VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 32 POSTED ON: 11/4/2011
In other words... ―I was born in 1961. But I remember the very pain of the whip on the back, I remember as if it was my own flesh. The spit that the slave masters threw on my face, it‘s within me. And the middle passage where I had to curl into my own vomit, I still live that. All of the blows since the first encounter with Christopher Columbus, the first 24 hours, all of the blows that my people have taken and suffered, to this year 2002 are still and currently alive in me.‖ - Djalóki ―Imperialism like dictatorship sears the soul, degrades the spirit and makes individuals small, the better to rule them… Imperialism is government of other people, by other people and for other people.‖ Louis Fischer, 1950 ―Is there anyone intended by nature to be a slave, and for whom such a condition is expedient and right, or rather is not all slavery a violation of nature?‖ - Aristotle ―The heaviest of chains are inside.‖ -Anonymous ―As long as you keep a person down, some part of you has to be down there to hold him down, so it means you cannot soar as you otherwise might.‖ -Marian Anderson, 1957 ―Oppression leaves slaves no choice other than resignation or revolution.‖ -Jean-Paul Satre, 1955 ―All domination involves invasion—at times physical and overt, at times camouflaged, with the invader assuming the role of a helping friend.‖ -Paulo Friere, 1968 "Blatant colonialism mutilates you without pretence: it forbids you to talk, it forbids you to act, it forbids you to exist. Invisible colonialism, however, convinces you that serfdom is your destiny and impotency your nature; it convinces you that it's not possible to speak, not possible to act, not possible to exist."- Eduardo Galeano ―The advantage of the rich over the poor could not and cannot be maintained by anything but violence.‖ - Leo Tolstoy, 1893 ―Injustice is not only undiminished but has reached extremes that would seem incredible if we weren‘t so accustomed to accepting them as normal and deferring to them as destiny.‖ - Eduardo Galeano, 2001 Concepts Organizer Concept Definition Haiti Timeline 1492 Taino Natives inhabit what is today called Haiti. Christopher Columbus lands on the island and claims it for Spain, calling it Hispañola, or Little Spain. 1697 1697-1697 5,000,000 people of West African origin are enslaved by the French. Haiti becomes France‘s most important overseas territory, supplying it with sugar, rum, coffee and cotton. 1791 1804 1838 France recognises Haitian independence in exchange for a payment of 150 million francs. The world shuns Haiti for almost 40 years, fearful that its example could stir unrest in the US and in other slaveholding countries. Over the next few decades Haiti takes out loans of 70 million francs to pay for its freedom. 1915 U.S. Marines occupy Haiti. They establish control over customs houses, create the Haitian National Guard and force peasants into corvée labour, building roads. Peasant resistance to their occupiers grows. 1934 1957 Military-controlled elections lead to victory for Dr. François Duvalier. 1964 1970s- Baby Doc Duvalier regularly crushes workers‘ attempts to form unions and political demands for a minimum 1980s wage. Cheap labour attracts foreign investment in textile-based assembly industries. 1979 Haitian Kreyòl is permitted to be taught in schools. 1981 International aid agencies declare Haitian pigs to be carriers of African swine fever and institute a program for their slaughter. A project to reimburse farmers for the killed pigs fails, plunging many farmers into deeper poverty, and making them even more suspicious of aid. 1984 Over 200 peasants are massacred at Jean-Rabeau after demonstrating for access to land. Catholic Church launches nation-wide literacy program 1985 1988-1990 Military controlled elections result in the installation of a series of military governments. 1990 1991 The OAS calls for a hemisphere-wide embargo on the military regime controlling Haiti. 1994 US-led Intervention, Aristide is returned to Haiti as part of a US intervention, but under strict condition. 1996 Réné Préval is elected president. 1999 Préval dissolves Parliament. A political impasse leads to suspension of $500 million in aid. 2000 Aristide is elected for second term amid allegations of irregularities. 2002 As the economic situation worsens, unrest, economic stagnation and popular discontent gain momentum. 2003 Voodoo is recognized as a religion on par with other faiths. 2004 2004 In September Hurricane Jeanne kills over 2,000 in Gonaïves. Protests marking the anniversary of the first coup that sent Aristide into exile are marred by violence, setting off a new wave of social unrest in the capital. Direct Action Excerpts from Martin Luther King Jr.'s Letter from a Birmingham Jail April 16, 1968 "You may well ask: 'Why direct action? Why sit-ins, marches and so forth? Isn't negotiation a better path?' You are quite right in calling for negotiation. Indeed, this is the very purpose of direct action. Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue. It seeks so to dramatize this issue that it can no longer be ignored. My citing the creation of tension as part of the work of the nonviolent-resister may sound rather shocking. But I must confess that I am not afraid of the word 'tension.' I have earnestly opposed violent tension, but there is a type of constructive, nonviolent tension which is necessary for growth... "We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly, I have yet to engage in a direct- action campaign that was 'well timed' in the view of those who have not suffered unduly from the disease of segregation. For years now I have heard the word 'Wait!' It rings in the ear of every Negro with piercing familiarity. This 'Wait' has almost always meant 'Never.' We must come to see, with one of our distinguished jurists, that 'justice too long delayed is justice denied.' "You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws…One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that 'an unjust law is no law at all.' "In no sense do I advocate evading or defying the law, as would the rabid segregationist. That would lead to anarchy. One who breaks an unjust law must do so openly, lovingly, and with a willingness to accept the penalty. I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust and who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the highest respect for law. "Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for freedom eventually manifests itself, and that is what has happened to the American Negro... If one recognizes this vital urge that has engulfed the Negro community, one should readily understand why public demonstrations are taking place. The Negro has many pent-up resentments and latent frustrations, and he must release them. So let him march; let him make prayer pilgrimages to the city hall; let him go on freedom rides — and try to understand why he must do so. If his repressed emotions are not released in nonviolent ways, they will seek expression through violence; this is not a threat but a fact of history. So I have not said to my people: 'Get rid of your discontent.' Rather, I have tried to say that this normal and healthy discontent can be channelled into the creative outlet of nonviolent direct action..." Community Cards Clean drinking Protection for Public education Clean city streets water private property Adequate food Attractive A reliable source Places of worship supply neighbourhoods of electricity An effective and Broad Public parks and a trusted police and A vibrant arts and employment healthy court system music scene opportunities environment Services for the Objective media An environment elderly, youth and sources (TV, where freedom of Community the homeless newspapers) speech is centres protected Affordable child Public health care Minimum wage Affordable care laws housing Good public transit system Malls and Tourist attractions Weekly garbage restaurants pick-up Local government Good roads for that is responsive Good air quality A successful fast commutes to the public sports team Eat This! Article from Oxfam 2005 In the past, our fresh food was produced by farmers who lived relatively nearby. This was because fresh food is perishable and it could not be transported long distances without going off. Today, new technologies in transportation, harvesting and storage mean that the food we buy these days comes from all over the world. A global market has a lot of advantages. For one, we can eat tropical fruit in the middle of a cold Canadian winter. However, there are disadvantages too. A global market has an effect on the livelihoods of farmers. Previously, they would compete with other local farmers to sell their produce. Now, they may have to compete with farmers from all over the world. This global market is controlled by international trade rules set by the World Trade Organization (WTO). In theory, these rules follow the principle of free trade. Countries produce the goods they are best at producing, and trade their surpluses for products that they cannot produce, or are less efficient at producing. In practice, the richer and more powerful countries subsidise their own produce and protect themselves against cheaper imports by imposing tariffs and import quotas. They also dump surplus produce on poorer countries, often at prices lower than it would cost farmers there to produce them. The rich countries get away with this, because they have greater power and influence within the WTO. Many poor countries rely on loans from the rich countries or the large international organisations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) or the World Bank (WB). The loans are given on the condition that the poor countries abide by the rules of free trade. This means that they must not subsidise farmers or protect their markets from cheap imports, including the dumped surpluses of the rich countries. Poorer countries are not allowed to protect their markets. Richer countries can protect theirs. Thus, poorer countries are prevented from improving their situation. US dumping of subsidised rice on Haiti has had devastating effects on Haitian rice producers. Haiti is the poorest country in the western hemisphere and has been forced by agribusiness, with support from the IMF, to reduce its import tariffs on rice. The import of cheap U.S. rice is devastating Haiti‘s rice farmers, and rice-growing areas now have some of the highest levels of malnutrition and poverty. "Rice producers want a better life,‖ says Inodil Fils a rice farmer from the Artibonite Valley in Haiti. ―We work hard for it. But when we get to market we are bombarded with an invasion of cheap imported rice, so we have to sell at any price that a buyer is prepared to give us. How can we compete against the big guys?" The WTO has given its members a year to cut government subsidies to farmers and agribusinesses and drop import barriers, but Oxfam claims that the effort is failing. Rich countries are ―rigging agricultural trade rules against the poor,‖ said a statement by the group. It added that the United States and European Union have ―repackaged their agricultural subsidies so that they appear to be legitimate under WTO rules, allowing them to continue dumping products such as rice, corn, milk, sugar and cotton at prices far below their true costs of production.‖ Glossary Subsidies- Grants given by governments to help producers. The fact it costs less to produce means it can be sold at a lower price. International Monetary Fund- A financial institution established in 1944 to lower trade barriers between countries and stabilize currencies. The IMF aims to promote monetary cooperation and foster economic growth and higher levels of employment. It provides borrowing facilities to countries, although these loans are frequently in the form of conditional aid. World Bank - A United Nations agency created to assist developing nations with loans guaranteed by member governments. Agribusiness- Farming engaged in as a large-scale business operation embracing the production, processing and distribution of agricultural products. Import tariffs- Duties (e.g., taxes or charges) imposed by a government on imported goods. World Trade Organization - An international agency that encourages trade between member nations, administers global trade agreements and resolves disputes, aiming to make global trade flows as regular and free as possible. Import barriers- Any regulation or policy that restricts international trade. Dump(ing) – The practice of selling a product in a foreign market at a price that is below the sale price in the country of origin or at a price that is lower than the cost of production. This practice drives down the price of local produce. Import quota- An import quota is a limit to the number of imports of a particular kind that a country will accept. Anthropologists‘ Log Example: Event: Birthday Party Time Observation Possible Explanation 5 p.m. Child blows small flames while family sings a song. Demonstration of child’s increasing responsibility to protect family members from dangers. Name: Date: Location: Event: Time Observation Possible Explanation Conclusion: These observations lead me to believe that: Proverbs Tanbou prete pa janm fè bon dans. A borrowed drum never makes good dancing. Ravèt pa janm gen rezon devan poul. Roaches are never right when facing chickens. Sonje lapli ki leve mayi ou. Remember the rain that made your corn grow. Piti, piti, zwazo fe nich l. Little by little the bird builds its nest. Konstitisyon se papyè, bayonet se fè. The constitution is paper, bayonets are steel. Bel anteman pa di parade. A beautiful funeral doesn't guarantee heaven. Dyè mòn, gen mòn. Beyond the mountains, more mountains. Si travay te bon bagay, moun rich la pran-l lontan. If work were a good thing, the rich would have grabbed it a long time ago. Bay kou bliye, pote mak sonje. He who hits forgets; he who bears the scar remembers. Wòch nan dlo pa konnen misè wòch nan soley. The rock in the water does not know the pain of the rock in the sun. Ou konn sa ou genyen, ou pa konn sa ou rete. You know what you've got, but you don't know what's coming. Lane pase toujou pi bon. Past years are always better. Le yo vle touye chyen yo di'l fou. When they want to kill a dog, they say it‘s crazy. Kay koule twompe soley men li pa twompe lapil. A leaky house can fool the sun, but it can't fool the rain. Calvin Klein and the Tea Pickers What exactly is poverty? Mari Marcel Thekaekara travels from south India to Glasgow to Germany in pursuit of an answer. ‗Are you rich or poor?‘ my 11-year-old daughter Tahira was asked by her British cousin Leila. We met young people who struggled to get a job knowing ‗We’re not exactly poor,‘ Tahira replied hesitantly. ‗But we’re their addresses and accents were not exactly an asset. not rich either.‘ Women who couldn‘t fill in forms and were ashamed of ‗That’s silly’, Leila persisted, ‗you must be one or the other.‘ the fact. In Dudley, social worker Viv Taylor helped a ‗Compared to the adivasi (tribal) kids at home we’re rich,‘ Tahira young man get a decent jacket, the only really suitable explained, ‗but compared to our cousins in America we’re poor.‘ outfit he possessed, to go off for an interview. He‘d been ‗Do you have Calvin Klein jeans?‘ Leila asked. Tahira didn‘t ashamed to tell her this so his mother had secretly called know much about jeans then. But she had fairly nice Viv for help. It was heart-warming to hear about his joy hand-me-downs from her American cousins. when he actually got the job and set off for work. But the story reminded us of our teachers finding clothes for To little Leila, the entire thing was bizarre. In her mind, adivasi kids who had nothing to wear and so couldn‘t go the divide between rich and poor was absolutely clear. to school. There was no middle path. We were amazed to learn that there was malnutrition in Throughout our visit to Britain, our concepts of wealth Britain. A whole generation were growing up a head and poverty continued to be challenged, juxtaposed as the shorter, than their parents and grandparents. Even we trip was with our experiences of ten years of working with were amazed. Lack of protein was a Third World adivasis in the Nilgiri mountains of Tamil Nadu. problem, surely. Yet the examples were there. And to change these perceptions in people who were determined Years ago I heard a Frenchman say ‗I‘d rather be poor in not to see them was incredibly difficult. India‘. And I thought: ‗What utter crap.‘ How typical. Romanticizing India, poverty and all. Interestingly, poor people themselves often see beyond the physical differences and empathize with each other. Then, in 1994, as part of a North-South exchange, my Which brings them closer to each other than to the rich husband Stan and I came to Britain, to visit public of their respective countries who at best can only housing in inner-city England and Scotland. The idea was sympathize with them. to bring over ideas about social change in India and also to reverse the usual stereotypical image of a Northern aid It occurred to us then that even people working in worker coming to help the Third World. development talked about wealth and poverty using a very narrow definition. We use cash as the sole measure. I‘ve We were told that Easterhouse public housing complex in often read articles implying someone was destitute Glasgow is considered Europe‘s worst slum. We thought because they earned only a dollar a day. In India (and in this was ludicrous. These people had assured housing, other parts of the world, I imagine) a dollar a day would electricity, hot and cold water, refrigerators and stoves. By be a decent wage for a poor person. Whereas a North Indian standards this was middle-class luxury. At the back American or European would consider it shockingly little. of my mind, I could see anaemic, emaciated adivasi women carrying water in pots from half-a-kilometre away. Most of us fall into the trap of working towards Huts without electricity. Women searching for firewood alleviating physical poverty thinking this is the solution to every day, thankful if they had a kilo of rice to feed their all ills. Economic prosperity, wealth, better incomes are families every evening. But then, suddenly, it hit us. Most put forward as ideals to aspire to. Yet paradoxically, at a of the men in Easterhouse hadn‘t had a job in 20 years. totally different level, we attack the wave of consumerism They were dispirited, depressed, often alcoholic. Their which seems to engulf everyone, rich and poor. self-esteem had gone. Emotionally and mentally they were far worse off than the poor where we lived, even though In 1995, the adivasis took the challenge further. At a the physical trappings of poverty were less stark. meeting the adivasis were clear about their own notions of wealth: ‗Our community, our children, our unity, our We‘d fallen into the trap of looking at poverty only from culture, the forest.‘ Money was not mentioned at all. We, the point of view of material benefits. The Easterhouse the non-adivasis in the team, were stunned. people looked better off than the Asian poor. In reality they suffered as much social deprivation. The As we discussed concepts of poverty further, we realized Easterhouse men who‘d been jobless for 20 years felt far that the adivasis didn‘t see themselves as poor. They saw more hopeless than people in India who scrabbled in themselves as people without money. It took a little bit of garbage heaps to sell scrap metal, paper and rags to feed concentrated thinking for me to absorb that this was not their kids, though both groups were at the bottom of necessarily the same thing. society. Some other things happened to turn our stereotypical made us stop and think. It struck me that the only way to concepts on their heads. Community Aid Abroad change stereotypes is to come face to face with people. In approached us to invite a group of Aboriginal Australians London, friends said ‗Easterhouse! Wow, I wouldn‘t like to visit. Our people were shocked beyond words by the my car to break down there.‘ The Easterhouse people Australian stories, of children wrenched from their were lovely. We really enjoyed meeting them. This is not families, of the way they were treated. Some of the an attempt to romanticize the problem, but merely to visitors had personal experiences to recount. They state that stereotypes are equally ridiculous. themselves had been torn from their parents as kids and sent to white people‘s homes or institutions. For months The different visits also had unexpected spin-offs. afterwards, the adivasis talked about the visitors. ‗Poor Gudalur, in the Nilgiri mountains of south India, is tea people, how they‘ve suffered,‘ they said. ‗Our problems country. In Gloucester, people drink tons of tea, paying are nothing compared to what they‘ve been through.‘ three times the necessary price. The Gudalur adivasis produce tons of tea getting a third of the consumer price. A poverty-stricken Indian saying ‗poor thing‘ to an Why not send our tea directly to Matson? And to friends Australian might strike an outsider as slightly ironic, but in Germany and other parts of India... the experience was even more surreal when we visited Germany. There had been a six-year ongoing link In addition, the adivasis‘ visit to Germany gave them new between a group of German students and our project. So, confidence when it came to challenging the transnational when six adivasis were invited to Germany, the visit companies who had evicted them from land they had generated excitement along with a great deal of owned for generations. Bomman, fresh from his overseas trepidation. For the adivasis, this was a very big first. A visit, stood in the village square and delivered an pretty big plunge from their forest, mountain, village impassioned speech. world into super-developed Germany. We wondered how they‘d cope with the sudden exposure to great material ‗This is a company controlling thousands of hectares. Yet wealth straight after stark poverty. they are not ashamed to evict poor adivasis who have under a quarter of a hectare of tea. Unilever is very Their reactions amazed me. I realized later that what powerful. But the days when adivasis were totally made their observations different was the fact that they powerless are over. We now have friends in Germany and did not look at the West as a kind of Mecca where you UK. We‘ve met people working for Fair Trade. If we tell would find everything material you seek. The adivasis them what Unilever is doing here they will start a didn‘t hanker after German goods. ‗It‘s very nice to be campaign to inform all the people of Europe to stop here,‘ Chathi, one of the six, told me. ‗But I couldn‘t live buying Unilever tea. They will fight on our side. We are here. It‘s not my place. A man needs his family, his no longer alone.‘ community, his own people around him. Just money can‘t give you a life. You‘d shrivel up and die.‘ Unilever backed off. The global links between people usually considered poor and therefore powerless had They were speechless when they saw an old people‘s made a difference. To use Stan‘s favourite slogan, ‗If there home. The concept was totally alien to them. ‗How can has to be globalization, let‘s create a world of our own children send their old parents to live alone?‘ they choosing! eventually asked in wonder. And later, in a meeting, Radhakrishnan, another of the six, solemnly resolved: ‗We Mari Marcel Thekaekara works with adivasis in Gudalur, must ensure that such things never happen in our society, India. This article appeared as “Calvin Klein and the Tea no matter how much we progress.‘ Pickers” in the Issue 310 of the New Internationalist Magazine Like Stan and me in Easterhouse, the adivasis were shocked at the spectre of unemployment which haunted some of our young German friends. They were particularly upset when Karl, whose home they lived in, came back stressed by the news that he might soon be laid off. Bomman worried all night about his friend. In the morning he announced: ‗I have an idea. I can make bamboo flutes in Gudalur and Karl can sell them here till he finds a job.‘ He did too. And though Karl did not lose his job after all, Bomman‘s concern was profoundly moving to everyone who saw it. That Bomman didn‘t feel at all poverty-stricken was evident to all of us, though by the standards of Karl‘s family, he definitely was. German friends gave the group warm clothes and gifts for their families. They were happy to bring back presents for their children. But paradoxically, the gift that Bomman and the adivasis valued most from Germany was that everyone treated them with respect and dignity. As equals. For us the whole visit was an exercise in humility which Credit Scenarios As the saying goes: You need money to make money. Yet many people are unable to gain access to the working capital they need, simply because they're poor and have no collateral. Microcredit (also called microbanking, or microfinance) is a financial innovation which originated in developing countries. It enables poor people to engage in self-employment projects that allow them to generate an income and, in many cases, begin to build wealth and exit poverty. Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) extend very small loans to unemployed people, poor entrepreneurs or others living in poverty who cannot meet even the most minimum qualifications to gain access to traditional credit. These case studies look at three models of microloans, and also examines the traditional form of quick cash; borrowing from a money lender. 1. Solidarity Lending Under this system, would-be borrowers form small groups in which each member agrees to guarantee each other's loans. Then if one member defaults on their loan, the others cover the shortfall. Miriam Caseus, 56, lives in rural Haiti with her seven children. She joined the ―Hands Together Group‖ because she thought it was a good opportunity to start a small business. With the first loan of $30 Miriam bought a few egg-laying hens and a rooster. Her loan was for a 6 month term at 3% interest per month. At first it was hard to make the payments, but now that her hens have grown it‘s much easier. Twice a week she sells eggs in her village. Since the ―Hands Together Group‖ were able to pay back their loan, the MFI approved them for a second loan. Miriam used her second loan to purchase more hens. The most important things she does in her group she says is to save $1 each week, because it enables her to build an emergency fund. Miriam values her involvement in her group, because she earns her own income and enjoys financial independence. She recalls happily, ―With my first earnings from the eggs I was able to purchase school supplies for my children.‖ Questions 1. What is the value of Miriam‘s total loan? 2. Over the six months, if Miriam saves $1 a week how much does she save? 3. Had Miriam gone to a moneylender for the same loan, but at the rate of 25% monthly interest how much would she have to pay back in total? 4. How much does Miriam save by borrowing from her ―Hands Together Group‖? 2. Small business loan Jenti Pierre is a furniture maker. He handcrafts tables, chairs, beds and cabinets in a small workshop behind his house. He attended a four-year professional school to learn his trade and borrowed money from his father to buy tools to start his own business. He wanted to expand his business and learned about a local MFI that would help him. His first loan was of $300 which was essential; it helped him buy a generator. There is no electricity in his village, so the generator allows Jenti to use electric power tools and increase his productivity. A piece that used to take a month to finish is now completed in two weeks. The first loan was on a 12 month term, at 5% interest per month. With his second loan he was able to buy more wood and other materials in bulk. He now employs four apprentices and four carpenters. Jenti relies on word of mouth to bring in business, but his dream is to display his furniture in stores rather than only taking orders. Questions 1. How much did Jenti have to pay back? 2. Calculate the cost of requesting the same loan from a money lender at a 120% annual interest rate. 3. How much was Jenti able to save by going to the MFI for a loan? 3. Lending to a cooperative Haitian farmers face big obstacles when selling their coffee beans. Local coffee cooperatives are not always able to buy member-produced coffee because they lack access to credit. Farmers are often forced to find buyers in the neighbouring Dominican Republic. Individual farmers had to make this seven-hour cross-border trip on foot, with a mule carrying the beans. After paying a tax at the border, the farmers were met with Dominican buyers in a position to offer the lowest prices: coffee is transported in a ―wet‖ stage of processing and rots quickly, after 24 hours it is worthless. The long trip is difficult, the time away from farming wasteful, and their reliance on Dominican buyers humiliating. This situation improved when a local MFI provided the growers' cooperative with the capital needed to buy farmers' coffee directly and at higher prices than the Dominicans offered. The cooperative is now able to sell it at reasonable market prices. The cooperative borrowed $5,000 at 2% interest per month on a 12 month term. The farmers who benefit from this program—85 percent of them illiterate—inhabit a remote region. Even small increases in income can permit rural farmers to invest in their farms, live healthier lives, and provide for and educate their children. Questions 1. What is the total amount that the cooperative must pay back? 2. What are the opportunity costs associated with selling to the Dominican buyers? 4. Money lenders Microcredit can have a transformative impact on the poor. It provides the needed capital to break from the cycle of poverty. However, MFIs in Haiti still only reach a very small percentage of Haitians. For most people, local money lenders are the only option for people living in poverty. People borrow for different reasons: for emergencies to cover medical fees, funerals or to meet other urgent financial needs. Interest rates are extremely high, ranging from 80% to 300% annually. With these high rates, borrowers keep very little of the profits they earn, and often consider themselves to be working for the moneylender. Recovering debts can be harsh and illegal. Without other options, many people have to accept these terms, and there is still a strong demand for the money lenders services because they meet a need for rapid short term individual loans. Imagine you need a loan of $60 to buy leather and tools for your sandal business. Bank Sajes, an MFI will loan you $60 at 15% annual interest over 12 payments. Mr. Gwo Chat, the local money lender will lend you the $60 at 10% monthly interest. Questions 1. What‘s the total you must pay back to Bank Sajes? To Mr. Gwo Chat? 2. What‘s the total interest charged by Bank Sajes? By Mr. Gwo Chat? 3. How much would you be able to save by going to Bank Sajes? Five Good Reasons for Cooperatives 1. Cooperatives are Community Enterprises Cooperatives keep economic benefits within a community. Profit is not siphoned off by outside interests because the co-op's members are its owners, and the co-op exists to fill a need in a community that is not being met by other businesses. Agricultural co-ops satisfy the need for supply, processing and marketing of goods. Consumer cops provide members with necessary goods and services of preferred quality at competitive prices. Workers' productive co-ops are formed to create or maintain employment in a community. Housing co-ops give low-income people the opportunity to own their own homes. Co-operative insurance protects individuals and small businesses from risk. Credit unions serve people of limited incomes not reached by commercial banks, and extend credit to micro-entrepreneurs who otherwise might not be able to secure financing. Tourism co-ops facilitate the opportunities of holiday stay and travel and offer fair prices and good quality service to their members. Electric and telephone co-ops meet the needs of rural residents for power and telecommunications not satisfied by private business. Community development co-ops are formed for the overall development of local communities, and are especially concerned with social, economic and cultural development. 2. Cooperatives Promote Democracy Cooperative members own their businesses. They provide share capital, elect a board of directors, and receive the benefits of ownership through better service and patronage refunds based on use. They teach people, through the business structure, how to resolve problems democratically. 3. Cooperatives Build Open Markets Cooperatives spread economic power and encourage competition. They provide market leverage to small producers victimized by powerful cartels or sole-source companies. They undercut middlemen and money lenders whose charges are often exorbitant. By ploughing profits back into the business, co-ops can operate on narrower margins. Thus, they help drive down unfair prices, and set a competitive range for goods and services. As more and more governments divest state-owned enterprises, there is a danger these monopolies may be moved intact into private hands; cooperatives help avoid this pitfall by ensuring wide participation by the users of the former state services. 4. Cooperatives Raise Human Dignity Cooperatives empower individuals by giving them the chance to participate in decisions which impact them. Armed with the ability to effect change, members find solutions to social and economic needs. Co-ops provide an organized way for low-income people to relate to sometimes distant governments and economic power structures. Cooperatives help people escape poverty and achieve dreams, such as owning a home, or giving their children an education. Since educated decision- making is essential to a co-op's success, co-ops also teach new skills, from adult literacy to business operations. 5. Cooperatives are Systems for Development Cooperatives draw community businesses into regional and national networks. Local co-ops benefit from larger business volume, operating efficiencies and professional management. The economic pyramid enables farmers to purchase supplies at volume discounts, and receive profits from value- added processing and consumer sales. Credit unions pool their resources and are able to transfer surplus savings to credit unions in lower income areas. Electric cooperatives join together to buy power at a lower cost. They become an engine for development, spurring the growth of enterprises not possible without reliable energy. Cooperative insurance companies are tied into a worldwide reinsurance network to protect against catastrophic losses. They pool groups of individuals not served by commercial companies to guard against personal and business risks. Glossary Cartel: A group of companies acting together to control the supply and price of certain goods or services. Cartels are formed to produce higher profits than would ordinarily be earned. Credit union: A not-for-profit organization that makes loans to its members at low-interest rates Market leverage: Refers to having control over large cash amounts of commodities with comparatively small levels of capital Patronage refund: Distribution of net margins derived from business with or for patrons Siphoned off: To draw off Social Indicators Glossary Standard of Living - The quantity of goods and services consumed by a person or- on average- by a group of persons. Because goods and services vary greatly in type and price from one nation to another, assessment of standard of living is usually made in relation to average incomes, which may be measured on the basis of GDP per person. Quality of Life - The degree of well-being felt by a person or a group of persons. It is a broader measure than standard of living because it includes environmental and socio-political factors (such as access to clean water and political freedom) as well as consumption of goods and services. It is difficult to measure precisely because it includes several relatively intangible factors. Gross National Product (GNP) per capita - The financial value of the goods and services a country produces per person in one year. To measure the GNP, economists add up all the income people make, and subtract all the money they spend. The final number is divided by the number of people in a society to determine the per capita (per person) income, and therefore, the well- being of people in a society. GNP is often used to measure a country‘s economic wealth (Gross Domestic Product is very similar; the difference is that GNP refers to the goods and services produced by all citizens of a country regardless of where they are working and regardless of where the products are sold. GDP refers to the goods and services produced by anyone residing in a country and sold within that country). Alternatives to GNP - Alternative measures that can be used to try to assess the quality of life experienced by particular people. Examples of alternative indicators are: the Genuine Progress Indicator, Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare, the Index of Social Health and the Physical Quality of Life Index. Life Expectancy - How long a person will probably live. Health Expectancy - How long a person will probably experience good health. Daily Calorie Intake - The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) consultative groups have determined that, on average, a daily diet of around 2,200 calories is sufficient to meet basic nutrition needs. Like all averages, this conceals important differences. Chronic Hunger – A condition in which people do not get enough food to provide the nutrients they need for fully productive, active, healthy lives. Malnutrition - Poor nutrition to such an extent that a person‘s physical and/or mental health is/are impaired. Population Growth - As a country develops, it is typical for the rate at which the country‘s population grows to decrease. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are that in the majority of the world‘s countries women have more control over how many children they will have; furthermore, people in countries with pension systems and effective health care often do not feel the need to have large families to support them in their old age. Birth Rate - The number of births per 1,000 people. The Natural Increase Rate - The annual difference between the number of births and the number of deaths in a country per 1,000 people. Literacy Rate - The percentage of the population who can read and write. Infant Mortality Rate - The number of children under one year of age who die out of every 1,000 children born. Low-birth-weight Babies - Babies who weigh less than 2.5 kg at birth. One in five babies born in the majority of the world‘s countries is born with low birth-weight. Low-birth-weight babies face increased risk, from age one to three, of seizures, blindness, deafness, cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Highly Indebted Poor Countries Listed below are the 41 countries to be considered for eligibility under the HIPC initiative by the boards of the IMF and the World Bank. Angola Madagascar Benin Malawi Bolivia Mali Burkina Faso Mauritania Burundi Mozambique Cameroon Myanmar Central African Rep. Nicaragua Chad Niger Congo Rwanda Dem. Rep of Congo Sierra Leone Côte d'Ivoire São Tomé Principe Ethiopia Senegal The Gambia Somalia Ghana Sudan Guinea Tanzania Guinea-Bissau Togo Guyana Uganda Honduras Vietnam Kenya Yemen Laos Zambia Liberia Trade Issues Cards Dumping Rich countries dump subsidised produce on developing countries, driving down the price of local produce with devastating effects on the local economy. This unlevelled playing field has made many poor farmers even poorer, or forced them off their land completely. US dumping of subsidised rice on Haiti has had devastating effects on local rice producers, and goes hand in hand with rising child malnutrition. At the start of the 1980s Haiti produced almost all its own rice. But pressure from the international community - from the USA in particular - forced Haiti to open up its markets to foreign imports. As a result Haiti has been flooded by cheap, subsidised rice from the USA. This has driven down the price of local rice with appalling consequences for the people - one-fifth of Haiti's population - who rely on rice production for a living. Some rice farmers have had to leave their land in search of work in neighbouring Dominican Republic. Many have had to take their children out of school because they can't pay the fees. And people are going hungry. As their incomes shrink, rice growers are unable to buy the foods that would give them and their families a well-balanced diet. Fifty per cent of children in Haiti are malnourished with the highest rate in the rice-growing areas. Haiti is the poorest country in the western hemisphere. The USA is the richest country in the world. Market Access Rich countries limit and control poor countries' share of the world market by charging high taxes on imported goods. As a result, many poor countries can only afford to export raw materials, which give far lower returns than finished products. After almost two decades of conflict and the devastating floods in 2000, Mozambique has managed to get its sugar production back to pre-war levels. Thanks to massive government investment, its sugar cane industry now boasts the lowest production costs in the world. But in spite of this, Mozambique is unable to compete in the world market. Why? Because Mozambique's sugar industry is depressed by prohibitive European Union charges on imports of processed foods, known as tariffs. These tariffs lock countries like Mozambique into trading raw sugar, blocking them out of exporting processed sugar to Europe, which would be worth considerably more. Meanwhile, European companies buy the cheap raw sugar for refining - and reap the financial rewards. If Mozambique was able to refine its own sugar, it could generate wealth and create thousands more jobs in the processing sector. In 2001 Europe gave 170 million euros of emergency and development aid to Mozambique, including money to help improve the lives of farming and rural communities. Yet these people would benefit far more if Europe traded freely and fairly. Commodities Poor countries produce most of the coffee, chocolate, cotton and copper the rich world consumes, however, the rich world sets the price. Low prices make huge profits for big companies that sell them on to consumers, but leave millions of producers barely able to survive. Low prices in the global commodities' markets are a result of structural oversupply of commodities and global economic structures reinforcing the cycle of commodity dependence. Other factors, including financial speculation of the commodity markets, rapid liberalization of developing countries' agricultural sectors and intensification of cash crop production frequently under Structural Adjustment Programs, have left producers to the volatility of the markets. These trends are vividly captured by the coffee market. As a result of the crisis, 25 million small coffee producers around the world now sell their coffee beans for much less than the cost to produce while branded coffee sells at a hefty price. Companies such as Nestle, Kraft, Sara Lee and Procter and Gamble, however, pay the lowest prices possible; each have coffee brands worth $1 billion or more in annual sales. As it is, by paying farmers a price that is below the cost of production, the companies' booming business is being paid for by some of the poorest and most vulnerable people in the world, especially farm-workers, women and indigenous groups. International action to stabilize commodity prices is critical in order for many developing countries to escape from the poverty trap. In this respect, price stabilization mechanisms, including measures to curb speculation in commodity markets, must be adopted to ensure fair and remunerative prices for commodity producers and commodity-producing countries. Labour Rights Big brand companies and retailers in the fashion and food industries are driving down employment conditions for millions of women workers around the world. These companies are using their power to squeeze their suppliers to deliver cheaper and cheaper goods. In the globalised world of the 21st century, trade is one of the strongest ties that binds us - but millions never see the benefits of globalisation. Today's business ethos is 'make it quick, make it flexible, make it cheap.' The workers at the bottom of the global supply chains are helping to fuel national export growth and shareholders' returns yet their jobs are becoming ever more insecure, unhealthy and exhausting and their rights weakened. For example, in Chile 75% of women fruit-pickers are now on temporary contracts and work 60 hours per week in season, but still one in three earns at or below minimum wage. Huge retailing empires are undermining the very labour standards they claim to uphold by pursuing a common global strategy that demands ever-quicker and cheaper delivery of the freshest and latest products. This pressure is dumped immediately onto women workers in the form of longer hours at faster work rates, often in poor conditions and with no job security. This is where globalisation is failing in its potential to lift people out of poverty and support development. Many corporations have codes of conduct to hold their suppliers accountable for labour standards, but their own ruthless buying strategies often make it impossible for these standards to be met. Patents Under pressure from powerful corporations, the rich world is insisting on stringent patent protection. This will push up the price of essential products like seeds, medicines, textbooks and software. Vital drugs will be priced out of reach for poor people. Fourteen million people die from treatable diseases every year; many of these lives could be saved if cheap drugs were available. In The Dominican Republic Belkis and her second child, Jennifer, were diagnosed HIV-positive four years ago when Belkis was pregnant with her third daughter, Yania. She did not receive the simple medication which would have prevented the virus from passing to her child, so Yania was also born with AIDS. Belkis can't afford the anti-retroviral drugs that could greatly prolong her and her children's lives. Like millions of other people around the world, Belkis and her children are condemned to death because they are poor. And it could get worse. Global trading rules - drawn up by rich nations at the WTO - oblige all countries to grant at least 20-year patents on new drugs manufactured by the transnational pharmaceutical companies. This will prevent poor countries from producing their own cheaper equivalents of those drugs, and drive medicines even further out of reach for poor people. The pharmaceutical companies claim the patents, which effectively put an end to competition, are fair. They argue that patents allow them to recoup their investment in developing new drugs, and to spend more on further research. In fact, as some companies privately admit, developing-country markets are so small they make little difference to their research agendas. Information drawn from Oxfam‘s site: www.maketradefair.org Flambokòp Learning to read and write is so common in North America we often take it for granted. The people of Haiti do not. Fewer than one in four Haitians can read, and although attempts have been made to make education more widely available, years of neglect have taken a heavy toll. Today, less than a quarter of school-age Haitian children complete grade school, and only 1% graduate from high school. For centuries, Haitians who couldn‘t read or write did not record their stories, memories, lessons or knowledge. The oral tradition (passing on wisdom and information through stories) is important, but has its draw backs. Pierre Richard Pierre, coordinator of Adult Education programs for pcH, grew up in rural Haiti. His father was well respected in the community from his knowledge of herbal remedies. He knew the preparations by memory and had a wealth of botanical knowledge, but never learned to read or write. When he died, says Pierre Richard, ―a library of knowledge died with him.‖ If knowledge is not passed on to future generations it dies and whole cultures risk losing the knowledge accumulated over centuries. Another story comes from an American agronomist living in Haiti. He was curious as to why Haitian farmers tied a red ribbon around some of their plants, and was told it helps in production. After some research he could not find any scientific basis for this practice, and dismissed it as superstition. Then one day while reading a text on West African farming he learned of an interesting practice. Farmers around the world save seeds; a process by which farmers observe their plants, select the ones that exhibit desirable traits (such as size, colour or disease resistance) and then make a point of saving seeds from that plant. In West Africa, farmers tie a red ribbon around that desirable plant, to distinguish it from other plants. This ancient practice made its way to Haiti through the slaves taken from West Africa. The practice was retained, but over time the facts behind it were lost. The lack of educational opportunities has contributed to Haiti's many social problems. Haitians want a better life and know that learning to read is absolutely crucial. With literacy, farmers have access to a wealth of information on improved farming techniques, allowing them to better feed their families. They can record business transactions, write letters, read contracts and forms. The shame of illiteracy vanishes. Literacy protects Haitians from exploitation, fortifies democracy and strengthens the economic prospects of citizens. Flambokòp means ‗the light of the co-op‘ in Kreyòl, it‘s the name of the community newsletter produced by adults enrolled in literacy centres across Fon Batis. With new skills in reading and writing, Haitians are recording their thoughts and opinions in a way that has never happened before in this area. Each issue of Flambokòp is full of stories, recipes, jokes and articles on farming, child rearing and herbal medicines - all written by newly literate people. "Education,‖ said William Butler Yeats, ―is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire.‖ Learners in Fon Batis are not just memorizing empty facts, they are being set alight by their new potential and the light of literacy shines brightly. Research Notes Researcher‘s Name _____________________________________________ Project: Adult Literacy Location: Fon Batis, Haiti 1. To each question, provide a response of approximately a half page. a. Why do people in Fon Batis want to learn to read? b. What are some of the reasons why literacy is so low in Haiti? c. Provide an example of how illiteracy has been a barrier to someone in Fon Batis. d. How have Haitians explained the relationship between self-esteem and literacy? e. Explain what is meant by the proverb: ‗Sa ou pa kone pi gwo pase ou’ - the things you don‘t know are bigger than you. 2. Create a mind map showing the impact of literacy on: a. Farming b. Cooperative movement c. Environment d. Families e. Community life f. Individuals 3. Identify four other international organizations working in Haiti. Organization Description of services E.g pcH Provides support to cooperatives in business management, literacy and ., agricultural training 1 2 3 4 4. Please provide an indicator for each category and cite your sources. Indicator Year Source E.g., Health Under age five mortality ... ... ... rate Education Health Economy Environment Equity 5. Compare literacy levels for the following countries in the Americas: Country Literacy Rate Source Canada Haiti Cuba Jamaica Mexico Argentina Brazil USA Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Dominican Republic 6. In your view, what is the relationship between literacy and the well-being of a community? Aid Fable Source: Teaching Development Issues, Aid and Development, 1986 A poor man chopped down a tree on his ―Don‘t do any more to it,‖ said a rich The rich man had the trunk taken to his land because he knew the timber was man. ―I‘ll buy that timber from you for lumber mill. valuable. $100.‖ The poor man, who needed the money, took it. At the mill, the trunk was cut into At the factory it was made into chicken planks. The timber was now worth When the wood was ready, the rich sheds. The wood made 6 sheds, each $200. man saw that it was taken to his one worth $150. factory. The rich man went back to the poor man. ―If ―I‘ll lend you $400 so you can buy them‖ you start poultry farming you‘ll make good So the poor man got the sheds. Of said the rich man. Consider it aid from a course he had to pay back the $400 money. I‘ll sell you three sheds for $450.‖ The friend.‖ He added that he wanted the poor man considered it and replied ―I can‘t year by year, plus interest. Sometimes rights to buy more timber at fixed prices in stead of cash the rich man was ready afford them…I‘ve only got $80 cash.‖ and take it to the mill on his own to take some eggs and more timber. transport. Picturing Haiti Farmers in Haiti traditionally store ears of corn by bundling them up and hauling them up high in a tree. At the base of the tree is a metal ―cuff‖ to keep rats from climbing up the tree and getting into the corn. Farmers will store grain after the harvests as the local markets are often flooded with the same products. They will store their product until prices improve at which point they‘ll sell, hoping for a higher return. The literacy centre pictured above might look simple, but it's having a huge impact on the community. Here in Fon Batis, illiteracy rates in 1999 were at 85%, much higher than the national average. In 2000 pcH launched a literacy program that is having a deep impact on people's lives. These adults can now read warning labels and prescriptions, understand the contracts they sign, record credit properly, calculate costs better, help their children with their homework and read instructions on a package of new seeds. They are more confident to share their ideas and with this new confidence have become more active in the life of their community. The picture you‘re viewing is of a community developing its potential. The market in Fon Batis is active twice a week. Vendors and shoppers come from all across the mountain range to buy and sell everything from rice, beans and corn to shampoo, candy, clothing and livestock. In this picture you are looking at vast economic potential. Cabbage is a new crop for Fon Batis. Farmers usually grow beans, but have learned to grow carrots, leek and cabbage, crops that bring in more income and can be planted at different points in the growing season. The ‗house‘ in the background is actually the family‘s kitchen. Because of the smoke from the fire, the kitchen is often a smaller building separate from where the family sleeps. Notice too the piles of sand and buckets near the house, sure signs that someone is planning to build something with the new income earned from the cabbage. Perhaps just outside of view is a new house being constructed… Pictured here is a sugar cane press that crushes the stalks of sugar cane and extracts the juice that is later transformed into molasses and then sugar. This mill is well positioned near a source of water that powers the water wheel, whereas in other cases, work horses or bulls would be needed to power the mill. In Canada there are regulations about children being on work sites; in Haiti where work is a family affair, it is common to see children accompanying their parents to the market or field. In this picture you‘re actually looking at a row of banks. In Haiti, a piggy bank takes on a whole new meaning! If there is a profit after the harvest, families will buy a pig. Over the year the pig will be fed, fattened up and invested in. When a significant financial need arises (tuition fees for children attending school, costs of a wedding or funeral) the fattened pig is sold. Evaluator‘s Planning Notes You have been asked to report on the effectiveness of a development project in Fon Batis that has been running for three years now. The aim of the project is to improve the standard of living in the region through: Literacy and adult education to enable members to participate more fully in their co-op and society Assisting the cooperatives to become strong micro-enterprises Promoting use of sustainable agricultural techniques to ensure the land remains a valuable resource Before you leave, you must plan your evaluation; remember the questions you ask will largely determine the answers you get. 1. As part of your review you will spend a week in Fon Batis. Using the information below, plan out your schedule with regard to where you will visit and who you want to interview. Community Assets Cooperative Building: Site of the grain silo where grain is stored and records are kept Church: Co-op meetings are held here each Wednesday; site of religious services Co-op Garden: Daily agricultural workshops led by pcH agronomist Market: Open area where women from across the mountain come to buy and sell (Tuesdays and Thursdays) Pump: Active mornings and evenings when children come to fetch water Fields/hillsides: Where you‘ll find farmers, co-op members and non-members Tonèl: Shelter under which literacy classes are held weekdays between five a.m. and seven a.m. Clinic: Open all day on Fridays; nurse on duty Chenchiwon store: Cooperative store in the village of Chenchiwon where basics can be purchased by members. Konbits: Collective work teams of farmers formed often during planting season Primary school: There is only one serving a community of 30,000 You might also visit people‘s homes, attend a youth group, meet with the local bokò (herb doctor) or set up meetings with other NGOs or government officials. Plan a possible schedule to support your strategy for collecting the information you need for your evaluation. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday 5 a.m. - 9 a.m. 9 a.m. – 12 p.m. 12 p.m. – 3 p.m. 3 p.m. – 6 p.m. 6 p.m. – 9 p.m. 2. During your time in Fon Batis you will need to gather a lot of information. What kind of questions will you ask to help inform you as to whether things have improved in the community? Who has been impacted? Come up with 15 questions that will help you discover more about the situation in Fon Batis. Question Who will you ask? Why this Question? pcH staff members members (farmers) (farmers) Children Women Elderly Co-op Youth Non- Has your harvest increased since the To see if there is a difference between the harvests of co-op x x project started? By how much? and non-co-op members Do you think literacy is important and To discover if people of other generations value literacy x x why? differently Open Space Role play Cards Your name is Met Jen and you are a teacher from the only elementary school in the area. You are frustrated that your community is still without a high school. The few students who are able to continue through to grade six have no options after that. You believe strongly that education is the key to development and that: The community needs to push the government to establish a high school in Fon Batis. Your name is Makandal and you are a 15-year-old who‘s watched your three older brothers leave the community to cut sugar cane in the neighbouring country of the Dominican Republic. Wages are low there, but they are better than nothing. You see your brothers maybe once every two years, if that. You don‘t want to leave your community just to become economically self-sufficient; you want opportunities to exist in Fon Batis. Your solution to the problem that you will defend is: Farming in Fon Batis needs to be profitable so that young people will stay and farm. We need to grow new crops besides beans and corn that will bring in more money. Your name is Yves and you are the youngest member of the co-op (18). You feel the cooperative is ignoring the potential of young people (15-17). You want the group to understand that youth are already contributing a lot to the local economy. They are hired as labour to prepare the field, they go to market and sell crops and many even own goats or pigs they can breed or sell. You are defending your view: Give young people start-up money to start a small business and they’ll want to stay in the community. Your name is Wislande. As a young female co-op member, you feel the community forgets the specific needs of young women in Fon Batis. You want the group to be conscious that: Girls and their mothers are the ones who walk the five hours to market to sell the products grown in Fon Batis Families without a donkey to carry produce will bring their daughters along. A donkey means that a family can send a daughter to school. Young women are discouraged from moving away from home to go to high school (if it‘s an option for the family) because of the social values around girls being on their own. Knowledge about birth control is not readily available for young women, and it‘s not uncommon for girls to get pregnant around 17. It‘s your opinion that: If we promote small businesses, the business idea should also benefit girls and not make more work for us. We could start a donkey co-op to breed and sell affordable donkeys locally. Your name is Tilis and you are an older respected farmer. You admire Met Jen, but don‘t feel a high school is the best solution for rural youth. Students won‘t go to class from nine to five if there are goats to herd, or during the planting season. You believe learning is important, but a school doesn‘t need walls. Your idea is to implement a non-formal learning program that brings students together with teachers for three hours each day. Science taken from nature and math from the marketplace will be taught. You are Madam Tilis, the wife of Tilis. You think youth are very important in the community, and give the example of your grandson, who at 16, began working as a tailor making uniforms and wedding dresses. He is now teaching three other youths to sew. You feel that a high school teaches useless subjects and that the community should organize an apprenticeship program that partners youth with local builders, bakers and other trades people in order to learn new, profitable skills. Your name is Michäelle. You used to worry whether your children would be able to farm in Fon Batis as you watched the quality of the land decrease due to erosion and unsustainable planting practices. You are more hopeful now. The recent agricultural training in intensive gardening offered through the co-operative taught that with simple sustainable growing methods the harvest from a small plot of land can be significant. You defend the idea that young people, in addition to helping their parents in the fields, need to have their own gardens where they can experiment and learn how to make a profit from their work. For families who don‘t have land, you defend this idea: The church should rent out its land at an affordable rate so young people can have their own gardens.
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