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					FINAL REPORT NCEMBT-070912



AIR PURIFICATION CONSORTIUM
TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH, STANDARDS AND POLICY



Richard Sweetser
Exergy Partners Corporation




Davor Novosel
National Center for Energy Management and Building Technologies
FINAL REPORT NCEMBT-070912




NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENERGY MANAGEMENT
AND BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES TASK 06-14:
AIR PURIFICATION CONSORTIUM TECHNOLOGY,
RESEARCH, STANDARDS AND POLICY SEMINAR

SEPTEMBER 2007




Prepared By:

Richard Sweetser
Exergy Partners Corporation

Davor Novosel
National Center for Energy Management and Building Technologies



Prepared For:

U.S. Department of Energy
William Haslebacher
Project Officer / Manager




This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy
Under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03GO13072
NOTICE
This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the
United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or
implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any
information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned
rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,
manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by
the United States government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not
necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof.




NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES CONTACT

Davor Novosel
Chief Technology Officer
National Center for Energy Management and Building Technologies
601 North Fairfax Street, Suite 250
Alexandria VA 22314
703-299-5633
dnovosel@ncembt.org
www.ncembt.org




  ii   NCEMBT-070912
TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.............................................................................................................................................1
1. PROJECT OBJECTIVE............................................................................................................................................3
2. BACKGROUND....................................................................................................................................................4
   2.1 NCEMBT’s Change in Course Direction .........................................................................................................4
   2.2 Five-Year Goals.............................................................................................................................................4
   2.3 Definition of Market Transformation (MT).......................................................................................................6
   2.4 Market Transformation Sector Concept .........................................................................................................6
   2.5 Air Purification Consortium Model – The First Disruptive Influence .................................................................8
       2.5.1 University of Illinois at Chicago Air Filtration Research ............................................................................8
       2.5.2 Penn State University Research in Bioaerosols and UVGI ........................................................................8
       2.5.3 Syracuse University Residential Air Cleaner Research .............................................................................9
   2.6 Knowledge Gap ..........................................................................................................................................10
3. METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................................................11
4. RESULTS ..........................................................................................................................................................14
   Question One: What is/are the most compelling method(s) to transforming the market to adopt new air cleaning
   approaches and technologies? .........................................................................................................................14
   Question Two: What should an APC research program look like? ........................................................................15
   Question Three: Is a new IAQ standard needed? If so, what should it look like? Or how can we demonstrate the
   trade-off between air cleaning and ventilation? .................................................................................................17
   Question Three: Is a new IAQ standard needed? If so, what should it look like? Or how can we demonstrate the
   trade-off between air cleaning and ventilation? .................................................................................................18
5. REFERENCES....................................................................................................................................................19
APPENDIX A – SEMINAR AGENDA..........................................................................................................................20
APPENDIX B - SEMINAR ATTENDEES......................................................................................................................21
APPENDIX C - PRESENTATION BY JOHN VASSELLI OF CARRIER CORPORATION........................................................22
APPENDIX D - PRESENTATION BY DR. CLAUDIA MILLER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS MEDICAL CENTER ...............34
APPENDIX E - PRESENTATION BY DR. JAMES WOODS OF BDRI ...............................................................................71
APPENDIX F - BREAKOUT GROUPS........................................................................................................................86




                                                                                                                                     NCEMBT-070912               iii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. View of the ASHRAE Standard 145P Compliant Test Loop at UIC ................................................................8
Figure 2. View of PSU Bioaerosols Laboratory .........................................................................................................9
Figure 3. View of the Environmental Test Chamber at SU..........................................................................................9




  iv     NCEMBT-070912
                                                                                         EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The National Center for Energy Management and Building Technologies (NCEMBT), through its Air
Purification Consortium (APC), held a two-day seminar to discuss research, technology, standards and
policy for indoor air quality (IAQ) to form the foundation of future work necessary to bring about
meaningful change. A strategic blend of academia, industry, manufacturers and government IAQ experts
was represented at the seminar held on May 28 and 29 of 2007.
The fundamental hypothesis being examined was that improving air cleaning is the key to improving IAQ
and reducing energy consumption.
The seminar participants concluded that if good air quality could be properly defined and air cleaning
could achieve good air quality, then energy consumption would indeed be reduced. The fundamental
basis for this conclusion was that ventilation is an energy intensive process and may introduce more
pollutants to the building (particularly in urban centers) versus air cleaning which is less energy intensive.
A secondary goal of the seminar was to determine if the proposed Air Purification Consortium would be
supported by industry. John Vasselli, Chief of Technology for Indoor Air Quality for Carrier
Corporation, confirmed his company’s interest in the APC project by presenting the effort with a $25,000
check. “Carrier stands by the APC/NCEMBT and the important, ground breaking research of its partners.
Carrier recognizes the impending energy and health crisis and our need to change how our buildings
operate. We will support the NCEMBT and its efforts to understand the nexus of a healthy indoor
environment and energy efficiency,” stated Vasselli.
Vasselli also gave the first presentation of the seminar entitled, “Defining a New Standard for IAQ.”
Vasselli explained, “The HVAC industry is a green industry. We are discovering that global warming
and carbon footprints are the most significant societal challenge and the biggest threat to national
security.”
Presentations also were given by Dr. Claudia Miller of the University of Texas Health Center regarding
‘What do we Know about IAQ and Health?’ and Dr. Jim Woods of the Building Diagnostics Research
Institute on ‘Basic Principles for IAQ Criteria and Control.’
Dr. Miller described a new, disturbing phenomenon with workers today, “Toxicant Induced Loss of
Tolerance (TILT) has been observed in more than a dozen countries. People who are suffering from sick
buildings have developed new onset symptoms - headaches, fatigue, digestive problems, new intolerances
for food, alcohol, caffeine. All of this seems to be linked back to sick building syndrome. We need more
research to be done in this area to effectively prevent further sickness,” she stated.
Dr. James Woods made a case that improved methods of air cleaning and distribution can enhance
environmental quality and reduce energy consumption and that a good, definitive air quality standard is
“essential to move forward in IAQ. An improved evaluation criteria and diagnostic methods are needed
to assure acceptability in the marketplace,” Woods explained. “We need to start with the basics, and
that’s to define IAQ and work from there.”
The most important part of the seminar was the expert panel reviews. Members worked collaboratively
on the questions of: What is the most compelling approach to transforming the IAQ market? What should
an APC research program look like? And is a new IAQ standard needed? The following question
summaries provide an exciting and productive APC action agenda for the next few years.




                                                                                       NCEMBT-070912      1
                                                                                       EXECUTIVE SUMMARY



Seminar Conclusions on Question One: What is/are the most compelling approach(s) to
transforming the market to adopt new air cleaning approaches and technologies?
     Drawing from the results of the expert panels, a powerful message arose that there are four essential
     elements to transform the IAQ market:
         1. Do the research that develops the benchmarks to determine good air quality.
         2. Do the research that proves air cleaning can deliver good air quality.
         3. Demonstrate the impact of air cleaning to building owners with measurement and verification
         4. Educate: owners, policy makers, key building occupants (i.e. teachers, employee unions,
            etc.)

Seminar Conclusions on Question One: What should an APC research program look like?
     Drawing from the results of the expert panels it became clear that there are three essential research
     priorities:
         1. Target market sector and building types and determine contaminants of concern
         2. Review and distill existing research that can be targeted to selected markets, identify gaps and
            determine research road map that is multidisciplinary
         3. Standards development is the end point

Seminar Conclusions on Question Three: Is a new IAQ standard needed? If so, what should it look
like? Or how can we demonstrate the trade-off between air cleaning and ventilation?
         Expert panels fundamentally agreed that there is a need for a good IAQ Guideline and that it
         needs to be built upon and compliment the ASHRAE Standard 62. Group 2 captured the general
         opinion of the seminar within its stated objective: “Using the 25 years of development of
         ASHRAE Standard 62, we suggest using the standard as a foundation for the IAQ Guideline. Our
         objective would be to develop a Guideline that applies the IAQ method more easily. The IAQ
         Guideline should initially target indoor spaces having high density, diversity, excessive exhaust,
         transitory occupancy and locations in high vulnerability areas. Buildings of these types include
         schools, convention centers, hotels and casinos. This IAQ Guideline should be promoted by
         industry through involvement in the APC.
         The National Center for Energy Management and Building Technologies created the concept of
         the Air Purification Consortium (APC) as a means of stimulating the advancement of energy
         conservation within an integrated building system concomitantly with the need to improve indoor
         air quality from a comfort, performance, health and safety perspective.
         This seminar confirmed the need to develop the APC as a working entity consisting of experts in
         HVAC, IAQ, medical, building trades, manufacturing, academia, allied associations and policy
         makers.
         The seminar created the outline of a roadmap which will need completing and has provided
         encouragement to move rapidly foreword.




 2     NCEMBT-070912
                                                                                    1. PROJECT OBJECTIVE



1. PROJECT OBJECTIVE
The goal of this task was to bring together manufacturers, universities, the engineering community,
medical and public health experts, federal and state policy makers, non-government organizations,
contractors and the skilled trades and actively seek support from these stakeholders to achieve critical
mass and leverage efforts in the important field of air cleaning / air purification.
Advanced technologies for purifying air by controlling particulate, gaseous, and microbiological
pollutants are an efficient means of contributing to the overall goal of acceptable Indoor Air Quality
(IAQ). Despite widespread concerns about IAQ in sensitive applications such as schools, hospitals and
homes, as well as conventional applications such as large commercial buildings affected by the "sick
building syndrome," the infrastructure to support the air purification industry is limited.
The NCEMBT believes that new filtration, UVGI, and other air purification technologies can improve
IAQ while increasing building energy efficiency. This is why the NCEMBT supports the Air Purification
Consortium and is seeking strong industry participation. The seminar was designed as a kick-off point for
the APC and its ultimate goal is to make this a self-sustaining industry effort.




                                                                                   NCEMBT-070912     3
2. BACKGROUND



2. BACKGROUND
2.1 NCEMBT’S CHANGE IN COURSE DIRECTION
In 2006, the NCEMBT initiated a course correction through its strategic planning process
           Its new plan focuses on transforming building design and the built environment
           Its new plan focuses on measurable efficiency improvement within five years
           Its new plan focuses on measurable IEQ assessment and improvement within five years
           Its new plan focuses on real change in the market within five years
           Its new plan focuses on broadening the research and MT base to include states, foundations and
           industry
The strategic plan also delineated two very important strategic issues
           The work of the NCEMBT (applied research and market transformation) is unique and important
           It is essential for the NCEMBT to significantly broaden its funding base beyond the federal
           government to include states, foundations and industry to assure its sustainability and impact



2.2 FIVE-YEAR GOALS
Five-year strategic goals are demonstrable, measurable, definable and achievable:
           Achieve 70 percent Building Energy Efficiency (BEE)1. BEE is based on the First Law of
           Thermodynamics (on a primary energy basis) and is expressed as a ratio:
                            ER
                   BEE =                                                                               (1)
                            EC
        Where:
                   ER = Energy Required.
                           This is the energy required at the building boundary to control the four basic
                           exposure parameters (thermal, lighting, acoustic and chemical (IEQ)) within
                           “acceptable” values for all occupied spaces as defined by codes, standards, and
                           functional requirements of the facility




1
    Presently, BEE for Commercial Buildings is estimated at 50%


    4     NCEMBT-070912
                                                                                          2. BACKGROUND




               EC = Energy Consumed
                        This is the necessary energy to provide the ER, including all associated parasitic
                        losses or Energy Waste (EW) within the building boundary; therefore
               EC = ER + EW                                                                            (2)
       Equation (1) can be expressed as
                          ER
                BEE =                                                                                  (3)
                        ER + EW


Evidence has long indicated that some buildings, which have large envelope or internal loads but simple
control systems, perform with a high BEE but large ER; and others, which have low envelope and internal
loads and complex control systems, perform with a low BEE and a small ER. Moreover, evidence
indicates that the components of EW may be of the same magnitude as ER, resulting in BEE values in the
50% range.
       20% reduction in Energy Required (ER) compared to the current baseline in buildings through
       measures that reduce envelope and internal loads.
       20% reduction in Energy Waste (EW) compared to the current baseline in buildings caused by
       deficiencies in design concepts and details, and by deficiencies in construction.
       20% reduction in Energy Waste (EW) compared to the current baseline in buildings caused by
       deficiencies in operations and maintenance procedures during the life of the building.
       20% improvement in occupant response or performance resulting from enhanced control of
       thermal, lighting, acoustic and/or IAQ technologies that are capable of reducing Energy Required
       or Energy Waste by 20% compared to the current baseline.
       By objective measures, successful market transformation through adoption of the technologies,
       standards and/or processes developed by the NCEMBT and its partners.
       An overall “accuracy” of 80% to diagnose and evaluate the performance of the buildings used in
       this five-year plan.




                                                                                    NCEMBT-070912     5
2. BACKGROUND



2.3 DEFINITION OF MARKET TRANSFORMATION (MT)
The conventional definition of “market transformation” stems from the notion that the volumes of
purchases of a specific product or service can be “transformed” into purchases of a higher quality product
or service. Abundant literature on “market transformation” in North American energy efficiency exists,
and here the term means “a strategic effort of government, utility and other organizations to intervene in
the market, causing beneficial, lasting changes in the structure or function of the market, leading to
increases in the adoption of energy efficient products, services and / or practices.”
The NCEMBT market transformation efforts are looking to the past for guidance in making real change in
tomorrow’s buildings.
        “The difficulty lies, not in the new ideas, but in escaping from the old ones”
                John Maynard Keynes
        “The vested interests that dominate the built environment will fight change until disruptive
        influences or technologies make changing the path of least resistance”
                John Wimer, NCEMBT
Billions of dollars and millions of “man”-hours of market transformation effort have been spent to change
commercial building design, construction and operation. How have we done it? As an industry, energy
efficiency performance has largely remained static and IEQ remains problematic in large sections of the
building stock. It is not surprising that government and/or utility based programs trying to impact certain
discrete behaviors are largely based on new construction and aim to insert the perceived latest, most
efficient technology into the market. This approach usually tries to focus on a discrete component instead
on the building as a whole or a complete MTS.
The complexities of the built environment require concentrating on MT at the beginning of research, not
the conclusion. Understanding these past efforts provides a great opportunity for the NCEMBT. We
have the credibility through our research. We have a solid strategic plan and the passion about what we
do to deliver successful market transformation. The NCEMBT is in the right place at the right time.
Therefore we have concluded:
        The nexus of energy efficiency and IEQ can develop disruptive technologies or processes within
        the next five years
        Our universe of research can and must develop these disruptive technologies or processes
        The complexities of the buildings market (concept, financing, design, execution and operation)
        require concentration on market transformation at the beginning of research not at the conclusion



2.4 MARKET TRANSFORMATION SECTOR CONCEPT
The nexus of NCEMBT research and market place has been previously described a market transformation
sector. It important to understand what is meant by this term. In broad terms, an MTS can be a
technology, group of technologies, systems process, vertical market, application, climate zone, etc. that
can be improved and can have a measurable financial impact in the market place. This idea should
become clearer reviewing the Air Purification Consortium.




 6    NCEMBT-070912
                                                                                    2. BACKGROUND


The NCEMBT has developed a simplified process flow scheme to assess MTS viability which is depicted
below:


                                          Examine NCEMBT
                                        Research Portfolio for
                                       Market Transforming(MT)
                                              Research




                                       Cluster Research Projects
                                          Where Appropriate




                                            Test Research
                                                                                 Rethink
                            NO            for Ability to Affect     LIMITED
                                                                                Approach
                                               Real MT


                                           REAL POTENTIAL

                                               Develop:
                                        Strengths, Weaknesses,
                                         Opportunity& Threats




          IMPOSSIBLE                       Calibration Check                  TOO DIFFICULT




                                              POSSIBLE

                                       Develop Strategy to create
                                                              ,
                                        Market Pull for Product
                                         Process or Approach




                                               Execute




                                                                               NCEMBT-070912   7
2. BACKGROUND



2.5 AIR PURIFICATION CONSORTIUM MODEL – THE FIRST DISRUPTIVE INFLUENCE
The NCEMBT began assessing its research portfolio for disruptive approaches to the market and found
that among the discrete tasks three emerged as having great potential to change the way we design
buildings to achieve good air quality and also collectively have the potential to improve building level
energy efficiency. We also saw that separately, these research projects were incremental in nature and not
likely to have great impact.
The research we are focusing on in the development of this MTS model is:
        at University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) on particulate filtration and sorbent-based gaseous
        removal
        at Penn State University (PSU) on bioaerosols and ultra-violet germicidal irradiation (UVGI)
        at Syracuse University (SU) on residential air cleaning processes including photo-catalytic
        oxidation




2.5.1 University of Illinois at Chicago Air Filtration Research
UIC is targeting airborne particulates and gases/vapors using its ASHRAE MOT Standard 52.2 test loop
for performance evaluation of in-duct, particulate removal media and is working on the development of
the pending ASHRAE MOT Standard 145.2P for tests of in-duct, gas phase removal media.”




                       Figure 1. View of the ASHRAE Standard 145P Compliant Test Loop at UIC




2.5.2 Penn State University Research in Bioaerosols and UVGI
PSU research currently focuses on viable and non-viable bioaerosols. Experimental efforts include
measurement of UV lamp characteristics under variable operating conditions, development of protocols
for accurately determining viable contaminant deactivation, and testing of in-duct UVGI components.


 8    NCEMBT-070912
                                                                                           2. BACKGROUND


Experimental results are being used to develop testing and design guidance and to support device and
system modeling. PSU is actively involved in the early stages of development of the proposed ASHRAE
Method of Test (MOT) Standard 185P for UV lamps.




                                  Figure 2. View of PSU Bioaerosols Laboratory




2.5.3 Syracuse University Residential Air Cleaner Research
SU has evaluated ten different residential air cleaners using their full-scale environmental chambers, and
is developing model-based testing, evaluation, and design optimization methods for a variety of gas phase
air cleaners: sorbent-based, UV-PCO and ionization ones. SU has been actively involved in the
development of ASHRAE Standard 145.1P for sorbent media evaluation.




                             Figure 3. View of the Environmental Test Chamber at SU




                                                                                      NCEMBT-070912   9
2. BACKGROUND

2.6 KNOWLEDGE GAP
Separately, the discrete research by PSU, UIC and SU is interesting, but not likely to transform the
HVAC or building industry. The NCEMBT believes that new filtration, UVGI, and other air purification
technologies can improve IAQ while increasing building energy efficiency. The Air Purification
Consortium brings together manufacturers, universities, the engineering community, federal and state
policy makers, NGOs, contractors and the skilled trades to research, develop, test, educate and apply
advanced air purification technologies and system approaches.
The goal is to transform the HVAC and building industry. To be successful with the hypothesis that
indoor air can be purified using less energy than conventional approaches
        We must prove that air purification is possible
        We must prove that air can be purified using less energy
The biggest gap is that we have no definition of good IAQ. Therefore, we must define good IAQ and
develop a standard. This is by no means an easy task, but is necessary to develop realistic temperature,
humidity and surrogates for volatile organics, bioaerosols, etc. that yield good air quality for health, safety
and comfort. Accomplishing this significant goal will inevitable lead to the ability to achieve these levels
through a combination of air purification approaches. This standard will lead to innumerable research
tasks and inevitably to a means to deliver good quality air to a space without depending on diluting space
air with outside air which is often impure, too hot, too cold, too humid or too dry.
We cannot underestimate the task of developing a good indoor air quality standard. This standard must
provide the design community with a sound basis for defining what is good a for both health and comfort,
be concise in the data points collected, clear in its use, defensible from existing research and protective of
the issuing entity. This is no simple task but necessary to establish a goal for purifying the air.
ASHRAE’s position remains, as always, to avoid the health and safety issue as a basis for their dilution
standard 62 (Persily 2007). If we deal with technology, ASHRAE is comfortable. The NCEMBT has a
vision to break through the Standards barrier.




 10    NCEMBT-070912
                                                                            Error! Reference source not found.



3. METHODOLOGY
This interactive seminar was designed to develop common understanding of air cleaning versus
contaminant dilution through ventilation air with respect to indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy
consumption. Further, the seminar was designed to test the principle hypothesis, “Is improving air
cleaning the key to improving IAQ and reducing energy consumption?”
If the consensus of the seminar was that air cleaning was indeed a path to improved IAQ and reduced
energy consumption, then four questions need to be answered:
    1. How do we transform the market?
    2. What research is necessary for success?
    3. Do we need a new IAQ standard?
    4. Who will do all of this?
The following discourse and related appendices will provide a detailed account of the seminar and what
transpired.
The seminar began with three presentations to provide context for the discussion. The first presentation
was given by John J. Vasselli, Chief of Technology for Indoor Air Quality of Carrier Corporation.
John encouraged the group to consider the convergence of energy conservation and indoor air quality by
bringing new technology innovations into the HVAC industry and introducing new IAQ products into the
marketplace. He challenged the group by stating “This will require three important elements: research &
development, increased education and awareness and new IAQ metrics, policies and standards. The
NCEMBT can play an important role in all three areas.”
        Advanced panel filtration technology
            high efficiency
            low pressure drop
            long lasting
            low cost
        Effective removal of harmful gases, including aldehydes, VOC’s, ozone, et. al.
            active decomposition via Ultra-violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UV-PCO), electrostatics, etc.
            next-generation absorbent / desorbant air filtration technologies
        Destruction of airborne biological contaminants via UV, electrostatics, metal & chemical
        biocides, and, in the right applications and times, ozone.
        Next-generation energy recovery systems
            Sensible and latent exchange media performance with efficacies over 70%
            New systems concepts for integration and airflow
        Intelligent building sensing and controls
            Real-time, unattended, integrated airborne contaminant sensors
            Indoor and Outdoor monitoring for ventilation control
            Predictive and self-training energy management systems

                                                                                      NCEMBT-070912      11
3. METHODOLOGY
        Policy, Standards Development, Regulatory Advisory
               Raise public awareness and IAQ industry involvement in key niche markets, expanding
               “outward” and “upward” into government organizations.
        Promote and lead key elements of IAQ metrics definitions for biologicals and most harmful and
        prevalent IAQ gases.
        Foster and facilitate industry/academia collaboration
The second presentation was given by Dr. Claudia S. Miller, MD, MS, Deputy Chair, Community
Medicine & Environmental Health of the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. Dr.
Miller delved into an explanation of an apparent rise in individual susceptibility to chemical exposures.
Her presentation stated that “The data of individual differences in susceptibility to xenobiotics (drugs,
chemicals) will drive ventilation design in the future as medical understanding of the importance of
indoor air quality, health care costs, and litigation increase. Tiny differences in “xenobiotic-
metabolizing” enzymes that are coded by our genes (polymorphisms) determine how we each respond to
different drugs, as well as low level chemical exposures. Increasingly, personalized or “genetic”
ventilation, as opposed to generic (one size fits all) ventilation, will be in demand.”
Dr. Miller further concluded based on her research that very low level indoor air contaminants can initiate
Toxicant Induced Loss Tolerance “TILT” and/or trigger symptoms, depending upon an individual’s
genetic make-up and prior history of exposure. The pathogenesis of TILT remains a mystery; we are at
the “germ theory” stage in terms of our scientific understanding of this phenomenon. Proposed
underlying mechanisms for TILT include: olfactory-limbic sensitization, neural inflammation, and
cholinergic super sensitivity.
Increasing ventilation rates for genetic predispositions would raise enormous design and energy issues.
This alone may drive practitioners toward whole building good air quality with in-situ personal air
cleaning for susceptible individuals should these results prove universally true.
The third presentation was given by Dr. James E. Woods, Ph.D., P.E, Executive Director of the Building
Diagnostics Research Institute, Inc. Dr. Woods posed the following hypothesis “Is Improving Air
Cleaning the KEY to Improving IAQ and Reducing Energy Consumption?” and then set about
determining its defensibility.
Dr. Woods reminded the group that current IAQ standards focus on comfort and the minimum IAQ
comfort standard existing in the U.S. is the current version of the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62 (ASHRAE
2004). IAQ also has far reaching health implications yet no IAQ health standard exists for general
practitioners. IAQ is one of several components that must be simultaneously controlled to achieve
“acceptable” indoor environments.
Basic methods of air cleaning are now available and improved methods of air cleaning and distribution
can enhance environmental quality and reduce energy consumption. However, improved evaluation
criteria and diagnostic methods are needed to assure acceptability. Dr. Woods asserted that a good air
quality STANDARD is essential to move IAQ forward.
Finally, Dr. Woods reviewed ASHRAE’s latest public statement about its air quality standards which
appeared in the March 2007 ASHRAE Journal (Persily 2007). The Journal article stated, “While
ASHRAE does not make findings as to the health and safety impacts of environmental exposures,
ASHRAE activities and publications, where appropriate, shall consider and reference findings issued by
cognizant organizations with the appropriate scope and expertise.”
Armed with the background information provided by Mr. Vasselli, Dr. Miller and Dr. Woods, the
assembled IAQ specialists were divided into five expert panels to assess three critical questions to
determine the best pathway forward in improving IAQ while reducing energy consumption. The basic


 12   NCEMBT-070912
                                                                          Error! Reference source not found.
methodology was to pose a question, allow the panels to discuss and assess their approach and then report
back to all participants.




                                                                                    NCEMBT-070912      13
4. RESULTS



4. RESULTS
QUESTION ONE: WHAT IS/ARE THE MOST COMPELLING METHOD(S) TO TRANSFORMING THE
MARKET TO ADOPT NEW AIR CLEANING APPROACHES AND TECHNOLOGIES?
Group 1
       Clearly demonstrate the causal aspect of environmental exposures – scientific proof
       The need for new air cleaning equipment is not intuitive – need to build a case for it.
       Need good education, good communication of needs for this – need to get this message out.
       Formula – whole building application 80%, 20% for individuals who are feeling sick.
       Understand that you can improve conditions without wasting energy.
Group 2
       Demonstrate the impact of air cleaning to building owners with measurement and verification
       without a focus on the human health connection.
       Training and outreach to next generation practicing analysis and evaluation on the
       implementation of air cleaning.
       Begin to establish strategic multiple disciplinary affiliations with clearly articulated scope –
       occupational, health, medical, building groups – raising awareness.
       Long term strategy – need long term data, typically low concentration data, to connect IAQ and
       health to further engage strategic affiliations.
Group 3
       Different markets – what market are you talking about? Which should you approach first?
       Hospital, schools, etc. Each market has different IAQ problem.
       In each market, you need some sort of IAQ barometer. What measures are you using? Need
       data, need research. There is a public awareness of IAQ but it is a general awareness. Not
       quantified. Semi quantitative awareness is needed. Get there for IAQ but you need data.
       Need design criteria – what to remove, how much to remove?
       Combat idea that outdoor air – fresh air. Increase public awareness of bad outdoor air.
       A general awareness of IAQ but without data. How do you convince public to buy improved
       products?
       Products that add to IAQ – scented candles, quantitative data on their effect on IAQ. Are they
       really improving the air or not?
Group 4
       Niche approach to generate science for air cleaning application by market sector and building end
       use
       Once science is generated, carry out education on air cleaning benefits by market sector and
       building end use
       Support research to generate the science through crosscutting, multidisciplinary funding


 14   NCEMBT-070912
                                                                                                 4. RESULTS
              need federal interdisciplinary funding for combined engineering and health sciences
              intervention studies to document benefits possibly targeting susceptible populations
       Foster higher education curriculum that has multidisciplinary training for next generation
       professionals in the building and public health community
Group 5
       Measurable/verifiable performance in actual applications (quantitative vs. qualitative)
       Standards from evaluating/rating air cleaner components/systems (generic or specific)
       Legislation/rules/regulations pertaining to achieving/defining acceptable IAQ/IEQ. If we have
       benchmarks, we can have a standard.
       Energy use reduction/energy conservation. Benefits to whom? Owners? Occupant? It’s about
       marketing.
       Focusing on the market most vulnerable/most visible/most benefited.
Drawing from the results of the expert panels a powerful message arises that there are four essential
elements to transform the IAQ market:
   1. Do the research that develops the benchmarks to determine good air quality.
   2. Do the research that proves air cleaning can deliver good air quality.
   3. Demonstrate the impact of air cleaning to building owners with measurement and verification
   4. Educate: owners, policy makers, key building occupants (i.e. teachers, employees unions, etc.)



QUESTION TWO: WHAT SHOULD AN APC RESEARCH PROGRAM LOOK LIKE?
Group 1
       Gaps are between basic and applied research. Need to be simultaneous. Goal is to define a path.
       Causal on the human effects of particulate influences.
           NIEHS basic research
           EPA/HUD/ASHRAE – applied research
       Energy implications for the NCEMBT strategic goal of achieving 20% energy reduction:
       Eighty percent of filtration remediation is done on a facility-wide basis where technology exists
       today. Additional 20% is fine, more zonal, small particulate filtration, i.e., pursue specific needs
       without affecting every piece of the building at a very wide cost.
Group 2
       Near term
           Review and distill existing research that can be targeted to different markets – don’t want to
           duplicate.
           Select contaminants and determine what is known about them – frequency, level, etc.
           From the information developed in above, determine gaps and determine research road map
           that is multidisciplinary.



                                                                                     NCEMBT-070912     15
4. RESULTS
             Develop a calculator that determines the benefit/trade off of filtration vs. energy savings
             utilizing experimented data being developed. This should be implemented in some accepted
             system configuration.
       Long term
             Understand sources and categorize them and list what we know about them.
             Understand and determine new methods for ultrafine particulate removal.
Group 3
       Unlimited funding – diversified funding sources.
       Should be diversified funding source to get buy in.
       Short term
             Education of tech community and public awareness and long term focus – some research to
             grab public interest – adding things to air, fragrance, study these. Needs to be investigated
             immediately and educate the public as to results.
       Long term
             What are the contaminants in terms of allergies and what are their levels? What technologies
             can we use to fix these? How can we get these studies through? Multidisciplinary issue on an
             epidemiological basis. It’s a community effort. We need to generate hard data.
             Market transformation will drive desire to buy new products which improves products and
             efficacy.
Group 4
       Premise – research to support IAQ procedure implementation.
       Niche science approach – target market sector and building types and determine contaminants of
       concern.
       Metrics – IAQ index based on normative, non-IAQ problem buildings to establish measure of
       acceptable IAQ.
       Interaction effects – interactive effects of multiple contaminants.
       Intervention studies – particular high profile contaminants or sensitive populations.
       Technology performance – lab and field measurement and verification.
       Preferred “materials list” for building construction/furnishings.
       Best practices for good IAQ from design to operation.
Group 5
       Two issues – what should overall program do? What is the program that APC should do?
       Going from end point backwards, descriptive approach works the best in buildings.
       Standards development is the end point – research should support that.
       Demonstrating technology in the field – should just be measuring contaminants on human health
       and productivity
       Definition of design criteria – if we don’t have design criteria we get kind of lost.




 16   NCEMBT-070912
                                                                                           4. RESULTS
       Development of rating methods for devices and systems – important to have long term
       performance measures
Drawing from the results of the expert panels it becomes clear that there are three essential research
priorities:
   1. Target market sector and building types and determine contaminants of concern
   2. Review and distill existing research that can be targeted to selected markets, identify gaps and
      determine research road map that is multidisciplinary
   3. Standards development is the end point



QUESTION THREE: IS A NEW IAQ STANDARD NEEDED? IF SO, WHAT SHOULD IT LOOK LIKE? OR
HOW CAN WE DEMONSTRATE THE TRADE-OFF BETWEEN AIR CLEANING AND VENTILATION?
Group 1
       YES – IAQ takes precedence over energy savings.
       Use Finnish IAQ standard as basis for the standard
           80% (whole building) prescribes targets
           20% - performance targeted to address the needs of susceptible sub-population
       Performance guidance for energy management to ensure environmental quality
           Contaminant control
           Filtration
           Ventilation
Group 2
       YES
       Objective: Using the 25 years of development of ASHRAE Standard 62, we suggest using the
       standard as a foundation for the IAQ Guideline. Our objective would be to develop a guideline
       that applies the IAQ method more easily. The guideline should initially target indoor spaces
       having high density, diversity, excessive exhaust, transitory occupancy and locations in high
       vulnerability areas. Buildings of these types include schools, convention centers, hotels and
       casinos. This IAQ guideline should be promoted by industry through involvement in the APC.
Group 3
       YES, but how?
       Must be relative to sector – residential or commercial.
           No residential standard currently for IAQ.
           Not enough data to write a standard.
       Closer look at systems in regard to IAQ – we need data.
           Add humidity control in buildings.
           Hot and humid environments should have infiltration requirement.



                                                                                 NCEMBT-070912   17
4. RESULTS
        IAQ guideline needed for a first-class healthy building that has different levels for difference
        health status target populations
        Must have specific target contaminants – what to dilute and remove? Demonstrate air cleaning
        and ventilation trade off.
        Any IAQ guideline needs to be based on BEST PRACTICES.
Group 4
        No, BUT the current standard would have to evolve significantly. Following up on Group 4’s
        APC research program premise of IAQ procedure implementation support:
        Establish control levels via this supporting science approach.
             With ventilation rate procedure normative, non-complaint building and its contaminant
             levels.
             With IAQ procedure.
                using control levels per normative , non-complaint building above
                MAV “equivalent” dilution result per Standard 62
        Add source control requirements
        Expand user manual to address above control levels and source control requirements
Group 5
        Is there an old IAQ standard? No, so there is nothing to replace. A Standard should be based on
        complete knowledge.
        Comprehensive in terms of types of contaminants.
        Address interactions between contaminants considered.
        Coordinated with energy and comfort standards – consistent with one another.
        Verifiable and enforceable



QUESTION THREE: IS A NEW IAQ STANDARD NEEDED? IF SO, WHAT SHOULD IT LOOK LIKE? OR
HOW CAN WE DEMONSTRATE THE TRADE-OFF BETWEEN AIR CLEANING AND VENTILATION?
Expert panels fundamentally agree that there is a need for a good IAQ Guideline and that is needs to be
built upon and complement ASHRAE Standard 62. Group 2 captured the general opinion of the seminar
within its stated objective: “Using the 25 years of development of ASHRAE Standard 62, we suggest
using the standard as a foundation for the IAQ Guideline. Our objective would be to develop a Guideline
that applies the IAQ method more easily. The IAQ Guideline should initially target indoor spaces having
high density, diversity, excessive exhaust, transitory occupancy and locations in high vulnerability areas.
Buildings of these types include schools, convention centers, hotels and casinos. This IAQ Guideline
should be promoted by industry through involvement in the APC.




 18   NCEMBT-070912
                                                                                        5. REFERENCES



5. REFERENCES
ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. Atlanta, Georgia:
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
Persily, A., Stanke, D., Holness, G.V.R., Hermans, R. 2007. “Standard 62.1 - Problems, Perceptions &
Panaceas.” ASHRAE J. 49 (3): 34-40.




                                                                                 NCEMBT-070912    19
APPENDIX A – SEMINAR AGENDA



APPENDIX A – SEMINAR AGENDA

Tuesday, May 29, 2007
  7:00 p.m.   Welcome and Introductions                                   John Wimer

  7:15 p.m.   Defining a New Standard for IAQ                             John J. Vasselli




Wednesday, May 30, 2007
  7:45 a.m.   Welcome and Setting the Stage                               John Wimer

  8:00 a.m.   What Do We Know About IAQ And Health?                       Claudia Miller

  8:45 a.m.   Reactions, Comments, Clarifications, …                      Group

  9:00 a.m.   Basic Principles for IAQ Criteria and Control               James Woods

  9:45 a.m.   Reactions, Comments, Clarifications, …                      Group

 10:00 a.m.   COFFEE BREAK

 10:30 a.m.   What is the most compelling approach to transforming the    Group
              market?

 12:00 p.m.   LUNCH

  1:00 p.m.   What should an APC research program look like?              Group


  2:30 a.m.   COFFEE BREAK

  3:00 p.m.   Is a new IAQ standard needed? If so, what should it look    Group
              like? Or how can we demonstrate the trade-off between air
              cleaning and ventilation?
  4:30 p.m.   Summary and Next Steps                                      George Ferguson

  5:00 p.m.   Adjourn and Thank You                                       John Wimer




 20   NCEMBT-070912
                                                                                     APPENDIX B - SEMINAR ATTENDEES



APPENDIX B - SEMINAR ATTENDEES
Organization                              Contact                   e-mail
3M                                        Charles Beach             chbeach@mmm.com
Alberti Group, LLC                        Ujjval Vyas               uvyas@albertigroup.net
Building Diagnostics Research Institute   James E. Woods            JEWoods3@aol.com
Building Wellness Consultancy, Inc.       H.E. (Barney) Burroughs   heburroughs@mindspring.com
Carmen Group                              Christina Erling          erlingc@carmengroup.com
Carrier Corporation                       John J. Vasselli          John.Vasselli@carrier.utc.com
U.S. Department of Energy                 Terry Logee               terry.logee@ee.doe.gov
Duke University Medical Center            Wayne R. Thomann          thoma010@mc.duke.edu
EXERGY Partners                           Richard Sweetser          rsweetser@exergypartners.com
Filtration Group, Inc.                    Phil Winters              pwinters@filtrationgroup.com
General Services Administration           Vijay Gupta               vijay.gupta@gsa.gov
Kimberly Clark Corporation                David Matela              dmatela@kcc.com
NCEMBT                                    Davor Novosel             dnovosel@ncembt.org
NCEMBT                                    John Wimer                jwimer@ncembt.org
NCEMBT                                    Anthony Picarazzi         tpicarazzi@ncembt.org
Pennsylvania State University             William P. Bahnfleth      wbahnfleth@psu.edu
Pennsylvania State University             James Freihaut            jfreihaut@engr.psu.edu
Phillips                                  Rich Hubach               replaced Jim Boch
Purafil, Inc.                             Jim Mash                  jim_mash@purafil.com
Purafil, Inc.                             Chris Muller              chris_muller@purafil.com
Richard A. Charles, P.E.                  Richard (Dick) Charles    rac781@aol.com
Ruotolo Associates                        George Ferguson           gferguson@ruotoloassoc.com
SMWIA Local 88                            John P. Christiansen      jc@smw88.com
Syracuse University/Carrier               Wenhao Chen               wchen13@syr.edu
Trane                                     Roy R. Crawford           roy.crawford@trane.com
UIC                                       Douglas Kosar             dkosar@uic.edu
UIC                                       William Worek             wworek@uic.edu
UIC                                       James Wiet                jjwiet@uic.edu
University of Texas                       Claudia S. Miller         MillerCS@uthscsa.edu
UNLV                                      Linda Stetzenbach         linda.stetzenbach@unlv.edu
UTRC                                      Gregory M. Dobbs          dobbsgm@utrc.utc.com
UV Resources                              Forrest B. Fencl          forrest.fencl@verizon.net




                                                                                                 NCEMBT-070912   21
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APPENDIX F - BREAKOUT GROUPS




APPENDIX F - BREAKOUT GROUPS

       Group 1
       Leader: Wayne Thomann...................................Duke Medical
               Jim Woods ..........................................BDRI
               Chuck Beach .......................................3M
               Jim Wiet ..............................................UIC
               David Watela .......................................Kimberly Clark

       Group 2
       Leader: Bill Worek ...........................................UIC
               John Vasselli .......................................Carrier
               H.E. Barney Burroughs .........................Building Wellness
               James Mash ........................................Purafil
               Vjjval Vyas ...........................................Alberti Group

       Group 3
       Leader: Jim Friehaut ........................................PSU
               Linda Stetzenbach ...............................UNLV
               Phil Winters .........................................Filtration Group
               Dick Charles ........................................Consultant Design
               Roy Cramford ......................................Trane

       Group 4
       Leader: Doug Kosar .........................................IUC
               Claudia Miller .....................................University of Texas Medical Center
               Terry Logee ..........................................U.S. Department of Energy
               Forrest Fencl
               Greg Dobbs .........................................UTHC

       Group 5
       Leader: Bill Bahnfleth ......................................PSU
               Vijay Gupta .........................................GSA
               Chris Muller ........................................Purafil
               Rich Hubach ........................................Phillips
               Wenhoe Chen ......................................UNLV




 86   NCEMBT-070912
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