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					The Main Theories of Behavior

    Behavior is caused
       by………?
Humanistic Perspective

   Humanists believe that we choose
    most of our behaviors and these
    choices are guided by physiological,
    emotional, or spiritual needs.
    Humanists stress free will and
    individual choice.
    • Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
 IE.An introverted person
 chooses to limit social contact
 with others because he or she
 finds that social needs are
 better satisfied by contact with a
 few close friends rather than
 large groups.
Psychoanalytic Perspective

 Psychoanalysts believe that the
 unconscious mind (a part of our
 mind that we do not have
 conscious control over or
 access to) controls much or our
 thought and action.
 • Sigmund Freud
 IE.An introverted person
 avoids social situations because
 of a repressed memory of
 trauma in childhood involving an
 acutely embarrassing
 experience at a party.
Biopsychology (Neuroscience)

 Biopsychologists explain
 human behavior in terms of
 biological processes,
 including genetics,
 hormones, and brain
 (dys)functions.
    An introverted person may
 IE.
 lack a certain gene for
 sociability, or an extroverted
 person may be producing an
 overabundance of a particular
 hormone. There may be a
 dysfunctional frontal lobe.
Evolutionary Perspective

 Evolutionarypsychologists
 (sociobiologists) examine
 human behavior in terms of
 natural selection and survival
 traits.
  • Charles Darwin
   IE. An extroverted person carries a
    social genetic trait based upon the need
    to make friends or allies, thus increasing
    their chances of survival. An introverted
    person may have a genetic quality that
    precludes isolation as a way to avoid
    predators, thus increasing their chances
    for survival.
Behavioral Perspective

   Behavioral psychologists explain
    human thought and behavior by
    looking strictly at observable
    behaviors and what reaction
    organisms get in response to
    specific behaviors.
    • Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, B.F. Skinner
 IE.An introverted person may
 be withdrawn and shy because
 they are punished for speaking
 at home. An extrovert may get
 monetary rewards for garnering
 attention.
Cognitive Perspective

   Cognitive psychologists explain
    human behavior in terms of how we
    interpret, process, and remember
    environmental events. The rules
    that humans use to view the world
    are important in explaining what we
    think and do.
   IE. An introvert does not socialize
    much because they interpret
    friendship as pity, or whispered
    conversations as criticism. An
    extrovert may think that the world is
    a happy and safe place, and
    therefore all people are potential
    friends.
Social-Cultural Perspective

 Socioculturalpsychologists
 emphasize the influence of
 groups and culture on the way
 that we think and act.
   IE. An female introvert lives in a
    society where women are not
    allowed to talk, vote, or own land.
    An extrovert lives in a society where
    gluttony and extravagance is
    encouraged.
Fields in Psychology

  What can I do with a
       degree in
     Psychology?
Fields in Psychology

 Applied v. Basic Psychology
 Applied refers to practical
  and interactive psychology.
 Basic refers mainly to the
  research fields of
  psychology.
Therapy

 Mental  and physical
  rehabilitation regarding mental
  disorders.
 Can include medications, in/out
  patient services, counseling,
  etc.
School

Assisting school-aged
 children, adolescence
 issues, counseling,
 etc.
Experimental

Conduct   research on
 learning, memory,
 sensation, perception,
 cognition, motivation,
 etc.
Developmental

 Studymental and physical
 growth from prenatal
 through childhood,
 adolescence, adulthood,
 and into old age.
Social

 Study how people
 influence each others
 attitudes, prejudices,
 norms, interpersonal
 attractions, etc.
Clinical

Diagnosis  and treatment
 of troubled people.
Career, marriage, stress
 counseling.
Industrial/Organizational

 Practical issues of
  selecting and training a
  workforce.
 Productivity, job stress,
  motivation, automation.
Forensic Psychology
   Provide advice to legislators, judges,
    correctional officers, lawyers and the
    police
   Is called upon, for example, to serve as
    an expert witness, diagnose and treat
    incarcerated and probationed offenders;
    and screen and evaluate personnel in
    the law enforcement and judicial
    systems
Sports Psychology
   Issues and techniques of sport-specific
    psychological assessment and mental
    skills training for performance
    enhancement and satisfaction with
    participation
   Goal-setting, visualization and
    performance planning, self-confidence,
    eating disorders, overtraining and
    burnout counseling, team building,
    sportsmanship
Cognitive

Experiment   with
 how we perceive,
 think, and solve
 problems
What is the difference
between a psychologist
  and a psychiatrist?
Psychology v. Psychiatry

 Psychiatry   is the study of mental
  disorders.
 Psychiatrists are medical
  doctors and can prescribe
  medications to treat the physical
  and mental causes of
  psychological disorders.

				
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posted:11/5/2011
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