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					WHAP Time Period Four
     1750-1914

      Kevin Sacerdote
    Mandarin High School
      Jacksonville, FL
  WHAP Time Period Four


Slides based on the Ethel Wood
Study Guide Publication

Ordering information:
www.dsmarketing.com/books_worldhistory.html




             Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
    Charts to Assist You
I have already posted numerous charts for
most time periods on one of my web sites:
www.mandarin.groupfusion.net
  Choose Sacerdote’s Classes
  Choose World History AP
  Click “Join Class” (upper left corner)
  Wait for my acceptance
  Go to site, under “Section Files” (lower
  right) click “STUFF” to access the charts.


            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
   WHAP Course Themes
Demonstrate your knowledge by including
these themes in your essays:

1. Impact of interaction among and within
major societies;

2. The relationship of change and continuity
across the periods covered;

3. Impact of technology and demography on
people and the environment;


            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
    Course Themes (continued)
4. Systems of social structure and
gender structure (comparing major
features within and among societies
and assessing change).
5. Cultural and intellectual
developments and interactions among
societies; and
6. Changes in functions and structures
of states and in attitudes toward states
and political identities (political culture),
including the emergence of nation-state
(types of political organization).
            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
          1750 -1914
By 1750 international trade &
communication was nothing new
The pace of trade picked up
dramatically, especially due to the
Industrial Revolution




          Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
         1750 – 1914
  True European Hegemony
Europe now controls the West & the East
(―have‖ versus ―have not‖)
  Unequal treaties
  Colonization (inequalities due to Imperialism)
  Sea-based trade gave the Europeans control of
  the trade circuits
The establishment of democracy as a
major element of a new political
organization—THE NATION
Political revolutions are also on the horizon

            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
           1750-1914

Patterns of world trade and contact
changed as the industrial
revolution revolutionized trade and
communication
  Suez & Panama Canals cut down
  travel time
  Ships faster than ever
  Rails revived land travel

         Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
           1750 - 1914
Demographic and Environmental
Changes
  Huge numbers of people migrated to
  America from Europe and Asia
    America’s population expands
    Slave trade ended
    Demand for Natural resources (+ -)
Changes in Gender and Social
structures: Serf & Slaves less common,
but the gap between the rich and poor
grew
Females in Industry- Good or Bad?
           Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
          1750 - 1914

Political Revolutions &
Independence movements
 Absolutism is challenged
 Democracy takes root
 Nations arose as political entities that
 inspired nationalism and movements
 for political reform (USA, French,
 Haiti, and the Revolutions of 1848)

          Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
The Industrial Revolution
 A true historical “marker event” (the
 Neolithic Revolution would be another)

1. It crossed national and/or cultural
   borders
2. Later developments (i.e. the
   Scramble for Africa) can be partially
   traced to the event
3. It impacted other areas, i.e.
   technology from this event
   impacted other major concerns like
   government, belief systems, social
   classes or the economy
           Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
 The Industrial Revolution
Brought about sweeping changes
as it transformed the world
Regions where industrialization did
not occur were also impacted
Invent and perfect machinery to
help human labor more efficient
It began in England in the 18th
century, and spread to Belgium,
Germany, France, Japan and the
USA      Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
 The Industrial Revolution
It divided the world into a “have”
and “have not” countries, with
many of the latter being controlled
by the former
England’s lead translated into huge
economic success that fueled the
creation of the British Empire
  Eventually over 40 countries, 1 Billion
  people came under their control

          Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
        WHY BRITAIN?

1. An Agricultural Revolution
    Including the Enclosure Movement
    (early 1700’s)
    Larger farms, better equipment
    Many small farmers become tenant
    farmers or head to the cities
    (factories)
    Better nutrition boosted England’s
    population
           Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
           WHY BRITAIN?
2. A Technological Revolution
       A series of inventions built on the
       principles of mass production,
       mechanization, and interchangeable
       parts (practical and easy to repair)
3. Natural Resources
  1. COAL and IRON were very
     accessible, and very important
  2. Water power, harbors for ships and
     rivers for inland transportation
              Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
            WHY BRITAIN?
4. Economic Strength
  1.   Previous practices and structures were in
       place (Banking and Investment)
  2.   An existing middle class: The Bourgeoisie
       had experience with trading and
5. Political Stability: By 1750 the power
   of Parliament far exceeded that of the
   King (thus Parliament passed laws
   that protected business & helped
   expansion)
               Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
New Inventions

 The earliest transformation of the
 Industrial Revolution was Britain’s
 textile industry (Cotton from India)
   Profits mounted as machines sped up
   the process by which spinners and
   weavers made cloth
   One invention led to another
     Flying Shuttle, Spinning Jenny, Water Frame
     and the Spinning mule

            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Transportation Improvements

 Key Invention: The Steam Engine
   Most revolutionary use of steam energy
   was the railroad engine
   The first long-distance rail line ran from
   Liverpool to inland Manchester
   (completed from 1830)
     Rails gave manufacturers a cheap way to
     transport, created hundreds of thousands of
     new jobs (rails and mines), new industries
     spawned
            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
The Spread of the Industrial
Revolution
 Britain had a jump start on industry
 for 50 years
   Parliament made trade secrets just
   that
 Belgium
   Coal, iron, textile, glass and
   armaments
 Germany is slower due to a lack of
 a unified, centralized government
            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
The Spread of Industry

 Industrialization began in the USA
 by the 1820’s
 In the late 1800’s industry spread
 to Russia, and Japan
   Russia built the Trans-Siberian RR
   (Moscow to Vladivostock on the
   Pacific Ocean)
 By 1900 Japan had industrialized

           Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Changes in Patterns of the World
            Trade
Some countries tried to
industrialize and failed, i.e. Indian
steel industry
Many countries in Latin America,
sub-Saharan, Africa, south Asia,
and southeast Asia began to
depend on a single “cash crop”
    Sugar, cotton, and rubber giving them the
    nickname “Banana Republics”
           Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
      Banana Republics
These types of economies were
very vulnerable to any change in
the international marketplace.
Foreign investors owned and
controlled the plantations that
produced these crops
  Very little of the profits actually
  improved the life of the people who
  lived there with very little money, thus
  a market economy could not develop
           Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Changes in Patterns of the World
Trade
 Sea travel became much more
 efficient
   By 1914 two great canals shortened
   sea journeys by thousands of miles
     Suez Canal (British & French in the
     1850’s) connecting the Mediterranean to
     the Red Sea
     Panama Canal finished in 1913, it
     encouraged trade between the Atlantic
     and Pacific Oceans
            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Demographic and Environmental
          Changes
 Industrial Revolution changed
 population patterns, migrations,
 and environments
   People moved to the cities to get
   closer to factories
   Cities grew, facilitated by railroads
   Large migrations from Europe and
   Asia to America
   The potato became a main diet staple
   for European peasants
           Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
 The End of the Atlantic Trade
        and Slavery
Despite the importance of the
abolitionist movement, economic
forces also contributed to the end of
slavery (Eventually Cheap factory
labor, no food or clothing are
required)
  Toussaint L’Ouverture liberated the
  slaves of Haiti, and led to the creation of
  the first free black state in the Americas
            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
          Slave Trade

Abolished in :
  Britain: 1807
  USA: 1808
  France: 1814
  Netherlands: 1817
  Spain: 1845




          Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
           End of Slavery
The institution of slavery continued in most places
in the Americas long after the slave trade was
abolished,
The British abolishing slavery in their colonies in
1833.
The French abolished slavery in 1848, the same
year that their last king was overthrown by a
democratic government.
The United States abolished slavery in 1865 when
the north won a bitter Civil War that had divided
the southern slave-holding states from the
northern non-slavery states.

              Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
IMMIGRATION TO THE
AMERICAS
 Various immigration patterns arose to
 replace the slave trade.
 Asian and European immigrants came to
 seek opportunities in the Americas from
 Canada in the north to Argentina in the
 south.
 European and Asian migrants who became
 workers in factories, railroad construction
 sites, and plantations outnumbered those
 who were gold prospectors.

            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
IMMIGRATION TO THE
AMERICAS
 The potato famine forced many Irish
 peasants to make the journey, and political
 revolutions caused many Germans to flee
 the wrath of the government when their
 causes failed.
 By the late 19th and early 20th centuries,
 most immigrants to North America were
 from southern and eastern Europe, fleeing
 famine, poverty, and discrimination in their
 countries of origin.
             Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
THE DEMOGRAPHIC
TRANSITION
 Demographic transition from high
 birth rates to low reflected the facts
 that child labor was being replaced by
 machines and that children were not
 as useful as they were in agricultural
 societies.
 Instead, as life styles changed in
 urban settings, it became difficult to
 support large families

           Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Demographics
 The most dramatic environmental changes in
 industrialized countries occurred in the towns.
  London grew from about 500,000 inhabitants
 in 1700 to more than 2 million by 1850, with the
 largest population a city had ever had in world
 history.
 Cities in the middle industrial belt of Britain,
 such as Liverpool and Manchester grew
 rapidly during this period as well. New York
 City in the United States reached about 600,000
 in 1850


              Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Social History 1750-1914
 Industrialization offered new opportunities
 to people with important skills, such as
 carpentry, metallurgy, and machine
 operations
 Usually both husband and wife worked
 away from home, and so did children.
 Family life was never the same again.
 In the early days of industrialization, the
 main occupation of working women was
 domestic servitude.

             Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Social History 1750-1914
 A major social change brought about by the
 Industrial Revolution was the development of a
 relatively large middle class, or "bourgeoisie"
 in industrialized countries
 Social class distinctions were reinforced by
 Social Darwinism, a philosophy by Englishman
 Herbert Spencer. He argued that human
 society operates by a system of natural
 selection, whereby individuals and ways of life
 automatically gravitate to their proper station.
 According to Social Darwinists, poverty was a
 "natural condition" for inferior individuals.

              Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
FORCES FOR POLITICAL
CHANGE: Age of Enlightenment
 The Enlightenment invited people to use
 their "reason" using the same humanistic
 approach of Renaissance times
 John Locke wrote that a ruler's authority is
 based on the will of the people. He also
 spoke of a social contract that gave
 subjects the right to overthrow the ruler if
 he ruled badly.
 French philosophes, such as Voltaire and
 Jean-Jacques Rousseau spread the new
 ideas to France, where they began uproar
 in a land that epitomized absolutism
             Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
REVOLUTIONS
 The first revolution inspired by the new
 political thought that originated in England
 began in the North American colonies and
 was directed at England.
 It began when American colonists resisted
 Britain's attempt to impose new taxes and
 trade controls on the colonies after the
 French and Indian War ended in 1763.
 Crane Brinton’s: Anatomy of a Revolution
   Symptom(s), Early stages, fever, Cool-down

             Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Other Revolutions

 Brazil: Portugal’s royal family came
 here when Napoleon attacked the
 Iberian Peninsula, went home in
 1821.
   Late 1800’s Pedro II is overthrown
 Mexico: Independence came in 1821



            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
France: Post Congress of Vienna

 No matter how the Congress of Vienna
 tried to stem the tide of revolution, it did not
 work in the long run.
 France was to wobble back and forth
 between monarchy and republican
 government for thirty more years, and then
 was ruled by Napoleon III (Bonaparte's
 nephew) until 1871, when finally a
 parliamentary government emerged.

              Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
The French Revolution
 The Revolution in France was a civil war, a rising
 against the Ancien Regime, or the old kingdom
 that had risen over centuries.
 The king, of course, had absolute power, but the
 nobility and clergy had many privileges that no one
 else had.
 Social classes were divided into three estates: first
 was the clergy, second the nobility, and the Third
 Estate was everyone else.
 On the eve of the Revolution in 1789, about 97%
 of the population of France was thrown into the
 Third Estate, although they held only about 5% of
 the land. They also paid 100% of the taxes.

               Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
CONSERVATIVE REACTION TO
REVOLUTION: Congress of Vienna
 Monarchies - including the monarchy in
 France - were restored in countries that
 Napoleon had conquered
 France was "ringed" with strong countries
 by its borders to keep its military in check.
 The Concert of Europe was formed, an
 organization of European states meant to
 maintain the balance of power.


             Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Ideological Consequences of
Revolutions
   Conservatism - People who supported
   this philosophy at first advocated return to
   absolute monarchy, but came to accept
   constitutional monarchy by the mid-
   1800s.
   Generally, conservatives disapproved of
   the revolutions of the era, particularly the
   French Revolution with all the violence
   and chaos that it brought.
   Want to maintain the status quo

             Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Liberalism
 Liberalism - Liberals supported a
 republican democracy, or a government
 with an elected legislature who represented
 the people in political decision-making.
 These representatives were generally from
 the elite, but were selected (usually by
 vote) from a popular base of citizens.
 Emphasis was generally on liberty or
 freedom from oppression, rather than on
 equality
            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Radicalism
 Radicalism - Radicals advocated drastic
 changes in government and emphasized
 equality more than liberty.
  Their philosophies varied, but they were
 most concerned with narrowing the gap
 between elites and the general population.
 The Jacobins during the French
 Revolution, and Marxism that appeared in
 the mid 19th century were variations of this
 ideological family.
             Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
REFORM MOVEMENTS
 Women's Rights
 Advocates of women's rights were
 particularly active in Britain, France, and
 North America.
 Mary Wollstonecraft, an English writer, was
 one of the first to argue that women
 possessed all the rights that Locke had
 granted to men, including education and
 participation in political life.

            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Reform Movements
 Limits of the Abolitionist Movement
 Although slavery was abolished in Europe
 and North America by the late 19th
 century, blacks did not realize equality
 within the time period.
 Although former slaves were guaranteed
 the right to vote in the late 1860s in the
 United States, they were effectively barred
 from political participation by state and
 local legislation called Jim Crow laws.

             Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Social Inequality Theories
 Scientific racism: It used scientific
 reasoning and evidence to prove its
 premise that blacks are
 physiologically and mentally inferior to
 whites.
 Social Darwinism: This philosophy
 justified not racial differences, but
 differences between the rich and the
 poor

           Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
   Marxism: Karl Marx
The Father of communism is generally
acknowledged to be Karl Marx, who first wrote
about his interpretation of history and vision for the
future in The Communist Manifesto in 1848
According to Marx, communism encourages
equality and cooperation, and without property
to encourage greed and strife, governments
would be unnecessary. His theories took root in
Europe, but never became the philosophy behind
European governments, but it eventually took new
forms in early 20th century Russia and China.
1. Workers are exploited, 2. Workers revolt,
3. Dictatorship of the Proletariat

              Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Nationalism
 Patriotism: Pride in one’s country
 Nationalism: A belief that the shared
 characteristics of the nation are
 valuable and need to be preserved
   Nationalism is more than patriotism,
   which is a sentiment of loyalty,
   nationalism supports the belief that
   perceived threats or enemies to the
   nation need to be eliminated,
   destroyed or defeated
           Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
NEW EUROPEAN NATIONS
 Germany: Wilhelm I & Otto Von Bismarck
 (Prussians lead the way)
 Italy: King Vittore Emmanuele II. Count
 Cavour, Giuseppe Garibaldi
 These new nations altered the balance
 of power in Europe, causing established
 nations like Britain and France concern that
 their own power was in danger.
 Nationalism, then, was spurred on by a
 renewal of deep-rooted competition that
 European nations carried to the ends of
 the earth.
             Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Russian Empire

Peter I – Peter the Great
Westernized the Country
   Great Northern War
   Expansion
   Governmental Reforms (Church,
   Bureaucracy, Military)
   Warm-water seaports
   Famous Trips

           Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Russian Empire Post Peter
 Catherine the Great: Expands
 Russia survives Napoleon I (1812)
 England and France supported the
 Ottomans in defeating Russian troops in
 the Crimean War (1853-1856).
 Tsar Alexander II to attempt reform by
 emphasizing industrialization, creating
 elected district assemblies called
 zemstvos, and emancipating the serfs.
 Russia's instability became apparent when
 Alexander II was assassinated

            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE - "THE
SICK MAN OF EUROPE"
 Reached its peak during the 16th and 17th
 centuries
   Economic problems
   Problems with the Janissaries
   Revolts in the Balkans and Greece
   When the Russians attack started the Crimean
   War, the Ottomans were aided by England and
   France. Even though Russia was defeated, an
   important result of the war was that the
   Ottomans found themselves increasingly
   dependent on western Europe

             Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Imperialism 1870 - 1914
1. Colonial imperialism
     complete takeover of an area, with
     domination in all areas: economic, political,
     and socio-cultural (Africa & Asia 19th – 20th c.)
2. Economic imperialism
     allowed the area to operate as its own nation,
     but the imperialist nation almost completely
     controlled its trade and other business (
     China & Latin America)


              Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Imperialism 1870 - 1914

3. Political imperialism
     The government was sometimes a
     relatively permanent "puppet
     government," as happened in late
     Qing China, and other times the
     control was temporary, as occurred in
     the Dominican Republic when the
     United States ran its government until
     it got out of debt.

            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Imperialism

4. Socio-cultural imperialism
   Country deliberately tried to change
   customs, religions and languages in
   some of the countries.
   A good example was British India,
   where English was taught in schools,
   Indian soldiers dressed British-style,
   and western trading rules were set up


           Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
IMPERIALISM IN AFRICA

 Between 1450 and 1750 Europeans
 traded with Africa, but they set up
 very few colonies.
 By 1850, only a few colonies existed
 along African coastlines, such as
 Algeria (French), the Cape Colony
 (Great Britain,) and Angola (Portugal).


           Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Imperialism in Africa
 In the latter half of the 19th century,
 dramatic changes occurred, as Europeans
 began to explore Africa's interior, and by
 1914, virtually the entire continent was
 colonized by one or the other of the
 competing European countries.
 The Berlin Conference of 1884-5, in an
 effort to avoid war, allowed European
 diplomats to draw lines on maps and
 carve Africa into colonies.
            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Imperialism in India
Mughal Empire significantly weakened, the
 French established trading cities along the
 Indian coast during the 18th century, but
 the British East India Company had pushed
 them out by the early 1800s.
 India was under "company" rule for
 almost forty years, but they were not
 actually a British colony during that time
 because the British East India Company
 was still private, even though the British
 government supported it.
             Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
Indian Imperialism
 Sepoy Rebellion of 1857
 British government how serious the
 problems in India were, and they
 reacted by removing the British East
 India Company from control and
 declaring India a British colony.
  British officials poured into India to
 keep control of its valuable raw
 materials for industry and trade,
 particularly cotton and poppies for
 opium.
            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
In Conclusion
 Rising Indian Nationalism
 IMPERIALISM IN CHINA
   The Opium Wars (1839-1842)
     Treaty of Nanjing, (Unequal treaty)
     The Taiping Rebellion - 1850-1864
      – Hated the Manchu, “Brother” of Jesus
      – The Chinese government finally ended
        the civil war, with a great deal of help
        from the Europeans, but the cost to
        the country was about 20-30 million
        killed in this 14-year struggle
      – 1900 Boxer Rebellion- Anti-western
            Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
In Conclusion

 United States sea captain Matthew
 Perry may take some credit for the
 destruction of the Tokugawa
 Shogunate
 Enter the Meiji (meaning "enlightened
 rule") Restoration



           Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
That’s All
 1750-1914 was clearly one of growing
 European power and domination of the
 globe.
  Industrialization created unprecedented
 wealth, and new western political ideas
 spawned strong, centralized states that
 directed empires around the world.
 However, the new political ideas
 encouraged nationalism, which on the one
 hand strengthened the industrialized
 countries (WWI is looming)
             Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL
  WHAP Time Period Four


Slides based on the Ethel Wood
Study Guide Publication

Ordering information:
www.dsmarketing.com/books_worldhistory.html




             Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jacksonville, FL

				
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