Achievement Gaps How Black and White Students in Public Schools by xiuliliaofz

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									Achievement Gaps
How Black and White Students in Public Schools
Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the
National Assessment of Educational Progress
Statistical Analysis Report




NCES 2009-455                     U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
                               Achievement Gaps

U.S. Department of Education   How Black and White Students
NCES 2009-455
                               in Public Schools Perform in
                               Mathematics and Reading on
                               the National Assessment of
                               Educational Progress
                               Statistical Analysis Report


                               July 2009




                               Alan Vanneman
                               Linda Hamilton
                               Janet Baldwin Anderson
                               NAEP Education Statistics Services Institute


                               Taslima Rahman
                               National Center for Education Statistics
U.S. Department of Education
Arne Duncan
Secretary
Institute of Education Sciences
John Q. Easton
Director
National Center for Education Statistics
Stuart Kerachsky
Acting Commissioner
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Suggested Citation
Vanneman, A., Hamilton, L., Baldwin Anderson, J., and Rahman, T. (2009). Achievement Gaps: How Black and White Students in
Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress, (NCES 2009-455). National
Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.
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Content Contact
Taslima Rahman
(202) 502-7316
taslima.rahman@ed.gov



 The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), a congressionally mandated project of the U.S. Department of Education, informs the
 public periodically about the academic achievement of elementary and secondary students in reading, mathematics, science, writing and other
 subjects. Only information related to academic achievement and relevant variables is collected under this program from students representing
 the country. By making objective information available on performance of all race/ethnic groups at the national and state levels, NAEP is an
 integral part of our nation’s evaluation of the condition and progress of education. While the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
 within the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education conducts the survey, the National Assessment Governing
 Board oversees and sets policies for NAEP.
Executive Summary
In 2007, mathematics scores for both Black and White             assesses public schools in its state assessments, this report
public school students in grades 4 and 8 nationwide, as          contains only public school results. The most recent results
measured by the main NAEP assessments of the National            in this report are for 2007.
Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), were higher
                                                                 NAEP long-term trend assessments are administered by
than in any previous assessment, going back to 1990. This
                                                                 age rather than grade. This report references long-term
was also true for Black and White fourth-graders on the
                                                                 trend assessment public school results from the earliest
NAEP 2007 Reading Assessment. For grade 8, reading
                                                                 assessment through 2004, with results for ages 9 and 13
scores for both Black and White students were higher in
                                                                 instead of grades 4 and 8. The long-term trend assessments
2007 than in the first reading assessment year, 1992, as well
                                                                 provide public school results for mathematics going back to
as the most recent previous assessment year, 2005.
                                                                 1978 and for reading going back to 1980, at ages 9, 13, and
White students, however, had higher scores than Black stu­       17, at the national level only, on a 0-500 point scale.
dents, on average, on all assessments. While the nationwide
                                                                 At both ages 9 and 13, mathematics scores for both Black
gaps in 2007 were narrower than in previous assessments at
                                                                 and White students were higher in 2004 than in any previ­
both grades 4 and 8 in mathematics and at grade 4 in read­
                                                                 ous assessment. The 23-point Black-White achievement
ing, White students had average scores at least 26 points
                                                                 gap in mathematics for age 9 public school students in
higher than Black students in each subject, on a 0-500 scale.
                                                                 2004 was narrower than in the first assessment in 1978 but
This report will use results from both the main NAEP and
                                                                 not significantly different from the gap in the most recent
the long-term trend NAEP assessments to examine the
                                                                 previous assessment in 1999. The same was true for the 26­
Black-White achievement gaps, and changes in those gaps,
                                                                 point gap at age 13.
at the national and state level.
                                                                 For age 9 reading, scores for both Black and White students
The main NAEP 2007 Reading and Mathematics
                                                                 were higher in 2004 than in any previous assessment, going
Assessments included grade 4 and grade 8 students both
                                                                 back to 1980. The 26-point gap between Black and White
nationally and for all 50 states, as well as the Department of
                                                                 students in 2004 was not significantly different from the
Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) and the District of
                                                                 gap in 1980, but was narrower than the gap in 1999. At age
Columbia (hereinafter referred to as states). Not all states
                                                                 13 reading, scores were higher for Black students in 2004
had Black (or White) student populations large enough to
                                                                 than in 1980, but did not show a significant difference from
provide reliable data, and not all states participated in the
                                                                 1999. Scores for White students were not significantly dif­
earliest NAEP state assessments.
                                                                 ferent for either comparison year. The 21-point gap in stu­
Most of the data in this report comes from the main NAEP         dent performance at age 13 reading in 2004 was narrower
assessments, supplemented with some data from the NAEP           than in both 1980 and 1999.
long-term trend assessments. Main NAEP assessments,
                                                                 The following two sections summarize state-level achieve­
which began in 1990 for mathematics and 1992 for read­
                                                                 ment gaps between Black and White students in the main
ing, are administered at the fourth and eighth grades, both
                                                                 NAEP assessments in mathematics and reading.
nationally and at the state level. Because main NAEP only


                                                                                                                                 iii
                                                                      ■	 At grade 4, eight states had reading gaps that were larger
     State Black-White Achievement                                       than the 2007 national gap of 27 points, while nine had
     Gaps—Mathematics                                                    gaps that were smaller.
     ■ 	At the state level, gaps in grade 4 mathematics existed in    ■	 At grade 8, one state had a reading gap that was larger
       2007 in the 46 states for which results were available. In        than the 2007 national gap of 26 points, while nine had
       15 states, the 2007 gaps were narrower than in 1992, as           gaps that were smaller.
       Black students demonstrated a greater gain in average
                                                                      The NAEP reading and mathematics scales make it possi­
       scores than that of the White students.
                                                                      ble to examine relationships between students’ performance
     ■ 	At grade 8, mathematics gaps existed in 2007 in the 41        and various background factors measured by NAEP, such
       states for which results were available. The gaps were         as race. However, a relationship that exists between achieve­
       narrower in 2007 than in 1990 in four states: Arkansas,        ment and another variable does not reveal its underlying
       Colorado, Oklahoma, and Texas. In all four, scores for         cause, which may be influenced by a number of other vari­
       both Black and White students increased, but scores for        ables. Similarly, the assessments do not reflect the influence
       Black students increased more.                                 of unmeasured variables. At the state level, changes in the
                                                                      size of the achievement gap between Black and White stu­
     ■ 	At grade 4, five states had mathematics gaps in 2007 that
                                                                      dents could be affected by demographic changes in the size
       were larger than the national gap of 26 points, while 10
                                                                      and makeup of the populations involved, as well as policy
       states had gaps that were smaller.
                                                                      changes in the schools and communities. The results of this
     ■ 	Atgrade 8, seven states had mathematics gaps in 2007          study are most useful when they are considered in combi­
       that were larger than the national gap of 31 points, while     nation with other knowledge about the student population
       12 had gaps that were smaller.                                 and the education system, such as trends in instruction,
                                                                      changes in the school-age population, and societal demands
     State Black-White Achievement                                    and expectations.

     Gaps—Reading                                                     This report focuses on the size of the achievement gap
                                                                      between Black and White students and the direction of aver­
     ■	 At the state level, gaps in grade 4 reading existed in 2007   age scores within states, regardless of the states’ scores. Large
       in the 44 states for which results were available. Gaps        gaps may occur in some states with scores above the national
       narrowed from 1992 to 2007 in Delaware, Florida, and           average, as well as in states with scores below the national
       New Jersey, due to larger increases in Black students’         average. Similarly, small gaps may occur in states with scores
       scores.                                                        above or below the national average. All differences discussed
     ■	 At grade 8, reading gaps existed in 2007 in 41 of the 42      in this report are statistically significant at the .05 level after
       states for which results were available. In Hawaii, the        controlling for multiple comparisons. The technical notes for
       7-point difference between Black and White students’           this report provide information about sampling, accommo­
       scores in 2007 was not statistically significant, and thus     dations, interpreting statistical significance, and other techni­
       there was no gap for Hawaii. There was no significant          cal features. For more information on both the main NAEP
       change in the gap in any state from 1998 to 2007.              and long-term trend assessments, see appendix A.
iv
Contents
Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii 

List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

      Sources of the Main NAEP data . . . . . . . . .            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .2

      Sources of the Long-Term Trend NAEP data                   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .3

      Understanding score gaps . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .4

      Understanding statistical significance. . . . .            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .4

      Cautions in interpreting the data . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .5

      How this report is organized . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .5

MATHEMATICS

Long-Term Trend Results for Black and White 9- and 13-Year-Olds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

      Trends in mathematics scores and achievement gaps, 1978–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

Main NAEP National Results for Black and White Fourth- and Eighth-Graders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

      Trends in mathematics scores and achievement gaps, 1990–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

      Mathematics scores and achievement gaps by gender, 1990–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

      Mathematics scores and achievement gaps by family income, 2003–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

Main NAEP State Results for Black and White Fourth- and Eighth-Graders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

      State and national mathematics achievement gaps at grade 4, 2007 . .                                                                       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .13

      Trends in state mathematics achievement gaps at grade 4, 1992–2007                                                                         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .14

      State and national mathematics achievement gaps at grade 8, 2007 . .                                                                       .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .21

      Trends in state mathematics achievement gaps at grade 8, 1990–2007                                                                         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .22

READING

Long-Term Trend Results for Black and White 9- and 13-Year-Olds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

      Trends in reading scores and achievement gaps, 1980–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

Main NAEP National Results for Black and White Fourth- and Eighth-Graders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

      Trends in reading scores and achievement gaps, 1992–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

      Reading scores and achievement gaps by gender, 1992–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30

      Reading scores and achievement gaps by family income, 2003–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32

Main NAEP State Results for Black and White Fourth- and Eighth-Graders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

      State and national reading achievement gaps at grade 4, 2007 . . .                                                             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .35

      Trends in state reading achievement gaps at grade 4, 1992–2007 .                                                               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .36

      State and national reading achievement gaps at grade 8, 2007 . . .                                                             .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .43

      Trends in state reading achievement gaps at grade 8, 1998–2007 .                                                               .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .44

Appendix A: Technical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

      Frameworks, development, administration, scoring, and analysis.                                                        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .50
      v
      Sources of the data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .50

      NAEP sampling procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .50

      Understanding NAEP reporting groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .55

      Race/ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                 .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .55

      Eligibility for free/reduced-price school lunch . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                            .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .56

           Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .56

           Inclusion and exclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .56

           Accommodations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .60

           Drawing inferences from the results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .60

           Weighting and variance estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .              .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .61

           Analyzing group differences in averages and percentages .                        .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .61

           Conducting multiple tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .63

           Cautions in interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .   .63

     Appendix B: Supplemental Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

     Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66





vi
List of Tables
Table 	                                                                                                                                                Page
1. 	      Percentage of public school students assessed in NAEP mathematics by eligibility for free or reduced-price 

          school lunch, race/ethnicity and grade: 2003, 2005, and 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10

2. 	      Percentage of public school students assessed in NAEP reading by eligibility for free or reduced-price 

          school lunch, race/ethnicity and grade: 2003, 2005, and 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32

A-1. 	 School and student participation rates, and target student population, Long-Term Trend Reading 

       assessment, public school students only, by age: 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51

A-2. 	 School and student participation rates, and target student population, grade 8 reading assessment, public 

       school students only, by state or jurisdiction: 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54

A-3. 	 National Long-Term Trend mathematics and reading exclusion rates as percentages of the total sample, 

       by age, type of assessment and race/ethnicity: 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

A-4. 	 National mathematics and reading exclusion rates as percentages of the total sample, public schools only, 

       by grade and race/ethnicity: 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58

A-5. 	 Mathematics and reading exclusion rates as percentages of the total sample, public schools only, by grade, 

       race/ethnicity and jurisdiction: 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59

B-1. 	 Administration of NAEP national and state mathematics assessments, by grade: Various years, 

       1990–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64

B-2. 	 Average mathematics scale scores for all public school students at grades 4 and 8, by gender and 

       eligibility for the National School Lunch Program: Various years, 1990–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64

                                                                                                                 6
B-3. 	 Administration of NAEP national and state reading assessments, by grade: Various years, 1992–2007 . . . . . 5

B-4. 	 Average reading scale scores for all public school students at grades 4 and 8, by gender and eligibility 

       for the National School Lunch Program: Various years, 1992–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65





                                                                                                                                                                  vii
       List of Figures
       Figure 	                                                                                                                                                Page
       1. 	 Trends in average mathematics scale scores and score gaps for White students and Black students at age 9: 

            Various years, 1978–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

       2. 	 Trends in average mathematics scale scores and score gaps for White students and Black students at age 13: 

            Various years, 1978–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

       3. 	 Mathematics achievement score gaps between Black and White public school students at grade 4: Various 

            years, 1990–2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

       4. 	 Mathematics achievement score gaps between Black and White public school students at grade 8: Various 

            years, 1990–2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

       5. 	 Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at grade 4, by gender: 

            Various years, 1990–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

       6. 	 Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at grade 8, by gender: 

            Various years, 1990–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

       7. 	 Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at grade 4, by eligibility 

            for free or reduced-price school lunch: 2003, 2005, and 2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

       8. 	 Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at grade 8, by eligibility 

            for free or reduced-price school lunch: 2003, 2005, and 2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

       9. 	 The Black-White achievement score gap in mathematics for public school students at grade 4, by state or 

            jurisdiction: 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

       10. Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at grade 4, by state: 

           Various years, 1992–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

       11. The Black-White achievement score gap in mathematics for public school students at grade 8, by state or 

           jurisdiction: 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

       12. Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at grade 8, by state: 

           Various years, 1990–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

       13. Trends in average reading scale scores and score gaps for White students and Black students at age 9: 

           Various years, 1980–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

       14. Trends in average reading scale scores and score gaps for White students and Black students at age 13: 

           Various years, 1980–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28

       15. Reading achievement score gaps between Black and White public school students at grade 4: Various years, 

           1992–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

       16. Reading achievement score gaps between Black and White public school students at grade 8: Various years, 

           1992–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

       17. Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade 4, by gender: 

viii       Various years, 1992–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

       18. Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade 8, by gender: 

           Various years, 1992–2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

       19. Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade 4, by eligibility for 

           free or reduced-price school lunch: 2003, 2005, and 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33

Figure                                                                                                                                                 Page
20. Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade 8, by eligibility for 

    free or reduced-price school lunch: 2003, 2005, and 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33

21. The Black-White achievement score gap in reading for public school students at grade 4, by state or 

    jurisdiction: 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

22. Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade 4, by state: Various 

    years, 1992–2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37

23. The Black-White achievement score gap in reading for public school students at grade 8, by state or 

    jurisdiction: 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43

24. Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade 8, by state: Various 

    years, 1998–2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45





                                                                                                                                                                  ix
x
Introduction
The past half century has witnessed considerable gains in                         Issues relating to the Black-White achievement gap have
educational attainment in the United States. Between 1950                         been addressed by a number of recent studies. Status and
and 2005, the percentage of young adults ages 25-29 who                           Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities,5
had completed high school rose from 53 to 86. For White                           issued by the National Center for Education Statistics
young adults, the percentage increased from 56 to 93, and                         (NCES), for example, examined the education of all major
for Black young adults it increased from 24 to 86.1                               racial and ethnic groups in the United States from pre­
                                                                                  kindergarten through the postsecondary level, along with
There have also been gains in educational achievement.
                                                                                  employment and income data for these groups. The report
National and state mathematics scores in grades 4 and 8 on
                                                                                  identified a variety of factors which are correlated with
the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
                                                                                  the achievement gap between Black and White students.
were at their highest levels in 2007.2 Reading scores for
                                                                                  For example, Black students were more likely than White
the nation and a substantial number of states have also
                                                                                  students to come from families living in poverty, which is
increased since the early 1990s.3
                                                                                  associated with lower educational performance.
Although scores have increased for both Black students
                                                                                  Other reports have used NAEP data in analyses attempt­
and White students, on average Black students do not per­
                                                                                  ing to isolate important factors related to the Black-White
form as well as their White peers. At the national level, the
                                                                                  achievement gap. For example, The Family: America’s
fourth-grade Black-White achievement gap in mathematics
                                                                                  Smallest School,6 issued by the Educational Testing Service,
for 2007 was narrower than in 1990, while the fourth-grade
                                                                                  correlates student achievement, as measured by NAEP,
reading gap was narrower than in either 1992 or 2005. At the
                                                                                  with four home factors: the presence of two parents in the
eighth grade, the gap in mathematics was narrower in 2007
                                                                                  home, the hours children spend watching television, the
than in 2005, while the reading gap did not change signifi­
                                                                                  hours parents spend reading to them, and the frequency of
cantly compared to either prior assessment year.
                                                                                  absence from school. Compared to White students, Black
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act4 when first                            children were less likely to come from a family with both
authorized intended to improve the educational achieve­                           parents in the home, spent more hours watching television,
ment of low-performing students, particularly low-income                          were read to by their parents for fewer hours, and were
students and Black students. Subsequent reauthorizations                          more likely to be absent from school.
of the act have reaffirmed the importance of closing the
                                                                                  Another report issued by the Educational Testing Service,
achievement gaps. This report uses NAEP data to examine
                                                                                  Parsing the Achievement Gap II,7 considered 16 factors previ­
the progress of the nation and each of the states in reducing
                                                                                  ously identified as being correlated with how well students
the gap between Black and White students at grades 4 and
                                                                                  performed in school. Seven were school-related (including,
8 in both reading and mathematics.
                                                                                  for example, curriculum rigor and teacher preparation),
                                                                                  eight “before and after” school factors (including, for
1
                                                                                  example, weight at birth, exposure to lead, and excessive
  Snyder, T.D., Dillow, S.A., and Hoffman, C.M. (2007). Digest of Education
Statistics 2006 (NCES 2007-017). National Center for Education Statistics,        TV watching), and the “home school connection,” parent
Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington,
DC.                                                                               5
                                                                                    KewalRamani, A., Gilbertson, L., Fox, M., and Provasnik, S. (2007). Status and
2
 Lee, J., Grigg, W., and Dion, G. (2007). The Nation’s Report Card: Mathematics   Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities (NCES 2007-039). National
2007 (NCES 2007-494). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of      Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department       1
Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C.                of Education. Washington, DC.
3                                                                                 6
  Lee, J., Grigg, W., and Donahue, P. (2007). The Nation’s Report Card: Reading     Barton, P., and Coley, R. (2007). The Family: America’s Smallest School. Princeton,
2007 (NCES 2007-496). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of      NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C.                7
                                                                                   Barton, P., and Coley, R. (2009). Parsing the Achievement Gap II. Princeton, NJ:
4
    Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, P.L. 89-10, 79 Stat. 27.      Educational Testing Service.
    participation. Using data from NAEP and other sources,         The major questions addressed in this study are: 1) how
    the report said that for all 16 factors there were gaps that   do gaps in 2007 compare to the gaps in the initial and most
    favored White students over Black students—for example,        recent prior years of the NAEP national and state assessment
    White students were more likely than Black students to         series? And 2) how do states compare to the nation in 2007?
    attend schools offering rigorous curriculums and less likely   The current report presents these results in graphs that show
    to suffer from low birth weight.                               the NAEP achievement gaps in a format that makes it pos­
                                                                   sible to see at a glance the national and state gaps results for
    This report uses data from both the “main NAEP” and
                                                                   all available years.
    the NAEP long-term trend assessments. NCES and the
    National Assessment Governing Board, which sets policy         In previous NAEP reports, achievement gaps results have
    for NAEP, have maintained comparability of data for both       been available to users in two ways: 1) online, using the
    main and long-term trend NAEP. Main NAEP assess­               NAEP Data Explorer, and 2) by year, in the report cards
    ments, which began in 1990 for mathematics and 1992 for        for a given assessment. The NAEP Achievement Gaps
    reading, are administered at the fourth and eighth grades,     report is the first NCES publication to present the Black
    both nationally and at the state level. The most recent        and White NAEP achievement gaps across time for all the
    administration was in 2007. The long-term trend assess­        states and the nation, including results for every assessment
    ments provide public school results for mathematics going      year since state assessments began.
    back to 1978 and for reading going back to 1980, at ages
                                                                   States first participated in the eighth-grade mathematics
    9, 13, and 17, at the national level only. The most recent
                                                                   assessment in 1990, the fourth-grade reading and math­
    long-term trend report available at the time of the prepa­
                                                                   ematics assessments in 1992, and the eighth-grade reading
    ration of this report contains results for the assessments
                                                                   assessment in 1998. The No Child Left Behind Act of
    administered in 2004. Discussion of main NAEP grade 12
                                                                   2001 requires each state, beginning in 2003, to partici­
    assessments is omitted in this report because these assess­
                                                                   pate in the NAEP mathematics and reading assessments
    ments are conducted at the national level only.
                                                                   if they are to receive Title I education funding (Public
    While the main NAEP assessments do not go as far back          Law 107-110 Title I Part A, Sec. 1111). Prior to the pas­
    in time as the long-term trend assessments, they allow the     sage of the Act, participation was voluntary and about
    examination of trends in the Black and White performance       40 states participated in each assessment. (In this report,
    gap in every state, plus the District of Columbia and the      “state” and “jurisdiction” will be used interchangeably to
    U.S. Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA)          refer to the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the
    schools. In addition, the main NAEP assessments use            Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA)
    frameworks that are more closely aligned with current          schools.) Additional information about the years when
    practices regarding instructional content; they include more   the national and state assessments were administered is in
    questions overall and more questions that require a written    appendix B.
    response; and they employ much larger samples than long-
    term NAEP.                                                     Sources of the Main NAEP data
    All data presented in this report for main NAEP are for        This report presents national data from the NAEP reading
    public school students only. Main NAEP and long-term           and mathematics assessments for Black and White public
2   trend provide national results for both public and private     school students at the fourth and eighth grades. Only results
    school students, but NAEP state results are for public         for White (non-Hispanic) and Black (non-Hispanic) public
    school students only. To maintain consistency of data for      school students are contained in this report. Additional
    comparison purposes, this report uses only public school       information on the national and state assessments is given
    data at the national level as well.                            in appendix B.
  Administration of main NAEP national and state reading and mathematics assessments
                                          1990    1992    1994       1996   1998    2000    2002    2003    2005   2007

                             National              v          v              v       v       v       v      v       v
                 4th Grade
                             State                 v          v              v               v       v      v       v
   Reading
                             National              v          v              v       v       v       v      v       v
                 8th Grade
                             State                                           v               v       v      v       v

                             National      v       v                 v               v              v       v       v
                 4th Grade
                             State                 v                 v               v              v       v       v
   Mathematics
                             National      v       v                 v               v              v       v       v
                 8th Grade
                             State         v       v                 v               v              v       v       v




In 2007, Black and White students together comprised              NAEP assessments are conducted in a six-week window
about three-fourths of the nation’s public school students        starting in January of each assessment year. The same
at the fourth and eighth grades. At the fourth-grade              assessment is administered in both the national and state
level, 58 percent of assessed students were White and             assessments. Because the content of the assessments given
16 percent were Black. At the eighth-grade level, 60              to fourth-graders and eighth-graders differs, scores for
percent of assessed students were White and 16 percent            the two grades should be compared with caution, even
were Black.                                                       though the scores appear on similar 0-500 scales. Scores
                                                                  for reading and mathematics cannot be compared because
In the earliest main NAEP assessments, students with
                                                                  the two assessments are scaled independently. See appen­
disabilities and English language learners did not receive
                                                                  dix A for more details.
accommodations. Since 1994 (1996 at the state level) stu­
dents receiving accommodations on their state assessment
received the same accommodations on NAEP, as long as              Sources of the Long-Term Trend
NAEP approved them (see appendix A for details.)                  NAEP data
                                                                  This report presents national data for public school stu­
In 2007, the reading assessment was given to 183,000
                                                                  dents aged 9 and 13 from the 1978, 1982, 1986, 1990, 1992,
fourth-graders and 155,000 eighth-graders, while the
                                                                  1994, 1996, 1999, and 2004 mathematics long-term trend
mathematics assessment was given to 190,000 fourth-
                                                                  assessments and the 1982, 1986, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996,
graders and 147,000 eighth-graders. The main NAEP
                                                                  1999, and 2004 reading long-term trend assessments.
samples are so large because they include representative
                                                                  Unlike the main NAEP assessments, these assessments
samples for each of the 50 states, plus the District of
                                                                  did not allow accommodations for students with disabili­
Columbia and Department of Defense school system for
                                                                  ties and English language learners for the years included
Armed Forces dependents in the United States and over­                                                                         3
                                                                  in this report. Sample sizes for the 2004 long-term trend
seas. This allows examination of the achievement gaps for
                                                                  assessments were 7,500 (9-year-old students) and 8,300
public school students for individual states as well as for
                                                                  (13-year-old students) for reading and 7,300 (9-year-old
the nation as a whole.
                                                                  students) and 7,500 (13-year-old students) for mathemat­
                                                                  ics. See appendix A for more details.
    Understanding score gaps                                          It is important to note that although NAEP data can iden­
                                                                      tify gaps and changes in gaps, these data cannot explain
    Ways the gap can change                                           why gaps exist or why they change. NAEP assessments are
    The achievement gap between Black and White students              designed to measure student performance and identify fac­
    is defined as the difference between the average score for        tors associated with it, not to identify or explain the causes
    Black students and the average score for White students.          of differences in student performance.
    Comparisons are made for main NAEP between the most
    recent assessment year (2007) and all previous assessment         Understanding statistical significance
    years. Only changes between the earliest assessment year and      NAEP data are based on samples of students, and the results
    2007, and between 2005 and 2007, are discussed. For long-         are subject to sampling and measurement error. Statistical
    term trend, only changes between the earliest assessment year     tests are used to determine whether the differences between
    and 2004, and between 1999 and 2004, are discussed.               average scores are statistically significant—that is, whether
    Changes in the size of the achievement gap depend on both         they exceed the margin of error. Changes in average scores
    changes in the average scores for Black and White students        for Black students and White students and changes in the
    and the rate of change in those scores. Generally, widening       size of the gap between these scores are analyzed separately.
    gaps are seen as undesirable, while narrowing gaps are seen       Therefore, it is possible for the size of the achievement gap
    as desirable. However, it is possible for the gap to widen even   to increase or decrease even though the average scores of
    if scores for both Black students and White students increase,    neither Black nor White students changed statistically sig­
    if scores for the higher scoring group increase more than         nificantly during the same period.
    scores for the other group. And it is also possible for the gap   The term “significant” is not intended to imply a judgment
    to narrow even if scores for both Black and White students        about the absolute magnitude or the educational relevance
    decline, if scores for the higher scoring group decline more      of the differences. It is intended to identify statistically reli­
    than those of the other group. The following images illus­        able population differences to help inform discussion among
    trate the various ways that gaps can narrow.                      policymakers, educators, researchers, and the public.
                                                                      Beginning in 2002, the main NAEP national sample was
     Ways gaps can narrow                                             obtained by aggregating the samples from each state, rather
                 The average scores of both groups increase, while    than by using an independently selected national sample.
                 the score of the lower performing group increases    As a result, the national samples in mathematics and read­
                 even more.
                                                                      ing were larger in 2003, 2005, and 2007 than in previous
                 The average score of the higher performing group     assessment years. Thus, smaller score differences between
                 does not change, while the score of the lower per­
                                                                      years or between student groups were found to be statisti­
                 forming group increases.
                                                                      cally significant than would have been detected in previ­
                 The average score of the higher performing group     ous assessments. All differences discussed in the text are
                 declines, while the score of the lower performing
                 group increases.
                                                                      significant at the .05 level with appropriate adjustments for
                                                                      part-to-whole and multiple comparisons.
                 The average score of the higher performing group
                 declines, while the score of the lower performing    Statistical comparisons of NAEP scores from different
4                group does not change.                               assessment years are made using a multiple comparison
                 The average scores of both groups decline, but       procedure (see appendix A, “Conducting multiple tests,”
                 the score of the higher performing group declines    for details). However, in figures 9, 11, 21, and 23, com­
                 even more.
                                                                      parisons of the size of the Black-White achievement gap
for each state to the national gap are made using pairwise        will differ from that of another. Inferences related to student
comparisons, where each state is compared to the nation           group performance should take into consideration the many
one at a time. For this reason, the results shown in these        socioeconomic and educational factors that may also be associ­
four figures may not correspond to results obtained from          ated with performance.
the NAEP Online Data Tool, which currently does not
                                                                  All statistical tests are performed using unrounded scale
permit pairwise comparisons for this type of gap analysis.
                                                                  scores. The Black-White achievement gap is calculated
                                                                  by subtracting the average scale score for Black students
Cautions in interpreting the data                                 from the average scale score for White students. Because all
All results given here are in terms of average scores, which      results are presented as rounded numbers, occasionally the
reflect a wide range of student performance. Many Black           lower scale score plus the gap will not equal the higher scale
students score above the average for White students and many      score shown in this report’s graphics.
White students score below the average for Black students. For
detailed information on variations in performance, including      How this report is organized
standard deviations, consult the NAEP Data Explorer online
                                                                  The remainder of this report presents first mathematics
at http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/viewresults.asp
                                                                  and then reading results. In each section, long-term trend
The analysis of NAEP data contained in this report should         results are presented first, giving national results only for
not be seen to imply causal relations. Simple cross-tabulations   public school students ages 9 and 13. These are followed by
of a variable with measures of educational achievement, like      both national and state results for public school fourth- and
the ones presented here, cannot be considered as evidence that    eighth-graders from main NAEP. National data from main
differences in the variable cause differences in education­       NAEP are also presented by 1) gender and 2) eligibility
al achievement. As noted earlier, NAEP surveys are not            categories for the National School Lunch Program. The
designed to identify causal relationships. There are many pos­    last section consists of an appendix that contains relevant
sible reasons why the performance of one group of students        technical notes and supplemental tables.




                                                                                                                                    5
    Mathematics
    Long-Term 8Trend Results
    National Grades 4 &
             ■




    for Black and White 9- and 13-Year-Olds


    Trends in mathematics scores and achievement gaps, 1978–2004
    Mathematics scores for both 9- and 13-year­
                                                  Figure 1. Trends in average mathematics scale scores and
    old Black and White students were higher
                                                            score gaps for White students and Black students
    in 2004 than on any previous long-term
                                                            at age 9: Various years, 1978–2004
    trend assessment (figures 1 & 2). In addi­
    tion, the score gaps for Black and White             Scale score
    students were narrower in 2004 than in               500

    the first assessment in 1978 for both age                                                                                                   White
                                                                                                                                            247
    groups, as scores of Black students showed           250                                        234* 234* 235* 236*      238*
                                                                  223*       222*       225*                                                 23 Gap
    a greater increase than those of White                                                           27 27 24 25               28
                                                                   31*         28         24                                                225 Black
                                                         200
    students. The gaps in 2004 were not sig­                                            201*        207* 207* 211* 211*      210*
                                                                  192*       194*
    nificantly different from the gaps in 1999.          150


                                                            0
                                                                 1978       1982       1986        1990 1992 1994 1996      1999          2004


                                                  * Significantly different (p<.05) from 2004.

                                                  NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.

                                                  SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education 

                                                  Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1978–2004 Long-Term Trend 

                                                  Mathematics Assessments.





                                                  Figure 2. 	 Trends in average mathematics scale scores and
                                                             score gaps for White students and Black students
                                                             at age 13: Various years, 1978–2004

                                                          Scale score
                                                          500


                                                          300                                                                 282*          288   White
                                                                  270*	       273*       273*       276* 278* 280* 280*
                                                                                                                                             26 Gap
                                                          250      41*         33*        24          27 29 32 28              32
                                                                                                                                               Black
                                                                                                                                            261
                                                                                         249*       248* 249* 248* 252*       250*
                                                                              240*
                                                                  229*
                                                          200


                                                            0
                                                                 1978       1982        1986       1990 1992 1994 1996       1999          2004


                                                  * Significantly different (p<.05) from 2004.

                                                  NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.

                                                  SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education 

6                                                 Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1978–2004 Long-Term Trend 

                                                  Mathematics Assessments.

                                                                                                                     Mathematics
 Main NAEP National Results for Black and White Fourth-4 &and
                                              National Grades 8                                                                              ■




 Eighth-Graders


Trends in mathematics scores and achievement gaps, 1990–2007
In main NAEP, average fourth-grade
mathematics scores for the nation were         Figure 3. Mathematics achievement score gaps between
higher in 2007 than in 1990 for both Black               Black and White public school students at
and White public school students (figure                 grade 4: Various years, 1990–2007
3). The greater increase for Black fourth-
                                                      Scale score
graders resulted in the gap narrowing
                                                      500
from 31 points in 1990 to 26 points in 2007.
From 2005 to 2007, scores increased for               275
both Black and White students, but there                                                                              243*    246*     248 White
                                                                       227*             231*             233*
                                                              219*                                                      27      26      26 Gap
was no significant change in the gap.                 225
                                                                                          33*              30*
                                                                31*      35*                                          216*    220*     222 Black
                                                                                                         203*
Average mathematics scores were high-                 175     187*     192*             198*
                                                                                                                                             National
er in 2007 than in 1990 for both Black                                                                                                       average

and White eighth-graders (figure 4). The                 0
                                                             1990n    1992n            1996             2000         2003     2005    2007
31-point gap in 2007 was not significantly
different from the 33-point gap in 1990.       n
                                                Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.
                                               * Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.

However, the gap was narrower in 2007,         NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.

                                               SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education 

at 31 points, than in 2005, at 33 points.      Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1990–2007 Mathematics 

                                               Assessments.
Although scores for both groups were
higher in 2007, a greater increase in Black
students’ scores caused the gap to narrow.
The 2-point decrease in the gap from 2005      Figure 4. Mathematics achievement score gaps between
to 2007 was significant while the 2-point                Black and White public school students at
decrease from 1990 to 2007 was not. It is                grade 8: Various years, 1990–2007
possible that the smaller standard errors in
2005, due to the increased sample size in              Scale score
                                                       500
that year, allowed the difference in 2005 to
be identified as statistically significant.            325

                                                                                                         283*         287*     288*    290    White
                                                                       276*             279*
                                                               269*
                                                       275
                                                                                                                       35*      33*      31 Gap
                                                                 33      40*              40*              40*
                                                                                                                      252*     254*    259     Black
                                                       225     236*    236*             239*             243*
                                                                                                                                                 National
                                                                                                                                                 average
                                                         0
                                                              1990n    1992n            1996             2000         2003    2005     2007

                                               n
                                                Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.
                                               * Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.

                                               NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.
                                                         7
                                               SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education 

                                               Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1990–2007 Mathematics 

                                               Assessments.

    Mathematics
    National   ■   Grades 4 & 8




    Mathematics scores and achievement gaps by gender, 1990–2007
    Average mathematics scores were higher in 2007 than          In 2007, average mathematics scores were higher than
    in 1990 for the nation’s Black and White fourth-graders,     they had been in 1990 for Black and White eighth-graders
    regardless of gender (figure 5). Among females, the gap      (figure 6). However, the Black-White mathematics gap did
    was narrower in 2007 as the average score gains of Black     not change significantly for either males or females.
    females were greater than those of their White peers.
                                                                 At grade 8, mathematics scores increased from 2005 to
    Among fourth-grade males, the Black-White gap did not
                                                                 2007 for Black and White students, regardless of gender
    change significantly.
                                                                 (figure 6). Female eighth-graders showed a narrowing
    In addition to the 17-year gain, mathematics scores also     of the gap during this period as Black females’ scores
    increased during the two-year period, 2005 to 2007, for      increased more than those of White females, while the gap
    both Black and White fourth-graders, regardless of gen­      for males did not change significantly.
    der. However, the gaps did not change significantly either
    for males or for females during this period.




8
                                                                                                                                                  Mathematics
                                                                                                                                                         National      ■   Grades 4 & 8




Figure 5. Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at
          grade 4, by gender: Various years, 1990–2007

         Scale score
          500                                   Male                                                                         Female

          275
                                                                   244*    247*    249                                                                  244*   White
                                                                                                                                                                246
                                                        236*                                                                                     241*
                                        232*                                                                          230*           231*
          225    219*
                         228*
                                                                      29      28     28       218*    225*
                                                                                                                                                    25 24    24 Gap
                                           35*            33*                                                            32*            27                 223 Black
                    32      36*                                    216*    219*    221          30*      34*                                     216* 220*
                                        197*            202*                                                          198*           204*
          175    187*    192*                                                                 188*    192*


            0
                 1990n 1992n            1996            2000       2003    2005    2007       1990n 1992n            1996            2000       2003    2005    2007

n
 Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.
* Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years,
1990–2007 Mathematics Assessments.




Figure 6. Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at
          grade 8, by gender: Various years, 1990–2007

          Scale score
          500                                    Male                                                                        Female

          325                                                                       292
                                                        284*       287*    288*                                                                 286*    287*    289
                                                                                                                                                               White
                                        280*                                                                          279*           282*
                 270*    275*                                                                         276*
                                                                                     34       268*
                                                                   36*       34                                                                   33*   32* 29 Gap
          275                             39              42*                                            40*            41*            37*
                   35       39*                                                                 31                                                             Black
                                                                   251*    254*     258                                                         252*  255* 260
                                        240*            242*                                                                         244*
                 235*    236*                                                                 237*    236*            238*
          225


            0
                 1990n 1992n            1996            2000       2003    2005    2007       1990n 1992n             1996           2000        2003   2005    2007

n
 Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.
* Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years,
1990–2007 Mathematics Assessments.




                                                                                                                                                                                          9
     Mathematics
     National    ■   Grades 4 & 8




     Mathematics scores and achievement gaps by family income,
     2003–2007
     NAEP uses student eligibility for free or reduced-price
     school lunch as an indicator of family income. At grade                                Eligibility for free and reduced-price lunch
     4, mathematics scores were higher in 2007 than in 2003
                                                                                            NAEP collects data on students’ eligibility for the National
     and 2005 for all Black and White public school students,
                                                                                            School Lunch Program (NSLP)—sometimes referred to as
     regardless of school-lunch eligibility (figure 7). Despite                             the free and reduced-price school lunch program—as an
     these increases, the only significant Black-White gap                                  indicator of family economic status. Eligibility for free and
     change was between 2003 and 2007, for students eligible                                reduced-price lunch is based on students’ family income
     for reduced-price lunch.                                                               in relation to the federally established poverty level.

     At grade 8, mathematics scores were higher in 2007 than                                Not eligible: Students who are not eligible for the program
     in 2003 and 2005 for all Black and White public school stu­                            because their family’s income is above 185 percent of the
                                                                                            poverty level.
     dents (figure 8). The Black-White score gaps for students
     eligible for free or reduced-price lunch narrowed in 2007                              Eligible for reduced-price lunch: Students who are
     in comparison to both previous assessments, as scores for                              eligible for reduced-price lunch because their family’s
     eligible Black students showed greater gains than those of                             income is between 130 percent and 185 percent of the
                                                                                            poverty level.
     their White peers.
                                                                                            Eligible for free lunch: Students who are eligible for free
                                                                                            lunch because their family’s income is below 130 percent
                                                                                            of the poverty level.
        Table 1. 	 Percentage of public school 

                  students assessed in NAEP 
                                               As a result of improvements in the quality of the data on 

                  mathematics by eligibility for free 
                                     students’ eligibility for NSLP, the percentage of students 

                  or reduced-price school lunch, 
                                          for whom information was not available has decreased in 

                  race/ethnicity and grade: 2003, 
                                         comparison to the percentages reported prior to the 2003 

                  2005, and 2007
                                                           assessment. Therefore, trend comparisons are only made 

                                                                                            back to 2003 in this report.

                                                   Eligible for
                                                 reduced-price        Eligible for free
                            Not eligible             lunch                 lunch
                           Black White           Black White          Black White
        Grade 4

          2007                 26       72            7         6         66        21

          2005                 25       71            8         7         66        20

          2003                 24       72            9         8         66        19

        Grade 8

          2007                 32       76            7         5         60        18

          2005                 31       75            9         6         58        17

          2003                 32       76            9         6         56        15

        NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.

        SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National 

        Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress 

        (NAEP), 2003, 2005, and 2007 Mathematics Assessments.



10
                                                                                                                                                 Mathematics
                                                                                                                                                       National      ■   Grades 4 & 8




Figure 7. Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at
          grade 4, by eligibility for free or reduced-price school lunch: 2003, 2005, and 2007

           Scale score
           500               Not eligible                        Eligible for reduced-price lunch                          Eligible for free lunch

           275
                   247*             250*             252
                                                                      235*             238*             241                                                235    White
                                      20               20                                                               229*             233*
                     20                                                                  14               13
           225
                                    230*             232                16*                                                18               18               17     Gap
                   227*                                                                224*             228
                                                                      219*                                                               215*              217
                                                                                                                        211*                                      Black
           175


              0
                  2003             2005              2007            2003             2005              2007            2003             2005             2007

* Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2003, 2005, and
2007 Mathematics Assessments.




Figure 8. Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at
          grade 8, by eligibility for free or reduced-price school lunch: 2003, 2005, and 2007

           Scale score
           500               Not eligible                        Eligible for reduced-price lunch                           Eligible for free lunch

           375
                   291*             292*             295
                                                        27            276*             277*             280
                                                                                                                                          271*             274 White
           275       29               28                                                                  15             268*
                                                                         21*              20*                                                23*             21 Gap
                   262*             264*             268                                                265                 23*
                                                                      255*             256*                                                                253 Black
                                                                                                                         245*             249*
           225


              0
                   2003             2005             2007             2003             2005             2007             2003            2005              2007

* Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2003, 2005, and
2007 Mathematics Assessments.




                                                                                                                                                                                        11
     Mathematics
     Main NAEP State Results for Black and White Fourth- and
     Eighth-Graders



     The NAEP state mathematics assessments were admin­         Comparisons of the mathematics gaps within a state over
     istered to public school fourth-graders in 1992, 1996,     time are presented in a series of small graphs in figure 10.
     2000, 2003, 2005, and 2007 and to public school eighth-    At the top left of each two-page spread, the mathematics
     graders in 1990, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2003, 2005, and 2007.   scores and gaps for the nation are presented for reference.
     Before 2003, states were not required to participate in    Each state figure, as well as the national figure, also con­
     NAEP to qualify for Title I education funds. Typically,    tains a dotted red line representing the national average
     40 or more states participated in each prior assessment.   for public school students. The data for the national aver­
     In 2003, 2005, and 2007, all 50 states, the District of    ages are located in the appendix in Table B-2.
     Columbia, and the DoDEA participated.
     State results are presented in two ways. Comparisons of
     fourth-grade mathematics gaps in 2007 between each state
     and the nation are presented in figure 9.




12
                                                                                                                                 Mathematics
                                                                                                                                                  State     ■   Grade 4




State and national mathematics achievement gaps at grade 4,
2007
Ten states had a smaller Black-White gap
than the nation’s 26-point gap in 2007           Figure 9. The Black-White achievement score gap in
(Alaska, Delaware, DoDEA, Hawaii,                          mathematics for public school students at grade
Kentucky,       Louisiana,      Mississippi,               4, by state or jurisdiction: 2007
Oklahoma, Texas, and West Virginia) and                Jurisdictions                          Black               Gap           White
five had a gap that was larger (Connecticut,          Nation (public)                          222                26             248
                                                              Alabama                213               25            238
District of Columbia, Illinois, Nebraska,                       Alaska                                227          20*          247
and Wisconsin). In 31 states, the gap was                       Arizona                      219              28               246
                                                             Arkansas                      217               28               245
not significantly different from the nation’s                California                     218               29                247
                                                              Colorado                             224        26                  249
gap. Gaps that are different from the                     Connecticut                        220                                    252
                                                                                                             32*
nation’s gap are indicated with an asterisk                  Delaware                                230         20*              249
                                                 District of Columbia            209                         54*                         262
(figure 9).                                                    DoDEA1                             227         19*         246
                                                                Florida                         225            25             250
The fourth-grade mathematics gap in 2007                       Georgia                       222            24            246
                                                                Hawaii                               230      14*       244
was statistically significant in all 46 states                  Illinois               216               32*                248
                                                               Indiana                         224            25             249
for which data could be reported. The                              Iowa                        224          21           245
gaps ranged from 14 points in Hawaii and                       Kansas                            226             26             252
                                                              Kentucky                    219        19*          238
West Virginia to 54 points in the District                   Louisiana                    219          21*          240
                                                                 Maine                      221           22           243
of Columbia.                                                 Maryland                         223             29               251
                                                      Massachusetts                                    232             25            257
                                                             Michigan                  216             28               244
                                                            Minnesota                        222               31               252
                                                           Mississippi                  217          22*           239
                                                              Missouri                   218              26             245
                                                             Nebraska              211              33*                 244
                                                               Nevada                     219            23            243
                                                      New Hampshire                              226            24            250
                                                            New Jersey                                 232           23            255
                                                           New Mexico                      220           22           242
                                                              New York                          225             26             251
                                                       North Carolina                          224             27              251
                                                                    Ohio                        225            25             250
                                                            Oklahoma                       220          22*           242
                                                                Oregon                    219           22           241
                                                        Pennsylvania                         222             26              249
                                                         Rhode Island                     219           23            242
                                                       South Carolina                       221             26              248
                                                        South Dakota                        221            24            245
                                                            Tennessee                214            26              240
                                                                  Texas                              230           23*           253
                                                               Virginia                            228           23            251
                                                          Washington                         222             26             248
                                                         West Virginia                        223      14*       237
                                                            Wisconsin              212                  38*                   250

                                                                       0   200       210       220          230         240     250       260   270   280        500
                                                                                                                  Scale score                                             13
                                                 * Significantly different (p<.05) from the nation (public) when comparing one state to the nation at a time.
                                                 1
                                                   Department of Defense Education Activity (overseas and domestic schools).
                                                 NOTE: States whose Black student population size was insufficient for comparison are omitted. Reporting standards
                                                 not met for Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, Vermont, and Wyoming.
                                                 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education
                                                 Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2007 Mathematics Assessment.
     Mathematics 

     State   ■   Grade 4




     Trends in state mathematics achievement gaps at grade 4,
     1992–2007
     The Black-White mathematics gap among the nation’s
                                                                                  Narrowing of the Gap
     public school fourth-graders was narrower in 2007 than in
     1992, as Black students’ scores showed a greater gain than    In the following 15 states, the gap narrowed between
     White students’ scores (figure 10, National results). From    1992 and 2007 as gains of Black students outpaced the
     2005 to 2007, there was no significant change in the gap.     gains of White students.

     In 35 states, both Black students and White students             California                Michigan
                                                                      Connecticut               Mississippi
     achieved higher average scores in mathematics from 1992
                                                                      Delaware                  New Jersey
     to 2007. Fifteen of these states also narrowed the achieve­      District of Columbia      Pennsylvania
     ment gap as Black students’ scores increased more than           Florida                   South Carolina
     White students’ scores.                                          Georgia                   Texas
                                                                      Louisiana                 Virginia
     Short-term changes were also notable. In Illinois, New           Massachusetts
     Jersey, and Virginia, average scores for both Black and
                                                                   In Rhode Island, the gap narrowed between 2005 and
     White students increased between 2005 and 2007.               2007 as Black students’ scores increased while those of
                                                                   White students did not change significantly.




14
                                                                                                                                     Mathematics
                                                                                                                                                       State       ■   Grade 4




Figure 10.              Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at
                        grade 4, by state: Various years, 1992–2007

 Scale score
 500                    NATIONAL1                                               Alabama                                             Alaska
                     (Black: 17%, White: 55%)2                           (Black: 37%, White: 58%)                           (Black: 5%, White: 55%)

 275
                                          243* 246* 248                                                                                         242* 244     247 White
                     230*          233*                                                       232* 235* 238                 232*
         227*
                                           27 26        26    218*       221*        227*
                                                                                                                                                 20 18        20       Gap
 225
                                    30*                                                       24 24         25                25
           35*         31                                                             24                                                               226   227   Black
                                          216* 220* 222         30        29                               213
                                                                                                                                                 221
                                   203*                                              203*     208* 211                      206*
                     199*                                                193*
 175     192*                                                 188*                                                                                             National
                                                                                                                                                               average

    0
        1992n        1996n         2000   2003 2005 2007      1992n      1996n      2000     2003 2005 2007                 1996n               2003 2005 2007


 500                            Arizona                                      Arkansas                                          California
                     (Black: 5%, White: 43%)                             (Black: 22%, White: 67%)                           (Black: 7%, White: 27%)

 275
                                          241* 243* 246                                                 245                                     243* 245     247 White
                                                                                              237* 242*
        225*         228*          230*                                                                                                 228*
                                           26 25        28               223*        225*                   28   221*       223*                 30 29        29       Gap
 225
                                    22
                                                              217*                            31 29
           26          31                              219                30         31                                      34         33                   218   Black
                                           215   217            29                                   214   217    39*                           213* 215
                                   207*                                                       206*
        199*         197*                                                193*        194*                                               194*
 175                                                          188*                                               182*       188*                               National
                                                                                                                                                               average

    0          n            n                                        n       n                                          n       n
        1992         1996          2000   2003 2005 2007      1992       1996       2000     2003 2005 2007      1992       1996       2000     2003 2005 2007


 500                        Colorado                                       Connecticut                                             Delaware
                     (Black: 6%, White: 60%)                             (Black: 13%, White: 64%)                           (Black: 33%, White: 54%)

 275
                                                       249                                    250    250   252                                                     White
                                          243* 247                       240*       242*                                                        244* 249     249
                     232*                                     235*
         227*
                                           26 25        26                                     32 32        32   226*       225*                 22 23        20       Gap
 225                                                                      35          32
           28          35                        222   224     40*                                                30*        31*                223* 226*
                                                                                                                                                          230      Black
                                           217                                                217    219   220
                                                                         205*       210*
         199*        196*                                     195*                                               197*       194*
 175                                                                                                                                                           National
                                                                                                                                                               average

    0          n            n                                        n       n                                          n       n
        1992         1996                 2003 2005 2007      1992       1996       2000     2003 2005 2007      1992       1996                2003 2005 2007


 500               District of Columbia                                          DoDEA3                                             Florida
                      (Black: 84%, White: 6%)                            (Black: 17%, White: 51%)                           (Black: 21%, White: 48%)

 275                                      262    266   262
        251*                       254                                                                                                                        White
                      248                                                                    242* 245      246                                  243* 247* 250
                                                                         231*       233*
                                           60 58         54                                   15* 19        19   224*       227*
                                                                                                                                                 28 23
                                                                                                                                                              25       Gap
 225                                66*                                   22          20
          62*          65                                                                     227    227   227               33*                       224   225   Black
                                                                                    213*                          34*                           215*
                                                       209               209*                                                                                                    15
                                          202* 207
 175    189*                       188*                                                                          189*       193*
                     183*                                                                                                                                      National
                                                                                                                                                               average

    0          n            n                                                n                                          n       n
        1992         1996          2000   2003 2005 2007                 1996       2000     2003 2005 2007      1992       1996                2003 2005 2007


See notes at end of figure.
     Mathematics
     State       ■   Grade 4




        Figure 10.                  Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at
                                    grade 4, by state: Various years, 1992–2007—Continued

        Scale score
        500                         NATIONAL1                                                   Georgia                                              Hawaii
                                 (Black: 17%, White: 55%)2                            (Black: 38%, White: 46%)                             (Black: 3%, White: 17%)

        275
                                                      243* 246* 248                                        241* 243     246
                                                                                                                                                               238*   241   244    White
                     227*        230*        233*                         228*                     230*                                                 227*
                                                      27 26          26               224*                                24   222*       226*                                14     Gap
        225                                                                                                 24 22                                               16 21
                                  31          30*                                      23           26                           18        18            15                 230
                       35*                            216* 220* 222         32*                            217* 221     222                                     221   221          Black
                                             203*                                                                                         208*          211*
                                 199*                                                 201*         204*                        204*
                     192*                                                 196*
        175                                                                                                                                                                       National
                                                                                                                                                                                  average

             0              n          n                                         n          n                                         n          n
                     1992        1996        2000    2003 2005 2007       1992       1996          2000    2003 2005 2007      1992       1996          2000    2003 2005 2007


        500                                Idaho                                                Illinois                                             Indiana
                                  (Black: 1%, White: 81%)                             (Black: 19%, White: 56%)                             (Black: 10%, White: 78%)
                                Gap data not available
        275
                                                             245   245                                     244* 245* 248                                        242* 245*
                                                                                                                                                                          249      White
                                                     238*                                          235*                                   232*          235*
                     223*                    227*
                                                                                                                          32   224*
                                                                                                                                                                 27 24
                                                                                                                                                                              25     Gap
        225                                                                                                 34 33                           27           25
                                                                                                    33                           29                                         224    Black
                                                                                                           210* 212* 216                                211*    215* 221
                                                                                                   202*                                   205*
                                                                                                                               196*
        175                                                                                                                                                                       National
                                                                                                                                                                                  average

             0              n                                                                                                         n          n
                     1992                    2000    2003 2005 2007                                2000    2003 2005 2007      1992       1996          2000    2003 2005 2007


        500                                Iowa                                                 Kansas                                               Kentucky
                                  (Black: 5%, White: 86%)                              (Black: 8%, White: 73%)                             (Black: 11%, White: 84%)

        275
                                                     241* 242* 245                                         246* 249* 252                                                           White
                                                                                                   237*                                                                  238
                     231*        230*        233*                                                                         26                                   231* 234*
        225                                            26 18
                                                                     21                                     29 22              217*       222*          223*                 19      Gap
                                  25
                                              16                                                    29                                                          16 17
                                                             224   224                                            228   226      17         19            27
                                             216      215
                                                                                                   208*
                                                                                                           217*                                                 214   217   219    Black
                                 205*                                                                                          200*       203*
        175                                                                                                                                             196*
                                                                                                                                                                                  National
                                                                                                                                                                                  average

             0
                     1992n       1996n       2000    2003 2005 2007                                2000    2003 2005 2007      1992n      1996n         2000    2003 2005 2007


        500                             Louisiana                                               Maine                                            Maryland
                                 (Black: 49%, White: 47%)                              (Black: 2%, White: 95%)                             (Black: 35%, White: 50%)
                                                                                     Gap data not available
        275
                                                     242     241                                                        243                                     244* 250
                                                                                                                                                                            251    White
                                                                   240
                                                                          232*       232*                  238* 241                       234*          236*
                                            230*                                                   230*                        228*
        225          218*       221*
                                                      28* 22         21                                                   22                                    27 30
                                                                                                                                                                              29     Gap
                                              25                                                                                 34        35*           34                        Black
                                 27*                                                                                    221                                     216* 220
                                                                                                                                                                            223
                       31*                           213* 219      219
16                              194*
                                            205*
                                                                                                                               195*       198*          202*
        175          187*                                                                                                                                                         National
                                                                                                                                                                                  average

             0              n          n                                         n          n                                         n          n
                     1992        1996        2000    2003 2005 2007       1992       1996          2000    2003 2005 2007      1992       1996          2000    2003 2005 2007


       See notes at end of figure.
                                                                                                                                  Mathematics
                                                                                                                                                     State       ■   Grade 4




Figure 10.              Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at
                        grade 4, by state: Various years, 1992–2007—Continued

 Scale score
 500                Massachusetts                                           Michigan                                        Minnesota
                     (Black: 7%, White: 75%)                            (Black: 21%, White: 71%)                          (Black: 8%, White: 78%)

 275                                               257
                                         247* 252*                                                  245                                        246* 251    252 White
                                239*                                                         244          244                         238*
         231*        232*                               25              232*        237*                        231*      235*
                                          26 24              227*
                                                                                                           28                                  28 32        31       Gap
 225
                      26         27                    232                                   35 35                                     30
          36*                            222* 228                        34          37*                          38       40                              222 Black
                                213*                          42*                                         216                                  219   219
                     206*                                                                    209    211                               208*
         195*                                                           198*        199*                        193*      196*
 175                                                         185*                                                                                            National
                                                                                                                                                             average

    0          n         n                                          n       n                                       n        n
        1992        1996        2000     2003 2005 2007      1992       1996        2000    2003 2005 2007      1992     1996        2000     2003 2005 2007


 500                   Mississippi                                             Missouri                                         Montana
                    (Black: 52%, White: 45%)                            (Black: 19%, White: 77%)                          (Black: 1%, White: 83%)
                                                                                                                        Gap data not available
 275
                                                                                                                                                         247
                                          236   238    239                          233*     240* 240* 245                                     238* 243*     White
                                                             227*       230*                                              231*        231*
         219*        221*       222*                    22                                   24 25         26
 225                                     24 23
                                                                         29          31                                                                              Gap
                      25         24                    217    32                                          218
          30*                            212* 216                                             216   215                                                          Black
                     196*       198*                                    200*        202*
         189*                                                195*
 175                                                                                                                                                         National
                                                                                                                                                             average

    0
        1992n       1996n       2000     2003 2005 2007      1992n      1996n       2000    2003 2005 2007               1996n       2000     2003 2005 2007


 500                     Nebraska                                               Nevada                                  New Hampshire
                     (Black: 7%, White: 75%)                            (Black: 8%, White: 43%)                           (Black: 2%, White: 91%)

 275
                                                                                                                                              244* 246* 250
                                                                                                                                                                 White
                                         241* 244      244
                                                                                             236* 240     243
        228*         231*       230*                                                226*                        230*                                         24 Gap
                                                                        224*                               23
 225                                      31 34         33                                   21 26
           38         34         38                                      29          23                   219
                                                                                                                                                           226
                                                                                                                                                                 Black
                                         211    211    211                                   215    214
                     197*                                                           203*
        191*                    193*                                    195*
 175                                                                                                                                                         National
                                                                                                                                                             average

    0          n         n                                                  n                                       n
        1992        1996        2000     2003 2005 2007                 1996        2000    2003 2005 2007      1992                          2003 2005 2007


 500                   New Jersey                                        New Mexico                                             New York
                    (Black: 14%, White: 57%)                            (Black: 3%, White: 29%)                           (Black: 19%, White: 53%)

 275
                                                   255
                                         248* 251*                                                                                            246* 247* 251 White
        236*         239*                               23                                   237* 238* 242                233*        238*
                                          31*
                                                 27          224*       227*        227*
                                                                                                           22
                                                                                                                228*
                                                                                                                                               26 25
                                                                                                                                                            26       Gap
 225                   35*                             232                                   20 25                                    27
          38*                                   224*          22                                          220     31       31                 219* 222     225 Black
                                         217*                                                216    213
                     204*                                                                                                             210*
        198*                                                 202*                                               197*      202*                                                 17
 175                                                                                                                                                         National
                                                                                                                                                             average

    0
        1992n       1996n                2003 2005 2007      1992n      1996n       2000    2003 2005 2007      1992n    1996n       2000     2003 2005 2007


See notes at end of figure.
     Mathematics
     State       ■   Grade 4




        Figure 10.                Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at
                                  grade 4, by state: Various years, 1992–2007—Continued

        Scale score
        500                       NATIONAL1                                       North Carolina                                       North Dakota
                               (Black: 17%, White: 55%)2                          (Black: 28%, White: 55%)                            (Black: 2%, White: 87%)
                                                                                                                                     Gap data not available
        275
                                                                                                       251   250   251                                               248      White
                                                    243* 246* 248                             238*                                                         240* 245*
                               230*        233*                                   233*                               27   230*        232*          232*
                     227*                                                                               26 25
        225                                         27 26        26    223*
                                                                                               23                                                                               Gap
                                31          30*                                     30                 225   225   224
                       35*                          216* 220* 222        30                   215*                                                                            Black
                               199*        203*                                   204*
                     192*                                              193*
        175                                                                                                                                                                  National
                                                                                                                                                                             average

             0
                     1992n     1996n      2000     2003 2005 2007      1992n      1996n       2000    2003 2005 2007      1992n       1996n        2000    2003 2005 2007


        500                            Ohio                                          Oklahoma                                                    Oregon
                             (Black: 18%, White: 75%)                             (Black: 11%, White: 58%)                            (Black: 3%, White: 71%)

        275
                                                   243* 248     250                                                                                              243          White
                                                                                                                   242                                     240         241
                                           235*                                               229*     235* 240
                     222*                                  28     25   224*                                                           226*          227*
                                                                                                                                                            17 21
        225                                29
                                                    26                                                  24 23       22                                                  22      Gap
                                                                225      23                    24                                                    31    223   222
                       28                          217* 221                                            211* 217
                                                                                                                   220                                                 219    Black
                                           206*                        201*                   205*
                     194*                                                                                                                           196
        175                                                                                                                                                                  National
                                                                                                                                                                             average

             0
                     1992n                2000     2003 2005 2007      1992n                  2000    2003 2005 2007                  1996n        2000    2003 2005 2007


        500                    Pennsylvania                                        Rhode Island                                       South Carolina
                             (Black: 14%, White: 77%)                             (Black: 8%, White: 70%)                             (Black: 36%, White: 57%)

        275
                                                   243* 247     249                                                242                                     246   250   248    White
                                                                                                      239* 241                                     233*
                     230*      231*                                                           232*
        225                                         31 27         26   221*       225*
                                                                                                       29 30* 23
                                                                                                                          225*        224*                  23 26       26      Gap
                       36*       34*                                                           32*                                      26           30          223
                                                                222                 32                                      31*                            222         221    Black
                                                   212* 219              30                           210* 211*
                                                                                                                   219
                               197*                                                           200*                                    198*         203*
                     194*                                              191*       194*                                    194*
        175                                                                                                                                                                  National
                                                                                                                                                                             average

             0           n         n                                          n          n                                       n           n
                     1992      1996                2003 2005 2007      1992       1996        2000    2003 2005 2007      1992        1996         2000    2003 2005 2007


        500                    South Dakota                                          Tennessee                                                   Texas
                               (Black: 2%, White: 83%)                            (Black: 26%, White: 69%)                            (Black: 15%, White: 36%)

        275
                                                                                                                                                           248* 254    253    White
                                                   241* 245     245
                                                                                                      235* 238     240                240*          241*
                                                                  24              226*       227*                         230*                              22 25       23      Gap
        225                                                            217*
                                                                                                       27 25         26                 29*          22
                                                                221                28          29                           31*                     220*   226   228   230    Black
                                                                        26                            208* 214     214                212*
18                                                                                197*       198*                         199*
        175                                                            191*                                                                                                  National
                                                                                                                                                                             average

             0                                                                n          n                                       n           n
                                                   2003 2005 2007      1992       1996        2000    2003 2005 2007      1992        1996         2000    2003 2005 2007


       See notes at end of figure.
                                                                                                                                                     Mathematics
                                                                                                                                                                         State       ■   Grade 4




Figure 10.               Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at
                         grade 4, by state: Various years, 1992–2007—Continued
    Scale score
    500                      Utah                                                      Vermont                                                      Virginia
                     (Black: 1%, White: 80%)                                    (Black: 2%, White: 94%)                                     (Black: 26%, White: 58%)
                  Gap data not available                                     Gap data not available
    275
                                                                                                                                                                 246* 247* 251       White
                                          238* 242     244                                           242* 244* 247                                      237*
                                 230*                                                       232*                                            230*                                         Gap
          225*       228*                                                       225*                                            228*                                23     24 23
    225
                                                                                                                                               27         26
                                                                                                                                   29*                           223* 224* 228       Black
                                                                                                                                                        211*
                                                                                                                                199*        203*
    175                                                                                                                                                                          National
                                                                                                                                                                                 average

      0
          1992n      1996n       2000     2003 2005 2007                        1996n       2000     2003 2005 2007             1992n       1996n       2000     2003 2005 2007


    500                Washington                                               West Virginia                                                   Wisconsin
                     (Black: 6%, White: 65%)                                    (Black: 5%, White: 93%)                                     (Black: 10%, White: 77%)

    275
                                                       248                                                                                                                 250       White
                                          242* 246                                                                                                               243* 247*
                     229*                                                                            231* 231* 237              233*        236*
                                               19 15* 26                        224*        224*                                                                                         Gap
    225
                        27                      231*
                                                                     216*                                 10     5* 14                                              35 37 38
                                          222          222                        19          20     221       226   223           37          38
                                                                       15                                                                                                      212   Black
                                                                                205*        205*                                                                  209    210
                     202*                                            201*                                                       195*        198*
    175                                                                                                                                                                          National
                                                                                                                                                                                 average

      0
                     1996n                2003 2005 2007             1992n      1996n       2000     2003 2005 2007             1992n       1996n                2003 2005 2007


    500                  Wyoming
                     (Black: 2%, White: 84%)
                  Gap data not available
    275
                                          243* 245     246   White
          227*       225*        231*
    225


    175                                                  National
                                                         average

      0
          1992n      1996n       2000     2003 2005 2007




n
    Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.
* Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.
1
  National results for assessments prior to 2002 are based on the national sample, not on aggregated state samples.                                                                                19
2
  Black and White percentages are based on students tested in 2007.
3
  Department of Defense Education Activity (overseas and domestic schools). Before 2005, DoDEA overseas and domestic schools were separate jurisdictions in NAEP. Pre-2005 data pre­
sented here were recalculated for comparability.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Where data are not present, the jurisdiction did not participate or did not meet the minimum participation guidelines for reporting.
State-level data were not collected in 1990. Comparative performance results may be affected by changes in exclusion rates for students with disabilities and English language learners in
the NAEP samples.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years,
1992–2007 Mathematics Assessments.
20
                                                                                                                                       Mathematics
                                                                                                                                                       State     ■   Grade 8




State and national mathematics achievement gaps at grade 8,
2007
Twelve states had a smaller gap than the
nation’s 31-point gap in 2007 (Alaska,           Figure 11.              The Black-White achievement score gap in
Arizona, Colorado, DoDEA, Georgia,                                       mathematics for public school students at grade
Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, New                                    8, by state or jurisdiction: 2007
Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, and South                    Jurisdictions                          Black                    Gap             White
Carolina) and seven had a gap that was                Nation (public)                         259                      31               290
larger (Connecticut, Illinois, Maryland,                    Alabama              246                  32                   278
                                                               Alaska                                           271          23*             294
Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, and                        Arizona                                  266               23*           289
Wisconsin). In 22 states, the gap was not                  Arkansas                     254                  28                282
                                                           California                  253                    35                      287
significantly different from the nation’s                                                                     272              24*            296
                                                            Colorado
gap. Gaps that are different from the                    Connecticut                     255                          38*                  293
                                                           Delaware                                   265                    29             294
nation’s gap are indicated with an asterisk
                                                             DoDEA1                                             272           19*        291
(figure 11).                                                  Florida                         259                   29                 289
                                                             Georgia                            261                 27*               288
The eighth-grade mathematics gap in 2007                      Illinois                 253                        38*                    291
                                                             Indiana                          259                   32                  290
was statistically significant in all 41 states                   Iowa                        257                   31                 288
for which data could be reported. The                        Kansas                                       267    28                          295
                                                            Kentucky                         257                25* 282
gaps ranged from 16 points in Oregon to                    Louisiana                          258               25*  283
51 points in Nebraska.                                     Maryland                             265               36*                 300
                                                      Massachusetts                            264                  40*                   305
                                                           Michigan         244                  41*                   285
                                                          Minnesota                        260                 37                  297
                                                         Mississippi              251             28*            279
                                                            Missouri                253                 34                288
                                                           Nebraska      240                      51*                        291
                                                             Nevada                   255            26             282
                                                          New Jersey                           264               35                 298
                                                         New Mexico                            264         21*         285
                                                            New York                     258               32               290
                                                      North Carolina                             266            29               295
                                                                  Ohio                   258               33                291
                                                          Oklahoma                       258         22*          280
                                                              Oregon                                   272      16*        289
                                                       Pennsylvania                     257                 36                 293
                                                       Rhode Island             250                 34                284
                                                      South Carolina                            265            27*             293
                                                          Tennessee                  254             28             282
                                                                Texas                                271              29              300
                                                             Virginia                              268            28              296
                                                         Washington                            264            26             291
                                                       West Virginia            250           21          271
                                                          Wisconsin           247                     45*                     292

                                                                     0     240         250          260          270         280      290      300   310   320        500
                                                                                                                        Scale score                                            21
                                                 * Significantly different (p<.05) from the nation (public) when comparing one state to the nation at a time.
                                                 1
                                                   Department of Defense Education Activity (overseas and domestic schools).
                                                 NOTE: States whose Black or White student population size was insufficient for comparison are omitted.
                                                 Reporting standards not met for District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New Hampshire, North
                                                 Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, and Wyoming.
                                                 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education
                                                 Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2007 Mathematics Assessment.
     Mathematics 

     State   ■   Grade 8




     Trends in state mathematics achievement gaps at grade 8,
     1990–2007
     The national Black-White mathematics gap was not sig­
                                                                                 Narrowing of the Gap
     nificantly narrower in 2007 than in 1990, despite higher
     average scores for both Black and White students in 2007
                                                                   In the following four states, the mathematics gap nar­
     (figure 12, National results). The gap was narrower in 2007
                                                                   rowed between 1990 and 2007 as gains of Black stu­
     than in 2005.                                                 dents outpaced the gains of White students.
     In 26 states, mathematics scores of both Black and White        Arkansas                   Oklahoma
     eighth-graders were higher in 2007 than in 1990. The 2007       Colorado                   Texas
     gap was narrower in Arkansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, and
     Texas, as increases in Black students’ scores were greater    In Colorado, the gap narrowed between 2005 and 2007
     than those of their White peers.                              as Black students’ scores showed greater increases than
                                                                   those of their White peers.
     Between 2005 and 2007, gaps narrowed in Arkansas and
     Florida as scores for Black eighth-graders increased while    In Arkansas and Florida, the gap narrowed between 2005
                                                                   and 2007 as Black students’ scores increased while
     those of their White peers showed no change. In Colorado,
                                                                   those of White students did not change significantly.
     scores for both groups increased, but a greater increase in
     Black students’ scores caused the gap to narrow.




22
                                                                                                                                                   Mathematics
                                                                                                                                                                   State        ■   Grade 8




Figure 12.                    Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at
                              grade 8, by state: Various years, 1990–2007

 Scale score
 500
                              NATIONAL1                                               Alabama                                                 Alaska
                           (Black: 17%, White: 58%)2                              (Black: 35%, White: 60%)                              (Black: 4%, White: 56%)

 325
                                                287* 288* 290                                                                               285*              290* 288* 294     White
                              280*       283*
                276*                                                                             275    274 276 278
 275    269*
                                                       31           262* 264*
                                                                                      270*                                                                     27 22 23             Gap
                                39*        40* 35* 33*                                            35     34 36 32                                                     271
          33 40*                                                      30 34            38                                                                     263 266           Black
                                                252* 254* 259
 225    236* 236*             241*       243*                                                   240*    240* 240* 246
                                                                    232* 230*         232*                                                                                      National
                                                                                                                                                                                average

    0
        1990n 1992n           1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007     1990n 1992n      1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007                     1996n              2003 2005 2007


 500
                                Arizona                                               Arkansas                                             California
                           (Black: 5%, White: 47%)                                (Black: 22%, White: 69%)                              (Black: 7%, White: 31%)


 325

                                                 284* 288 289                                                                                                 283* 284* 287     White
        270* 274*
                              277*       281*
                                                                                      269*              275* 281 282      270* 275*
                                                                                                                                            277*      277*
                                                                                                268*
 275
                                 22                  28 27 23       264* 264*
                                                                                                                 28                                            37 35       35       Gap
          26 22                            37                                                            36* 38*                             33        42
                               256               256 261
                                                         266          34* 35*          35        41*                        38 42                                               Black
                253*                                                                                                254
        245*                             244*                                                                                               244               246 248 253
 225                                                                                  235*              239* 243*                                     235*
                                                                    231* 229*                   227*                      231* 233*                                             National
                                                                                                                                                                                average

    0
        1990n 1992n           1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007     1990n 1992n      1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007    1990n 1992n      1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007


 500
                               Colorado                                             Connecticut                                             Delaware
                               *
                           (Black: 7%, White: 65%)                                (Black: 13%, White: 69%)                              (Black: 31%, White: 56%)

 325
                                                 292* 292* 296                        287*       291    293 293 293                                           287* 291*
                                                                                                                                                                        294     White
        273* 278*
                              282*                                  277* 283*                                                               275*
                                                             24                                                           268* 272*                                  27 29          Gap
 275
                                26                   37* 36*                                      45*        38 44 38                                         26
                                                                                       43
          36* 36*                                             272     37 41                                                 27 30           31
                                                                                                                                                              260* 264 265      Black
                              255*               255* 256*                                              255 249 255
                                                                                      244*      247*                                        244*
 225    238* 242*                                                   240* 242*                                             241* 241*
                                                                                                                                                                                National
                                                                                                                                                                                average

    0
            n          n          n                                     n     n          n                                    n     n          n
        1990 1992             1996               2003 2005 2007     1990 1992        1996       2000    2003 2005 2007    1990 1992        1996               2003 2005 2007


 500              District of Columbia                                                  DoDEA3                                             Florida
                           (Black: 88%, White: 3%)                                (Black: 18%, White: 48%)                         (Black: 23%, White: 48%)

 325                                                    317
                                         300
                                                                                                        293 292 291
                                                                                      282*      286*                                                          286 286 289       White
                                                                                                                                            277*
 275                                                     76                                       27* 23 25 19            265* 272*
                                           69                                          28*                                                                    37* 35* 29            Gap
                                                                                                        270 267 272                          42*
                                                                                      254*      259*                        34 36*                                        259   Black         23
                                                                                                                                                              249* 251*
 225                                             240* 241* 245
        229* 232*             230*       231*                                                                             231* 236*         235*                                National
                                                                                                                                                                                average

    0
        1990n 1992n           1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007                      1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007    1990n 1992n      1996n              2003 2005 2007

See notes at end of figure.
     Mathematics
     State       ■    Grade 8




        Figure 12.                         Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at
                                           grade 8, by state: Various years, 1990–2007—Continued

        Scale score
        500
                                           NATIONAL1                                                 Georgia                                               Hawaii
                                        (Black: 17%, White: 58%)2                               (Black: 43%, White: 46%)                             (Black: 2%, White: 14%)

                                                                                                                                                   Gap data not available
        325

                                                      283*     287* 288* 290                                          284 284 288                                                           White
                                            280*                                                              279*
                             276*                                               270* 270*           276*                                                 276       274     273 277 278
        275 269*                                                                                                                                                                             Gap
                                                         40* 35* 33*
                                                                     31
                                                                                                               34*        34* 29 27    259* 263*
                       33 40*                 39*                                 32 30              35*
                                                               252* 254* 259
                                                                                                                                261                                                         Black
                                                                                                              244*    250* 255*
        225 236* 236*                       241*      243*                      239* 241*           240*
                                                                                                                                                                                            National
                                                                                                                                                                                            average

             0
                     1990n 1992n           1996n      2000     2003 2005 2007   1990n 1992n        1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007   1990n 1992n     1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007


        500                                    Idaho                                                  Illinois                                            Indiana
                                        (Black: 1%, White: 82%)                                 (Black: 16%, White: 60%)                             (Black: 12%, White: 77%)
                                Gap data not available
        325

                                                               284* 284* 287                                  285*    289 289 291                                  285*   286* 286* 290     White
                                                      280*                                                                                              280*
                     273* 277*                                                  270*                                                   270* 273*
        275                                                                                                                                                                35 29       32    Gap
                                                                                                                33        40 40 38                       33         29
                                                                                  38                                                     28 32
                                                                                                                                                                   256     251 257
                                                                                                                                                                                   259      Black
                                                                                                              252     249 249 253                       247*
        225                                                                                                                            242* 241*
                                                                                232*                                                                                                        National
                                                                                                                                                                                            average

             0
                         n          n                                               n                                                      n     n          n
                     1990 1992                        2000     2003 2005 2007   1990                          2000    2003 2005 2007   1990 1992       1996       2000    2003 2005 2007


        500                                       Iowa                                                Kansas                                             Kentucky
                                        (Black: 4%, White: 88%)                                 (Black: 8%, White: 76%)                              (Black: 10%, White: 86%)

        325

                                            285                287 286 288                                    287*    290* 289* 295                                                         White
                     279* 284*                                                                                                                                     272*   277* 276* 282
                                                                                                                                  28                    269*
        275                                   29                   30 30 31                                     43         38* 33      259* 264*                                       25    Gap
                                                                                                                                                         21         22     27 21
                                                                                                                                 267     18 24                                              Black
                                            256                257 256 257
                                                                                                               245
                                                                                                                      252* 256                           247       250     250 255 257
        225                                                                                                                            240* 241*
                                                                                                                                                                                            National
                                                                                                                                                                                            average

             0
                         n          n          n                                                                                           n     n          n
                     1990 1992             1996                2003 2005 2007                                 2000    2003 2005 2007   1990 1992       1996       2000    2003 2005 2007


        500                                 Louisiana                                                 Maine                                              Maryland
                                        (Black: 43%, White: 52%)                                (Black: 2%, White: 96%)                              (Black: 37%, White: 51%)

        325
                                                                                                                                                                                      300   White
                                                               281 281 283                          284               282* 281* 287                     284*       286*   289* 292*
                                                                                        279*                  281*
                                            266*
                                                      275*                                                                             272* 278*                                       36    Gap
        275          259* 263*                                                            9                                                                                33 33
                                                                   31* 29 25                                                                             43*       42
                                              31*        36*                            270                                             35 39                                         265   Black
24                      30 31                                  250* 252*
                                                                         258                                                                                              256* 258*
                                                      239*                                                                                              241*       244*
        225
                     229* 232*              235*                                                                                       236* 239*                                            National
                                                                                                                                                                                            average

             0
                     1990n 1992n           1996n      2000     2003 2005 2007           1992n      1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007   1990n 1992n     1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007

       See notes at end of figure.
                                                                                                                                                          Mathematics
                                                                                                                                                                           State      ■   Grade 8




Figure 12.                    Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at
                              grade 8, by state: Various years, 1990–2007—Continued

 Scale score
 500                       Massachusetts                                                  Michigan                                                 Minnesota
                           (Black: 8%, White: 75%)                                    (Black: 18%, White: 75%)                                  (Black: 7%, White: 81%)

 325
                                                             305
                                                 292* 297*                                                  286 285 285                            287*      290*     295 296 297     White
                                         284*                                             284        285
                277*           283*                                                                                          277* 284*
                                                      33* 34
                                                             40    270* 276*                                                                                                              Gap
 275
                                33         26*                                                                   41 38 41                           39                44 46 37
                  34                                                                       39         45                        41                                                    Black
                                          258    260 263 264         39 44                                                                                                      260
                               250*                                                       245               245 247 244                            248                251 251
 225            243*                                                                                 239
                                                                   231* 233*                                                 236*                                                     National
                                                                                                                                                                                      average

    0
                       n          n                                    n          n          n                                   n          n         n
                1992          1996       2000    2003 2005 2007    1990 1992             1996       2000    2003 2005 2007   1990 1992            1996       2000    2003 2005 2007


 500                         Mississippi                                                   Missouri                                                 Montana
                           (Black: 51%, White: 47%)                                   (Black: 19%, White: 75%)                                  (Black: 1%, White: 85%)
                                                                                                                                            Gap data not available
 325

                                                                                                            284* 284* 288                          286*      288*    289* 290 291     White
                                                 275* 279 279              275*           278*      277*                     282*
 275            262*           265*      268*
                                                     29 32 28                                                34 36 34                                                                     Gap
                                 31        30                                34             34        39
                  33*                                                                                                                                                                 Black
                                                 246* 247* 251                            244               250 247 253
 225                                     237*                              242*                     238*
                230*           234*                                                                                                                                                   National
                                                                                                                                                                                      average

    0
                1992n         1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007            1992n         1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007   1990n                1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007


 500                           Nebraska                                                     Nevada                                              New Hampshire
                           (Black: 7%, White: 80%)                                     (Black: 10%, White: 47%)                                 (Black: 2%, White: 94%)
                                                                                                                                            Gap data not available
 325

                              285*       285*    287* 289 291                                                                                                        287 286* 289     White
        279* 281*                                                                                   273*    278 280 282      273* 278*
 275                                                                                                                                                                                      Gap
                                 32*       37*        41* 46 51                                       29         30 33 26
          45 44                                                                                                                                                                       Black
                              254*                                                                                    255
                                         247     247 243 240                                        244     248 247
 225    234 237                                                                                                                                                                       National
                                                                                                                                                                                      average

    0
            n          n          n                                                                                              n          n
        1990 1992             1996       2000    2003 2005 2007                                     2000    2003 2005 2007   1990 1992                               2003 2005 2007


 500                         New Jersey                                               New Mexico                                                    New York
                           (Black: 17%, White: 57%)                               (Black: 3%, White: 32%)                                       (Black: 19%, White: 55%)

 325
                                                 292* 295* 298                                                                                                        293 290 290     White
        279* 283*                                                                        277*               282 279* 285             280*          283*      284*
                                                           35      271* 272*                        274*                     273*
 275                                                 39 35                                                       28 22 21                                     33      37 32 32            Gap
          38 41                                                                                                       264      39 46*
                                                                                                                                                    40
                                                        260 264                                             254 257                                                   255 259 258     Black         25
                                                 253*                                                                                                         251
 225 241* 242*                                                                                                                                     243*
                                                                                                                             234* 233*                                                National
                                                                                                                                                                                      average

    0
        1990n 1992n                              2003 2005 2007    1990n 1992n           1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007   1990n 1992n          1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007

See notes at end of figure.
     Mathematics
     State       ■    Grade 8




        Figure 12.                         Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at
                                           grade 8, by state: Various years, 1990–2007—Continued

        Scale score
        500
                                           NATIONAL1                                                 North Carolina                                              North Dakota
                                        (Black: 17%, White: 58%)2                                    (Black: 30%, White: 56%)                                   (Black: 1%, White: 89%)
                                                                                                                                                            Gap data not available
        325
                                                              287* 288* 290                                                294 292* 295                                               290* 290* 295      White
                                           280*       283*                                                         287*                      284* 284*              286*      285*
                             276*                                                                        277*
        275          269*
                                                                     31        261* 266*                                       34 28 29                                                                   Gap
                                             39*         40* 35* 33*                                      30
                                                                                                                     35*
                       33 40*                                                    30 28                                     260* 263 266                                                                  Black
                                                              252* 254* 259                              247*      252*
        225                                241*       243*                                238*
                     236* 236*                                                 231*                                                                                                                      National
                                                                                                                                                                                                         average

             0
                     1990n 1992n           1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007   1990n 1992n              1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007    1990n 1992n           1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007


        500                                       Ohio                                                  Oklahoma                                                      Oregon
                                        (Black: 18%, White: 76%)                                     (Black: 9%, White: 59%)                                    (Black: 3%, White: 73%)

        325
                                                              287* 289 291                                                                                                                               White
                                                      285*
                                                                                                                           278 278 280                              278*      284*    284* 287 289
        275          268* 274*                                                 268* 272*                           274*                      273*                                                   16    Gap
                                                         34       30 34 33                                                  29 29 22
                                                                                                                                                                                           20 29
                                                                                                                    29                                                                             272   Black
                       35 41                                  257 255 258        32* 34*                                               258
                                                                                                                                                                                      265
                                                                                                                                                                                             258
                                                      251                                                          245*    249 249*
        225          233* 234*                                                 236* 238*                                                                                                                 National
                                                                                                                                                                                                         average

             0
                         n          n                                                 n          n                                               n                     n
                     1990 1992                        2000    2003 2005 2007   1990 1992                           2000    2003 2005 2007    1990                  1996       2000    2003 2005 2007


        500                             Pennsylvania                                                  Rhode Island                                              South Carolina
                                        (Black: 15%, White: 76%)                                     (Black: 9%, White: 70%)                                    (Black: 38%, White: 56%)

        325
                                                                        293                                                                                                           291 294 293        White
                                                              285* 287*                                                    280* 281* 284
                     272* 276*                                                                          275*       275*                              273*          273*       277*
                                                                               265* 271*                                                                                                   33* 32 27      Gap
                                                                   38 37 36
        275
                       36 39                                                                              38        35         36 32 34                33*           29         30                       Black
                                                                       257       37 30                                                                                               258* 263
                                                                                                                                                                                              265
                     236* 238*                                247* 250                                                     244 249 250               241*          244*       247*
        225                                                                               240           237*       240                                                                                   National
                                                                               228*                                                                                                                      average

             0
                         n          n                                                 n          n          n                                               n          n
                     1990 1992                                2003 2005 2007   1990 1992                1996       2000    2003 2005 2007            1992          1996       2000    2003 2005 2007


        500                             South Dakota                                                    Tennessee                                                      Texas
                                        (Black: 1%, White: 86%)                                      (Black: 28%, White: 67%)                                   (Black: 15%, White: 38%)
                                    Gap data not available
        325
                                                                                                                                                                                                300
                                                              288* 291 292                                                                                          284*      286*    290* 295*          White
                                                                                                                           277* 278* 282     272* 278*                                          29
                                                                                          266*          270*       269*
        275
                                                                                                                                      28                                                  30 31           Gap
                                                                                                                               35* 32                                35         37
                                                                                            32            35         34                        38* 35                                           271
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Black
26                                                                                                                                     254                                            260* 264*
                                                                                                                                                                    249*      250*
        225                                                                                                                242* 246*                 243*
                                                                                          234*          234*       235*                      234*                                                        National
                                                                                                                                                                                                         average

             0
                                                              2003 2005 2007              1992n         1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007    1990n 1992n           1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007

       See notes at end of figure.
                                                                                                                                                          Mathematics
                                                                                                                                                                            State     ■   Grade 8




Figure 12.                   Gaps in average mathematics scores between Black and White public school students at
                             grade 8, by state: Various years, 1990–2007—Continued

    Scale score
    500                          Utah                                                         Vermont                                               Virginia
                          (Black: 1%, White: 82%)                                         (Black: 1%, White: 95%)                              (Black: 26%, White: 61%)
                     Gap data not available                                          Gap data not available
    325

                                                285 283* 286                                                    286* 288* 292                                        290* 293 296     White
                  276*       278*       277*                                                 280*       281*                                      279*       283*
    275                                                                                                                          271* 275*                                28 31 28        Gap
                                                                                                                                                    35         30
                                                                                                                                   29 30
                                                                                                                                                                     262* 263* 268    Black
                                                                                                                                                             253*
    225                                                                                                                          242* 245*        244*
                                                                                                                                                                                      National
                                                                                                                                                                                      average

      0
                  1992n      1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007                               1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007   1990n 1992n      1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007


    500                    Washington                                                     West Virginia                                           Wisconsin
                          (Black: 5%, White: 69%)                                         (Black: 4%, White: 94%)                              (Black: 10%, White: 80%)

    325

                                                285* 289 291                                                                                      288*               290 291 292      White
                             281*                                                                                                279* 282*
                                                                                                                271 270 271
    275                                             22 23 26                256* 260*
                                                                                             265*       267*
                                                                                                                                                                                          Gap
                               38
                                                                                               21         20        18 18 21       42 37             48                   49 45 45
                                                262 265 264                   23 17                                                                                                   Black
                                                                                                                253 251 250
    225                      243*                                                  242       245        247
                                                                                                                                 236
                                                                                                                                       245         240               241 246 247
                                                                            234*                                                                                                      National
                                                                                                                                                                                      average

      0
                             1996n              2003 2005 2007              1990n 1992n      1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007   1990n 1992n      1996n              2003 2005 2007


    500                      Wyoming
                          (Black: 1%, White: 86%)
                     Gap data not available
    325

                                                286* 284* 290
          274* 277*          277*       278*
    275
                                                                   White


    225                                                          National
                                                                 average

      0
          1990n 1992n        1996n      2000    2003 2005 2007




n
    Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.
* Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.                                                                                                                                                        27
1
  National results for assessments prior to 2002 are based on the national sample, not on aggregated state samples.
2
  Black and White percentages are based on students tested in 2007.
3
  Department of Defense Education Activity (overseas and domestic schools). Before 2005, DoDEA overseas and domestic schools were separate jurisdictions in NAEP. Pre-2005 data pre­
sented here were recalculated for comparability.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Where data are not present, the jurisdiction did not participate or did not meet the minimum participation guidelines for reporting.
Comparative performance results may be affected by changes in exclusion rates for students with disabilities and English language learners in the NAEP samples.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years,
1990–2007 Mathematics Assessments.
Reading
     Long-Term Trend Results for Black and White 9- and
     13-Year-Olds


     Trends in reading scores and achievement gaps, 1980–2004
     Reading scores for both Black and White
                                                     Figure 13.             Trends in average reading scale scores and score
     9-year-old students were higher in 2004
                                                                            gaps for White students and Black students at
     than on any previous long-term trend
                                                                            age 9: Various years, 1980–2004
     assessment (figure 13). The score gap in
     2004 did not differ significantly from the             Scale score
     gap in 1980, but was narrower than the gap             500
     in 1999, due to a greater increase in Black
     students’ scores as compared to White                  250
                                                                     220*        217*        216* 215* 217* 217* 218*          220*            225 White
     students.                                                                                                                                   26 Gap
                                                            200       32          32*          29 35* 33* 32 28                  35*
                                                                                                                                               199 Black
     At age 13, reading scores for White stu­                        188*        185*        188*
                                                                                                    181* 183* 185*
                                                                                                                   190*        185*
     dents were not significantly different in              150

     2004 than in 1980 (figure 14). For Black
                                                               0
     students, scores were higher in 2004 than                      1980        1984        1988 1990 1992 1994 1996          1999            2004
     in 1980, resulting in a narrowing of the
                                                     * Significantly different (p<.05) from 2004.
     gap. Scores did not change significantly        SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education
                                                     Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1980–2004 Long-Term Trend
     for either Black or White students from         Reading Assessments.

     1999 to 2004, but the gap narrowed for that
     time period as well. A statistically signifi­
     cant change can occur over time in the gap
     between two scores even though the scores       Figure 14.             Trends in average reading scale scores and score
     themselves do not change significantly                                 gaps for White students and Black students at
     because changes in gaps are calculated                                 age 13: Various years, 1980–2004
     separately from changes in scores.
                                                             Scale score
                                                             500


                                                             300
                                                                     263          261         260   261   264   263   264       265            264   White
                                                             250      32*          26          19 22 29* 30* 31*                 29*            21 Gap
                                                                                 235*         241   239   235                   236
                                                                                                                                               244Black
                                                                     231*                                       233   233
                                                             200


                                                               0
                                                                    1980        1984         1988 1990 1992 1994 1996         1999            2004


                                                     * Significantly different (p<.05) from 2004.

                                                     SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education 

                                                     Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1980–2004 Long-Term Trend 

28                                                   Reading Assessments.

                                                                                                                                          Reading
 Main NAEP National Results for Black and White Fourth-4 & 8
                                              National Grades                                                                                ■




 and Eighth-Graders


Trends in reading scores and achievement gaps, 1992–2007
In main NAEP, the reading gap for Black
and White fourth-graders narrowed in           Figure 15.                Reading achievement score gaps between Black
2007 in comparison to both 1992 and 2005                                 and White public school students at grade 4:
(figure 15). Although scores for both Black                              Various years, 1992–2007
and White students were higher in 2007
                                                         Scale score
than in either comparison year, a greater                500
increase in scores for Black students caused
the gap to narrow. The 27-point gap in                   260
2007 was narrower than in any previous                           223*     222*                 223*    223*    227* 227*     228*      230   White

assessment year except 1998.                             210                                                    29*30*         29*       27 Gap
                                                                   32*      38*                  31     34*
                                                                                                              198* 197*      199*      203
                                                                 191*
                                                                          184*
                                                                                               192*    189*                                      Black
Eighth-grade reading scores for both                     160
                                                                                                                                             National
Black and White students were higher in                                                                                                      average
2007 than in either 1992 or 2005, but the                  0
                                                                1992n    1994n                 1998   2000    2002 2003      2005     2007
gap in 2007 was not significantly different
from either prior year (figure 16).            n
                                                Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.
                                               * Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.

                                               SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education 

                                               Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1992–2007 Reading 

                                               Assessments.





                                               Figure 16. 	 Reading achievement score gaps between Black
                                                            and White public school students at grade 8:
                                                            Various years, 1992–2007

                                                         Scale score
                                                         500


                                                         300
                                                                  265*     265*                 268            271 270        269*     270 White
                                                         250       29       30                   26              27 27          27       26 Gap
                                                                                                242            244 244        242*     244 Black
                                                                  236*     235*
                                                         200                                                                                     National
                                                                                                                                                 average

                                                           0
                                                                1992n     1994n                1998   2000    2002 2003      2005     2007

                                               n
                                                   Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.
                                               * Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.

                                               NOTE: Data were not collected at grade 8 in 2000.

                                               SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education 
       29
                                               Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years, 1992–2007 Reading 

                                               Assessments.

Reading

     National   ■   Grades 4 & 8




     Reading scores and achievement gaps by gender, 1992–2007
     Average reading scores were higher in 2007 than in 1992     Average reading scores for eighth-graders were higher
     for Black and for White fourth-graders, regardless of       in 2007 than in 1992 for Black and for White students,
     gender (figure 17). Among males, the gap narrowed as        regardless of gender (figure 18). However, the 2007 gaps
     the scores of Black males increased more than those of      in eighth-grade reading achievement showed no sig­
     their White peers. Among fourth-grade females, the          nificant differences from the 1992 gaps for either males
     Black-White gap did not change significantly.               or females.
     Fourth-grade reading scores were higher in 2007 than        From 2005 to 2007, average reading scores for eighth-
     in 2005 for both Black and White males and females,         graders increased for both Black and White males.
     and the achievement gaps narrowed for both groups           Scores increased for Black females but not for White
     during this period, as the scores of Black fourth-graders   females. However, the Black-White gap did not change
     increased more than those of their White peers.             significantly for either gender during this period.




30
                                                                                                                                                                       Reading

                                                                                                                                                         National      ■   Grades 4 & 8




Figure 17.                 Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade
                           4, by gender: Various years, 1992–2007


            Scale score
            500                                       Male                                                                  Female

            260
                                                                                   227          227*    227*              227*    228*    231* 231*     231*     233 White
                    219*                       219*           224* 223*   225*
                            217*                       218*
                                                                                    28                                              31* 28* 29* 27*                25 Gap
            210
                                                 30            30* 31* 31*                       29       36*              33*
                     35*      40*                       38*                                                                                             204*     207 Black
                                                                                   199          197*                              197*    202* 202*
                                               189*           193* 192*   194*                          191*              194*
                    184*    178*                       180*
            160


               0
                   1992n    1994n              1998   2000    2002 2003   2005    2007        1992n    1994n             1998    2000     2002 2003    2005     2007


n
    Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.
* Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years,
1992–2007 Reading Assessments.




Figure 18.                 Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade
                           8, by gender: Various years, 1992–2007


            Scale score
            500                                       Male                                                                  Female

            300
                                                               266 265                          272*    272*              276              276 276      275     275 White
                    258*                       261*                       264*     265
                             257*
                                                                                                 29       31                26              27 27        27       26 Gap
            250                                  27             27 27       28       28
                      29      29                                                                                          249              250 249      248*    250    Black
                                                               239 238             238          243*    242*
                    229*                       234*                       236*
                             228*
            200


               0
                   1992n    1994n              1998           2002 2003   2005    2007        1992n    1994n             1998             2002 2003    2005     2007


n
    Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.
* Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.
NOTE: Data were not collected at grade 8 in 2000.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years,       31
1992–2007 Reading Assessments.
Reading
     National    ■   Grades 4 & 8




     Reading scores and achievement gaps by family income,
     2003–2007
     NAEP uses student eligibility for free or reduced-price
     school lunch as an indicator of family income. At grade                                Eligibility for free and reduced-price lunch
     4, reading scores were higher in 2007 than in 2003 for
                                                                                            NAEP collects data on students’ eligibility for the
     both Black and White public school students, regardless
                                                                                            National School Lunch Program (NSLP)—sometimes
     of school-lunch eligibility (figure 19). The gap in 2007 for                           referred to as the free and reduced-price school lunch
     not-eligible students was narrower than in 2003, while the                             program—as an indicator of family economic status.
     gap for students eligible for free lunch was narrower than                             Eligibility for free and reduced-price lunches is based on
     in either previous assessment.                                                         students’ family income in relation to the federally estab­
                                                                                            lished poverty level.
     At grade 8, scores were higher for Black and White not-
     eligible students only, comparing 2007 with 2005 (figure                               Not eligible: Students who are not eligible for the program
                                                                                            because their family’s income is above 185 percent of the
     20). There were no statistically significant changes in the                            poverty level.
     sizes of the gaps.
                                                                                            Eligible for reduced-price lunch: Students who are
                                                                                            eligible for reduced-price lunch because their family’s
                                                                                            income is between 130 percent and 185 percent of the
        Table 2.          P
                         	 ercentage of public school 
                                     poverty level.
                         students assessed in NAEP reading 

                         by eligibility for free or reduced-
                               Eligible for free lunch: Students who are eligible for free
                         price school lunch, race/ethnicity 
                               lunch because their family’s income is below 130 percent
                                                                                            of the poverty level.
                         and grade: 2003, 2005, and 2007

                                                  Eligible for                              As a result of improvements in the quality of the data on 

                                                reduced-price         Eligible for free     students’ eligibility for NSLP, the percentage of students 

                            Not eligible            lunch                  lunch
                           Black     White       Black    White        Black    White
                                                                                            for whom information was not available has decreased in 

        Grade 4 
                                                                           comparison to the percentages reported prior to the 2003 

          2007                 26       73            7         6         66        21
     assessment. Therefore, trend comparisons are only made 

          2005                 25       72            8         7         66        20
     back to 2003 in this report.

          2003                 24       72            9         8         65        18

        Grade 8 

          2007                 32       76            7         5         59        18

          2005                 32       75            9         6         57        17

          2003                 32       76            9         6         56        14

        NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding.

        SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National 

        Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress 

        (NAEP), 2003, 2005, and 2007 Reading Assessments.





32
                                                                                                                                                                   Reading

                                                                                                                                                       National      ■   Grades 4 & 8




Figure 19.               Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade
                         4, by eligibility for free or reduced-price school lunch: 2003, 2005, and 2007

           Scale score
           500               Not eligible                        Eligible for reduced-price lunch                          Eligible for free lunch

           260
                   232*             233*             235
                      21*                              19             216*             218*             221
                                                                                                                                          213              214    White
                                       20                                                                 13
                                                                                                                         211*
           210
                                                     216                15               16                                                 19*              16 Gap
                   211*             212*                                                                208                19*
                                                                      201*             202*                                                                197
                                                                                                                         191*             193*                 Black
           110


              0
                   2003            2005              2007             2003            2005              2007            2003             2005              2007

* Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2003, 2005, and
2007 Reading Assessments.




Figure 20.               Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade
                         8, by eligibility for free or reduced-price school lunch: 2003, 2005, and 2007

           Scale score
                                 Not eligible                     Eligible for reduced-price lunch                        Eligible for free lunch
            500


            300
                   274              273*             274
                                                        20
                                                                      262              260              262
                                                                                                                         255              256              257 White
                     21                22
            250                                                          14               15              15               17                20              19 Gap
                   253              251*             254              248                               248
                                                                                       245
                                                                                                                         237              236              238 Black
            200


              0
                   2003             2005             2007             2003             2005             2007             2003             2005             2007

* Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2003, 2005, and
2007 Reading Assessments.




                                                                                                                                                                                        33
Reading
     Main NAEP State Results for Black and White Fourth- and
     Eighth-Graders



     The NAEP state reading assessments were administered           Comparisons of the reading gaps within a state over time
     to public school students in fourth grade in 1992, 1994,       are presented in a series of small graphs in figure 22. At
     1998, 2002, 2003, 2005, and 2007 and in eighth grade in        the top left of each two-page spread, the reading scores and
     1998, 2002, 2003, 2005, and 2007. Before 2003, states were     gaps for the nation are presented for reference. Each state
     not required to participate in NAEP in order to qualify        figure, as well as the national figure, also contains a dotted
     for Title I education funds. Typically, 40 or more states      red line representing the national average for public school
     participated in each assessment prior to 2003. In 2003,        students. The data for the national averages are located in
     2005, and 2007, all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and   appendix B in table B-4.
     the DoDEA schools participated.
     State results are presented in two ways. Comparisons of
     fourth-grade reading gaps in 2007 between each state and
     the nation are presented in figure 21.




34
                                                                                                                                               Reading
                                                                                                                                               State   ■   Grade 4




State and national reading achievement gaps at grade 4, 2007
Nine states had a Black-White gap that
was smaller than the nation’s 27-point         Figure 21.                 The Black-White achievement score gap in
gap in 2007 (Arizona, Delaware, DoDEA,                                    reading for public school students at grade 4,
Hawaii, Kentucky, New Hampshire,                                          by state or jurisdiction: 2007
Oklahoma, Virginia, and West Virginia)                  Jurisdictions                        Black               Gap         White
and eight had a gap that was larg­                   Nation (public)                          203                27           230
er (Arkansas, Connecticut, District                          Alabama                        201                 26          227
                                                               Alaska                               207           22         228
of Columbia, Minnesota, Nebraska,                              Arizona                             206          17*      224
Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Wisconsin).                    Arkansas                  195               31*                226
                                                            California                      200           27                227
In 27 states, the gap was not different from                 Colorado                                 210          24            234
                                                         Connecticut                          203                34*                 238
the national gap. Gaps that are different                   Delaware                                    213        20*          233
from the national gap are indicated with        District of Columbia               192                                67*                          258
                                                              DoDEA1                                         218       17*        235
an asterisk (figure 21).                                       Florida                             208           24            232
                                                              Georgia                           205            25            230
The Black-White grade 4 reading gap                            Hawaii                                  212      15*       227
                                                               Illinois                     201              29              230
in 2007 was significant in all 44 states for                  Indiana                       201            24            226
which data could be reported. The gaps                            Iowa                          205           22          227
                                                               Kansas                              208          22          229
ranged from 13 points in West Virginia to                    Kentucky                         203           21*         225
67 points in the District of Columbia.                      Louisiana                194            26             220
                                                            Maryland                               208             28              236
                                                     Massachusetts                                    211              31              241
                                                            Michigan                    197               30              227
                                                           Minnesota                     198                33*               231
                                                          Mississippi                 195            27              222
                                                             Missouri                      200            26             226
                                                            Nebraska                 194                 36*                 230
                                                              Nevada                         202           22          224
                                                     New Hampshire                                        215      14*       230
                                                           New Jersey                                  212            26             238
                                                          New Mexico                               208         20          228
                                                             New York                              208            26             234
                                                      North Carolina                         202             26            228
                                                                   Ohio                        204             27             231
                                                           Oklahoma                            204         19*        223
                                                               Oregon                    198           25            222
                                                       Pennsylvania                        200                33*               233
                                                        Rhode Island                     198              29              227
                                                      South Carolina                      199            26            224
                                                           Tennessee               192               32*               224
                                                                 Texas                            207            25            232
                                                              Virginia                                  213         20*         233
                                                         Washington                              206           23           229
                                                        West Virginia                        202     13*       216
                                                           Wisconsin              191                  38*                  229

                                                                      0     180    190       200          210       220      230     240     250   260      500
                                                                                                                 Scale score                                         35
                                               * Significantly different (p<.05) from the nation (public) when comparing one state to the nation at a time.
                                               1
                                                 Department of Defense Education Activity (overseas and domestic schools).
                                               NOTE: States whose Black student population size was insufficient for comparison are omitted. Reporting standards
                                               not met for Idaho, Maine, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, and Wyoming.
                                               SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education
                                               Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2007 Reading Assessment.
Reading

     State   ■   Grade 4




     Trends in state reading achievement gaps at grade 4, 1992–2007

     The Black-White reading gap among the nation’s public
                                                                                 Narrowing of the Gap
     school fourth-graders was narrower in 2007 than in 1992
     as average scores for Black students demonstrated a larger    In the following three states, the reading gap was nar­
     increase than average scores for White students (figure 22,   rower in 2007 than in 1992, as Black students’ scores
     National results).                                            increased more than those of their White peers.

     In 13 states, both Black and White fourth-graders achieved      Delaware                   New Jersey
     higher average scores in reading during this period. In         Florida
     three states—Delaware, Florida, and New Jersey—the gap
                                                                   In Alabama, the reading gap narrowed between 2005
     was narrower in 2007 than in 1992 as Black students’ scores
                                                                   and 2007 as Black students’ scores increased more than
     increased more than those of White students.                  White students’ scores.
     In addition, gaps narrowed from 2005 to 2007 in Alabama,
                                                                   In Arizona and Virginia, the reading gap narrowed
     Arizona, and Virginia.                                        between 2005 and 2007 as Black students’ scores
                                                                   increased while those of White students did not change
                                                                   significantly.




36
                                                                                                                                                                  Reading
                                                                                                                                                                  State       ■   Grade 4




Figure 22.                 Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade
                           4, by state: Various years, 1992–2007

 Scale score
 500                       NATIONAL1                                                Alabama                                                  Alaska
                        (Black: 17%, White: 56%)2                               (Black: 37%, White: 58%)                               (Black: 4%, White: 54%)

 260
         223* 222*            223* 223* 227* 227* 228* 230                             222                        227                                       226   225   228 White
                                                                217* 219*                        218* 219* 220*
 210      32* 38*               31 34*    29* 30* 29* 27                                                           26                                        17 13 22             Gap
                                                                  30 33*                31        30 30 32*                                                       212
                                                                                                                                                            209         207 Black
                                                    199* 203                                                      201
         191*                 192* 189* 198* 197*               187* 185*             191*       188* 188* 188*
                 184*
 160                                                                                                                                                                      National
                                                                                                                                                                          average

    0        n      n                                                 n     n
         1992 1994            1998 2000 2002 2003 2005 2007     1992 1994             1998       2002 2003 2005 2007                                        2003 2005 2007


 500                         Arizona                                                Arkansas                                              California
                        (Black: 5%, White: 44%)                                 (Black: 20%, White: 70%)                               (Black: 7%, White: 28%)

 260
                                                                                                  222 223 225     226                                    223 224 225    227 White
          220    219           219        220 223 224     224   218* 217*             216*                              217* 212*            217*
 210       22 31*              28          21 27 31* 17           29 34                           33 33 32         31
                                                                                                                                              31         27 31 30        27       Gap
                                                                                       32                                36 30
          198                             199 196 193* 206                                                        195                                    196 193 195    200 Black
                 188*         191*                              189* 182*             184*       188* 190 194           181* 182*            186*
 160                                                                                                                                                                      National
                                                                                                                                                                          average

    0
         1992n 1994n          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007    1992n 1994n           1998       2002 2003 2005 2007    1992n 1994n          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


 500
                            Colorado                                              Connecticut                                              Delaware
                        (Black: 5%, White: 62%)                                 (Black: 14%, White: 64%)                               (Black: 34%, White: 53%)

 260
                              226*           232    232   234   230* 233*
                                                                                      237        237 238 234      238                                   233 233 235     233 White
         221* 220*                                                                                                      221* 215*            218*
                                              23    25     24                          34          31 37 33        34                                    24 22 23        20       Gap
 210       21 29                30                               34 45                                                    26* 28*
                                             208    207   210                                                                                 30*       209* 211 212    213   Black
          200                  197                                                    203        206 201 201      203
                 192*                                           195       189                                           195*                 189*
                                                                                                                                187*
 160                                                                                                                                                                      National
                                                                                                                                                                          average

    0
             n      n                                                 n     n                                               n      n
         1992 1994            1998           2003 2005 2007     1992 1994             1998       2002 2003 2005 2007    1992 1994            1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


 500             District of Columbia                                                 DoDEA3                                                 Florida
                        (Black: 86%, White: 6%)                                 (Black: 19%, White: 49%)                               (Black: 21%, White: 47%)

                                                          258
 260     246     248          247        248 254 252
                                                                                     227*        230* 230* 232* 235                                     226* 229 228* 232 White
                                                                                                                        218* 217*            217*
                                          60 70 66
                                                           67                           18         15 16    14 17                                                        24       Gap
 210       62 73               72                                                                                                                        30 31* 26
                                                                                                 215 214 218      218     33* 36*             31*
                                                                                     209*                                                                         203* 208    Black
                                                                                                                                                        196* 198*                           37
         185*                            188* 184* 187* 192                                                             185* 181*            186*
 160             174*         174*                                                                                                                                        National
                                                                                                                                                                          average

    0
         1992n 1994n          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007                          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007    1992n 1994n          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007

See notes at end of figure.
Reading
     State       ■   Grade 4




        Figure 22.                     Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade
                                       4, by state: Various years, 1992–2007—Continued

         Scale score
         500                           NATIONAL1                                                     Georgia                                                    Hawaii
                                    (Black: 17%, White: 56%)2                                  (Black: 39%, White: 48%)                                   (Black: 3%, White: 16%)

         260
                     223* 222*             223* 223* 227* 227* 228* 230                                           226 226 226         230                                                    227 White
                                                                                223* 221*            221*                                                                   219* 221 224
                                                                                                                                            212* 214*          214*                           15
         210          32* 38*               31 34* 29* 30*
                                                                     29* 27
                                                                                  28 37*                           26 27 27            25
                                                                                                                                               7 17              11           1210 19               Gap
                                                                                                      30                                                                                     212
                                                                                                                                                                             208 211 205           Black
                                                       198* 197* 199* 203       195*                              200* 199* 199* 205        205
                                                                                                                                                   197          203
                     191*                  192* 189*                                                 191*
                             184*                                                      184*
         160                                                                                                                                                                                   National
                                                                                                                                                                                               average

             0
                     1992n 1994n          1998 2000 2002 2003 2005 2007         1992n 1994n         1998         2002 2003 2005 2007        1992n 1994n        1998         2002 2003 2005 2007


         500                                Idaho                                                    Illinois                                                  Indiana
                                      (Black: 1%, White: 81%)
                                                                                               (Black: 20%, White: 55%)                                   (Black: 10%, White: 80%)
                                Gap data not available
         260
                                                        224* 222* 226     227                                             228   230   230   224    224                       225 224 223     226 White
                     221*
         210                                                                                                              34 36        29    25 31                            23 28 26        24    Gap
                                                                                                                                                                             202 197 197     201 Black
                                                                                                                        194* 194* 201       200
                                                                                                                                                   192
         160                                                                                                                                                                                   National
                                                                                                                                                                                               average

             0
                     1992n                             2002 2003 2005 2007                                              2003 2005 2007      1992n 1994n                     2002 2003 2005 2007


         500                                 Iowa                                                    Kansas                                                   Kentucky
                                      (Black: 5%, White: 86%)                                   (Black: 8%, White: 73%)                                   (Black: 11%, White: 84%)

         260
                     226     224           222          225 226 224       227                        227          226 225 225         229
                                                                                                                                                               220*         222 221 222      225 White
                                                                                                                                            214* 214*
         210           18                                 18 30 23         22                         30           20 28 29            22                                    23 20 19         21    Gap
                              39           31                                                                                                18 24               21
                     208                                207               205                                     206                 208
                                           191                  196 201                              197                197* 196*           196 190*           199          199 202 203      203   Black
                             185
         160                                                                                                                                                                                   National
                                                                                                                                                                                               average

             0
                     1992n 1994n          1998         2002 2003 2005 2007                          1998         2002 2003 2005 2007        1992n 1994n        1998         2002 2003 2005 2007


         500                             Louisiana                                                    Maine                                                   Maryland
                                     (Black: 48%, White: 49%)                                   (Black: 2%, White: 96%)                                   (Black: 34%, White: 52%)
                                                                                              Gap data not available
         260
                                                                                                                                                                            230* 231* 232    236 White
                                                                                227    229           225          225 224 225         226                      224*
                     215 213*              218          221 223 223       220                                                               220* 222*
                                                                                                                                                                              30 31 32        28    Gap
         210
                      26                   38*           30 35* 28         26                                                                29 37*              34
                                                                                                                                                                                             208 Black
                              35*                                                                                                                                           199* 200* 201*
38                   189                                192 189* 195      194                                                               192*
                                                                                                                                                   185*        190*
                             178*         180*
         160                                                                                                                                                                                   National
                                                                                                                                                                                               average

             0
                     1992n 1994n          1998         2002 2003 2005 2007      1992n 1994n         1998         2002 2003 2005 2007        1992n 1994n        1998         2002 2003 2005 2007


        See notes at end of figure.
                                                                                                                                                                              Reading
                                                                                                                                                                              State       ■   Grade 4




Figure 22.                     Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade
                               4, by state: Various years, 1992–2007—Continued

 Scale score
 500                         Massachusetts                                                  Michigan                                               Minnesota
                             (Black: 8%, White: 75%)                                    (Black: 20%, White: 71%)                                (Black: 8%, White: 78%)

 260
                                              239 234* 237* 241
        230* 230*                  228*                                                                  226 228   226   227                                     229 229     231   231 White
                                                                    222*                       223                              223* 221*             224*
                                               2727 26         31
 210     26         33              26                                                                     31 40* 36      30     34 45
                                                                                                                                                                  27 35 39          33        Gap
                                              212 207 211     211     35                       36                                                      40
        204
                  196*             202*
                                                                                                         195 189   190
                                                                                                                         197                                     202
                                                                                                                                                                       194   192   198 Black
                                                                    187                        187                              189                    184
 160                                                                                                                                    176                                              National
                                                                                                                                                                                         average

   0
        1992n 1994n               1998       2002 2003 2005 2007    1992n                     1998       2002 2003 2005 2007    1992n 1994n           1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


 500                           Mississippi                                                  Missouri                                                Montana
                             (Black: 51%, White: 47%)                                   (Black: 20%, White: 75%)                                (Black: 1%, White: 83%)
                                                                                                                                            Gap data not available
 260
                                                              222   225 221*                             226 227   226   226            225*           227       226 227     228 230      White
         217       218             215*       218 221 220                                     221*
 210                                                           27     30 30                                28 24 26       26                                                                  Gap
         31 33                      26         29 29 30                                         33
                                                              195   195                                  197 203   200   200                                                              Black
        186* 185*                  189*       189* 192 190                    191              188
 160                                                                                                                                                                                     National
                                                                                                                                                                                         average

   0
        1992n 1994n               1998       2002 2003 2005 2007    1992n 1994n               1998       2002 2003 2005 2007            1994n         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


 500                             Nebraska                                                    Nevada                                           New Hampshire
                             (Black: 8%, White: 76%)                                    (Black: 9%, White: 44%)                                 (Black: 2%, White: 92%)

 260
                                                                                                                                                                                   230
                                                                                                                                                                                          White
                                              226 225* 228    230                                                               228 224*              227              229   228
        224* 223*                                                                                       218* 217* 219* 224
                                               17*21* 34
                                                                                             213*
                                                                                                                          22
                                                                                                                                                                                    14        Gap
 210      28 33                                                36                                          22 25 27
                                                                                                30                                                                                 215    Black
                                              209 203                                                                    202
        196                                             194   194                                        196 193 192
                  190                                                                        183*
 160                                                                                                                                                                                     National
                                                                                                                                                                                         average

   0
        1992n 1994n                          2002 2003 2005 2007                              1998       2002 2003 2005 2007    1992n 1994n           1998             2003 2005 2007


 500                           New Jersey                                                New Mexico                                                 New York
                             (Black: 15%, White: 59%)                                   (Black: 3%, White: 32%)                                 (Black: 19%, White: 53%)

 260
       233* 231*                                 235 232* 238                                                                                         228*
                                                                                                                                                                  235 235    232   234 White
                                                                    223 220*                  222        223 222   225   228    226* 226*
                                                               26                                                          20                                     32 32* 24         26        Gap
 210      35* 40*                                 36* 33              21 24                    26             20 18              27 36*               37*
                                                              212                                                        208                                                       208 Black
       198*                                      200* 199*          202       196             196           202    206          199*                              202 203* 207
                  191*                                                                                                                  190*          191*                                              39
 160                                                                                                                                                                                     National
                                                                                                                                                                                         average

   0          n          n                                                n         n                                               n       n
        1992 1994                                2003 2005 2007     1992 1994                 1998       2002 2003 2005 2007    1992 1994             1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


See notes at end of figure.
Reading
     State       ■   Grade 4




        Figure 22.                     Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade
                                       4, by state: Various years, 1992–2007—Continued

         Scale score
                                       NATIONAL1                                                                                                     North Dakota
         500
                                    (Black: 17%, White: 56%)2                                North Carolina
                                                                                             (Black: 27%, White: 56%)                               (Black: 2%, White: 88%)

         260                                                                                                                                    Gap data not available
                                                                                                             232* 232* 227                                                           229 White
                     223* 222*            223* 223* 227* 227* 228* 230        220* 224             223*                        228    226    227                     226 224* 228

         210           32* 38*              31 34*     29* 30* 29* 27          26 32                30          27 29 27         26                                                           Gap
                                                                                                              205 203          202                                                          Black
                                          192* 189*   198* 197* 199* 203     194*     192*         193*                  200
                     191*
                             184*
         160                                                                                                                                                                               National
                                                                                                                                                                                           average

             0
                     1992n 1994n          1998 2000 2002 2003 2005 2007       1992n 1994n          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007     1992n 1994n                    2002 2003 2005 2007


         500                                Ohio                                                Oklahoma                                                  Oregon
                                    (Black: 17%, White: 75%)                                 (Black: 10%, White: 60%)                               (Black: 3%, White: 69%)
         260
                                                      229 226* 230     231
                     220*                                                     223                  225        220 220 219      223                        217*       223 222 223     222 White
         210                                           27 25 33         27     22                   30                           19                                   20 19 23        25      Gap
                       23                                                                                      32* 25 22                                   25
                                                      202 202 197      204    201                                              204                                   204 202 200     198
                     197                                                                           195
                                                                                                              188*
                                                                                                                     195 197                              191                               Black
         160                                                                                                                                                                               National
                                                                                                                                                                                           average

             0
                     1992n                            2002 2003 2005 2007     1992n                1998       2002 2003 2005 2007                         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


         500                        Pennsylvania                                              Rhode Island                                          South Carolina
                                    (Black: 15%, White: 76%)                                 (Black: 9%, White: 68%)                                (Black: 36%, White: 56%)

         260
                     227* 224*                        228* 227* 229* 233      223     225          226        227 224 224      227                                   225 226 225     224    White
                                                                                                                                      221 218*            221
                                                                        33
         210          36                               37 36 29                 31 28                34         26 28 28         29    27                  29          26 27 27       26      Gap
                              46*                                                                                                             36*
                                                                 200   200            197                     201 196 197      198                                   199 199 197     199    Black
                     190*                             192 191*                192                  192                                194                192*
                             178*                                                                                                            182*
         160                                                                                                                                                                               National
                                                                                                                                                                                           average

             0
                     1992n 1994n                      2002 2003 2005 2007     1992n 1994n          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007     1992n 1994n         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


         500                        South Dakota                                                Tennessee                                                  Texas
                                    (Black: 2%, White: 84%)                                  (Black: 25%, White: 70%)                               (Black: 16%, White: 37%)
         260                    Gap data not available
                                                                       228                                                                                230         232 227* 232   232 White
                                                         227     226
                                                                             218* 219             218*         220 220 222     224    223* 226*
         210                                                                                                                            24 36                         30 25 26        25      Gap
                                                                               26 31                 25         26 32 27        32                         39*
                                                                                                                                                                      202 202 206    207    Black
                                                                                                               194 188 195            199*
40                                                                            192     188          193                         192           190*         191*
         160                                                                                                                                                                               National
                                                                                                                                                                                           average

             0
                                                         2003 2005 2007       1992n 1994n          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007     1992n 1994n         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


        See notes at end of figure.
                                                                                                                                                                           Reading
                                                                                                                                                                          State      ■   Grade 4




Figure 22.                   Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade
                             4, by state: Various years, 1992–2007—Continued

    Scale score
    500                          Utah                                                      Vermont                                                  Virginia
                          (Black: 1%, White: 81%)                                      (Black: 2%, White: 94%)                                 (Black: 26%, White: 60%)
                     Gap data not available                                       Gap data not available
    260
                                                                                                        227 226 227    229       227* 224*                      233 231 233     233 White
           222* 219*            220*        224 223 226    226                                                                                      225*
                                                                                                                                   26 32*                      27* 25 26* 20             Gap
    210                                                                                                                                               27*
                                                                                                                                                                              213 Black
                                                                                                                                 201*               199*       205* 206* 207*
                                                                                                                                        192*
    160                                                                                                                                                                           National
                                                                                                                                                                                  average

      0
           1992n 1994n          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007                                          2002 2003 2005 2007      1992n 1994n        1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


    500                    Washington                                                  West Virginia                                              Wisconsin
                          (Black: 6%, White: 66%)                                      (Black: 6%, White: 93%)                                 (Black: 11%, White: 79%)

    260
                                            227 226 228    229                                                                   227    227          228           225    227   229 White
                  216*          221*                                     216                 216        220 220* 215   216
                                             14 14* 16                         214
    210                          17                         23                                            13 17 13 13             28 32                            25* 33        38      Gap
                    19                      213 212 212                          13          23*                                                     41
                                204                        206                                           207 203 202   202                                         200
                                                                                                                                                                                191 Black
                  198                                                          200           194                                 198    196                               194
                                                                                                                                                     187
    160                                                                                                                                                                           National
                                                                                                                                                                                  average

      0
                  1994n         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007           1992n 1994n         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007      1992n 1994n        1998           2003 2005 2007


    500                      Wyoming
                          (Black: 2%, White: 84%)
                     Gap data not available
    260
                                                                 White
          225* 223*                        224* 224* 227   228
                                220*
                                                                  Gap
    210
                                                                 Black

    160                                                      National
                                                             average

      0
           1992n 1994n          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007




n
    Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.
* Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.
1
  National results for assessments prior to 2002 are based on the national sample, not on aggregated state samples.                                                                                41
2
  Black and White percentages are based on students tested in 2007.
3
  Department of Defense Education Activity (overseas and domestic schools). Before 2005, DoDEA overseas and domestic schools were separate jurisdictions in NAEP. Pre-2005 data pre­
sented here were recalculated for comparability.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Where data are not present, the jurisdiction did not participate or did not meet the minimum participation guidelines for reporting.
State-level data were not collected in 2000. Comparative performance results may be affected by changes in exclusion rates for students with disabilities and English language learners in
the NAEP samples.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years,
1992–2007 Reading Assessments.
42
                                                                                                                                                      Reading
                                                                                                                                                National    ■   Grade 8




State and national reading achievement gaps at grade 8, 2007
Nine states had a Black-White gap that
was smaller than the nation’s 26-point          Figure 23.               The Black-White achievement score gap in
gap in 2007 (Alaska, Delaware, DoDEA,                                    reading for public school students at grade 8,
Hawaii, Kentucky, Nevada, New Mexico,                                    by state or jurisdiction: 2007
Virginia, and West Virginia) and one had               Jurisdictions                   Black             Gap            White
a gap that was larger (Wisconsin). In                Nation (public)                   244               26              270
32 states, the gap was not significantly dif­              Alabama              236              26          261
                                                              Alaska                           250         20*            270
ferent from the nation’s. State gaps that                    Arizona                          248         21            269
are either significantly larger or smaller                Arkansas           236                    31                266
                                                          California          237                   29                266
than the national gap are indicated with                   Colorado                               252            22              275
asterisks (figure 23).                                 Connecticut                          246                30                 276
                                                          Delaware                              250            23*              274
                                                              DoDEA                                 259       19*                   278
In Hawaii, the 7-point difference between
                                                             Florida                   244         24           268
the average scores for Black and White                      Georgia                      246          25           271
                                                             Hawaii                             255 7* 262
students was not statistically significant,                                                          27
                                                              Illinois               244                           271
and thus there was no Black-White gap                       Indiana                242            26            268
                                                                 Iowa                   247           22          270
for grade 8 reading in that state in 2007. In                Kansas                    246            27            272
the other 41 states for which reliable data                Kentucky                     247       17*       264
                                                          Louisiana              240            23          264
could be reported, the differences were sta­              Maryland                        249            27             276
tistically significant. The gaps ranged from         Massachusetts                            253           25            278
                                                          Michigan           236               31              267
15 points in West Virginia and Nevada to                 Minnesota                    245             28             273
38 points in Wisconsin.                                 Mississippi           238             25            264
                                                           Missouri                242             28             270
                                                          Nebraska                  243             28             271
                                                            Nevada                       248      15*      263
                                                         New Jersey                       249             29              278
                                                        New Mexico                       248       17*       265
                                                           New York                    246             29             274
                                                     North Carolina               241              29             270
                                                                 Ohio                  246             27             274
                                                         Oklahoma                   243           22          266
                                                             Oregon                        250         20         270
                                                      Pennsylvania                       248           25           272
                                                      Rhode Island             239              29             267
                                                     South Carolina                242            26            268
                                                         Tennessee               240             27            267
                                                                Texas                     249            26            275
                                                            Virginia                         252         20*         273
                                                        Washington                      247           23          270
                                                      West Virginia               241      15*       256
                                                         Wisconsin       231                 38*                  270

                                                                     0    230         240        250       260         270         280    290   300   310       500
                                                                                                                  Scale score                                             43
                                                * Significantly different (p<.05) from the nation (public) when comparing one state to the nation at a time.
                                                1
                                                  Department of Defense Education Activity (overseas and domestic schools).
                                                NOTE: States whose Black or White student population size was insufficient for comparison are omitted.
                                                Reporting standards not met for District of Columbia, Idaho, Maine, Montana, New Hampshire, North Dakota,
                                                South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, and Wyoming.
                                                SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education
                                                Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2007 Reading Assessment.
Reading
     State   ■   Grade 8




     Trends in state reading achievement gaps at grade 8, 1998–2007
     Reading scores for the nation’s public school students in       there was no significant change in gap. During this period,
     the eighth grade were higher in 2007 than in 1992 for both      five other states showed significant changes in average
     Black and White students, but were not significantly differ­    scores in one, but not both, of the two student groups. From
     ent than in 1998 (figure 24, National results). Moreover, the   2005 to 2007, the gap did not change in any state.
     national eighth-grade reading gap has not changed since
                                                                     Despite the fact that no statistically significant changes in
     either 1992 or 1998. NAEP first conducted eighth-grade
                                                                     state gaps were identified, the 7-point difference in Black
     reading assessments at the state level in 1998.
                                                                     and White students’ scores in Hawaii for 2007 was itself not
     From 1998 to 2007, the Black-White score gap did not            statistically significant, so that no Black-White score gap in
     change for any state. In Delaware, scores for both Black and    grade 8 reading existed for that state.
     White eighth-graders were higher in 2007 than in 1998, but




44
                                                                                                                                          Reading
                                                                                                                                       State      ■   Grade 8




Figure 24.               Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade
                         8, by state: Various years, 1998–2007

 Scale score
 500
                         NATIONAL1                                Alabama                                     Alaska
                      (Black: 17%, White: 58%)2               (Black: 36%, White: 60%)                  (Black: 5%, White: 55%)

 300
        265* 265*             268      271 270 269* 270             265        264 262                                      268      268   270   White
                                                                                         263   261
 250      29 30                26       2727 27          26          28         30 26 29        26
                                                                                                                                19 19       20     Gap
                                       244 244 242* 244                                                                     249      249   250   Black
                              242                                   237
        236* 235*                                                              234 237   235   236
                                                                                                                                                 National
 200                                                                                                                                             average


    0
            n     n
        1992 1994          1998        2002 2003 2005 2007         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007                               2003 2005 2007


 500
                           Arizona                                Arkansas                                 California
                      (Black: 5%, White: 47%)                 (Black: 24%, White: 68%)                  (Black: 7%, White: 33%)

 300
                              269      267 268    267   269         263        267 266   266   266            268        265 265     264   266   White
                               21       1724 25          21
 250                                                                 29         28 33 29        31            30          2326 24           29     Gap
                              248      250 245          248
                                                  242                          238 232   236   236            238        242 239     240   237   Black
                                                                    234
                                                                                                                                                 National
 200                                                                                                                                             average


    0
                           1998        2002 2003 2005 2007         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007            1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


 500                      Colorado                              Connecticut                                 Delaware
                      (Black: 7%, White: 64%)                 (Black: 13%, White: 69%)                 (Black: 34%, White: 55%)

 300
                              270*         275    273   275         277        277 275   272   276                      275 273     274    274   White
                                                                                                             263*
                               22          26 19         22          32         38 31 32        30                        2324 22           23     Gap
 250                                                                                                          28
                              248          249    254   252                                                             252 248     252    250   Black
                                                                    245        240 244   240   246
                                                                                                             234*
                                                                                                                                                 National
 200                                                                                                                                             average


    0
                           1998        2002 2003 2005 2007         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007            1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


 500            District of Columbia                                DoDEA3                                 Florida
                      (Black: 88%, White: 3%)                 (Black: 19%, White: 47%)               (Black: 23%, White: 49%)
                                                  301
 300
                                                                    276        278 278   276 278
                                                                                1619                          264        269 268     265   268   White
                                                  66                 22                   18 19
 250                                                                           262 258                        28          25 29 26          24     Gap
                                                                    254                  258 259
                                                                                                                         244 239     238   244   Black
                              233      238 236    235   238                                                   236                                               45
                                                                                                                                                 National
 200                                                                                                                                             average


    0
                           1998        2002 2003 2005 2007         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007            1998       2002 2003 2005 2007

See notes at end of figure.
Reading
     State       ■    Grade 8




        Figure 24.                     Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade
                                       8, by state: Various years, 1998–2007—Continued

        Scale score
        500
                                       NATIONAL1                                  Georgia                                 Hawaii
                                   (Black: 17%, White: 58%)2                 (Black: 45%, White: 46%)               (Black: 2%, White: 13%)

        300
                     265* 265*            268        271 270 269* 270              268        268 268 268     271                                            White
                                                                                                                         262         263 259 261   262
        250            29 30              26          2727 27         26            27          22 25 27 25                       10                     7      Gap
                                                                                                                                     253           255
                     236* 235*            242        244 244 242* 244              241        246 244 241     246                                            Black
                                                                                                                                                             National
        200                                                                                                                                                  average


             0
                     1992n 1994n         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007           1998       2002 2003 2005 2007         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


        500                               Idaho                                    Illinois                              Indiana
                                   (Black: 1%, White: 84%)                   (Black: 17%, White: 60%)               (Black: 12%, White: 79%)
                              Gap data not available
        300
                                                                                                 276* 272     271
                                                     269 267 267     268                                                            267 269 265    268       White
                                                                                                   29 28 27                            20 24 24 26              Gap
        250
                                                                                                  247   244   244                   247 244 241    242       Black
                                                                                                                                                             National
        200                                                                                                                                                  average


             0
                                                    2002 2003 2005 2007                          2003 2005 2007          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


        500                                Iowa                                    Kansas                               Kentucky
                                   (Black: 5%, White: 87%)                   (Black: 8%, White: 77%)                (Black: 12%, White: 84%)

        300
                                                        269    269   270          272         273 271 271     272
                                                                                                                         264        267 269* 266   264
                                                                                                                                                             White
                                                             25 23 22               22          29 27 24 27               19           19 24 18 17              Gap
        250
                                                        245    246   247          249         244 243 247     246        246        248 245 248    247       Black
                                                                                                                                                             National
        200                                                                                                                                                  average


             0
                                                        2003 2005 2007            1998       2002 2003 2005 2007         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


        500                            Louisiana                                   Maine                                Maryland
                                   (Black: 44%, White: 53%)                  (Black: 2%, White: 96%)                (Black: 38%, White: 51%)
                                                                           Gap data not available
        300
                                                    268 267 264                   272         270 269 270     270        272        274 271 272    276       White
                                         262                         264
                                                       28 28 24       23                                                  32           28 26 29 27              Gap
        250                                26
                                                                                                                                    246 245 244    249       Black
                                                    240 238 240      240                                                 240*
46                                       236
                                                                                                                                                             National
        200                                                                                                                                                  average


             0
                                         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007           1998       2002 2003 2005 2007         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007

       See notes at end of figure.
                                                                                                                                         Reading
                                                                                                                                     State      ■   Grade 8




Figure 24.              Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade
                        8, by state: Various years, 1998–2007—Continued

 Scale score
 500               Massachusetts                                Michigan                                   Minnesota
                    (Black: 8%, White: 76%)                 (Black: 19%, White: 75%)                    (Black: 6%, White: 82%)

 300
                          274        278 278 279    278                                                                     273    273   273    White
                                                                              270 272* 268     267           269
                              27      31 26 26        25
                                                                                28 31 29 31                                  29 34        28        Gap
 250                                                                                                          38
                                             253    253
                          246        246 252                                  242 242 239                                   243    239   245    Black
                                                                                               236           231
                                                                                                                                               National
 200                                                                                                                                           average


   0
                          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007                     2002 2003 2005 2007            1998            2003 2005 2007


 500                  Mississippi                                 Missouri                                  Montana
                   (Black: 53%, White: 44%)                  (Black: 20%, White: 75%)                   (Black: 1%, White: 84%)
                                                                                                      Gap data not available
 300
                                     268 267 264                              271 272 270      270           273        273 273 272      274
                          264                       264           265*                                                                          White
                                                                     23         22 28 28 28
 250                          25       28 25 28      25                                                                                             Gap
                                                                              250
                          238        240 243 237    238            242               243 242   242                                              Black
                                                                                                                                               National
 200                                                                                                                                           average


   0
                          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007            1998        2002 2003 2005 2007


 500                   Nebraska                                    Nevada                              New Hampshire
                    (Black: 7%, White: 80%)                  (Black: 11%, White: 46%)                   (Black: 1%, White: 94%)
                                                                                                      Gap data not available
 300
                                     273 271 271    271                                                                    272     270   270    White
                                                                  264        259* 262 261      263
                                       27 32 28      28             23                    15                                                        Gap
 250                                                                           25* 29* 21
                                     246 239 243    243                                        248                                              Black
                                                                  241
                                                                             234* 233* 240
                                                                                                                                               National
 200                                                                                                                                           average


   0
                                     2002 2003 2005 2007          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007                            2003 2005 2007


 500                  New Jersey                            New Mexico                                      New York
                   (Black: 17%, White: 57%)                (Black: 3%, White: 32%)                      (Black: 19%, White: 57%)

 300
                                        277   278   278
                                                                  270                                        275        274 277 276      274    White
                                                                             266 268 264       265
                                          29 27       29                             22          17            28         28 32 34         29       Gap
 250
                                        248   251   249                          246           248           246        246 246 242      246    Black
                                                                                                                                               National
                                                                                                                                                              47
 200                                                                                                                                           average


   0
                                         2003 2005 2007           1998       2002 2003 2005 2007            1998        2002 2003 2005 2007

See notes at end of figure.
Reading
     State       ■    Grade 8




        Figure 24.                    Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade
                                      8, by state: Various years, 1998–2007—Continued

        Scale score
        500
                                      NATIONAL1                             North Carolina                             North Dakota
                                   (Black: 17%, White: 58%)2
                                                                            (Black: 30%, White: 58%)                   (Black: 1%, White: 88%)
                                                                                                                    Gap data not available
        300
                                         268        271 270 269* 270              270        274 271          270                      269 272 272     270   White
                     265* 265*                                                                       267
                                          26          2727 27         26           25          27 24 28 29                                                      Gap
        250            29 30
                     236* 235*           242        244 244 242* 244              246       247* 247*
                                                                                                        240   241                                            Black
                                                                                                                                                             National
        200                                                                                                                                                  average


             0
                     1992n 1994n         1998       2002 2003 2005 2007          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007                        2002 2003 2005 2007


        500                                Ohio                                Oklahoma                                     Oregon
                                   (Black: 18%, White: 76%)                 (Black: 11%, White: 59%)                   (Black: 2%, White: 75%)

        300
                                                    273 271    272   274          268        268 267          266           269        270 267   267   270   White
                                                                                                        265
        250
                                                      27 22 29         27          16         29 27 22 22                    30                15 22 20         Gap
                                                                                 253*                                                      251         250   Black
                                                    246 249    243   246                                243   243                                245
                                                                                             238 240                        239
                                                                                                                                                             National
        200                                                                                                                                                  average


             0
                                                    2002 2003 2005 2007          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007             1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


        500                        Pennsylvania                              Rhode Island                             South Carolina
                                   (Black: 14%, White: 77%)                 (Black: 9%, White: 70%)                   (Black: 38%, White: 56%)

        300
                                                    271 268 273      272         268         268 267 268      267           265        268 269 267     268   White
                                                     35* 25 34        25           22         25 26 25 29                     25         26 25 24 26            Gap
        250
                                                        243 239      248         246         243 241 243      239           240        243 244 242     242   Black
                                                    236
                                                                                                                                                             National
        200                                                                                                                                                  average


             0
                                                    2002 2003 2005 2007          1998       2002 2003 2005 2007             1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


        500                         South Dakota                               Tennessee                                   Texas
                                                                                                                    (Black: 16%, White: 39%)
                                   (Black: 2%, White: 87%)                  (Black: 27%, White: 68%)

        300                   Gap data not available
                                                       273     272   272                                      267           271         276 272 270    275   White
                                                                                 264         265 265 265
        250                                                                                    26 26     25 27
                                                                                                                              25         30 25 24 26            Gap
                                                                                   29
                                                                                                                            246         247 247 246    249   Black
48                                                                               235         240 239 240      240
                                                                                                                                                             National
        200                                                                                                                                                  average


             0
                                                        2003 2005 2007           1998       2002 2003 2005 2007             1998       2002 2003 2005 2007

       See notes at end of figure.
                                                                                                                                                                         Reading
                                                                                                                                                                        State      ■   Grade 8




Figure 24.               Gaps in average reading scores between Black and White public school students at grade
                         8, by state: Various years, 1998–2007—Continued

    Scale score
    500                      Utah                                                    Vermont                                                      Virginia
                     (Black: 1%, White: 81%)                                    (Black: 2%, White: 94%)                                     (Black: 26%, White: 61%)
                   Gap data not available                                    Gap data not available
    300
                           266         267 268 265     266                                        272 271 269* 273                                273         275 275 275    273   White
                                                                                                                                                   24         24 25 24 20              Gap
    250
                                                                                                                                                  250         252 250 251    252
                                                                                                                                                                                   Black
                                                                                                                                                                                   National
    200                                                                                                                                                                            average


      0
                           1998       2002 2003 2005 2007                                       2002 2003 2005 2007                              1998       2002 2003 2005 2007


    500
                       Washington                                               West Virginia                                                  Wisconsin
                     (Black: 5%, White: 68%)                                    (Black: 5%, White: 94%)                                      (Black: 9%, White: 81%)

    300
                           267         271 268 268     270                                                                                        269            271   271   270   White
                                                                                     262*        264* 260*
                                                                                                             256   256
    250                     25          24 17 13 23                                    14         22 12 20 15                                      35             38     35 38         Gap
                                                 255
                           242         247 251         247                            248         242 248 236      241
                                                                                                                                                  234            234   236   231
                                                                                                                                                                                   Black
                                                                                                                                                                                   National
    200                                                                                                                                                                            average


      0
                           1998       2002 2003 2005 2007                            1998       2002 2003 2005 2007                              1998           2003 2005 2007


    500
                         Wyoming
                     (Black: 1%, White: 85%)
                   Gap data not available
    300
                           265*        267 269 270     269
                                                             White
    250


                                                             National
    200                                                      average


      0
                           1998       2002 2003 2005 2007




n
    Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.
* Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.
1
  National results for assessments prior to 2002 are based on the national sample, not on aggregated state samples.                                                                              49
2
  Black and White percentages are based on students tested in 2007.
3
  Department of Defense Education Activity (overseas and domestic schools). Before 2005, DoDEA overseas and domestic schools were separate jurisdictions in NAEP. Pre-2005 data pre­
sented here were recalculated for comparability.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Where data are not present, the jurisdiction did not participate or did not meet the minimum participation guidelines for reporting.
State-level data were not collected in 1992, 1994, or 2000. Comparative performance results may be affected by changes in exclusion rates for students with disabilities and English lan­
guage learners in the NAEP samples.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), various years,
1992–2007 Reading Assessments.
     Appendix A: Technical Notes
     This report presents data from two different assessment         1996, 1999, and 2004 long-term trend reading assessments
     series, the NAEP long-term trend assessments and the            for Black and White public school students ages 9 and 13.
     main NAEP assessments. In most but not all cases, the           Earlier long-term trend assessment results are available, but
     two assessments used different procedures. Whenever a           only for both public and private school students combined.
     topic requires separate treatment of the two assessments,
     discussion of the long-term trend assessments, which pres­      Main NAEP
     ent national results only, appears first, followed by the       This report presents national data from the 1990, 1992,
     discussion of the main NAEP assessments, which present          1996, 2000, 2003, 2005, and 2007 main NAEP mathematics
     both national and state results. Discussion of main NAEP        assessments and the 1992, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2003, 2005, and
     grade 12 assessments is omitted in this report because these    2007 main NAEP reading assessments for Black and White
     assessments are conducted at the national level only.           public school students in the fourth and eighth grades. In
                                                                     2000, the reading assessment was also administered in the
     Frameworks, development,                                        fourth grade (see tables B-1 and B-3 in appendix B).
     administration, scoring, and analysis                           This report presents state data from the 1992, 1996, 2000,
                                                                     2003, 2005, and 2007 fourth-grade main NAEP mathemat­
     Long-term trend
                                                                     ics assessments and from the 1990, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2003,
     Overviews of these topics and more extensive information
                                                                     2005, and 2007 eighth-grade main NAEP mathematics
     about other topics for the long-term trend assessments
                                                                     assessments, for public school students only. The main
     can be obtained from NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic
                                                                     NAEP reading assessment was administered at the state
     Progress, available from the NAEP website http://nces.
                                                                     level to fourth-grade public school students in 1992, 1994,
     ed.gov/nationsreportcard/ltt/, which also provides links to
                                                                     1998, 2002, 2003, 2005, and 2007 and to eighth-grade public
     earlier reports in the long-term trend series. (In 2004, the
                                                                     school students in 1998, 2002, 2003, 2005, and 2007.
     long-trend assessments in reading and mathematics were
     conducted for two different “studies”: the “bridge study,”      Nationally in 2007, Black students constituted 17 percent
     which was identical to previous long-term assessments,          of the public school fourth-grade population (based on data
     and the “modified study,” which will be used in future          from the NAEP reading assessment) while White students
     long-term assessments. The results for the 2004 assessment,     constituted 56 percent. Results for the eighth-grade were
     reported in NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress and           similar: 17 percent and 58 percent, respectively. However,
     in this report, were drawn from the bridge study.)              percentages vary widely between states. For example, Black
                                                                     students constituted a majority of the fourth-grade popula­
     Main NAEP 2007 reading and mathematics                          tion in two states, the District of Columbia (84 percent in
     assessments                                                     mathematics and 86 percent in reading) and Mississippi
     For overviews of these topics, and for more extensive infor­    (52 percent in mathematics and 51 percent in reading). In
     mation about other topics for the 2007 main NAEP reading        contrast, Black students constituted only 2 percent of the
     and mathematics assessments, consult the information avail­     fourth-grade public school population in states such as
     able online at http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/reading/    Wyoming and South Dakota. Eighth-grade data show a
     and http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/mathematics/           similar pattern. In some cases, the Black or White student
                                                                     population is so small that valid data cannot be obtained.
50
     Sources of the data
                                                                     NAEP sampling procedures
     Long-term trend
     This report presents national data from the 1978, 1982, 1986,   Long-term trend
     1990, 1992, 1996, 1999, and 2004 long-term trend math­          The populations sampled for the 2004 NAEP long-term
     ematics assessments and the 1980, 1984, 1990, 1992, 1994,       trend assessment results presented in this report consisted
of 9- and 13-year-old students enrolled in public elementary     estimated grade enrollments for each grade, and aggregat­
and secondary schools nationwide. Eligibility for the age 9      ing to an age-eligible total for the school.
and age 13 samples was based on calendar year: students in the
                                                                 In the third stage of sampling, students were sampled
age 9 sample were 9 years old on January 1, 2004, with birth
                                                                 from within schools. Sampled schools were asked to list all
months January 1994 through December 1994, and students
                                                                 students with the appropriate birth dates for each specified
in the age 13 sample were 13 years old on January 1, 2004,
                                                                 age sample. All eligible students up to a pre-specified maxi­
with birth months January 1990 through December 1990.
                                                                 mum (128 for both ages 9 and 13) were then selected for
Consistent with past national long-term trend assessments,       the assessment. If a school selected for the age 9 or age 13
students were selected for participation based on a stratified   samples had 128 or fewer students, all age-eligible students
three-stage sampling plan. In the first stage, geographic pri­   were selected into the sample for that school. Otherwise, a
mary sampling units (PSUs) were defined and selected. In         sample of 128 age-eligible students was taken.
the second stage, schools were selected within PSUs. In the
                                                                 The actual student and school sample sizes obtained in
third stage, eligible students were selected within schools.
                                                                 the NAEP long-term trend reading assessments, as well
Stratification occurred at both the school level and the PSU
                                                                 as the school and student participation rates, are present­
level. A full description of the sampling plan is beyond the
                                                                 ed in table A-1. Sample sizes and participation rates for
scope of this appendix; for additional details regarding the
                                                                 the long-term trend mathematics assessments were simi­
design and structure of the 2004 trend assessment samples, the
                                                                 lar. Although sampled schools that refused to participate
reader should refer to the technical documentation section of
                                                                 were replaced, school participation rates were computed
the NAEP website (http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/ltt).
                                                                 based on the schools originally selected for participation
The first-stage sampling units, PSUs, were drawn from a          in the assessments. The student participation rates repre­
list—a sampling frame—developed using the metropolitan           sent the percentage of students assessed of those invited
area designations of the U.S. Census Bureau. Each NAEP           to be assessed, including those assessed in follow-up ses­
PSU in the frame was intended to encompass one county or         sions when necessary. Response rates for public school
contiguous multiple counties, generally not crossing state       students ages 9 and 13 met NCES reporting standards for
boundaries, and contained a minimum number of school-            all assessments.
aged children—10,000 to 15,000, depending on the region
of the country.
All PSUs containing more than 800,000 students (17 in all)         Table A-1. 	 School and student participation
were automatically included in the sample. Sixty additional                    rates, and target student popula­
PSUs were selected in a non-random manner, taking into                         tion, Long-Term Trend Reading
                                                                               assessment, public school
account region of the country, status as either metropolitan
                                                                               students only, by age: 2004
or non-metropolitan, percentages of racial/ethnic groups,
income levels, education levels in the population, and per­        Participation and target population                       Age 9        Age 13
                                                                   School participation
centage of renters, with adjustments made to compensate              Weighted school percentage                                 88             85
for the non-random manner of selection.                              Total number of schools that participated                 250            230
                                                                   Student participation
                                                                     Weighted student percentage                               94        92
In the second stage of sampling, schools were sampled                Total number of students who participated              3,800     4,000           51
from within the selected PSUs. Schools were selected with          Target population                                    3,700,000 3,690,000
                                                                   NOTE: The numbers of schools are rounded to the nearest ten, the numbers of stu­
probability proportional to a measure of size based on the         dents are rounded to the nearest hundred, and the numbers for target populations
                                                                   are rounded to the nearest ten thousand. Detail may not sum to totals because of
estimated number of age-eligible students in the school.           rounding.
                                                                   SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National
                                                                   Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress
This in turn was estimated by applying population-level            (NAEP), 2004 Long-Term Trend Reading Assessments.
percentages of age-eligible students within each grade to
     Main NAEP                                                       NAEP samples for reading and mathematics assessments
     The schools and students participating in NAEP assess­          administered from 1990 through 2007 are discussed in
     ments are chosen to be nationally representative. Samples       more detail below.
     of schools and students are selected from each state and        The NAEP 2007 mathematics and reading assessments
     from the District of Columbia and Department of Defense         were administered to fourth- and eighth-graders in all
     Education Activity (DoDEA) schools. The results from            states. This report includes data for public school students
     the assessed students are combined to provide accurate          for both the nation and all states. All 50 states, the District
     estimates of overall national performance and of the per­       of Columbia, and the DoDEA schools met the minimum
     formance of individual states.                                  guidelines for reporting their results in 2007 for both
     NCES has changed the main NAEP sampling methods                 assessments.
     over the years. From 1990 through 2000, the national            In order to obtain a representative sample for reporting
     sample was collected separately from the state samples.         national and state public school results in 2007, NCES
     The 2002 national sample was the sum of all the state           sampled and assessed approximately 183,000 fourth-grad­
     samples of the participating states, plus small samples from    ers from 7,300 schools and 155,000 eighth-graders from
     the few states that did not participate. In 2003, 2005, and     6,400 schools for the reading assessment and approximate­
     2007, all states participated and the national sample was       ly 190,000 fourth-graders from 7,300 schools and 147,000
     the aggregate of the samples from all states, the District      eighth-graders from 6,400 schools for the mathematics
     of Columbia, and the DoDEA schools. The main NAEP               assessment.
     national samples in reading and mathematics since 2002
     have been larger than in previous assessment years. Thus,       Each selected school that participated in the assessment and
     smaller score differences between years or between types        each student assessed represent a portion of the population.
     of student were found to be statistically significant than      The schools were selected out of approximately 51,000
     would have been detected in previous assessments.               fourth-grade and 27, 000 eighth-grade public schools. The
                                                                     students selected from these schools represented the total
     From 1990 through 2001, NCES oversampled schools                population of approximately 3.4 million fourth-grade and
     with high minority populations (Black and Hispanic) in          3.6 million eighth-grade public school students. These
     the national sample. Beginning in 2002, this practice was       totals include the public schools in the 50 states and the
     discontinued because the state samples were large enough        District of Columbia.
     to ensure adequate coverage for these populations. Prior to
     2002, NAEP results were weighted to compensate for the          Schools in the DoDEA school system are classified as
     oversampling.                                                   “nonpublic” by NCES and their results are not included
                                                                     in the determination of NAEP national public average
     In 2003, 2005, and 2007, results were weighted to take into     scale scores. These schools are not “private” because they
     account the fact that states, and schools within states, rep­   are operated by the federal government and they are not
     resent different proportions of the overall national popula­    “public” because only children of U.S. military personnel
     tion. For example, since the number of students assessed        can attend them. For comparison purposes, the system is
     in most states is roughly the same (to allow for stable         treated as a state and results are compared with the scores
     state estimates and administrative efficiencies), the results   of the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
52   for students in less populous states are assigned smaller
     weights than the results for students in more populous          Table A-2 provides a summary of the 2007 national and
     states. Sampling weights are also used to account for lower     state school and student participation rates for the read­
     sampling rates for very small schools and are used to adjust    ing grade 8 assessment sample. Rates for reading grade 4
     for school and student nonresponse.                             and mathematics grades 4 and 8 in 2007 were similar, as
were the rates for the 2003 and 2005 assessments. Readers         to about 3.75 million. In the 1990–1996 assessments, the
who want more detail should consult the 2007, 2005 and            number of schools sampled per assessment and grade for
2003 report cards, available online at http://nces.ed.gov/        the national sample ranged from approximately 120 to
pubsearch/getpubcats.asp?sid=031.                                 230, while the number of students assessed ranged from
                                                                  approximately 5,200 to 9,900. In the 1998–2000 assess­
Participation rates in table A-2 are presented for public
                                                                  ments, the number of schools sampled per assessment and
schools and public school students in grade 8 reading. The
                                                                  grade ranged from approximately 330 to 390, while the
school participation rate is a school-centered, weighted per­
                                                                  number of students assessed ranged from approximately
centage of schools participating in the assessment. This rate
                                                                  6,100 to 9,000.
is based only on the schools that were initially selected for
the assessment. The numerator of this rate is the estimated       The state target populations for all main NAEP assess­
number of schools represented by the initially selected           ments 1990–2007 ranged from approximately 5,000 in the
schools that participated in the assessment. The denomina­        District of Columbia and 9,000 in sparsely populated states
tor is the estimated number of schools represented by the         like Wyoming and Alaska to approximately 450,000 in
initially selected schools that had eligible students enrolled.   California, followed by approximately 325,000 in Texas.
Also presented in table A-2 are weighted student par­             In the 1990–2000 state assessments, the number of schools
ticipation rates. The numerator of this rate is the estimated     sampled per assessment and grade ranged from approxi­
number of students who are represented by the students            mately 30 to 150, while the number of students assessed
assessed (in either an initial session or a makeup session).      ranged from approximately 1,000 to 5,900. In the 2003–
The denominator of this rate is the estimated number of           2007 state assessments, the number of schools sampled per
students represented by the eligible sampled students in          assessment and grade ranged from approximately 40 to
participating schools.                                            250, while the number of students assessed ranged from
                                                                  approximately 1,700 to 10,700.
The term “eligible students” used in the two preceding
paragraphs refers to students who can meaningfully par­           In earlier NAEP assessments, NCES would select substi­
ticipate in NAEP. Students excluded from NAEP assess­             tute schools that would be used to augment the original
ments on the grounds that they cannot meaningfully                sample if a large number of schools from the sample
participate—whether students with disabilities or English         failed to participate. School and student participation
language learners—are not part of the population of inter­        rates were given both before and after substitution.
est. Initially selected schools that had no eligible students     Because the No Child Left Behind Act requires states to
enrolled are excluded from the denominator of the school          participate in the main NAEP reading and mathematics
participation rate because they contained no students who         assessments at the fourth and eighth grades in order to
were part of the population of interest. For similar reasons,     qualify for full Title I education funding, participation
the denominator of the weighted student participation rate        rates are very high and NCES no longer selects substitute
consists only of eligible sampled students.                       schools for these assessments.
The fourth column gives the number of public school stu­          In order to ensure unbiased samples, NCES and the
dents who were assessed in each of the jurisdictions. The         National Assessment Governing Board, which establishes
final column of table A-2 gives the target populations for        policy for NAEP, set minimums for the school participa­
                                                                                                                                53
each jurisdiction, that is, the eighth-grade population for       tion rate before substitution of replacement schools for
that jurisdiction.                                                any sample. From 1990 through 2002, the standard for the
                                                                  state assessments required that the weighted school par­
The national target population per grade for all main NAEP
                                                                  ticipation rate before substitution of replacement schools
assessments 1990–2007 ranged from about 3.25 million
     Table A-2.             School and student participation rates, and target student population, grade 8 reading
                            assessment, public school students only, by state or jurisdiction: 2007
                                              School participation                                        Student participation
                                  Weighted school     Total number of schools                 Weighted student    Total number of students
     Jurisdiction                      percentage             that participated                     percentage             who participated                      Target population
          Nation (public)                        100                              6,410                         92                           154,700                     3,558,000
     Alabama                                     100                                120                         93                             2,800                        56,000
     Alaska                                       99                                110                         91                             2,600                         9,000
     Arizona                                     100                                130                         90                             2,800                        73,000
     Arkansas                                    100                                120                         93                             2,500                        34,000
     California                                  100                                310                         92                             8,600                       477,000
     Colorado                                     98                                120                         92                             2,800                        57,000
     Connecticut                                  97                                100                         92                             2,700                        42,000
     Delaware                                    100                                 50                         93                             2,800                        10,000
     District of Columbia                        100                                 50                         88                             1,800                         5,000
     DoDEA1                                       98                                 60                         94                             1,700                         5,000
     Florida                                     100                                160                         91                             4,100                       193,000
     Georgia                                     100                                120                         93                             3,500                       120,000
     Hawaii                                      100                                 70                         91                             2,800                        13,000
     Idaho                                        99                                110                         93                             2,900                        20,000
     Illinois                                    100                                200                         93                             4,000                       150,000
     Indiana                                     100                                110                         92                             2,700                        80,000
     Iowa                                        100                                130                         93                             2,800                        36,000
     Kansas                                      100                                150                         94                             2,800                        34,000
     Kentucky                                    100                                110                         93                             2,600                        46,000
     Louisiana                                   100                                110                         92                             2,400                        47,000
     Maine                                        98                                130                         93                             2,700                        15,000
     Maryland                                    100                                110                         90                             2,700                        64,000
     Massachusetts                               100                                140                         93                             3,600                        70,000
     Michigan                                    100                                120                         91                             2,600                       119,000
     Minnesota                                    99                                140                         92                             3,000                        62,000
     Mississippi                                 100                                110                         93                             2,700                        36,000
     Missouri                                    100                                130                         92                             2,900                        70,000
     Montana                                      98                                170                         92                             2,600                        11,000
     Nebraska                                    100                                120                         94                             2,700                        21,000
     Nevada                                      100                                 70                         88                             2,600                        28,000
     New Hampshire                                98                                 90                         92                             2,900                        16,000
     New Jersey                                   97                                110                         92                             2,800                       104,000
     New Mexico                                  100                                110                         89                             2,600                        25,000
     New York                                    100                                160                         90                             3,800                       206,000
     North Carolina                              100                                150                         91                             4,300                       104,000
     North Dakota                                 98                                190                         95                             2,200                         8,000
     Ohio                                        100                                190                         92                             3,500                       135,000
     Oklahoma                                    100                                150                         92                             2,600                        42,000
     Oregon                                      100                                110                         92                             2,700                        39,000
     Pennsylvania                                100                                110                         92                             2,800                       140,000
     Rhode Island                                100                                 60                         92                             2,800                        12,000
     South Carolina                              100                                110                         94                             2,700                        52,000
     South Dakota                                 99                                140                         95                             2,800                        10,000
     Tennessee                                   100                                120                         92                             2,800                        74,000
     Texas                                       100                                220                         92                             7,100                       294,000
     Utah                                        100                                100                         91                             2,800                        36,000
     Vermont                                     100                                120                         93                             2,000                         7,000
     Virginia                                    100                                110                         93                             2,800                        91,000
     Washington                                  100                                130                         91                             3,000                        78,000
54   West Virginia                               100                                120                         92                             2,900                        21,000
     Wisconsin                                    98                                130                         92                             2,700                        62,000
     Wyoming                                     100                                 80                         92                             2,000                         7,000
     1
      Department of Defense Education Activity (overseas and domestic schools).

     NOTE: The numbers of schools are rounded to the nearest ten, the numbers of students are rounded to the nearest hundred, and the target population is rounded to the nearest thousand. 

     Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

     SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2007 Reading 

     Assessment.

be 70 percent or higher. Beginning in 2003, the standard         Main NAEP
was raised to 85 percent. All data presented in this report      In all main NAEP assessments, data about student race/
are based on samples meeting the standards in effect at the      ethnicity are collected from two sources: school records
time of the assessment.                                          and student self-reports. In this report, the race/ethnicity
Since 1990, the national weighted public school par­             variable has been based on the race reported by the school
ticipation rate before substitution for the grade 4 and 8        for all assessment years. In the rare cases when schoolre­
reading and mathematics assessments has ranged from              corded information is missing, student-reported data are
76 percent to 100 percent. Prior to 2003, a few states did       used to determine race/ethnicity.
not meet the 70 percent standard. From 1990 through              Schools sampled for NAEP are asked to provide lists of all
2002, the weighted public school participation rate before       students in the target grade(s) along with basic demographic
substitution for states whose results are reported here          information, including race/ethnicity. Students are cat­
ranged from 70 percent to 100 percent.                           egorized into one of five mutually exclusive racial/ethnic
For more information on all the NAEP assessments refer­          categories plus “other.” Administration schedules—also
enced in this report, consult the individual reports devoted     referred to as student rosters—are created that include
to them, available from the NCES website at http://nces.         the list of sampled students along with their basic demo­
ed.gov/pubsearch/getpubcats.asp?sid=031.                         graphic information. These data are checked and updated
                                                                 during data collection. This race/ethnicity information is
                                                                 available for all sampled students: those that participated
Understanding NAEP reporting                                     and those that were absent or excluded.
groups
                                                                 All students who take a NAEP assessment complete a sec­
NAEP results are provided for groups of students defined
                                                                 tion of general student background questions, including
by shared characteristics—race/ethnicity, eligibility for
                                                                 questions about their race/ethnicity. Separate questions are
free/reduced-price school lunch, and gender, for example.
                                                                 asked about students’ Hispanic ethnic background and
Based on participation rate criteria, results are reported       about students’ race. This race/ethnicity information is
for groups only when sufficient numbers of students and          available just for students who participated in the assess­
adequate school representation are present. The minimum          ment and not for those who were absent or excluded. See
requirement is a total of at least 62 students in a particular   http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/bgquest.asp for more
group, assessed in at least five different locations. However,   information.
the data for all students, regardless of whether their group
                                                                 The mutually exclusive racial/ethnic categories are White
was reported separately, were included in computing
                                                                 (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, Asian/
over-all national results. Definitions of the student groups
                                                                 Pacific Islander, American Indian (including Alaska
discussed in this report follow.
                                                                 Native), and Unclassified. Unclassified students are those
                                                                 whose school-reported race was “other,” or “unavailable,”
Race/ethnicity                                                   or was missing, or who self-reported more than one race
Long-term trend                                                  category (i.e., “multi-racial”) or none. Hispanic students
In long-term trend NAEP, data about student race/ethnic­         may be of any race. Only results for White (non- Hispanic)
                                                                 and Black (non-Hispanic) students are contained in             55
ity is based on the assessment administrator’s observation.
Self-reported race/ethnicity data has been collected since       this report. Information based on student self-reported
1984, and school records-based race/ethnicity data has been      race/ethnicity is available on the NAEP Data Explorer
collected starting in 2004, but all long-term trend results      (http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde).
are reported based on observed race/ethnicity.
     Eligibility for free/reduced-price                              Inclusion and exclusion
     school lunch                                                    Long-term trend
     Long-term trend                                                 Some students selected for participation in the NAEP
     The long-term trend assessments do not report results           long-term trend assessments were identified as English
     based on school lunch eligibility.                              language learners (ELL) or students with disabilities
                                                                     (SD). In all previous long-term trend assessments, if it
     Main NAEP                                                       was decided that a student classified as SD or ELL could
     As part of the Department of Agriculture’s National School      not meaningfully participate in the NAEP assessment for
     Lunch Program, schools can receive cash subsidies and donat­    which he or she was selected, the student was, according to
     ed commodities in return for offering free or reduced-price     NAEP guidelines, excluded from the assessment.
     lunches to eligible children. Based on available school         For each student selected to participate in NAEP who
     records, students were classified as currently eligible for     was identified as either SD or ELL, a member of the
     either free lunch or reduced-price lunch, or not eligible.      school staff most knowledgeable about the student com­
     Eligibility for the program is determined by a student’s        pleted an SD/ELL questionnaire. Students with dis­
     family income in relation to the federally established pov­     abilities were excluded from the assessment if an indi­
     erty level. Free lunch qualification is set at 130 percent of   vidualized education program (IEP) team or equivalent
     the poverty level or below, and reduced-price lunch quali­      group determined that the student could not participate
     fication is set at between 130 and 185 percent of the poverty   in assessments such as NAEP; if the student’s cognitive
     level. (For the period July 1, 2006, through June 30, 2007,     functioning was so severely impaired that the student
     for a family of four, 130 percent of the poverty level was      could not participate; or if the student’s IEP required
     $26,000, and 185 percent was $37,000. See http://www.fns.       that the student be tested with an accommodation or
     usda.gov/cnd/lunch for more information.) The classifica­       adaptation not permitted or available in NAEP, and
     tion applies only to the school year when the assessment        the student could not demonstrate his/her knowledge
     was administered and is not based on eligibility in previous    of the assessment subject area without that accommo­
     years. If school records were not available, the student was    dation or adaptation. A student who was identified as
     classified as “Information not available.” If the school did    ELL and who was a native speaker of a language other
     not participate in the program, all students in that school     than English was excluded if the student had received
     were classified as “Information not available.” As a result     instruction in the assessment’s subject area (e.g., reading
     of improvements in the quality of the data on students’         or mathematics) primarily in English for less than three
     eligibility for NSLP, the percentage of students for whom       school years, including the current year, or if the student
     information was not available has decreased in comparison       could not demonstrate his or her knowledge of reading
     to the percentages reported prior to the 2003 assessment.       or mathematics in English without an accommodation
     Therefore, trend comparisons are only made back to 2003         or adaptation.
     in this report.
                                                                     Prior to 2004, NAEP long-term trend assessments did not
                                                                     allow accommodations for SD or ELL students. In that
     Gender
                                                                     year, two versions of the long-term trend assessment were
56   Both long-term trend and NAEP assessments identify stu­
                                                                     given, the “bridge” (unmodified) version, which did not
     dents as male or female based on school records.
                                                                     allow accommodations, and the “modified” version, which
did. In 2004, results were only reported for the bridge                                  Main NAEP
assessment and all results from the 2004 Long-Trend                                      The NAEP program has always endeavored to assess all stu­
Assessment appearing in this report are drawn from the                                   dents selected as a part of its sampling process. In all NAEP
bridge assessment. However, table A-3 presents exclusion                                 schools, accommodations will be provided as necessary for
rates for both versions of the 2004 assessment in order to                               students with disabilities (SD) and/or English language
give all the available information on the 2004 exclusion                                 learners (ELL) or limited English proficient (LEP) students.
rates for Black and White students.                                                      (ELL is the term used since the NAEP 2005 reports; LEP
In the 2004 bridge assessment, and in all prior adminis­                                 was used before 2005.) The accommodations are available
trations of the long-term trend assessment, student race/                                to students whose Individualized Education Program (IEP)
ethnicity was determined by NCES contractor staff admin­                                 specifically requires them. Because some ELL students do
istering the assessment in the individual classrooms. These                              not have an IEP, decisions about accommodations for these
staff never met the excluded students, so no records of the                              students are typically made by knowledgeable school staff.
race/ethnicity of excluded students were kept.                                           The NAEP program has established procedures to include
In contrast, the 2004 modified assessment determined                                     as many SD and ELL students as possible in the assess­
student race/ethnicity by using school records, which did                                ments. School staff make the decisions about whether to
provide information on the race/ethnicity of excluded stu­                               include such a student in a NAEP assessment, and which
dents. Exclusion data from the 2004 modified assessment                                  testing accommodations, if any, they should receive. The
are provided here to provide information on 2004 exclusion                               NAEP program furnishes tools to assist school personnel
rates for Black and White students, even though this report                              in making those decisions.
does not include student achievement data drawn from the                                 A sampling procedure is used to select students at each
modified assessment.                                                                     grade being tested. Students are selected on a random basis,
                                                                                         without regard to SD or ELL status. Once the students are
                                                                                         selected, the schools identify which have SD or ELL status.
   Table A-3. 	 National Long-Term Trend math­                                           School staff who are familiar with these students are asked
                ematics and reading exclusion                                            a series of questions to help them decide whether each stu­
                rates as percentages of the total                                        dent should participate in the assessment and whether the
                sample, by age, type of assess­                                          student needs accommodations.
                ment and race/ethnicity: 2004
                                                                                         Inclusion in NAEP of an SD or ELL student is encouraged
                               Age 9                            Age 13
                         Bridge   Modified                Bridge    Modified             if that student (a) participated in the regular state academic
   Mathematics                                                                           assessment in the subject being tested, and (b) if that stu­
       Total                   8               3                9               3
     White                     †               2                †               3        dent can participate in NAEP with the accommodations
     Black                     †               4                †               4
   Reading
                                                                                         NAEP allows. Even if the student did not participate in the
       Total                   9               6                9               5        regular state assessment, or if he/she needs accommoda­
     White                     †               4                †               5
     Black                     †               4                †               6        tions NAEP does not allow, school staff are asked whether
   † Not applicable.                                                                     that student could participate in NAEP with the allowable
   NOTE: The 2004 bridge assessment, and all previous administrations of the long-
   term trend assessment, did not obtain information on the race/ethnicity of excluded   accommodations.
   students.
   SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National                                                                        57
   Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress          History of NAEP Inclusion Policy Although NAEP
   (NAEP), 2004 Long-Term Trend Mathematics and Reading Assessments.
                                                                                         has always endeavored to assess as high a proportion of
     sampled students as is possible, prior to 1996 NAEP did            The phrase “less than 3 school years including the current
     not allow accommodations for SD or ELL students. This              year” meant 0, 1, or 2 school years. Therefore, the guide­
     resulted in exclusion of some students who could not               lines below were used:
     meaningfully participate in the assessment without accom­
                                                                        ■ 	Includewithout any accommodation all LEP or ELL
     modations.
                                                                          students who had received instruction in the subject
     The passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education           primarily in English for 3 years or more and those
     Act (IDEA), as amended in 1997, led states and districts to          who were in their third year;
     identify increasing numbers of students as requiring accom­
                                                                        ■ 	Include without any accommodation all other such
     modations in assessments in order to fairly and accurately
                                                                          students who could demonstrate their knowledge of the
     show their abilities. It was important for NAEP to be as
                                                                          subject without an accommodation;
     consistent as possible with testing practices in most states
     and districts while maintaining the ability to compare more        ■ 	Include and provide accommodations permitted by
     recent NAEP results to those from 1990, 1992, and 1994,              NAEP to other such students who can demonstrate
     when accommodations were not allowed. (Accommodations                their knowledge of the subject only with those accom­
     were not allowed in NAEP state assessments until 1996.)              modations; and
     Before the 2005 assessment (when the selection process was         ■ 	ExcludeLEP or ELL students only if they could not
     detailed in a series of questions), guidelines were speci­           demonstrate their knowledge of the subject even with
     fied by NAEP. A student identified on the Administration             an accommodation permitted by NAEP.
     Schedule as having a disability (SD), that is, a student with an
                                                                        The percentages of students excluded from NAEP may vary
     Individualized Education Program (IEP) or equivalent clas­
                                                                        from one state to another, as well as across years. National
     sification, should be included in the NAEP assessment unless:
                                                                        exclusion rates for Black and White SD and/or ELL students
     ■ 	The IEP team or equivalent group had determined that            in 2007 may be found in table A-4. The “total” rates include
        the student could not participate in assessments such as        all students, not just those who are Black or White. For
        NAEP, or                                                        information on state exclusion rates, see table A-5. For more
                                                                        information on Main NAEP inclusion and exclusion, go to
     ■ 	The  student’s cognitive functioning was so severely
                                                                        http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/about/inclusion.asp
        impaired that he or she could not participate, or
     ■ 	The student’s IEP required that the student be tested
                                                                           Table A-4. 	 National mathematics and read­
        with an accommodation that NAEP did not permit,
                                                                                        ing exclusion rates as percent­
        and the student could not demonstrate his or her                                ages of the total sample, public
        knowledge of the subject without that accommodation.                            schools only, by grade and race/
     A student who was identified as LEP or ELL and who was                             ethnicity: 2007
     a native speaker of a language other than English should              Grade and race/ethnicity            Mathematics                 Reading
     be included in the NAEP assessment unless:                            Grade 4
                                                                               Total                                        3                      6
                                                                             White                                          2                      4
     ■ 	The   student had received reading or mathematics                    Black                                          4                      7
58      instruction primarily in English for less than 3 school            Grade 8
                                                                               Total                                        4                      6
        years including the current year, and                                White                                          4                      4
                                                                             Black                                          6                      7
     ■ 	The  student could not demonstrate his or her knowl­               NOTE: “Total” exclusion percentages are for all public school students, not just
                                                                           Black and White.
        edge of the subject in English even with an accommoda­             SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National
                                                                           Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress
        tion permitted by NAEP.                                            (NAEP), 2007 Mathematics and Reading Assessments.
Table A-5.             Mathematics and reading exclusion rates as percentages of the total sample, public
                       schools only, by grade, race/ethnicity and jurisdiction: 2007

                                             Percentage of students with a disability and/or English language learner, excluded in 2007
                                Grade 4 Mathematics           Grade 8 Mathematics                  Grade 4 Reading                  Grade 8 Reading
Jurisdiction                     White       Black              White        Black                White       Black                White      Black
     Nation (public)                    2              4                       3              6                       4              7                        4                7
Alabama                                 1              2                       2              4                       3              3                        3                4
Alaska                                  1              2                       4              6                       3              3                        2                2
Arizona                                 2              4                       2              4                       3              4                        3                6
Arkansas                                2              5                       2              3                       5              8                        4                7
California                              1              3                       1              3                       2              5                        2                4
Colorado                                2              4                       1              2                       2              7                        2                4
Connecticut                             1              1                       1              1                       2              3                        2                4
Delaware                                4              6                       5              8                       9             13                        5                8
District of Columbia                    2              5                       ‡             10                       6             12                        ‡               13
DoDEA                                   1              1                       2              1                       4              5                        2                3
Florida                                 1              4                       2              3                       4              6                        3                5
Georgia                                 2              3                       4              5                       7              8                        6                7
Hawaii                                  1              1                       1              ‡                       3              1                        2                0
Idaho                                   1              ‡                       1              ‡                       3              ‡                        3                ‡
Illinois                                3              5                       4             10                       5              6                        4                6
Indiana                                 2              4                       5              9                       3              5                        4                8
Iowa                                    1              2                       2              6                       3             13                        4               15
Kansas                                  2              6                       4              4                       4              8                        4                7
Kentucky                                3              3                       7              5                       7             10                        8                7
Louisiana                               1              3                       2              4                       3              5                        2                4
Maine                                   3              4                       5              ‡                       6              ‡                        5                ‡
Maryland                                2              5                       6              9                       5             10                        4               10
Massachusetts                           4              6                       8             12                       5              9                        6               10
Michigan                                3              4                       4              7                       4              6                        5                9
Minnesota                               2              3                       2              3                       3              9                        3               10
Mississippi                             1              1                       1              3                       2              3                        2                4
Missouri                                3              4                       5              6                       4              4                        3                4
Montana                                 2              ‡                       3              ‡                       4              ‡                        4                ‡
Nebraska                                2              5                       2              3                       4              8                        3                2
Nevada                                  2              6                       3              4                       5              7                        3                9
New Hampshire                           2              8                       3             13                       4             13                        3                ‡
New Jersey                              1              4                       2              6                       5              8                        4               10
New Mexico                              2              4                       2              3                       6              9                        4               11
New York                                2              2                       4              4                       5              5                        5                4
North Carolina                          1              3                       1              3                       1              3                        2                3
North Dakota                            4              ‡                       5              ‡                       7             34                        8                ‡
Ohio                                    4              8                       6             12                       7             12                        8               10
Oklahoma                                5              4                       8             11                       6              7                        6               10
Oregon                                  2              5                       3              5                       4              7                        2                5
Pennsylvania                            2              3                       3              4                       4              6                        4                8
Rhode Island                            1              4                       2              5                       3              4                        3                6
South Carolina                          1              2                       4              7                       4              4                        5                7
South Dakota                            1              1                       2              ‡                       5             17                        5                ‡
Tennessee                               5              7                       6              7                       9             12                        7                8
Texas                                   5              6                       4              7                       6              8                        4                8
Utah                                    2              ‡                       2              ‡                       5              ‡                        4                ‡
Vermont                                 2              ‡                       4              ‡                       6             29                        5                ‡
Virginia                                4              6                       4              9                       7              9                        6                9   59
Washington                              2              3                       2              7                       4              6                        3               10
West Virginia                           1              1                       2              5                       2              1                        2                4
Wisconsin                               2              4                       3              9                       3              8                        5               12
Wyoming                                 1              ‡                       2              ‡                       3              ‡                        3                ‡
‡ Reporting standards not met.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2007 

Mathematics and Reading Assessments.

     Accommodations                                                 the Technical Notes sections of The Nation’s Report
                                                                    Card: Mathematics 2007 at http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/
     Long-term trend                                                pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2007494 and The Nation’s Report
     The long-term trend results presented in this report are       Card: Reading 2007 at http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/
     drawn from assessments that did not permit accommoda­          pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2007496.
     tions for students with disabilities (SD) and English lan­
     guage learners (ELL). Future long-term trend assessments       Drawing inferences from the results
     will allow such accommodations.                                The reported statistics for both long-term trend and main
                                                                    NAEP are estimates and are therefore subject to a measure
     Main NAEP                                                      of uncertainty. There are two sources of such uncertainty.
     From 1990 through 1994 for the nation—and through              First, NAEP uses a sample of students rather than testing
     1996 for the states—main NAEP assessments did not allow        all students. Second, all assessments have some amount of
     accommodations for either SD or ELL students. Since then,      uncertainty related to the fact that they cannot ask all ques­
     accommodations have been permitted for those SD and            tions that might be asked in a content area. The magnitude
     ELL students who need accommodations in order to partici­      of this uncertainty is reflected in the standard error of each
     pate, unless the accommodation would change the nature of      of the estimates. When the percentages or average scale
     what is being tested.                                          scores of certain groups are compared, the estimated stan­
     To accomplish this goal, students who receive accommo­         dard error should be taken into account. Therefore, the
     dations in their state’s assessments are offered the same      comparisons are based on statistical tests that consider the
     accommodations on NAEP, except where an accommoda­             estimated standard errors of the statistics being compared
     tion would change the nature of what is being tested. For      and the magnitude of the difference between the averages
     example, passages and questions in the reading test are        or percentages.
     not permitted to be read aloud to the student, because that    Standard errors for the NAEP scores and percentages pre­
     accommodation would make it a test of listening instead of     sented in this report for both assessments are available on
     a test of reading. Similarly, reading passages and questions   the NAEP website (http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/
     cannot be presented in a language other than English.          naepdata).
     It should be noted that students assessed with accommo­        The differences between statistics—such as comparisons
     dations typically received some combination of accom­          of two groups of students’ average scale scores—that
     modations. For example, students assessed in small groups      are discussed in this report are determined by using
     (as compared with standard NAEP sessions of about              standard errors. Comparisons are based on statistical
     30 students) usually received extended time. In one-on         tests that consider both the size of the differences and
     one administrations, students often received assistance in     the standard errors of the two statistics being compared.
     recording answers (e.g., use of a scribe or computer) and      Estimates based on smaller groups are likely to have
     were afforded extra time.                                      relatively large standard errors. As a consequence, a
     The most common accommodations are small-group                 numerical difference that seems large may not be statis­
     administration, extended time, one-on-one administra­          tically significant.
60   tion, the use of a scribe or computer, and the use of a        Furthermore, differences of the same magnitude may or
     bilingual book (mathematics only). See http://nces.ed.gov/     may not be statistically significant, depending upon the
     nationsreportcard/tdw/instruments/accomm.asp for more          size of the standard errors of the statistics. For example,
     details on NAEP accommodations. For state accom­               a 3-point change in the gap between Black and White
     modation rates for SD and ELL students in 2007 see             fourth-graders nationwide may be significant, while a
3- point change in the gap between Black and White fourth-                        and (2) the uncertainty due to sampling only a relatively
graders in Kansas may not be. The differences described in                        small number of cognitive questions. The first component
this report have been determined to be statistically signifi­                     accounts for the variability associated with the estimated
cant at the .05 level with appropriate adjustments for part­                      percentages of students who had certain background char­
to-whole and multiple comparisons.1                                               acteristics or who answered a certain cognitive question
                                                                                  correctly.
In the tables and figures of this report, the symbol (*) is used
to indicate that a score or percentage is significantly differ­                   Because NAEP uses complex sampling procedures, con­
ent from another. In addition, any difference between scores                      ventional formulas for estimating sampling variability that
or percentages that is identified as higher, lower, larger,                       assume simple random sampling are inappropriate. NAEP
smaller, narrower, or wider in this report, including within-                     uses a jackknife replication procedure to estimate standard
group differences not marked in tables and figures, meets                         errors. The jackknife standard error provides a reasonable
the requirements for statistical significance.                                    measure of uncertainty for any student information that
                                                                                  can be observed without error. However, because each
Weighting and variance estimation                                                 student typically responds to only a few questions within a
In both long-term trend and main NAEP a complex sample                            content area, the scale score for any single student would
design was used to select the students who were assessed.                         be imprecise. In this case, NAEP’s marginal estimation
The properties of a sample selected through such a design                         methodology can be used to describe the performance of
could be very different from those of a simple random sam­                        groups and subgroups of students. The estimate of the
ple, in which every student in the target population has an                       variance of the students’ posterior scale score distributions
equal chance of selection and in which the observations from                      (which reflect the imprecision due to lack of measurement
different sampled students can be considered to be statisti­                      accuracy) is computed. This component of variability is
cally independent of one another. Therefore, the properties                       then included in the standard errors of NAEP scale scores.2
of the sample for the data collection design were taken into
account during the analysis of the assessment data.                               Analyzing group differences in
One way that the properties of the sample design were                             averages and percentages
addressed was by using sampling weights to account for                            In both long-term trend and main NAEP, statistical tests
the fact that the probabilities of selection were not identical                   determine whether, based on the data from the groups in
for all students. All population and subpopulation charac­                        the sample, there is strong enough evidence to conclude
teristics based on the assessment data were estimated using                       that the averages or percentages are actually different for
sampling weights. These weights included adjustments for                          those groups in the population. If the evidence is strong
school and student nonresponse.                                                   (i.e., the difference is statistically significant), the report
                                                                                  describes the group averages or percentages as being dif­
Not only must appropriate estimates of population charac­                         ferent (e.g., one group performed higher or lower than
teristics be derived, but appropriate measures of the degree                      another group), regardless of whether the sample averages
of uncertainty must be obtained for those statistics. Two                         or percentages appear to be approximately the same. The
components of uncertainty are accounted for in the variabil­                      reader is cautioned to rely on the results of the statistical
ity of statistics based on student ability: (1) the uncertainty                   tests rather than on the apparent magnitude of the dif­
due to sampling only a relatively small number of students,                                                                                                    61
                                                                                  ference between sample averages or percentages when

1                                                                                 2
  Benjamini, Y., and Hochberg, Y. (1995). Controlling the False Discovery Rate:     For further detail, see Johnson, E.G., and Rust, K.F. (1992). Population
A Practical and Powerful Approach to Multiple Testing. Journal of the Royal       Inferences and Variance Estimation for NAEP Data. Journal of Educational
Statistical Society, Series B, no. 1, 289–300.                                    Statistics, (17)2, 175–190.
     determining whether the sample differences are likely             this difference is plus or minus 1.96 standard errors of the
     to represent actual differences among the groups in the           difference:
     population.
     To determine whether a real difference exists between the
     average scale scores (or percentages of a certain attribute)
     for two groups in the population, one needs to obtain an          The value zero is within the confidence interval; therefore,
     estimate of the degree of uncertainty associated with the         there is insufficient evidence to conclude that group A’s
     difference between the averages (or percentages) of these         performance is statistically different from group B.
     groups for the sample. This estimate of the degree of
                                                                       The procedure above is appropriate to use when it is rea­
     uncertainty, called the “standard error of the difference”
                                                                       sonable to assume that the groups being compared have
     between the groups, is obtained by taking the square of
                                                                       been independently sampled for the assessment.
     each group’s standard error, summing the squared stan­
     dard errors, and taking the square root of that sum.              Such an assumption is clearly warranted when comparing
                                                                       results for one state with another. This is the approach used
                                                                       for NAEP reports when comparisons involving indepen­
                                                                       dent groups are made. The assumption of independence
     The standard error of the difference can be used, just like the
                                                                       is violated to some degree when comparing group results
     standard error for an individual group average or percent­
                                                                       for the nation or a particular state (e.g., comparing national
     age, to help determine whether differences among groups in
                                                                       2007 results for Black and White students), since these sam­
     the population are real. The difference between the averages
                                                                       ples of students have been drawn from the same schools.
     or percentages of the two groups plus or minus 1.96 stan­
     dard errors of the difference represents an approximately 95      When the groups being compared do not share students
     percent confidence interval. If the resulting interval includes   (as is the case, for example, of comparing Black and White
     zero, there is insufficient evidence to claim a real difference   students), the impact of this violation of the indepen­
     between the groups in the population. If the interval does not    dence assumption on the outcome of the statistical tests is
     contain zero, the difference between the groups is statisti­      assumed to be small, and NAEP, by convention, has, for
     cally significant at the .05 level.                               computational convenience, routinely applied the proce­
                                                                       dures described above to those cases as well.
     The following example of comparing groups addresses the
     problem of determining whether the average mathematics            When making comparisons of results for groups that share
     scale score of group A is higher than that of group B. The        a considerable proportion of students in common, it is not
     sample estimates of the average scale scores and estimated        appropriate to ignore such dependencies. In such cases,
     standard errors are as follows:                                   NAEP has used procedures appropriate to comparing
                                                                       dependent groups. When the dependence in group results
       Group            Average scale score       Standard error
                                                                       is due to the overlap in samples (e.g., when a subgroup is
       A                                218                  0.9
                                                                       being compared to a total group), a simple modification of
       B                                216                  1.1
                                                                       the usual standard error of the difference formula can be
     The difference between the estimates of the average scale         used. The formula for such cases is
62   scores of groups A and B is 2 points (218 – 216). The stan­
     dard error of this difference is
                                                                       where p is the proportion of the total group contained in
                                                                       the subgroup. This formula was used for this report when
     Thus, an approximately 95 percent confidence interval for         a state was compared to the aggregate for the nation.
Conducting multiple tests                                                         sons.5 Therefore, the FDR procedure is more suitable for
                                                                                  multiple comparisons in NAEP than are other procedures.
The procedures used to determine whether group differences
in the long-term trend and main NAEP samples represent                            Statistical comparisons of NAEP scores from different
actual differences among the groups in the population and                         assessment years are made using a multiple comparison pro­
the certainty ascribed to intervals (e.g., a 95 percent confidence                cedure. However, in figures 9, 11, 21, and 23, comparisons of
interval) are based on statistical theory that assumes that only                  the size of the Black-White achievement gap for each state
one confidence interval or test of statistical significance is                    to the national gap are made using pairwise comparisons,
being performed. However, there are times when many dif­                          where each state is compared to the nation one at a time. For
ferent groups are being compared (i.e., multiple sets of confi­                   this reason, the results shown in these four figures may not
dence intervals are being analyzed).                                              correspond to results obtained from the NAEP Online Data
                                                                                  Tool, which currently does not permit pairwise comparisons
For multiple comparisons, statistical theory indicates that the
                                                                                  for this type of gap analysis.
certainty associated with the entire set of comparisons is less
than that attributable to each individual comparison from the
set. To hold the significance level for the set of comparisons                    Cautions in interpretation
at a particular level (e.g., .05), the standard methods must be                   It is possible to examine NAEP performance results for
adjusted by multiple comparison procedures.3 The procedure                        groups of students defined by various background factors
used by NAEP is the Benjamini-Hochberg False Discovery                            measured by NAEP, such as race. However, a relationship
Rate (FDR) procedure.4                                                            that exists between achievement and another variable does
                                                                                  not reveal its underlying cause, which may be influenced
Unlike other multiple comparison procedures that control                          by a number of other variables. Similarly, the assessments
the family-wise error rate (i.e., the probability of making                       do not reflect the influence of unmeasured variables. The
even one false rejection in the set of comparisons), the                          results are most useful when they are considered in combi­
FDR procedure controls the expected proportion of falsely                         nation with other knowledge about the student population
rejected hypotheses. Furthermore, the FDR procedure                               and the educational system, such as trends in instruction,
used in NAEP is considered appropriately less conservative                        changes in the school-age population, and societal demands
than family-wise procedures for large families of compari­                        and expectations.
3
 Miller, R.G. (1981). Simultaneous Statistical Inference (2nd ed.). New York: 
   5
                                                                                    Williams, V.S.L., Jones, L.V., and Tukey, J.W. (1994, December) Controlling Error in
Spinger-Verlang.
                                                                 Multiple Comparisons with Special Attention to the National Assessment of Educational
4
    Benjamini, Y., and Hochberg, Y. (1995), op. cit.
                             Progress. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Institute of Statistical Sciences.




                                                                                                                                                                           63
     Mathematics
     National    ■   Grades 4 & 8




     Appendix B: Supplemental Tables



        Table B-1.            Administration of NAEP national and state mathematics assessments, by grade: Various
                              years, 1990–2007
                        1990             1992              1994            1996             1998              2000             2002             2003             2005             2007
        Grade        National State National State National State National State National State National State National State National State National State                   National State
        4th grade        v                v v                               v v                               v v                               v v              v v              v v
        8th grade        v v              v v                               v v                               v v                               v v              v v              v v
        SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress, Various years, 1990–
        2007 Mathematics Assessments.




        Table B-2. 	 Average national mathematics scale scores for all public school students at grades 4 and
                    8, by gender and eligibility for the National School Lunch Program: Various years, 1990–
                    2007
                                                  1990n                 1992n                 1996                  2000                  2003                  2005                   2007
        All students
          Grade 4                                   212*                  219*                  222*                  224*                  234*                  237*                   239
          Grade 8                                   262*                  267*                  269*                  272*                  276*                  278*                   280
        Student Gender
          Grade 4
            Male                                    212*                  220*                  222*                  225*                  235*                  238*                   240
            Female                                  211*                  218*                  222*                  223*                  233*                  236*                   238
          Grade 8
            Male                                    262*                  266*                  270*                  273*                  277*                  278*                   281
            Female                                  261*                  267*                  268*                  271*                  275*                  277*                   279
        Student Eligibility for National
          School Lunch Program
          Grade 4
            Not eligible                              —                     —                      ‡                      ‡                 244*                  248*                   249
            Reduced-price lunch                       —                     —                      ‡                      ‡                 230*                  234*                   236
            Free lunch                                —                     —                      ‡                      ‡                 220*                  224*                   226
          Grade 8
            Not eligible                              —                     —                      ‡                      ‡                 287*                  288*                   291
            Reduced-price lunch                       —                     —                      ‡                      ‡                 269*                  270*                   274
            Free lunch                                —                     —                      ‡                      ‡                 256*                  260*                   263
        n
         Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.
        — Not available. Data were not collected prior to 1996.
        ‡ Reporting standards not met. Lunch eligibility data are not being reported in 1996 and 2000 because of the high percentage of students for whom information was not available.
        * Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.

        SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), Various years, 

        1990–2007 Mathematics Assessments.





64
                                                                                                                                                                      Reading

                                                                                                                                                         National      ■   Grades 4 & 8




Table B-3.            Administration of NAEP national and state reading assessments, by grade: Various years,
                      1992–2007
                           1992             1994               1996            1998              2000              2002             2003              2005              2007
Grade                 National State    National State    National State   National State    National State    National State   National State    National State    National State
4th grade                  v v              v v                                 v v               v                v v               v v               v v                 v v
8th grade                  v                v                                   v v                                v v               v v               v v                 v v
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress, Various years, 1992–
2007 Reading Assessments.




Table B-4.            Average national reading scale scores for all public school students at grades 4 and 8, by
                      gender and eligibility for the National School Lunch Program: Various years, 1992–2007
                                   1992n               1994n               1998               2000                2002                2003                2005                2007
All students
  Grade 4                            215*                212*                213*               211*                217*                216*                217*                220
  Grade 8                            258*                257*                261                 —                  263*                261                 260*                261
Student Gender
  Grade 4
    Male                             211*                207*                210*               206*                214*                213*                214*                216
    Female                           219*                218*                215*               217*                220*                220*                220*                223
  Grade 8
    Male                             251*                250*                253*                  —                258*                256                 255*                256
    Female                           264                 265                 268*                  —                267*                267                 266                 266
Student Eligibility for National
  School Lunch Program
  Grade 4
    Not eligible                       —                   —                    ‡                   ‡                   ‡               229*                230*                232
    Reduced-price lunch                —                   —                    ‡                   ‡                   ‡               211*                212*                215
    Free lunch                         —                   —                    ‡                   ‡                   ‡               199*                201*                203
  Grade 8
    Not eligible                       —                   —                    ‡                  —                    ‡               271                 270*                271
    Reduced-price lunch                —                   —                    ‡                  —                    ‡               256                 254                 255
    Free lunch                         —                   —                    ‡                  —                    ‡               243*                245                 246
n
 Accommodations were not permitted for this assessment.
— Not available. Data were not collected prior to 1996 or at grade 8 in 2000.
‡ Reporting standards not met. Lunch eligibility data are not being reported in 1998, 2000 and 2002 because of the high percentage of students for whom information was not available.
* Significantly different (p<.05) from 2007.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), Various years, 

1992–2007 Reading Assessments.





                                                                                                                                                                                          65
     Acknowledgments
     This report was prepared under a project of the NAEP
     Education Statistics Services Institute (NAEP-ESSI) of the
     American Institutes for Research (AIR) in support of the
     National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), part of
     the Institute of Education Sciences of the U.S. Department
     of Education.
     The authors are grateful to everyone who contributed to the
     design, development, review, and production of this report.




66

								
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