to violence", a guide for
women to defend themselves against assault, rape and harassment, that is very similar to the
one of 2000 named "Pink Europe 2000", a guide for the safety of women living and travelling in
Europe. Finally in 1996 they released” If all women of the world", an international seminar for
the education against violence.




                                                                                                        47
To our knowledge women who are victims of sexual violence need to talk with other people with
similar experiences. To aid this Telefono Rosa in Torino has organised groups of ten women for
meetings and self-support. These women need to be reassured and not feel guilty about their
behaviour. For them support therapy is necessary and they need to be helped continually if they
decide to report their attack. Non hostile and non-obstructive behaviour from the police is also
vital in giving enormous aid in these crisis moments.


In reality there is a growing engagement and continuous co-operation between police and
Telefono Rosa and other voluntary associations that work to prevent and fight violence against
women at home, at work and in public places in Italy. This is probably a product of the growing
number of women in the police today. However we have to recognise that policemen now have
a more sensitive and efficient attitude than before. Often abused women need to be taken to a
refuge, but in the near future things will change with the application of the bill enacted by the
Parliament. Now rapists will be moved away from the family home, so that women will be able
to stay without having to suffer the trauma of leaving the own family environment.


Reporting of violence is increasing in Italy – some think crime statistics have risen because of an
increase in actual crime, but this is unlikely - if women‟s denouncements have increased, even if
on a daily base both adolescent and mature voices, with Southern or Northern inflexions,
alternate at our telephones, the culpable silence that covers so many women's hardships is still
too profound.


Our data show that in 1994 sexual harassment accounted for 5.8% of the calls received and
sexual violence accounted for 5.9 %. The telephone call was the first reaction of the victim in
54.6% of such cases. In 1996 cases of sexual harassment were 7.0 % and of sexual violence 4.2
%, and the telephone call was the first reaction of the victim in 30.8 % of the cases. The latter
data increased to 54.1 % in 1997, when reports totalled 3.9 % sexual harassment and 3.5 %
sexual violence. The data decreased to 45.2% in 1998, with 3.4% sexual violence and 3.7%
sexual harassment. In 1999, with 3.29% sexual violence and 2.64% sexual harassment, of all
calls received, in 54.79% of sexual violence and harassment had no other reaction before
contacting the Telefono Rosa.      Data on 2000 will be published in a short time, while 2001
statistics are still being investigated.   These statistics suggest that a considerable number of
women, although aware of being abused, are not able to free themselves of heavy and
degrading condition.




                                                                                                      48
Obviously the education received in the family of origin, the cultural imprint, the rules given by
traditional but often backward customs, the economic dependence of many women on men, a
poor self-esteem and no confidence in their strength, contribute to making women vulnerable
and passive in a fatalistic way.     The above is the cause of the exceptionally high and
progressively growing number of women showing a passive attitude when confronted with
offences and humiliations.


It is important that the issue of dealing with rape and sexual harassment is addressed to a wide
audience with co-operation across countries. It is important to learn from the experience of
others and develop a common strategy throughout Europe.       There is a great deal of work to be
done we are here to face it.




                                                                                                     49
                                                                                     SCOTLAND
WOMEN SUPPORTING WOMEN


Women Supporting Women (WSW) is a support project for women living in Greater Pilton, North
Edinburgh.     The project is located within Pilton Community Health Project.      WSW offers a
community based service for local women experiencing poverty and disadvantage; this includes
women who are isolated, have experienced violence or experiencing mental distress (including
depression following the birth of a baby).


In stark contrast to Edinburgh‟s cosmopolitan image, Pilton is a Social Inclusion Partnership area
with high levels of poverty and unemployment; research indicates that 40% of households in the
area are female lone parent households.         Poor levels of health associated with poverty are
discernible. Community based surveys have identified gaps in service provision in meeting the
needs of specific vulnerable groups particularly women who experience violence and women
experiencing depression following the birth of a baby.


WSW developed from the befriending service provided by Mums Supporting Mums (MSM). The
idea for a befriending service came from a group of local women in Pilton meeting to share their
experiences of being mothers. MSM statistics indicated that 70% of women supported by the
project had experienced violence. As the project has developed WSW has fed into community,
city wide and national forums to raise awareness of the issue of Violence Against Women and
how this impacts on women‟s health and women‟s ability to participate in social and economic
life.


Advances
The advent of the Scottish Parliament in 1999 has given local projects like Women Supporting
Women a direct opportunity to feed into policy and practice development. Representatives from
women‟s support organisations have been invited to give evidence at a number of parliamentary
committees, value is placed on obtaining „grassroots‟ perspectives and policy documents are
distributed for consultation regularly.      The Scottish Executive has shown a commitment to
eliminating Violence Against Women and the number of women MSP‟s has ensured that women‟s
issues are maintained in the political arena.


Difficulties
In order to impact on practice and policy development, women‟s support organisations find
themselves in the position of having to constantly juggle priorities between responding to


                                                                                                     50
consultation documents, multi agency working, campaigning, and direct service delivery. The big
question here is how do we do any of these effectively with limited resources and ad hoc
funding? Even though there is a national strategy and partnership to address domestic abuse
there appear to be difficulties in tackling rape and sexual abuse within this framework.      In
addition, if services are mainstreamed what impact does this have on the campaigning and
lobbying agenda?


Women’s experiences
Research indicates that there are considerable inconsistencies in the standard of support and
information that women receive from statutory and voluntary organisations.             Women‟s
experiences ought to be central to processes of practice development and policy change.
Scottish rape crisis centres state that the key issues are:


   Barriers to women reporting rape
          Know attacker
          Fear of not being believed
          Don‟t tell, didn‟t happen
          Fear of abuser
          Fear of consequences
          Fear of cross-examination
          Low conviction rate
          Court procedures


   Reasons for the lack of prosecutions in rape cases
          Lack of proper and appropriate legal representation
          Insufficient evidence in corroboration
          Lack of aggressive prosecution strategy
          Jury‟s reluctance to believe women
          Lack of support for witnesses
          Plea-bargaining
          Absence of specialist prosecutors
          Insufficient contact with complainer to obtain best evidence.
          Social attitudes
          Lack of evidential injuries, therefore probability of consent weighted against women
          Failure of prosecution to rebut defence tactic of exploiting prejudice in relation to
           women‟s „behaviour‟


                                                                                                   51
          Cases not going ahead that are seen as difficult evidentially e.g. woman knowing
           attacker.


   Gaps in services
          Crisis support, in particular 24hr helpline support, advocacy.
          Lack of specific training within the judiciary
          Services for young women, especially under 16 years
          Language and translation facilities
          Ethnic minority specialist support
          Refuge for children and young people
          Ongoing, face-to-face support
          No ring fenced funding


   Key achievements
          Legislative change and moves towards more change, e.g. Sex offenders Act, Limiting
           the use of women‟s sexual history, prevention of cross examination by offender
          Proposals to extend the definition of vulnerable witnesses
          The women‟s movement is still active
          Female judges


   Key barriers
          The legal system
          The criminal justice system; timescale, communication, keeping women informed,
           limits on bail (110 days no safeguards for women)
          Lack of national focus to the work
          Low conviction rates
          Lack of support for survivors: funding, resources and expertise
          Under 16‟s have no control of the process; often there are retractions. Under 16yrs
           are denied the right to confidentiality
          Lack of aggressive prosecution
          Insufficient guidelines on behaviour of defence lawyers and QC‟s
          Lack of national strategy to address rape and link with domestic abuse national
           strategy




                                                                                                 52
Key Developments in Legislation
A.      Sexual Offences (Procedures & Evidence) (Scotland) Act (formerly Sexual
        Offences (Procedures & Evidence) (Scotland) Bill)


         Prevents cross-examination of witness by the accused.
         Limits use of sexual history; although in principle this has been in place since the
         1980‟s, in reality a women‟s previous sexual history often used as part of the defence to
         discredit the witness. The proposed changes would make this more problematic as a
         defence tactic, in that previous convictions of the accused could be introduced as part of
         the prosecution.
         Consent as special defence; the defence will have an obligation to inform the Crown
         office of defence strategy if intending to use consent as special defence.
The Act is currently going through the parliamentary processes and is likely to be implemented
at the end of 2002.


B.      Criminal Justice Bill
The bill introduces a variety of changes to Scottish Criminal Law.          It aims to address the
following:
         The assessment and treatment of serious violent and sexual offenders.
         Victims (sic) rights and provisions for criminal checks for those working with children
         and vulnerable adults.
         Clarifying the law in relation to the punishment of children, introducing an absolute
         prohibition on physical punishment of children under the age of three.


C.      Lord Advocates Reference
The Lord Advocate‟s reference was in response to the ruling last year by Lord Abernethy in
Aberdeen that sex without a woman‟s consent is not rape unless the attacker uses force or threat
of force. The Lord Advocate‟s review highlighted a number of issues. The review clarified that
the common law definition of rape is based on consent, rather than overcoming a woman‟s will.
Scottish rape crisis centres are currently campaigning to introducing a new statutory definition of
consent, (a statutory definition would ensure „consent‟ is not subject to interpretation).


D.      Protection from Abuse Act
This was the first piece of legislation passed by the Scottish Parliament. The Scottish Executive
has placed a strong focus on the issue of Violence Against Women.                  However despite
recommendations from members of the Scottish Partnership on Domestic Violence to broaden


                                                                                                      53
the national framework to include rape and other forms of VAW, the partnership framework has
maintained a domestic abuse focus.


E.        Vulnerable Witnesses (Consultation stage)
Currently the Scottish executive is consulting on possible changes to court related procedures to
benefit vulnerable witnesses. If the definition of vulnerable witness were extended to include
women who have been raped, then a number of „special measures‟ would extend to the witness,
for example, giving video evidence, a support person close by whilst giving evidence and clearing
of the public gallery as part of the legislation rather than at the judges discretion as it currently
stands.




Rape Crisis Centres
Currently 7 active Rape Crisis Centres in the Scotland. The Scottish Rape Crisis Network has just
been successful in securing funding to set up a national office. This will fund 1.5 workers for
three years (£80k each year). The Women‟s Support Project in Glasgow has compiled a register
of services for Scotland on violence and abuse.           For further information on changes in
legislation and the Scottish Rape Crisis Network contact: Sandy Brindley, Rape Crisis Glasgow, PO
Box 53. Email; glasgowrcc@aol.com


Credits: Thank you to the following women for their assistance in the preparation of
this report:


Sandy Brindley, Jean Cuthbert, Lily Greenan, Shirley Henderson and Heather Williams.




                                                                                                        54
    SWEDEN


BEDA


Support centre BEDA is a Non Governmental Organisation and a member of ROKS, The National
Organisation for Battered Women Shelters in Sweden. The association is for women who have been
subjected to incest or other forms of sexual abuse. The activity is based on self-help, woman to woman.


Human vision
Support centre BEDA´s human vision is characterised by a resource oriented thinking, which means that
we look upon the woman as a survivor – a human being with exceptional inner resources to help her
find paths in life. She herself possesses the ability and power of her own development.


Aims
   To offer friendship and help to self-help through support groups
   To be a forum for conversations and studies about the issue of incest and other forms of sexual
    abuse
   To support the members own aims and active commitment to stop and prevent incest and other
    forms of sexual abuse
   To inform, enlighten and to make incest and other sexual abuse visible to the public
   To create opinion
   To inform the authorities and work groups, such as the police, the judicial system, schools and
    social services who come in contact with incest and other forms of sexual abuse
   To, together with other groups and associations, fight against incest and other forms of sexual
    abuse


Our Activities
Our base activities include support-groups, helpline and a shelter.


We are, in BEDA, searching for new ways to grow, express ourselves and communicate our knowledge
to others. We have the possibility to work with ourselves in different ways within the Centre.


Constructive and Creative Activities:
Picture studio
In the picture studio we meditate and after that we paint during silence. This activity has led to ”The




                                                                                                      55
Emancipating Power of the Picture” an exhibition of pictures concerning how as an adult processing
sexual abuse in the childhood.


Homesickness
A documentary by and about seven women and their memories, images and ways of dealing with sexual
molestation in their childhood. The perpetrator is sometimes the mother or the father, sometimes a
sibling, close relative, friends or stranger. The women speak in a personal way about their experiences
and their consequences.


Here I Live
An anthology about incest, ritual and other kinds sexual abuse in the childhood. Twenty-eight women
are telling their story through poetry and prose about vulnerability, the myths and the struggle to
become whole again.
We gone have a program about, and with, this anthology at the exhibition of books this autumn.


We have also worked with Drama, Dance, Healing-ceremonies and Rosenterapi.




Education Programme:
1. Break the Silence!
This is a preventative school-programme about sexual abuse. The programme is addressed to you who
are working with children. It is build on our own experiences of what we ourselves would have needed
in the childhood.


2. Safe (secure) to meet sexual abuse
This is an education programme for professionals addressed to professionals and teachers/trainers
within the areas of nursing, caring, schooling or the legal system. We want to strengthen a supportive
environment at the workplace in order to communicate about sexual abuse, increase the security and
safety to be able to address sexual abuse and improve possibilities to detect and to
support people being abused.


Emerging from the education-programme for professionals we arranged a Crime-victim day on the
22nd of February 2002. We organised a full day of lectures, women‟s own stories, as well as showing the
exhibition of pictures. It was the first time, in the context of the Nordic countries, that crime-victims
themselves arranged a day and told about experiences from the perspective of the abused.




                                                                                                        56
The Situation in Sweden:


   The Sex-crime Commission
Last year a new report on sex-crime from a legal perspective was published. The baseline of the new
suggestion is to strengthen the sexual right of self-determination and the sexual integrity. It has
currently led to a proposition on new penalty guidelines in terms of human trading. The law will take
effect from 1st of July 2002.


   Beaten Lady
The first large investigation about men‟s violence against women in Sweden was published in May 2001.
The research was commissioned by the government and conducted by Eva Lundgren, professor of
Sociology and by Gun Heimer, director of the National Women Centre in Uppsala.


Some facts in summery:
         Almost half of the women, 46%, have been exposed to violence by a man at some point after
          the age of 15.
         More than half the women, 56%, have been sexually harassed.
         Violence and/or sexual harassment are something nearly 7 of 10 Swedish women, 67% have
          experienced.


   New directives from the government
The last months the government have give different authorities directions to work for girls who live in
strong patriarchal families. For example to create houses where they can stay for a while, and get help
in different ways.


The Support centre BEDA has as a non-governmental organisation raised the issue of sexual abuse at
the national level. We are publicly open about that we ourselves have been abused, and view this as
increasing the competence and make sexual abuse visible, the victim gets a face and our own power
working with prevention and creating public awareness becomes emancipated.


______________________________________________________
Här börjar Internet! Skaffa gratis e-mail och gratis Internet på




                                                                                                      57
                                                                                            TURKEY


kadin2000 Kadinin Insan Haklari Bilgi Belge Merkezi
(Women2000 Women’s Human Rights Information & Documentation Centre)


Type of Organisation:
Documentation centre / information service / publisher / research centre / resource centre /
women‟s centre / media watch / training on women‟s human rights


Kadin2000 acknowledges the importance of training and sharing information for women‟s
empowerment.


   Training aims to:
Raise in the community, awareness on women‟s human rights and encourage women to assume
an active role in political and public issues both on national and local levels. To participate in the
decision-making processes in central and local governments urge local and central governments
and political parties. Take measures that will offer equal opportunities to women and young girls
in education, health, employment, decision-making processes and, prevent violence against
women.


In accordance with the above stated aims training programs includes courses on women‟s human
rights; conferences open to men and women alike, complementary to the training programs
which focus on gender equality and women‟s human rights. Workshops devoted to discussions
on specific subjects by experts and/or participant NGO members and activists.


   Information
Kadin 2000 recognizes women‟s right to access information and the growth of a well-informed
women‟s rights community.        The center aims to provide, share, record and disseminate
information on women/women‟s human rights through the provision of:


            provides books, documents and information to all NGO‟s and/or individuals especially
             those which have limited or no access to information,
            encourages participation in order to share and to enlarge available resources,
            monitors the media to record women‟s human rights violations,
            produces documents to disseminate information,




                                                                                                         58
                   provides contact information (i) to bodies /networks responsible for monitoring on
                    the local, national and international levels to ensure and advance women‟s human
                    rights (ii) to exchange/share information/experience on common issues.


Services provided, include compiling bibliographies, collecting books, articles, periodicals, press
cuttings on feminism, labor, violence, economy, political participation, law and keeping
databases/databanks of addresses / catalogues / curricula (including courses, training programs)/
current research / experts / persons / projects / statistics. Publications include the:
               a.    bibliography (kaynak-ça2000, yearly); and
               b.     notebook, monthly.




   Activities
Advocacy / consultancy / exhibitions / lectures / projects / publishing / research / symposia /
training


1. Recent legal developments
A growing intensification of women‟s movement since 1980s challenged strongly the
discriminatory-patriarchal values in the society. Women‟s NGO‟s are established to struggle
against all kinds of violence, especially domestic violence and to raise awareness in the public on
women‟s issues. As a result of successful campaigning, lobbying and advocacy there have been
remarkable achievements in the legal system:


1. The Law on the Protection for the Family (1998) gives the judiciary the right to sentence the
    husband responsible for domestic violence to keep away from the house that his wife and
    children live for a maximum period of six months upon a plea to the court of first instance at
    the latest in 24 hours. The important thing is that the victim is not obliged to give a proof
    (e.g. a medical report) for the act of violence against her. (Yet most women exposed to
    domestic violence do not use their rights mainly due to legal illiteracy and lack of economic
    and social security.)
2. If a prostitute were raped the Article 438 of the Criminal Law provided for a reduction of one
    third in the period of imprisonment of the perpetrator. This article is annulled to eliminate
    discrimination (1990).
3. Amendment to the Article 10 of the Constitution states that men and women are equal
    (2001).




                                                                                                         59
4. The new Civil Code provides equal provisions especially in relation to property, marriage and
     family rights (2001).


2.     Rape
Prevailing male-dominant values are reproduced as they manifest themselves in the public and
private domain. The public keeps quiet and condemns in public conscience women as offenders.
The police, judiciary and the public disgrace the victim and ignore the physical and psychological
harm. Hence, victims rarely report to the police or go to the court. The media (both visual and
printed) agitate the public as they expose each individual case of rape dramatically to expand
their audience often portraying a negative image of the woman victim.


2.1 . The Legal System


     The Turkish Criminal Law does not recognize rape as a form of violence against woman‟s
     body and her honor but as a criminal act against the order of the society and honor of the
     family and the husband. The court requires proof of threat, violence and use of force by the
     perpetrator.
     If the woman victim cannot prove that the perpetrator had threatened and forced her by
     using violence than the husband has the right to ask for a divorce because he has been
     dishonored.
     If the victim is a girl child the perpetrator is sentenced for a longer period of imprisonment.
     According to the traditional values a girl must be a virgin at the time of marriage; that's why
     virginity -girlhood before copulation- is a matter of honor for families and the girl. If the
     victim is a virgin the period of imprisonment is increased; however, if the perpetrator marries
     the victim the punishment is put off; i.e. the perpetrator is pardoned but the victim is
     punished because she has to accept the marriage in order to save the perpetrator and honor
     of her family.
     A distinction is made regarding to abduction of a single and married woman. Penalty for the
     abduction of a married woman is increased because it is a crime against the honor of the
     family and the husband. However, penalty is reduced if abduction is committed with the
     intention of marriage.
     There are no specific provisions for rape in marriage.       According to the religion and the
     tradition marriage is “blessed” by God. In fact it is considered as a “social institution” which
     gives the right to the husband to possess a woman for “reproduction”.




                                                                                                        60
2.2 Statistics
Statistics relevant to rape are not available. Most cases are not even reported to the police.
Only some limited statistics on cases subject to legal procedures are available. However, these
statistics include cases of rape, “seduction of children” and “assault on chastity”. There is a
growing tendency to conduct research on violence against women, but efforts are concentrated
on domestic violence; there are no studies on rape yet.


2.3 Support Services/Activities
There are no special crisis centers for victims of rape. Shelters established by autonomous NGO‟s
(i.e. Purple Roof unfortunately closed since 1999) or public agencies that serve to the victims of
domestic violence also give support to woman and young girl victims of rape and incest. Recently
in 2002, a Children‟s Home has been established by the Governor of Istanbul that give service
only to girls under the age of 18 who have become victims of sexual harassment on the streets.
Girls are allowed to stay for two months and psychological help is provided.


Feminist activists and women‟s groups are intensifying the struggle for the legal rights of victims
of rape. They very successfully organize themselves for campaigning and advocacy. The cases
below illustrate some main issues as regards to (i) rape and family honor, (ii) rape in custody
and, (iii) rape and the media. Two of the cases are noteworthy for solidarity among women.


Case 1 and 2 / These cases are selected from newspaper clippings because the public and the
media are prejudiced; all women from the ex-Soviet Union countries are regarded as prostitutes
whether they earn their living as such or not. “Natasha” is the word that is being used as an
identification of humiliation. The two cases below demonstrate the common public opinion -
where unfortunately the perpetrators are policemen- and the family attitude concerning honor.


Natalia Öztürk came from Russia and married a Turkish man. Natalia was working as a model.
The husband was exporting furniture to Russia. It was an interim marriage because she needed
residency permit to live and work in Turkey and the husband needed a second passport for
business matters. In Istanbul, she walked up to the two policemen in the car to ask about an
address. The policemen offered to take her there by car but she was driven to an isolated place.
She told the policeman that she was not a prostitute but a married woman.              One of the
policemen raped her in the car while the other one just warned his colleague but did not stop
him. The two policemen were arrested immediately. The husband divorced Natalia because he
said that he himself and his family were dishonored. Natalia returned to Russia.




                                                                                                      61
Leyla Bozaci married a Turkish electrician in Romania. Then the family settled in Istanbul and
had three children. She changed her religion and nationality and has been living in Turkey since
1989. In August 2001 three men stopped her and her friend: two of them were policemen and
the other owned a bar. Leyla was asked to show her identity card. She told them that she had
forgotten it at home, that she was married and had children. The policemen sent her friend
away, took Leyla to a hotel room, and raped her. Leyla‟s friend traced them then called the
police.   The police humiliated Leyla.    However, the public prosecutor -who was a woman-
examined Leyla and sent her immediately to the hospital and that alarmed the perpetrators. The
medical reports provided evidence for use of force and violence. Her husband‟s family pushes for
a divorce and even for murdering her to save the family honor, as it is the tradition in
conservative families from the east and southeast.        However, the husband resists to those
pressures from the family. She has lost her job and they are in need of money. Leyla, her
husband and the children are under great stress. The perpetrator policemen are expelled from
the police service.


In Leyla‟s case the public prosecutor as a woman played an important role. This is one of the
cases where the feminists act in solidarity: feminist lawyers represent and defend her rights at
the court; feminist activists communicate through the e-mail groups to organise groups to follow
up hearings in order to show the perpetrators and the court that she is not alone and to give her
morale.


Case 3 Rape in custody is a very serious violation of human rights issue in Turkey. We learn
from medical reports that a policeman‟s club is being pushed into the anus of women. It is a
form of a physical and psychological vulgarity. It is also a very critical issue because perpetrators
are civil servants so that usually it is very hard to bring any evidence against them, the judiciary
is often biased and due to the prolonged legal procedures the victim‟s claim become
unenforceable in a fixed time.


Eren Keskin as a woman with Kurdish origin, a lawyer, a campaigner for human rights, and
chairperson of Istanbul Branch of the Human Rights Association advocates for rape in custody.
On March 16, 2002 at a meeting in Cologne she presented the report on rape in custody
prepared by the Project for Legal Support for Rape and Sexual Harassment in Custody. A woman
professor, Necla Arat who was also invited to make a speech protested Eren Keskin arguing that
she accused the army. This heated discussion was reported in the Turkish newspapers in April
2002. Fatih Altayli is a columnist and TV and radio programmer in the same media group. He is


                                                                                                        62
an inconsistent person. For example, in 1999 in a program he supported the nurse that had
been raped.    Fatih Altayli dangerously provokes nationalism.     This is why in one of his TV
programs in April 2002 he said that he would rape Eren Keskin because she insulted the army.
In the days following this program feminists and women‟s NGO‟s effectively communicated
through e-groups and organized a protest against Fafih Altayli. First they had to get the cassette
of the TV program, which was costly and took 15 days. Then it was deciphered. The next step
was to prepare a public statement. 46 women‟s NGO‟s and 147 women individually signed this
statement and distributed it to the newspapers. Unfortunately, the press was unenthusiastic to
print it because Fatih Altayli is a member of one of the two giants of the Turkish media.
However, as a result of feminist efforts the students protested Fatih Altayli heartily when he was
going to give a conference on ethics in the media so that he had to leave the conference hall.
The Association of Journalists has also started an investigation about Fatih Altayli in view of
ethics in the media upon a petition signed by women‟s NGO‟s.




kadin2000: to inform, to empower
Address: Arjantin cad. 22/10, Kavaklidere, 06700 Ankara, Türkiye
Phone: +90 312 467 13 37
Fax: + 90 312 468 18 33
e-mail: info@kadin2000.gen.tr
web-site: www.kadin2000.gen.tr
Contact person: Füsun Tayanç
Business hours: 10:30AM-17:00PM, Monday-Friday
Organization profile: Women’s Initiative
Year of foundation: November1999




                                                                                                     63
                            Appendix I: Guidelines for Case Studies


Aim
To produce a case study report form various countries identifying models of best practice in
service delivery of rape crisis.


   Background
       Country
        Do organisation operate on a voluntary basis or both
        Are there a regional/geographic differences in service delivery


       Organisation
        Outline who they are:
        Is there core funding
        Service provision
        Staff – vol/paid
        How long in existence
        Client group
        What are the threats/challenges/tensions/constraints for them


   Specific Actions and Methodologies
       what works well & why
        Which of the services you provide are most effective for their clients and why
        Which of the services is least effective for clients and why


   Lessons for Mainstreaming
    What would you need to provide the level of service that your clients need – be specific


   Bibliography


It is important to include the contact name of the person responsible for writing the case study.




                                                                                                    64
                                   Appendix II: Website Specification




Introduction


URL: http://www.rcne.com


The primary function of the rcne.com website is to provide a central information resource, for
survivors of rape and sexual assault across Europe, through incorporating lists of rape crisis
facilities and their individual contact details as well as providing access to other valuable
information such as publications, and internet links.


The website will initially be deployed in the English language but will have multilingual
capabilities.


The website must be well-designed and incorporate features enabling accessibility for visually
and hearing impaired persons.


The website will be connected/registered with all the relevant search engines such as Yahoo,
AltaVista, Ask Jeeves, etc.


The following categories of information will be catered for:


                   Rape Crisis Centres
                   Other useful contacts
                   News
                   Reports/Statistics
                   Publications
                   Web Links
                   Campaigns
                   Myths
                   International Links
                   What men can do




                                                                                                 65
The data contained in each of the above sections will be maintainable by the website
administrator through the use of an easy to use data entry module similar to the KeepTrack
application currently in use by the Network in Ireland to store statistical information.



                                             Home




Rape Crisis       Other useful    News             Reports          Publications     Web
Centres           contacts                         Statistics                        Links




……..




ADD
On the home page a general overview of what the site is about
Page on the myths
Page for campaigns
Page for International links
Page on „what men can do‟




Home page
Make it very simple and easy to access services in other countries ie drop down name of country
as well as map.




                                                                                                  66
The categories listed above will now be described in detail:


Rape Crisis Networks/Centres
It is expected that each Rape Crisis Network/Centre throughout Europe will submit their link
details for presentation in this section.


An online form will allow centres not currently listed on the site to submit their details for
approval for addition by the Webmaster.


When the user selects to enter this section, they will be presented with a number of options with
respect of searching for an appropriate Rape Crisis Centre.


Other useful contacts
This section will provide the website users access to other contacts, which may be useful, such as
support groups, local free legal aid, etc.


Basic information such as the telephone numbers, email address, location, counselling hours, and
website address if relevant will be held for each entry.


An online form will allow organisations not currently listed on the site to submit their details for
approval for addition by the Webmaster.


When the user selects to enter this section, they will be presented with a number of options with
respect of searching for useful local contacts.


The first option will be to search by clicking the country they are in, and then clicking the nearest
town to them, they will then be presented with the appropriate listings.


The second option will be in the form of a drop down list of Countries/Cities/Towns e.g.:

         Germany                            Ireland                        Wales
                                             Athlone                          Aberyswth
           Munich
                                             Dundalk                          Cardiff
           Frankfurt
                                             Galway                              …




                                                                                                        67
News
This section will provide for multiple news items to be presented. When the user enters the
section they will be presented with a menu of news items to choose from. A headline along with
a brief description and the date of the news item will be presented, and when the user selects a
news item they will be presented with page showing the complete text of the news item, a
facility to display pictures will also be available.


News items will be administered by the web administrator, and through an easy to use
maintenance program, and they will be responsible for keeping the content up-to-date.


Reports/Statistics
When the user selects this section they will be presented with menu of items they can chose
from, in the form of Title – Description. When a report is chosen the user will be presented with a
page showing the full content of the report.


Each report will have the following information:


Title
Description
Detail
Pictures/Charts


As with the sections described on previous pages this content of this section will also be
maintained by the web-administrator.


Publications
This section will allow the user to access information about publications related to the various
aspects of Rape Crisis, Counselling, etc. As with the sections described on the previous pages a
menu page will be presented to the user first. The title, author, and a brief description and a
picture of each publication will be presented.


When the user selects an item on the menu they will be presented with a page showing the full
description of the publication along with pictures if available. The user will also be able to order
the publication online. Orders will be encrypted using Celtic Technology developed order
processing modules and processed by the web-administrator.




                                                                                                       68
Web Links
This section will provide a menu of web links in grouped in their appropriate categories. A brief
description of the website along with the website address and link will be displayed for each link.


There will also be an option to add a link; this will bring the user to a form allowing the entry of
the details above. The details will be submitted to the web-administrator for their approval for
addition.


As with all other sections this section will have a maintenance module to enable the easy
addition/removal of links by the administrator.




                                                                                                       69
                        Appendix III: Greece Seminar Evaluation Sheet


                    TARGETS                           Were              Your                  Please
                                                      targets           Organisation          tick
                                                      met
                                                      Yes       No
                                                      18                Rape Crisis Centre    5
Clarification of Project
                                                      16        1       Rape Crisis Network   4
Country Reports
                                                                        Rape & DV Centre      4
Clarification on Case Study Report
                                                      15        1       Rape & DV Network
Website & Logo
                                                      15                Com. Health Project   1
Clarification on attrition research & briefing                          Other                 1
papers                                                                  University            1
                                                                        Information Centre    1
Workshops                            Targets met           Workshops                  Targets Met
European Networks                    Yes         No        Website                    Yes         No
Participation & discussion           18                    Participation &            18
                                                           discussion
Clarity of objectives                17          1         Clarity of Objectives      18




Accommodation & Travel
                                                                                     Yes      No
Accommodation and venue                                                              18


Travel                                                                               16       1




                                                                                                       70
WHAT WORKED WELL


Lots of small groups Women‟s participation socialising
Lots of space on the agenda sub groups being run after an input and clarification
Well organised
A great amount of information on experiences from different countries decisions we had on the
targets before starting the seminar small groups overall size of group
Time together in a relaxed space
Time for small group discussion
Purple ribbons
Small groups
PowerPoint clarifications
Accommodation organised well
People worked well together
Sharing ideas on issues
Kept to the time table
All women worked and were very disciplined & there was enough time for joking
Workshop discussions were good
Everyone who gave inputs was very clear




                                   WHAT DIDN’T WORK WELL
Long break on the Saturday
People attending who could speak no English
Language for none English speakers
Confusion on the last session, concerns that not everyone understood language being used
Could not keep up with everything being said – problem understanding some participants
Some confusion at end at what was needed luggage getting lost
Language
Coming from an NGO with on /off funding the Hotel was too luxurious – could the money have
been better used.
Long wait in Athens
The last workshop and session on the case studies – people are still unclear




                                                                                                71
                                   LESSONS FOR THE FUTURE
Clear on peoples language capacity
Issue based discussions more time for discussions
Remember the cultural differences
Those more fluent in English help those that are not
Keep up the good job!
Translation even if people say they want to work in English
More participation from other countries
Closing exercise
More time
A more democratic table – half of the groups was not visible which was very detrimental at times
for group discussion
Longer pause in middle of day and work through until 8pm
To take time to make sure that everyone agrees on aims and objectives
Keep going we need more of these kinds of spaces
Translation in Italian or French




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