Soy Flour in Baking by dfgh4bnmu

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									Soy Flour in Baking

  Clyde E. Stauffer, Ph.D.
Technical Foods Consultants
   Manufacture

  Soybeans
                 Hulls, germ

Dehulled beans
                 Oil
Defatted         Soy grits
flakes           Soy protein concentrate
                 Isolated soy protein
Defatted
flour
              Typical Soy Analyses

                              Dehulled Defatted    Soy        Soy
                   Soybeans
                               Beans    Meal    Concentrate Isolate

Moisture, %          11         10        8          6         5

Protein, %           36         40        50        66        91

Oil, %               20         22        <1        <1         0

Ash, %                5          6        7          5         4

Carbohydrates, %     28         22        34        23         0
                   Toasting
No heating (90 PDI flour)
  Enzyme active flour
   Lipoxygenase
   Lipase
Stability (70PDI flour)
  Inactivates enzymes contributing to rancidity
Flavor (20 PDI flour, grits)
  Toasting develops a "nutty" flavor
 Protein Dispersibility Index - PDI
Stir 20 g of flour in 300 ml water
Centrifuge
Measure dissolved protein in the supernatant
PDI = Dissolved protein ÷ Total protein
          Soy Protein Products
Defatted flour        Semi-defatted flour
Enzyme active flour   Soy protein
  Full fat            concentrate
  Defatted (90 PDI)   Isolated soy protein
Lecithinated flour
Soy grits
    Specifications, Defatted Flour
Physical
  Moisture - 8% maximum
  Protein - 50% minimum
  Fat - 1% maximum
Microbiological
  Total plate count - 20,000/gram maximum
  E. coli - negative/100 grams
  Salmonella - negative/100 grams
Sensory
  Slight beany odor and flavor; no rancidity
         Lecithinated Soy Flour
Spray lecithin/oil onto 70 PDI soy flour
  Ratio 15% lecithin/oil to 85% soy flour
Good emulsifier
  Lecithin, soluble soy protein
Partial or total replacement of egg
Increased water retention
  Extends shelf life
                  Soy Grits
Defatted flakes are coarsely ground
  0.8 - 2.4 mm diameter
    US sieve #8 - #20
Usually "Toasted"
  Nutty flavor
  Decreased water absorption
           Semi-defatted Flour
Part of the fat is removed from whole beans
using an extruder
  Typical product has 6 - 8% fat content
Extrusion process involves heat, so enzymes are
inactivated and the product is storage stable
Functionality is similar to defatted flour
  Provides some shortening effect
            Full Fat Soy Flour
Enzyme Active
Shortening sparing in cakes
  Increases product moistness
  Use at 3 - 6% level
  Cool storage to prevent rancidity is essential
Lightly heated for storage stability
              Bakery Applications
                   White   Specialty            Cake    Sweet
                                       Cakes                    Biscuits
                   bread    breads             donuts   goods
 Defatted flour,
        70 PDI      X         X         X       X        X        X
 Enzyme active
  flour, 90 PDI     X
   Lecithinated
           flour                        X       X        X        X
  Toasted flour,
   grits, 20 PDI              X                                   X
Soy Concentrate               X
    Isolated soy
         protein                        X       X                 X
        Functionality in Baking
Water binding
  Any soy flour; 1 kg flour binds about 1.5 kg water
Dough strengthening, bleaching
  Enzyme active soy flour
Emulsifier
  Lecithinated soy flour
Protein supplementation
  Defatted soy flour, soy concentrate
           Dough Conditioning
Enzyme Active soy flour
  Full fat soy flour
  90 PDI defatted soy flour
Requires polyunsaturated fatty acids
  RBD soy oil (with defatted soy flour)
Requires time
  Acts during fermentation
         Dough Strengthening
Lipoxygenase acts on unsaturated fats such as
added vegetable oil
  Generates fatty acid hydroperoxides
Hydroperoxides interact with gluten
  Increase gluten strength
  Improve mixing tolerance
Product Volume
            Crumb Bleaching
Yellow color of bread crumb is due to presence
of carotenoid pigments
Hydroperoxides bleach these pigments
  The reaction is catalyzed by lipoxygenase
Whiter Crumb
       Dough, Crumb Elasticity
Sandwich buns
  Addition of 2 - 3% soy flour improves crumb
  resilience
Puff pastry dough
  Tests with 3% defatted soy flour show improved
  dough elasticity
    Less tearing during fat roll-in
    Better ovenspring
            Crust Coloration
Soy flour contains non-fermentable reducing
sugars
During baking these contribute to crust
browning
With lean doughs, baking time to achieve the
desired color may be reduced
Elasticity, Crust Color
Rolls with Soy Flour
      Soy Flour in Cake Donuts
Increases water absorption and retention
Decreases fat absorption during frying
Use 2 - 3% (flour basis)
  Economics of Soy Flour in Bread
Addition of soy flour enhances profitability
  More dough yield
  Lower dough cost
  Increased shelf life
     Increased Dough Absorption

   Baguettes, baking laboratory,
   Tunisia
Soy flour, %              0         3      5
Absorption, %           46.4       51.1   54.6
Water/soy ratio           --       1.57   1.64
Bake loss, %            16.7       15.3   15.3
      Bread Moisture Retention
Hearth bread in Istanbul, Turkey
  Added 3% White soy flour and 5% water
Decreased bake loss by 2 - 2.5%
  Regular hearth bread - 18% bake loss
  Bread with soy flour - 15.7% bake loss
Increased bread moisture (better shelf life)
  Regular hearth bread - 32 to 33% moisture
  Bread with soy flour - 35.3 to 35.9% moisture
Rolls with Soy Flour
        Less Bake Loss - China
Control rolls
  17.5% bake loss
    Next day - hard texture
With 3% soy flour
  15.2% bake loss
    Next day - firm texture
With 10% soy flour
  13.1% bake loss
    Next day - soft texture
Multi-grain, Control and 5% Soy
Control Bread, Cooled
5% Soy Bread, Cooled
         Cost Comparison, no soy vs. soy

                                           Control                         + 3% DSF
Ingredient         R/kg      Weight, kg      R/dough         Weight, kg     R/dough
Wheat Flour           3.20        100.0              320.0        100.0         320.0
Salt                  0.60           2.0               1.2           2.0          1.2
Yeast                 8.60           3.0              25.8           3.0         25.8
Sugar                 4.20           5.0              21.0           5.0         21.0
Improver              2.00           1.0               2.0           1.0          2.0
Soy Flour             4.50           0.0               0.0           3.0         13.5
Water                 0.00          58.0               0.0          63.0          0.0


Totals                            169.0              370.0        177.0         383.5


Dough cost, R/kg                                2.1893                         2.1667
Savings, R/kg                                                                  0.0227
  Increased Yield and Profitability

                        Control   3% Soy
Cut wt., grams            750        750
Loaves/dough              225        236
Sales @ 4 R/loaf          900        944

                   Extra loaves       11
                   Extra sales      R44
                   Soy cost        R13.5
                   Extra profit    R30.5
             Which Analysis?
Large bakery
  Sell a fixed number of loaves per day
  Use the spreadsheet analysis
Small bakery
  Sell all the bread made each day
  Use the "extra loaves" analysis
       Cost Comparison, Adding Wheat
                  Flour
                                           Control                         + 3% Wheat

Ingredient         R/kg      Weight, kg      R/dough         Weight, kg     R/dough
Wheat Flour           3.20        100.0              320.0        103.0          329.6
Salt                  0.60           2.0               1.2           2.0           1.1
Yeast                 8.60           3.0              25.8           3.0          19.8
Sugar                 4.20           5.0              21.0           5.0          16.0
Improver              2.00           1.0               2.0           1.0           2.0
Soy Flour             4.50           0.0               0.0           0.0           0.0
Water                 0.00          58.0               0.0          59.7           0.0


Totals                            169.0              370.0        173.7          379.6


Dough cost, R/kg                                2.1893                         2.1849
Savings, R/kg                                                                  0.0045
 Cost Comparison, Replacing Wheat
              Flour
                                           Control                         + 3% Repl
Ingredient         R/kg      Weight, kg      R/dough         Weight, kg     R/dough
Wheat Flour           3.20        100.0              320.0          97.0         310.4
Salt                  0.60           2.0               1.2           2.0           1.2
Yeast                 8.60           3.0              25.8           3.0          25.8
Sugar                 4.20           5.0              21.0           5.0          21.0
Improver              2.00           1.0               2.0           1.0           2.0
Soy Flour             4.50           0.0               0.0           3.0          13.5
Water                 0.00          58.0               0.0          61.3           0.0


Totals                            169.0              370.0        172.3          373.9


Dough cost, R/kg                                2.1893                          2.1701
Savings, R/kg                                                                   0.0193
         Lecithinated Soy Flour
Spray lecithin/oil onto 70 PDI soy flour
  Ratio 15% lecithin/oil to 85% soy flour
Good emulsifier
  Lecithin, soluble soy protein
Partial or total replacement of egg
Increased water retention
  Extends shelf life
            Egg Replacement
Liquid whole egg composition
  25% egg solids
  75% water
Replacement with soy product
  1 kg of liquid whole eggs, replace with -
  250 g lecithinated (15%) soy flour
  750 ml water (may need minor adjustment)
Improve product moisture
Significant cost savings
Egg Replacement in a Cake
      Complete Egg Replacement
Cookie dough with 14% liquid whole egg
  3.5% egg solids
  10.5% water
Replaced with lecithinated (15%) soy flour
  5% lecithinated soy flour
  9% water
Improved eating quality and shelf life
Decreased cost
  14 lbs. eggs cost $8.40
  5 lbs. lec. soy flour cost $1.25
Rotary Molded Biscuits
Egg Replacement Cost Savings
         $ equivalents

          liq. whole   15% lec. soy flour
             eggs           250 g
             1 kg
United      $1.36            $0.12
States
Kenya      $1.41             $0.27

Uganda     $1.00             $0.25
South      $1.35             $0.25
Africa
       Protein Supplementation
Use 70 PDI soy flour or toasted soy grits
In biscuits, use Toasted soy flour
Increases protein content of the product
Improves amino acid quality of the protein
Bread Protein Supplementation


Soy Flour, %   Bread Protein, %
     0               8.0
     3               8.5
     5               9.1
     Extra Protein with Soy Grits
Add 10% defatted toasted grits
Add 2% water
Increase finished bread protein
  No addition - 8.0% protein
  10% soy grits - 10.8% protein
Economics are not as favorable as for addition
of soy flour
  Higher sales price is needed to break even
  Better nutrition and flavor will justify the price
  increase
        Soy and Wheat Proteins
Soy protein is rich in lysine but poor in
methionine (and cysteine)
Wheat protein is rich in cysteine but poor in
lysine
PDCAAS measures protein quality
  Milk = 1.0
  Gluten = 0.25
  Soy protein = 0.90
  90/10 wheat/soy = 0.99
          High Protein Biscuit
Sheeted dough
  90 kg flour, 23 L water, 160 kg dough weight
Added 12.5 kg 20 PDI soy flour, 1 L water
Increased protein 46%
  Regular biscuit - 8.5% protein
  Test biscuit - 12.4% protein
    Demonstrated Health Effects
Reduce blood cholesterol levels
  FDA has approved a "health claim" on the label of
  foods containing soy proteins
Decrease osteoporosis (weak bones) in the
elderly
Decrease post-menopausal symptoms in women
May inhibit prostate, stomach, and colon
cancer
   Food and Drug Administration
           Health Claim
"Diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol that
include 25 grams of soy protein a day may
reduce the risk of heart disease. One serving of
[name of food] provides ____ grams of soy
protein."
The number in the blank must be m 6.25.
A serving must contain < 1 g saturated fat and
< 20 mg cholesterol.
Assumption of 4 servings per day is based on
U.S. eating habits.
 Some Foods That Meet the Claim
Soy milk
Textured soy burger patties
Pasta
  Using isolated soy protein
Muffins, cakes
  Using isolated soy protein
Total daily consumption of 25 g soy protein is
the key number
                Synergism
"The Whole is Greater than the Sum of Its
Parts".
Effectiveness of two things together is greater
than the sum of each alone.
The health benefits from soy flour are greater
than those from equivalent amounts of isolated
protein, isoflavones, or saponins.
   Add Soy Flour to Baked Goods
Increase dough yield
  Extra sales income is greater than soy cost
Improve product quality
  Process parameters, texture, flavor, shelf life
Increase healthfulness
  Improve protein quantity and quality
  Impart other proven health benefits of soy
Help the baker, help the consumer -- win/win

								
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