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									                                                                ‫تذس ػٓ االٔرشٔد‬


                                    ‫اإلٔرشٔد‬

‫وٍّح "إٔرشٔد ‪ ٟ٘" Internet‬اخرظاس اٌىٍّح اإلٔجٍ١ض٠ح ‪International Network‬‬
‫ِٚؼٕا٘ا شثىح اٌّؼٍِٛاخ اٌؼاٌّ١ح ، اٌرٟ ٠رُ ف١ٙا ستؾ ِجّٛػح شثىاخ ِغ تؼؼٙا اٌثؼغ‬
            ‫فٟ اٌؼذ٠ذ ِٓ اٌذٚي ػٓ ؿش٠ك اٌٙاذف ٚا٤لّاس اٌظٕاػ١ح .‬



  ‫ا٤جٙضج اٌرٟ ذمَٛ تّؼاٌجح سصَ اٌث١أاخ ٚذٛج١ٙٙا إٌٝ اٌّىاْ اٌظذ١خ ٚ٘زٖ ا٤جٙضج‬
             ‫طّّد ٌرىْٛ اٌثٕ١ح ا٤عاع١ح ٌإلٔرشٔد، ِٓ ٘زٖ ا٤جٙضج:‬

    ‫ِٛصػاخ ‪ Hubs‬ذشتؾ ِجّٛػاخ اٌىّث١ٛذش تؼؼٙا فٟ تؼغ ٚذجؼً فٟ اعرـاػد‬
                    ‫اٌىّث١ٛذش أْ ٠رظً ٚ٠رفاُ٘ ِغ اٌىّث١ٛذش ا٢خش.‬
‫اٌّىشساخ ‪ Repeaters‬ذغرخذَ ٌرغش٠غ اإلشاساخ اإلٌىرشٚٔ١ح وٍّا لـؼد ِغافاخ ِذذدج‬
                    ‫ٚرٌه درٝ ذثمٝ اإلشاساخ لٛ٠ح تذْٚ أْ ذؼؼف.‬
 ‫اٌّٛجٙاخ ‪ Routers‬ذٍؼة دٚسا أعاع١ا فٟ إداسج دشوح اٌّؼٍِٛاخ. إْ ػٍّٙا ٘ٛ اٌرأوذ‬
                       ‫تأْ اٌشصَ ذظً دائّا إٌٝ اٌّىاْ إٌّشٛد.‬


                   ‫أُ٘ اٌّذـاخ فٟ ذاس٠خ ٔشأج شثىح" اإلٔرشٔد‬


  ‫:9691ٚػؼد أٚي أستؼح ٔماؽ اذظاي ٌشثىح " أستأ١د " فٟ ِٛالغ جاِؼاخ أِش٠ى١ح‬
                                      ‫ِٕرماج تؼٕا٠ح.‬
 ‫:2791أٚي ػشع ػاَ ٌشثىح " أستأ١د " فٟ ِؤذّش اٌؼاطّح ٚاشٕـٓ تؼٕٛاْ اٌؼاٌُ‬
‫٠ش٠ذ أْ ٠رظً ، ٚاٌغ١ذ ساٞ ذٍِٕٛظ ٠خرشع اٌثش٠ذ اإلٌىرشٟٚٔ ٚ٠شعً أٚي سعاٌح ػٍٝ "‬
                                       ‫أستأ١د ."‬
         ‫:7791أطثذد ششواخ اٌىّث١ٛذش ذثرذع ِٛالغ خاطح تٙا ػٍٝ اٌشثىح .‬
           ‫ً‬
‫:0891لاِد شثىح ‪ ARPANET‬تٕشش ِٛاطفاخ تشذٛوٛي ‪ِ TCP/IP‬جأا ٚ٠ؼرثش ِٓ‬
                        ‫أُ٘ اٌمشاساخ اٌرٟ سعّد ِغرمثً اإلٔرشٔد.‬
             ‫: 5891أٚي ششوح وّث١ٛذش ذغجً ٍِى١ح " إٔرشٔد " خاطح تٙا.‬
           ‫:0991ذُ إغالق " أستأ١د " ٚ"إٔرشٔد " ذرٌٛٝ اٌّّٙح تاٌّماتً .‬
             ‫:1991ذٛٔظ ذشذثؾ تاإلٔرشٔد وأٚي دٌٚح ػشت١ح ذشذثؾ تاٌشثىح.‬
 ‫:5991اذظً تشثىح " إٔرشٔد " عرح ِال٠١ٓ جٙاص خادَ ٚخّغْٛ أٌف شثىح، ٚإدذٜ‬
                ‫ششواخ اٌىّث١ٛذش ذـٍك تشٔاِج اٌثذس فٟ اٌشثىح اٌؼاٌّ١ح .‬
               ‫اٌششواخ اٌرٟ ذغرـ١غ ذٛف١ش خذِح اإلٔرشٔد ٔٛػ١ٓ ٟٚ٘:‬

   ‫إٌٛع ا٤ٚي :ذؼشف تاعُ ششواخ ِضٚدٞ خذِح"إٔرشٔد ‪" (Internet Service‬‬
‫)‪٘Provider ISP‬زٖ اٌششواخ ذغرـ١غ ٚطٍٕا ِغ شثىح "إٔرشٔد" ٌماء سعُ اشرشان‬
                               ‫سِضٞ فٟ وً شٙش .‬
   ‫إٌٛع اٌصأٟ:ذؼشف تاعُ ششواخ ِضٚدٚ اٌخذِح اٌّثاششج ‪(On-Line Service‬‬
‫)‪٘Providers OSP‬زٖ اٌششواخ ٌٙا اٌمذسج ػٍٝ ٚطٍٕا ِغ اٌشثىح ِثاششج، ٌماء سعُ‬
                                                            ‫ً‬
  ‫اشرشان وث١ش ٔغث١ا فٟ وً شٙش، ٚذغّخ ٌٕا تئسعاي ٚاعرمثاي اٌّؼٍِٛاخ ِثاششج ِٓ‬
                                    ‫اٌشثىح.‬

                   ‫اعرخذاِاخ شثىح اٌّؼٍِٛاخ اٌؼاٌّ١ح "اإلٔرشٔد"‬

‫اٌخذِاخ اٌّاٌ١ح ٚاٌّظشف١ح ٚاٌرجاس٠ح: أدسود اٌششواخ ٚاٌّؤعغاخ اٌّاٌ١ح ٚاٌّظشف١ح‬
                                                    ‫ل‬     ‫د‬
  ‫أٔٗ ال تذ ٌٙا ِٓ ذغش٠غ ذثا ُي ٚذٕا ًُ اٌّؼٍِٛاخ إر واْ ال تذ ٌٙا ِٓ ذمٍ١ض االعرخذاَ‬
     ‫اٌّفشؽ ٌٍٛسق ٚذخف١غ اٌرىٍفح اٌثا٘ظح ٌالذظاالخ. ِٚٓ اٌفٛائذ اٌرٟ ذجٕ١ٙا ِٓ‬
 ‫اعرخذاِٙا ٌإلٔرشٔد ذخف١غ اٌّظاس٠ف اإلداس٠ح اٌجاس٠ح ٚذٛف١ش اٌٛلد ٚذذغ١ٓ اٌؼاللح‬
                                  ‫ت١ٓ اٌضتائٓ ٚاٌرجاس.‬
 ‫اٌرؼٍ١ُ :ذغرخذَ اٌشثىح فٟ اٌجاِؼاخ ٚاٌّذاسط ِٚشاوض ا٤تذاز، د١س ٠ّىٓ ِٓ خالٌٙا‬
     ‫ٔمً ٚذثادي اٌّؼٍِٛاخ ت١ٕٙا ، ٚٔشش ا٤تذاز اٌؼٍّ١ح ، ٚاٌذظٛي ػٍٝ اٌّؼٍِٛاخ‬
                                        ‫اٌّـٍٛتح.‬
‫اٌظذافح: ذغرخذَ فٟ ٔمً ا٤خثاس ِٓ ِىاْ إٌٝ آخش، ف١غرـ١غ اٌظذفٟ وراتح اٌّٛػٛع‬
‫شُ ٔمٍٗ ٚتغشػح إٌٝ اٌّذشس٠ٓ فٟ اٌظذف١ح اٌرٟ ٠ؼًّ تٙا. ٚاالعرفادج ِٓ اٌىُ اٌٙائً ِٓ‬
   ‫اٌّؼٍِٛاخ ػٍٝ اإلٔرشٔد، ٕٚ٘ان اعرخذاِاخ أخشٜ فٟ اٌذىِٛح،إٌّضي، اٌششواخ ،‬
                                    ‫اٌغ١ادح ،… اٌخ.‬

                                 ‫ِضٚداخ اٌثشٚوغٟ‬

                                ‫ٚ‬
    ‫‪proxy‬وٍّح إٔجٍ١ض٠ح، ذؼٕٟ اٌٛو١ً. ٚذمَٛ ِض ّداخ تشٚوغٟ تذٚس اٌٛع١ؾ ت١ٓ‬
‫اٌّشرشو١ٓ ٌذٜ إدذٜ ششواخ ذمذ٠ُ خذِح إٔرشٔد، ٚت١ٓ اٌّٛالغ اٌّٛجٛدج ػٍٝ اٌشثىح‬
                                                         ‫ا‬
‫اٌؼاٌّ١ح. ٚذغرخذَ ػاٌّ١ ً، ٚػٍٝ ٔـاق ٚاعغ، ٌرغش٠غ اٌرؼاًِ ِغ اإلٔرشٔد، ٚ٤داء تؼغ‬
 ‫اٌٛظائف ا٤ِٕ١ح اٌٙاِح. وّا ٠ّىٓ ٌٍثشٚوغٟ ِٕغ االذظاي تاٌّٛالغ غ١ش اٌّغّٛدح .‬

                                     ‫االخرشاق:‬

‫االخرشاق تشىً ػاَ ٘ٛ اٌمذسج ػٍٝ اٌٛطٛي ٌٙذف ِؼ١ٓ تـش٠مح غ١ش ِششٚػح ػٓ ؿش٠ك‬
  ‫شغشاخ فٟ ٔظاَ اٌذّا٠ح اٌخاص تاٌٙذف، فذ١ّٕا ٠غرـ١غ اٌذخٛي إٌٝ جٙاص آخش فٙٛ‬
 ‫ِخرشق )‪ (Hacker‬أِا ػٕذِا ٠مَٛ تذزف ٍِف أٚ ذشغ١ً آخش أٚ جٍة شاٌس فٙٛ ِخشب‬
 ‫.)‪ٚ(Cracker‬ػٍٝ ٘زا فأفؼً ؿش٠مح ٌٍذّا٠ح ٟ٘ ػذَ ٚػغ ا٤ش١اء اٌٙاِح ٚاٌخاطح‬
           ‫داخً جٙاص اٌىّث١ٛذش وشلُ تـالح اإلئرّاْ أٚ ا٤سلاَ اٌغش٠ح .‬

                                 ‫اٌرجاسج اإلٌىرشٚٔ١ح:‬

 ‫ٟ٘ اٌرجاسج اٌرٟ ذفرخ اٌّجاي ِٓ أجً ت١غ ٚششاء إٌّرجاخ ٚاٌخذِاخ ٚاٌّؼٍِٛاخ ػثش‬
‫اإلٔرشٔد.ٕٚ٘ان اٌىص١ش ِٓ ذـث١ماخ اٌرجاسج اإلٌىرشٚٔ١ح ِصً اٌثٕٛن االٔرشٔر١ح ٚاٌرغٛق فٟ‬
  ‫اٌّجّؼاخ اٌرجاس٠ح اٌّٛجٛدج ػٍٝ اإلٔرشٔد ٚششاء ا٤عُٙ ٚاٌثذس ػٓ ػًّ ٚاٌم١اَ‬
                ‫تّضاداخ ٚاٌرؼاْٚ ِغ تم١ح ا٤فشاد فٟ ػًّ تذس ِا .‬

                                ‫آداب ٚأخالق اإلٔرشٔد‬

‫إْ اٌؼاٌُ اإلٌىرشٟٚٔ ذىرٕفٗ أخالق اٌؼاٌُ اٌرمٍ١ذٞ، إػافح إٌٝ تؼغ ا٢داب اٌرٟ فشػرٙا‬
   ‫ؿث١ؼح ٘زا اٌؼاٌُ اٌجذ٠ذ. ٚ٠ٕثغٟ االٌرضاَ تّجّٛػح ِٓ ا٤خالق ٚا٢داب اٌؼاِح ػٕذ‬
                           ‫اعرخذاَ اإلٔرشٔد ِٚٓ أّ٘ٙا:‬
                               ‫ادرشاَ اٌـشف ا٢خش‬
                          ‫االٌرضاَ تؼذَ اإلػشاس تا٢خش٠ٓ‬
                      ‫اإل٠جاص فٟ ؿشح ا٤فىاس ِٚذاٚسج ا٢خش٠ٓ‬
                                  ‫االٌرضاَ تاٌمأْٛ‬
            ‫ادرشاَ اٌخظٛط١ح اٌشخظ١ح ٌ٣خش٠ٓ، ٚاإلدجاَ ػٓ اخرشالٙا‬

        ‫٘زا تخرظاس ػٕٛاْ تذصٟ فٟ اٌجاِؼٗ دث١د اذشوٗ درٝ االػؼاء ذغرف١ذ‬

                               ‫فمؾ فٟ ِٕرذٜ اٌؼاطفٗ‬
                                 Search the Internet


________________________________________
Internet

The word "Internet" Internet is a short English word meaning
International Network and the global information network, which is
linked to a group of networks with each other in many countries
through telephone and satellite.



Devices to deal with bundles of data and directed to the right place,
these devices are designed to be the infrastructure of the Internet,
these devices:

Hubs dispersed groups of computers linked to each other and make it
able to communicate with the computer and communicating with
other computer.
Repeaters duplicates are used to speed up the electronic signals as the
mileage and specific references to remain strong without weakening.
Routers routers play a key role in the management of the information.
The work is to make sure that the packets always reach the desired
location.


The most important stations in the history of the emergence of the
"Internet


1969: the first four points of contact for the "Arpanet" in American
universities selected sites carefully.
1972: The first presentation of the network, "Arpanet" in the
Washington, DC, entitled the world wants to call, and Mr. Ray
Tomlns invent e-mail and send the first message on the "Arpanet".
1977: Computer companies have become devise their own sites on the
Web.
1980: The deployment of the ARPANET protocol specifications TCP
/ IP is free of charge and one of the most important decisions that
charted the future of the Internet.
1985: The first computer company registered ownership "of the
Internet," their own.
1990: The closure of the "Arpanet" and "Internet" is important in
return.
1991: Tunisia linked to the Internet the first Arab country linked to the
network.
1995: Contact network "Internet" six million server network and fifty
thousand, and computer companies launched a research program in
the World Wide Web.

Companies that can provide Internet service types, namely:

Type I: companies known as service providers, "the Internet" (Internet
Service Provider ISP) companies where we can network with the
"Internet" for a nominal fee each month.
Type II: companies, known as direct service providers (On-Line
Service Providers OSP) of these companies have the ability to have
arrived directly with the network, in return for a relatively large fee
each month, and allows us to send and receive information directly
from the network.

Uses the global information network, "the Internet"

Financial services, banking and business: companies and realized the
financial and banking institutions that is, it must accelerate the
exchange and transmission of information, as it was to reduce the
excessive use of paper and reduce the high cost of communications.
Among the benefits derived from use of the Internet to reduce the
ongoing administrative expenses and save time and improve the
relationship between customers and merchants.
Education: the network is used in schools, universities and research
centers, which can transfer and exchange of information between
them, and the dissemination of scientific research, access to required
information.
Press: News used to transport from one place to another, the press can
write the topic and then quickly transferred to the editors of the press
operates. And to take advantage of the vast quantity of information on
the Internet, and there are other uses in the government, home,
businesses, tourism, etc. ....

Proxy servers

proxy English word, means the agent. The proxy servers act as a
mediator between the participants to one of the companies to provide
Internet service, and between the sites on the World Wide Web. Used
worldwide, and on a large scale, to speed up dealing with the Internet,
and the performance of some important security posts. Could also be a
proxy for the Prevention of communication sites, however, are
allowed.

Penetration:

Penetration in general is the ability to reach specific target illegally
through the gaps in the protection system on the goal, When can
access to another device is Penetrated (Hacker) When deleting a file or
another or to bring the operation of the third is a terrorist (Cracker).
On this the best method of protection is not to put the important things
for the computer or as an credit card numbers.

Electronic commerce:

Trade, which is open for the sale and purchase of products and
services and information through the Internet. There are a lot of e-
commerce applications such as banking and online shopping malls on
the Internet and the purchase of shares and looking for work and
Bmzhadat and cooperation with other individuals in the work of the
research.

Internet and ethics

The electronic world is beset with the world's traditional ethics, in
addition to some of literature by the nature of this new world. It
should be commitment to a set of ethics and morality in the use of the
Internet is the most important:
Respect for the other party
The obligation not to harm others
Brief ideas and engaging in dialogue with others
Compliance with the law
Respect the privacy of others, and to refrain from penetration

Bookstore the title of this research at the university wanted to leave it
up to benefit members

Ibid
 Storm Forum
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