Chapter 4 – Tissues_ Glands_ and Membranes by pengxiang

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									                                                                                               9/4/2008

Chapter 4 – Tissues, Glands, and
Membranes
What are the four main groups of tissue and what     1. Epithelial – covers surfaces, lines cavities, and
are their functions?                                      forms glands
                                                     2. Connective – supports and forms the
                                                          framework of all parts of the body
                                                     3. Muscle – contracts and produces movement
                                                     4. Nervous – conducts nerve impulses
What are the three shapes of epithelial tissue?      1. Squamous – flat and irregular
                                                     2. Cuboidal – square
                                                     3. Columnar – long and narrow
Define Stratified.                                  Areas subject to wear-and-tear that require
                                                    protection are covered with epithelial cells in
                                                    multiple layers.
Define Transitional Epithelium.                     This is capable of great expansion but returns to its
                                                    original form once tension is relaxed.
What are the two kinds of glands and what are         Exocrine Glands – have ducts or tubes to carry
their functions?                                          secretions away from the gland.
                                                      Endocrine glands – secrete directly into the
                                                          blood, which then carries their secretions to
                                                          another area of the body. The secretions are
                                                          called hormones.
The main type of fibrous connective tissue is…      Collagen.
What are the three types of cartilage?              Hyaline, which reduces friction between joints,
                                                    fibrocartilage, which is found between segments
                                                    of the spine, knee, and hip, and elastic, which can
                                                    spring back into shape after it is bent.
What kind of tissue is bone made out of?            Osseous tissue.
What makes up the bulk of the heart wall?           The myocardium.
What is neuralgia?                                  Nervous tissue is supported by these specialized
                                                    cells. Some of these cells protect the brain, others
                                                    get rid of foreign organisms and cellular debris,
                                                    and still others form the myelin sheath around
                                                    axons.
What are the three kinds of Epithelial membranes?     Serous – line the wall s of the body cavities
                                                          and are folded back on the surface of internal
                                                          organs, forming their outermost layer.
                                                      Mucous Membranes – line the tubes and
                                                          other spaces that open to the outside of the
                                                          body
                                                      Cutaneous Membrane – commonly known as
                                                          the skin, has an outer layer of epithelium.

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What are the Synovial Membranes?        Synovial membranes are thin connective tissue
                                        membranes that line the joint cavities. They
                                        secrete a lubricating fluid that reduces friction
                                        between the ends of bones, thus permitting free
                                        movement of the joints. Synovial membranes also
                                        line small cushioning sacs near the joints called
                                        bursae.
What are Meninges?                      The meninges are several layers of membranes
                                        covering the brain and spinal cord.
What are the Fascia?                    Fascia refers to fibrous bands or sheets that
                                        support organs and hold them in place.
What two regions are fascia found in?     Superficial Fascia – the continuous sheet of
                                              tissue that underlies the skin and contains
                                              adipose tissue that insulates the body and
                                              protects the skin. This is also called
                                              subcutaneous fascia since it is located
                                              beneath the skin.
                                          Deep Fascia – covers, separates, and protects
                                              skeletal muscles.
What is the Fibrous Pericardium?        The fibrous pericardium forms the cavity that
                                        encloses the heart, the pericardial cavity.
What is the Periosteum?                 The periosteum is the membrane around a bone.
What is the Perichondrium?              The perichondrium is the membrane around
                                        cartilage.




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