Understanding and responding to by fjzhangxiaoquan


									    Understanding and responding to familial and
    social disadvantages that affect behaviour

• Poverty                   Presented by:
• Poor Nutrition            Michelle Burton-Moyes
• Poor Hygiene              Sharon McRae
• Lack of Sleep             Deanna Richards
• Parental Addictions
• Parents’ Mental
• Negligence and Abuse
• Absent Parents
• Immigrant Parents
“the condition of a human being who is deprived of the resources, means,
choices and power necessary to acquire and maintain economic self-sufficiency
and participation in society” or “the condition of not having enough income to
meet basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter”
   Poverty Rates

Child Poverty Rates
Children Under 6 Years Living
in Poverty
Intervention for Students in

    Canadian School Boards Association
Impact of Poverty on Young
• Poverty is especially damaging for pre-school children.
• Manitoba’s pre-school poverty rate is above the rate in all Canada, at
  more than 17%
• The cost of this will be experienced in poor school performance,
  compromised development and poor health
• Poor children typically enter school a full year and a half
  behind their middle-class peers in language ability, studies
  show. So, millions of kids start their lives with an educational
  deficit. That’s why we have to get to them while they are still
  tots. (Grundel, Oliverira, & Geballe, 2003, p. 5)
Effect of Poverty on School
• Poverty is the leading risk factor and barrier to ensuring the five
  areas of development and growth that signal school readiness are
  • Physical well-being and development including good nutrition;
    immunizations; physical skills and gross motor abilities; and fine
    motor skills
  • Social and emotional development: a sense of confidence that
    allows children to fully participate in a classroom, experience with
    turn taking, following directions, working alone and as a group
    member and the ability to form friendships
  • Supportive environments: provided by adults in a child’s life that
    foster learning and promote curiosity, creativity, motivation,
    independence, cooperation and persistence so children can meet
    new challenges
  • Cognition and knowledge including being familiar and comfortable
    with basic knowledge such as patterns, relationships, cause and
    effect and problem solving (Howard, 2009)
Poverty-Related At-Risk
Factors for Academic Failure
•   very young, single or low educational level parents;
•   unemployment;
•   abuse and neglect;
•   substance abuse;
•   dangerous neighborhoods;
•   homelessness;
•   mobility; and
•   exposure to inadequate or inappropriate educational
    experiences (Pellino, 2007).
Negative Effects of Poverty on
• Food deprivation that influences concentration and
• Inadequate child-care arrangements
• Difficult behaviour in students
• Low self-esteem
• Less motivation to learn
• Illiteracy and lower achievement in school
• Less participation in extra-curricular activities
• Interrupted school attendance
• Lower aspirations and expectations
• Lower university attendance
     (Canadian School Boards Association and Canadian Teachers’
Indicators of Academic and
Behavioural Problems
• Delay in language development
• Delay in reading development
• Aggression
• Violence
• Social withdrawal
• Substance abuse
• Irregular attendance
• Depression
• Inability to reach a student’s parent or guardian
• Student does not complete assignments, study for tests or
  does not come to school prepared to learn
• Unable to concentrate or focus
Teacher Role for Children
Coming from Poverty
• Building Positive Relationships with Students and Their Families--
  Caring and Support: schools are often a refuge for many
  children and provide a protective shield for students in their
  quest to succeed in spite of hardships they face
  • Teachers can listen to their students’ stories
  • Teachers can demonstrate caring with kindness, compassion and
  • Avoid judging students and don’t take their behaviour personally
• Positive and High Expectations: can structure and guide student
  • Get students to reach beyond what they think they can do by
    focusing on the strengths of students
  • Helps students to see that the adversity in their lives is not
    permanent but an obstacle that is temporary and that they can
Providing Opportunities for
Meaningful Participation
• Critical Thinking Skills: strategies to increase student
  effectiveness in learning through analyzing, synthesizing,
  evaluating, and drawing inferences
• Teaching for Relevancy: provides a real-life, authentic
  application for the student’s learning during the teaching and
  learning process
• Cooperative Learning: involves student participation in small
  groups to maximize learning for themselves and others
• Verbalization: the practice of encouraging the learner to
  express the learning and connection-making process to
  themselves and others through self-talk, voicing thoughts,
  discussion, thinking and writing
Providing Opportunities for
Meaningful Participation
• Engaged Learning: a set of teacher practices that actually
  engage the student in the instruction that is taking place
• Differentiated Instruction: meets the diverse needs of students
• Goal Setting: a strategy used to help students set specific,
  realistic and measurable goals for learning
• Conducting Formative and Summative: an accurate assessment of
  students’ skills and abilities is critical to the teachers’
  understanding of how to support and guide their instructions
Strategies to Address Poverty-
Related Deficiencies
•   Provide all students with a rigorous curriculum
•   Have high expectations for all students
•   Make students responsible for their own learning
•   Provide support to students and their families. Involve
    parents. Early intervention is critical.
•   Help children to succeed
•   Create an environment and use activities that foster mutual
    respect, resilience, self-esteem, self-regulation and self-
•   Develop relationships with students to identify their needs
    (emotional and intellectual) and identify their individual
    learning style
•   Emphasize that each student is unique with value, talents
    and abilities
Strategies to Address Poverty-
Related Deficiencies
• Promote awareness and acceptance of diversity. Encourage
  students to recognize similarities as well as differences.
• Use principles of constructivism to make learning interesting,
  valuable and relevant to students. Teach for meaning.
• Provide developmentally appropriate, meaningful learning
  activities and use thematic or integration instruction,
  cooperative learning, inquiry and authentic learning.

Karen M. Pellino, The Effects of Poverty on Teaching and
Ways to Address the Impact of
Poverty on Students
• Services to help students in poverty must be integrated
• Early childhood intervention, kindergarten and junior
  kindergarten programs and compensatory and continuing
  education programs serve as preventive measures for
  students living in poverty
• Extra funds can be provided to schools with a high
  concentration of students in poverty
• Creating close ties between families and schools and bringing
  parents into schools reduces the alienation of students living
  in poverty
Thought-Provoking Quotation
“Poverty should not be an excuse for us to expect less from our
students. They indeed come to us with numerous issues and
challenges that interfere with their learning. We need to focus
on their learning, find ways to help them overcome these
challenges and gain the most they can from their education.
Their education is likely their one chance to break the poverty
cycle and escape. Just because they are poor doesn’t mean they
cannot succeed. It is actually one of the best reasons for them to
                                                  Karen M. Pellino
In-School Strategies to Support
Children Living in Poverty
• Organize “freebie” table at school—staff and parents bring in
  gently used items that they no longer need and these are free
  for the taking
• Drive children to extracurricular activities that they might not
  otherwise be able to attend
• Make sure the school has a fund to pay for activities students
  who want to participate in would not be able to afford
Boyd Walker, Johanna. "How Does Nutrition Affect Learning?" 11 Oct. 2009. Web.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne and Greg J. Duncan, Children and Poverty The Future of Children, Vol. 7, No. 2, Summer/Fall 1997.
Canadian School Boards Association. Poverty Intervention Profile: Partners in Action. Ottawa, 1999. Print.
"Children Nutrition Food and Behavior." Web.
Cochrane, Glen. "Hope Restored with PATH." Web.
Cowan, Patt, Margaret Layden-Oreto, Steve Ramsankar, Maureen MacDonald, and Heather-Jane Robertson. Children, Schools and Poverty.
Canadian Teachers' Federation, 1991. Print.
"CSBA Action on Child Poverty." CSBAction 13.Special (1998): 1-4. Print.
Dunningan, Muriel, Alex Gardner, Claude Lessard, and Neal Muhtadi. Twelve Secondary Schools In Low-Income Settings. Kelowna: Society for
the Advancement of Excellence in Education, 2001. Print.
"Eating Breakfast Supports Academic Achievement." 1997. Web.
Howard, Tish, Sandy Grogan Dresser, and Dennis R. Dunklee. Poverty Is NOT a Learning Disability: Equalizing Opportunities For Low SES
Students. Thousand Oaks: Corwin, 2009. Print.
Langlois, Christine. "Child Nutrition." Breakfast for Learning (2006). Print.
Manitoba's Community Resource Data Warehouse. Web.
Neuman, Susan B. Changing the Odds for Children At Risk: Seven Essential Principles of Educational Programs That Break the Cycle of Poverty.
New York: Teachers College, 2009. Print.
Neuman, Susan B. Educating The Other America. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 2008. Print.
"One Million Too Many Implementing Solutions to Child Poverty in Canada." Campaign 2000 (2004). Print.
Pellino, Karen M. "The Effects of Poverty on Teaching and Learning." Web. <http://www.teach-nology.com>.
"Positive Parenting Program (Triple P)." Web.
Poverty. Web.
Preschool Children: Promises to Keep (1999). Print.
"Psychological Effects of Poverty in Children." Feb. 2009. Web.
Sawhill, Isabel V. "The Behavioral Aspects of Poverty." The Behavorial Aspects of Poverty - Brookings Institution. Fall 2003. Web.
Scheidies, Carolyn. "What Are the Causes of Poor Behavior in the Classroom?" Oct. 2010. Web.
Walker Tileston, Donna, and Sandra K. Darling. Closing the Poverty & Culture Gap: Strategies to Reach Every Student. Thousand Oaks: Corwin,
2009. Print.
"What Are the Long Term Effects of Poverty?" Web.
How Does Nutrition Affect
• If you’ve every been stuck at work with your stomach
  rumbling from hunger, you know how difficult it can be to
  concentrate on the task in front of you
• You might feel tired, sluggish and even irritable
• You’re probably not able to perform to the best of your ability
• Imagine you’re a child who had to go to school without
  breakfast because your parents didn’t have enough money to
  feed you
• This is a reality for many school-aged children and the effects
  of poor nutrition on learning are a widespread problem
How Does Nutrition Affect
• Brain Chemistry: in order to function properly, the brain
  needs a constant supply of healthy fats, proteins,
  carbohydrates, water, vitamins and minerals
• Amino acids found in high-protein foods are responsible for
  the firing of the brain’s chemical messengers called
• Vitamins and minerals convert amino acids to
• Sugars found in fruits and vegetables power the brain
• When a child is deficient of any of those food sources, he/she
  might seem confused, irritable, distracted or apathetic
How Does Nutrition Affect
• In the Womb: Good nutrition habits start long before a child
  even enters the world and can impact how he/she learns later
  in life
  • Pregnant women who do not consume an adequate intake of
    vitamins, minerals and nutrients are at a greater risk of giving
    birth to low-birth weight babies
  • According to a 1991 report by the Denver, Colorado Education
    Commission of the States, nearly 5 % of babies born weighing 5.5
    lbs. or less suffer greater instances of hearing and vision
    problems and require specialized education services at some
    point during their school years
How Does Nutrition Affect
• Malnutrition:
  •   at age 3 results in more hyperactivity
  •   in 8 year olds can result in aggressive behaviour
  •   can cause increased externalizing problems in 11 year olds
  •   can cause greater motor activity and conduct disorders in 17-year

How Does Nutrition Affect
• Early Childhood: According to a report by the American
  School Health Association, 4th grade students with a poor
  protein intake scored lower on achievement tests than their
  peers with adequate nutrition
  • Students who showed an iron deficiency exhibited symptoms
    similar to ADHD: short attention span and difficulty
    concentrating as well as fatigue and irritability
  • School children who skip breakfast in the morning consistently
    underscore on problem-solving tests that measure for speed and
How Does Nutrition Affect
• Poor Nutrition: poverty and poor nutrition habits often go
  hand in hand
  • Many children go to school hungry, unable to concentrate in class
    and might even miss school altogether
  • Children who come from families in which both parents work are
    more likely to eat convenience-type foods that are high in fat,
    calories and sugar, all of which can impair a child’s ability to
    function at optimal level while in school
Strategies to Address Nutrition
•   Breakfast Programs
•   Lunch Programs
•   Lessons on nutrition incorporated into everyday curriculum
•   Classes to teach low-income parents the importance of proper
    food choices and meal preparation

Johnna Boyd Walker,
October 11, 2009
Breakfast for Learning (BFL)
• BFL works to ensure that every child in Canada attends school
  well nourished and ready to learn
• BFL provides funds, nutrition education, resources and
  program support to student nutrition programs across the
• BFL supports a network of programs in 5,000 communities
  across Canada
• Almost all of these programs are in elementary schools with a
  small number in high schools and other community locations
• In the 14 years since BFL’s inception, the universal programs
  which are run by a network of 30,000 volunteers, have served
  millions of healthy breakfast, lunches and snacks to over 1.5
  million school-age children
• http://www.breakfastforlearning.ca/en/manitoba/manitoba
Sleep Deprivation
“Today’s classrooms are
 filled with students who
 are too tired to function
 at their maximum
 learning potential.”

Definition of the Problem
• When the child (student) does not get enough sleep at
  night it can have a negative impact on their learning
  abilities to achieve success in school. Sleep deprivation
  among children today is becoming an increasing problem
  within the schools. Children are not receiving the
  amount of sleep recommended and therefore is causing
  problems for students throughout the day.
Effects of Sleep Deprivation
• Reduced concentration
• Diminished performance
  in any task
• Falling asleep in class or
  anytime during the day
• Physical appearance
• Affect emotional stability
• Increased weight
• Lack of energy during
  the day
Effects of Sleep Deprivation
• Low tolerance level and
  may explode at the smallest
• Increase behavior problems
• Inability to think logically
• Inability to perform well on
  academic tests (affect
  his/her grades)
• Associated with ADHD
  (Adolescent sleep
  deprivation is often
  associated with ADHD)
• May increase the risk of
  developing psychiatric
  illnesses such as depression
Strategies to Addressing Sleep
• School districts can change start times to later in the day
  (Thames Valley District School Board, London Free Press).
• Inform parents on issue- listing or providing guidelines on
  recommended amount of sleep children should get based on age.
• Advise or seek counseling for student to find out why and what
  can be done.
• Teach students good bedtime habits; educate them about the
  effects and why sleep is important.
• Conduct lesson plans which involve kinesthetic learning.
• Try playing educational games that involve every student
• Talk to the Student! Show that you care.
Strategies to Addressing Sleep
• Allow a daily snack (this may be why the student
  is tired due to hunger).
• School can implement a breakfast program.
• Teacher can take note if child is displaying signs
  and contact parents to set a meeting to address
  the issue in private.
• Teacher can allow student to sleep for small
  amount of time in class or in back room (only if
  this issue does not happen very often). Nap Time
Total hrs/day VS. % REM Sleep
Poor Hygiene
• “It seems like it should be
  common sense for everyone to
  have good hygiene. However,
  unfortunately, as many people
  have come to find out that is
  not the case.”

 How to Have Good Hygiene | eHow.com
Definition of the Problem
• An issue that cannot be easily ignored is when a
  student suffers from poor hygiene. Poor hygiene is
  when a child (student) does not properly take care
  of themselves or not at all. The child may not be
  familiar with how to take care of themselves or
  parents can be lacking the time to educate their
  children on hygiene. Poor hygiene can be in a
  variety of forms such as body odor, unclean
  clothing, disheveled hair, etc.
Effects of Poor Hygiene
• Affects their health at a more
  permanent level as well their peers.
• Low self esteem (their self image
  may suffer).
• Become alienated from other
• Bullied about appearance.
Strategies to Addressing Poor
• Make hygiene a regular part of your
  health curriculum.
• Have some hygiene items handy in
  the classroom or for every individual
• Use visual aids when teaching about
  hygiene or post visual aids
  throughout school.
• Talk privately with the student about
  poor hygiene and work with that
  student to address issue
• Monitor student hygiene (using a
  checklist to hygiene activities that
  the child has to do).
Strategies to Addressing Poor
• Talk about the consequences
  (sometimes students can retain a
  subject matter better if they learn
  about the consequences)
• Separate the boys and girls when
  talking about hygiene (although it is
  important for boys and girls to learn
  about each others reproductive organ,
  some may feel comfortable being
  separated to discuss these issues).
• School can implement a good hygiene
  program for students that have
  difficulty with this subject.
• Encourage students to practice good
Parental Drug and
Alcohol Addiction
“It can be estimated that close to one million
(approximately 945,150) children lived in an alcoholic
home in Canada in 1991. This figure represents 12% of
children in any age group.”
Children of parents who abuse
drugs/alcohol may experience:
• Social exclusion        • Being left alone
• Feelings of low self-   • Nightmares, bed
  worth/self-esteem         wetting and crying
• Fears of abandonment      (younger children)
• Feelings of
• Depression, anxiety,
• Taking on quasi-adult
Children of parents who abuse
drugs/alcohol may experience:
• Lack of rituals/routines    • Higher rates of
• Increased risk of             behaviour problems
  becoming alcohol/drug         (ADHD, OCD)
  user                        • Higher school
• Increased risk of family      absenteeism
  stress, violence abuse      • Poor outcomes across all
  and neglect                   developmental areas
• Excessively authoritarian     including cognitive,
  parenting styles              behavioural,
• Inconsistent expression       psychological, emotional
  of love and warmth            and social domains
• Lack of parental            • Removal from the home
  supervision or modeling     • Substance abuse related
                                birth defects
Supporting Children of
Drug/Alcohol Affected Homes
• Identify children living in   • Individual and family
  affected homes                  counselling
• Conduct home visits by        • Ensure that child develops a
                                  strong relationship with an
  school counsellors, case        adult in the school
  managers, or clinicians.      • Provide opportunities for
• Provide parents with            children to express themselves
  information on                  in a safe context
  drug/alcohol treatment        • Involve children in meaningful,
  services and parenting          fun activities
  programs                      • Contact outside services and
                                  agencies when necessary
• Provide structured, safe-
  haven for children
• Create a positive classroom
  environment where all
  children are validated
Parental Depression
and Mental Illness
According to Health Canada (2002), 20% of
Canadians struggle with mental illness at
some point in their life.
     Parental Depression and
     Mental Illness
       • Children of depressed parents
         are also at higher risk for
         substance abuse, antisocial
         behavior, and a cascade of
         problems associated with
         attachment, anxiety, physical
         health, academic
         performance, self-esteem,
         aggression, behavior, and
         language. The problems can
         begin in infancy and grow
         bigger with the child. The
         younger a child is when the
         parent becomes depressed,
         the greater the impact will be.

Effects of Parental Depression and
Mental Illness on Children
• Negative parenting: less     • Increased risk of
  play, negative discipline,     behaviour and academic
  abuse                          problems
• Inhibited emotional          • Increased risk of drug
  development                    use and alcoholism
• May take on                  • Poor social relationships
  inappropriate levels of      • Increased risk of mental
  responsibility in caring       health problems:
  for themselves and             depression, mood
  others                         disorders, personality
• May experience anger,          disorders
  guilt, anxiety, shame        • May become isolated
  and/or embarrassment           from peers
Effects of Parental Depression
Several studies have shown
that depressed mothers have
trouble bonding with their
newborns, are less sensitive
than non-depressed mothers
to their babies’ needs, and
are less consistent in how
they respond to their babies’
behaviour. The behaviour of
their babies – listless,
unhappy, hard to comfort –
reflects those deficits, as
does defiant, out-of-control
toddler behaviour.
Supporting Children Of Parents who
Suffer from Depression/Mental Illness
• Provide children with   • Encourage counselling
  age-appropriate           and/or family therapy
  information about       • Encourage children to
  depression and other      participate in extra-
  mental illnesses          curricular activities
• Encourage children to   • Provide them
  express themselves        opportunities to
  (journaling, art)         socialize, have fun and
• Reach out to parents;     experience a break
  connect them to           from the stress at
  support groups            home
Teaching Students with
• “Study after study has shown that
  depressed parents – if their condition goes
  untreated – are likely to have depressed
  children. The odds of a child suffering from
  depression are at 25% if one parent suffers
  from depression. If both parents suffer
  from depression, the child has a 75%
  chance of suffering.”
•    http://www.clinicalpsychiatrynews.com/views/prevention-in-action-by-dr-carl-c-bell/blog/children-of-depression-breaking-
Teaching Students with Depression
Create an inviting classroom
       • Demonstrate unconditional acceptance
       • Be a good listener
       • Keep a positive tone; use humour
       • Avoid singling out students
       • Be specific in providing feedback about when,
         where, how and why either behaviour or
         academic work needs to improve
Teaching Students with
Instructional Strategies
       • Maintain a pleasant, interested tone and be prepared to listen; do
         not press students for details on family problems or therapy
       • Find out what motivates students, such as working with pets or
         younger students and how they learn best
       • Be aware of any special needs or learning problems
       • Initiate conversation when students arrive, leave, or during breaks,
         as students with depression re not likely to do so.
       • Stop by students’ desks during seat work or sit in on small groups.
       • Use advanced organizers when presenting assignments; give
         handouts and out outlines of the day’s activities on the board
       • Make accommodations for assignments and exams (give extensions
         or more time, longer wait time for questions, variety of assessment
         methods, allow for breaks)
Teaching Students with
• Teach problem-solving strategies
• Build a support network for students
• Teach Goal Setting
• Coach students to use positive self-talk
• Encourage students to follow healthy living practices
• Encourage students to participate in community
• Help students “find” their own gifts and talents
• Work with parents
Abuse and
235,842 maltreatment-related investigations
were conducted across Canada during 2008. 36%
were substantiated. In another 8% of cases,
maltreatment was suspected.
Children Suffering from
 • In 2009, police reported almost 55,000 children and
   youth victims (0 to 17 years) of a physical assault or
   sexual offence. Of these, about 3 in 10, or close
   to 15,000 children and youth, were victimized by a
   member of their own family. Another 54% were
   victimized by a friend or acquaintance and 15% by a
   stranger. These findings are consistent with
   international literature which states that most
   violent acts committed against children and youth
   are perpetrated by individuals who are part of the
   victim’s immediate environment (United
   Nations, 2006).
Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

Types of Abuse
• Physical: includes hitting        • Sexual: sexual contact
  kicking, shaking, pinching, and     between an adult and a child
  burning. It may leave bruises,      or between an older child and
  cuts, or other marks and            a younger child. Showing
  cause pain, broken bones and        pornography to a child.
  internal injuries.                • Neglect: happens when a
• Emotional: saying or doing          child does not get the shelter,
  things that make a child feel       schooling, clothing, medical
  unloved, unwanted, unsafe or        care, or protection he/she
  worthless. It can range from        needs.
  yelling and threatening to
  ignoring the child and not
  giving love and support
Substantiated Child Maltreatment

                               negelct              exposure to
                                34%                   violence

     sexual abuse
         3%                                    physical abuse
               emotional                            20%

Cycle of Violence

       •   http://intervalhouseottawa.org/programs.html
Effects of Negligence and Abuse on
• Developmental delays                              • Substance abuse
• Health conditions                                 • Running
• Depression and/or                                 • Irregular school
  anxiety                                             attendance
• Self-harming                                      • Prostitution
  behaviour                                         • Age-inappropriate
• Psychiatric disorders                               sexual behaviour
• Behaviour problems                                • Criminal involvement
  (aggression, violence,                            • Negative peer
  gang involvement)                                   involvement
What to do if you suspect child
                        Dos                                                    Don’ts
   Control your emotions. Remain calm and                  Do not looked shocked or disgusted
    relaxed.                                                Do not use words that may frighten the child
   Offer comfort and support.                               such as rape, incest, child abuse, wife assault
   Accept the words the child uses. They may not            or jail.
    know the right words for body parts or                  Do not ask questions that suggest what
    behaviours.                                              happened.
   Ask questions that let the child tell the story in      Do not question what the child tells you.
    his/her own words.                                      Do not interrupt or add your own words.
   Respect the person who discloses                        Do not ask the child “why” something may
   Listen                                                   have happened – they may perceive that you
   Answer the child’s questions as simply and               are blaming them for what happened
    honestly as possible                                    Do not keep on asking questions because you
   Tell them you will do everything you can do to           want to try to prove abuse.
    help                                                    Do not try to force a child to speak
                                                            Do not make promises you cannot keep (do
                                                             not agree to keep it a secret)

Supporting children of abuse
• Intervene and report                                    • Teach students non-
  suspected abuse                                           violent conflict
• Support parents: provide                                  resolution
  them info on parenting,                                 • Encourage cooperative
  counselling, support                                      play.
  agencies.                                               • Establish routines and
• Act as a role model for                                   normalcy for children
  parents                                                 • Encourage students to
• Help children learn to                                    participate in classroom
  express feelings                                          and extracurricular
• Educate teachers about                                    activities
  child abuse                                             • Educate children about
                                                            their rights

Absentee Parents:
Single parenting and
non-standard work
“Lone-parent families accounted for 25% of all Canadian families
with children in 2004, up from 21% in 1994. Back in 1961, only 11%
of families were headed by lone parents. There were about
1,366,400 lone-parent families in 2004 – an increase of 27% in only
10 years.”

Single Parenting
• Researchers have found that more contact between
  nonresident fathers and their children predicted more
  adequate maternal parenting, which in turn was
  associated directly with the children’s subsequent
  behavioural and cognitive functioning in early
  elementary school.

• Researchers have observed that children develop more
  optimally when there is both a primary caregiver who is
  committed to the well-being of the children (typically the
  mother) and another adult (frequently the father) who
  gives support to the primary caregiver.
   Jackson, A., Choi, J., & Franke, T. (2009).
Parents Working Non-standard
Work Schedules
• According to the 2000-01 Canadian Community Health Survey,
  30% of men and 26% of women ages 18 to 54 who were
  employed throughout the year – nearly 3 million individuals –
  had non-standard schedules

• Children’s positive well-being is fostered by close and positive
  parent-child relationships, which in turn are promoted by
  parents spending more time with their children. Nonstandard
  work schedules may reduce the parent-child contact
  necessary for positive outcomes in all of these areas, and on
  top of that can be so physically draining that they impede
  upon parents’ ability to nurture their children’s development
Parents Working Non-standard
Work Schedules
• A qualitative study found poorer educational outcomes for
  children whose mothers had worked evenings or nights over a
  6-year period during childhood.
• Stradzins found strong, negative associations between
  Canadian parents working nonstandard shifts and their
  children’s socio-emotional well-being (e.g., property offenses
  for children aged 4-11, physical and conduct aggression for
  children aged 2-3). Heightened parental depression and
  ineffective parenting behaviors due to working nonstandard
  shifts partially explained these negative associations.
• Research suggests that such schedules undermine the stability
  of marriages, increase the amount of housework to be done,
  reduce family cohesiveness, and require elaborate child-care

Effects of Absentee Parents
• Lower cognitive outcomes (ages 1-3), less cognitively
• Slower language acquisition (ages 1-3)
• Poor educational outcomes
• More likely to be suspended
• Increased risk of negative behaviours (both internalizing and
• More likely to be exposed to negative parenting: impatient,
  irritable, angry, poor physical and mental health
• Children are likely to be exposed to increased marital conflict
• Less time together as a family, less quality time with parent(s)
Supporting Students of
Absentee Parents
• Encourage families to eat dinner as a family whenever
• Engage child in cognitively stimulating activities
• Encourage individual and family counseling
• Provide parents with information on childcare, after school
  programs, etc.
• Create a supportive, welcoming classroom and school
• Arrange meeting times to accommodate parents’ work
Immigrant Families
“Parental involvement at school is certainly important to children’s
academic progress, but not all parents are equally equipped to
participate at school. Minority immigrant parents face additional
barriers that prevent them from participating in the children's school
at comparable levels, and their children seem to suffer the
Turney and Grace (2009)
 Immigrant Families
   • From 1991 to 2000, 2.2
     million immigrants were
     admitted to Canada, the
     highest number for any
     decade in the past century.
   • Manitoba welcomed 15,803
     immigrants in 2010, the
     highest number of immigrants
     since the start of modern
     record keeping in 1946.
   • Winnipeg received 12,340
     immigrants in 2010, more
     than Edmonton, Ottawa and
     Hamilton and more than
     Quebec City, Regina,
     Saskatoon, Victoria, Halifax
     and Fredericton combined.

http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/81-004-x/200410/7422-eng.htm     http://www.longwoods.com/content/21983
Challenges Faced by Immigrant
• Conflict between parents and              • Parents work long hours, low
  children as children integrate and          wage, no benefits
  adopt “Canadian” values, which               • Parents' credentials/education in
  may be in contrast to their                    native country is not recognized
  cultural values (clothing, dating)        • Experience discrimination and
• Less educated parents                       racism
• Language barrier                             • Parents experience difficulty gaining
   • Unable to communicate with child’s
     teachers, administration or support       • Children may be discriminated
     services                                    against at school based on their
                                                 appearance, religion or inability to
   • Unable to help their children with          speak the language
   • Unaware of child’s progress            • Poverty
   • Cannot translate newsletters, report      • Live in assisted housing
     cards, emails and other school            • Criminal activity
     correspondence                            • Poor nutrition
   • Experience difficulty enlisting        • Lack of supports
     services including health care

     Shields, M., & Berhman, R. (2004).
Reaching Out to Immigrant
•   Provide childcare during parent meetings/info          •   Recognize the right of immigrant families to voice
    sessions                                                   their opinions on education
•   Arrange for carpools for parents that don’t have       •   Schools should promote the formation of parent
    access to transportation to attend meetings and            support groups for those families with limited
    school events                                              English skills to facilitate communication between
•   Communicate that extended family members                   parents, teachers, and students, and ensure all
    who participate in raising the child are welcome           parents understand how the school operates and
    to attend activities and school functions                  what their children are learning.
•   Provide supplies to students so children are not       •   Ensure teachers are aware of the needs of EAL
    limited by their families’ limitations                     learners and the teaching strategies that will best
•   Help staff learn strategies for working with               meet these needs (visuals, demonstrations,
    parents from all cultures                                  simplified text, etc.)
•   Provide parents with information of school             •   Establish a welcome centre to allow children and
    structures, policies and educational issues                their families to adjust and learn basic social
                                                               English in order to better transition them into the
•   Explicitly invite parents to participate in the            school system.
    school                                                 •   Include welcome signs and direction in multiple
•   Help families learn strategies to support students’        languages
    academic needs                                         •   Assign an EAL case manager (resource teacher,
•   Promote in policies and practices an educational           counselor) to immigrant students to be monitor
    mission that takes into account the ethnocultural          their progress, communicate with teachers,
    diversity of society.                                      conduct necessary assessments and coordinate
•   Diversify the ethnocultural profile of school staff.       meetings with parents.
•   Gain a better overall understanding of the social      •   To promote better cross-cultural understanding,
    and socialization practices of immigrant families.         schools should include the history and culture of
                                                               the major immigrant groups in the curriculum.

Protective Factors for Children
• A sense of being loved    • An ability to articulate
  by their parent             their feelings
• Positive self-esteem      • Parental employment
• Good coping skills        • Parents who are
• Positive peer               functioning well at
  relationships               home, work and in
• Interest in and success     their social
  in school                   relationships
• Healthy engagement        • Help and support from
  with adults outside the     immediate and
  home                        extended family
Protective Factors
 • “Increasing a child’s protective factors helps
   develop his/her resiliency. Resilient children
   understand that they are not responsible for
   their parent’s difficulties and are able to move
   forward in the face of life’s challenges. Schools
   and educators need to do what they can to
   create these protective factors in children’s
   lives. While some factors are difficult to impact,
   others are well within a teacher’s scope.”
Developing Resiliency
• Develop resilient students—students who succeed in school
  despite the presence of adverse conditions
• Traits of Resilient Students:
  • Social competence: knowing the appropriate behaviour for the
    place and for the people with whom they are interacting
  • Students are responsive and have the ability to elicit positive
    responses from other people
  • They are flexible and have the ability to move back and forth
    between their primary culture and that of the dominant culture
  • They are able to show empathy, are caring and have good
    communication skills and a sense of humour
Traits of Resilient Students
• Problem-Solving Skills: the ability to plan
  • Students are good at asking for help from others
  • They can think critically, creatively and reflectively
  • They try out different solutions to both cognitive and social
  • Students are aware of the obstacles they face and they have
    developed strategies for overcoming them
• Autonomy: students have a sense of their own identity and
  an ability to act independently
  • Students can distance themselves from what they believe to be
  • They have a sense that they can master a task and believe in
    themselves as a person and as a learner
Traits of Resilient Students
• Sense of Purpose and Future: resilient students have goals
  and educational aspirations and are motivated to achieve
  • Students are persistent in getting their needs met
  • They are optimistic and hopeful



               Jackson, A., Choi, J., & Franke, T. (2009). Poor single mothers with young children: mastery, relations with nonresident fathers, and
child outcomes. Social Work Research, 33(2), 95-104.

               Shields, M., & Berhman, R. (2004). Children of immigrant families: analysis and recommendations. Children on Immigrant Families,
14(2), 4-15.











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