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Environmental Impact Assessment Report The Proposed

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report The Proposed Powered By Docstoc
					 Environmental Impact Assessment Report


The Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Mixed Use /
  Residential development, Johannesburg
      GDARD Ref. No.: Gaut/002/07-08/N1067



                 October 2009
Details of EAP who prepared the report

Environmental Consultant       The MSA Group

                               PO Box 81356
Postal Address                 Parktown
                               1296

Telephone                      012 347 5890                Fax       012 347 5877

Environmental Assessment
                               Ansie Swanepoel
Practitioner

Email                          ansies@msagroupservices.com

                               Ansie obtained a MSc Botany (Ecology) from the University of Pretoria.
                               Ansie is registered as a Professional Natural Scientist (Pr. Sci. Nat., Reg
                               number: 400224/08). Ansie has authored Scoping Reports, Environmental
                               Management Programme Reports and numerous Ecological and Wetland
                               Assessments. Ansie has five years experience in the environmental
Expertise
                               management field. Affiliations: Registered with the South African Council for
                               Natural and Scientific Professions (SACNASP), South African Affiliate of the
                               International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA), Botanical Society of
                               South Africa (BotSoc) South Africa Association of Botanists (SAAB) and South
                               African Soil Surveyors Organisation (SASSO).

Environmental Assessment
                               Jacolette Adam
Practitioner

                               Jacolette has obtained an MSc (Ecology) from the University of Pretoria.
                               Jacolette is registered as a Professional Natural Scientist (Pr. Sci. Nat., Reg
                               number: 400088/02).
                               Jacolette has 8 years experience in all environmental related fields such as
                               Environmental Impact Assessments, Environmental Management
Expertise                      Programmes, Ecological Assessments, Wetland Assessments and Geographic
                               Information Systems.
                               Affiliations: Professional Natural Scientist (SACNASP), Water Institute of South
                               Africa (WISA), South African Institute of Ecologists & Environmental Scientists
                               (SAIE&ES), the South African Affiliate of the International Association for
                               Impact Assessment (IAIA) and the Gauteng Wetland Forum.

Environmental Assessment
                               Jennifer Russell
Practitioner

                               Jennifer obtained the following qualifications:
                                     •    BSc Geology and Chemistry (Rand Afrikaans University)
                                     •    BSc Honours in Geology (University of Johannesburg)
                                     •    MSc Geology (Environmental Geochemistry) (University of
                                          Johannesburg)
Expertise
                               Jennifer has authored Scoping Reports, Screening Reports, Rectification
                               Reports and Environmental Monitoring Reports. Jennifer has one years
                               experience in the environmental management field.
                               Affiliations: South African Affiliate of the International Association for Impact
                               Assessment (IAIA), Geological Society of Southern Africa (GSSA)




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                                       Page: i
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Introduction

Codevco (Pty) Ltd in conjunction with the City of Johannesburg and the Gauteng Department of
Housing, proposes to develop the next phase of the Cosmo City development on Portions 38, 133, the
Remaining Extent of Portion 4, Portion 120 (a portion of Portion 37) and the Remaining Extent of Portion
36 (a portion of Portion 5) of the Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ (‘the site’). The proposed development is
aimed at eradicating the informal settlement of Itsoseng on site and accommodating the beneficiaries in
formal housing in a sustainable mixed use, integrated development. The proposed development will
offer affordable housing as well as other amenities and facilities such as open parks and schools in
accordance with the “Breaking New Ground” (BNG) Policy of Government. Services and infrastructure
that will be installed include provision of sewage, water, electricity, stormwater management and roads.


MSA Geoservices (Pty) Ltd (trading as The MSA Group) (MSA), previously Exigent Environmental act as
the independent Environmental Assessment Practitioner (EAP) for conducting the Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA) process in terms of Sections 24 and 24(D) of the National Environmental
Management Act (Act No 107 of 1998) (NEMA), as read with Government Notices R385, R386 and
R387 in Government Gazette No 28753 of 21 April 2006. In terms of these Regulations a Scoping / EIA
is required for the following activities listed in Government Notice R387: 1(c), 2 and 5. The following
activities as listed in Government Notice R386 are also applicable: 1 (e, k, l, m, o, p), 4, 7, 12, 15, 16, 18
and 20.


An application was lodged with the Gauteng Department of Agriculture and Rural Development
(GDARD), previously the Gauteng Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Environment (GDARD).
The reference number 002/07-08/N1067 was assigned to the project. Public announcement took place
to alert Interested and Affected Parties (I&APs) of the project from 21 January 2008 to 20 February
2008. A Scoping Report was compiled to determine the range of issues to be considered during the EIA
process. The Scoping Report was made available to I&APs and stakeholders for review from 29 April to
1 June 2009. The comments were incorporated in the final Scoping Report which was submitted to
GDARD on 29 June 2009. Acknowledgement of the report was received on the 11 August 2009 and
permission was given to proceed with the Environmental Impact Assessment phase of the process.


Other legislation, guidelines and policies applicable include:
•   Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act No 108 of 1996)
•   National Environmental Management Act (Act No 107 of 1998)
•   National Water Act (Act No 36 of 1998)
•   The National Heritage Resources Act (Act 25 of 1999)
•   Housing Act (Act No. 107 of 1997)


Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                                Page: ii
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
•   Town Planning and Townships Ordinance (Ordinance 15 of 1986)
•   Development Facilitation Act (Act No 67 of 1995)
•   Breaking New Ground Policy / Comprehensive Plan for Sustainable Human Settlement (2004)
•   GDARD Policies and Programmes including Gauteng Conservation Plan (C-Plan), Gauteng Red
    Data Plant Policy, Development Guideline for Ridges and Gauteng Open Space Policy (GOSP)
•   City of Johannesburg Integrated Development Framework
•   City of Johannesburg Regional Spatial Development Framework


Background to the project
The existing Cosmo City development was developed with the purpose of providing subsidised housing
to the people in the nearby informal settlements of Zevenfontein and River Bend in order to provide the
people housing. The development was undertaken by the CoJ in partnership with the Gauteng provincial
government. Codevco was appointed as the overall developer and to act as the City's agent. After this
appointment initial planning started. An EIA was conducted for the existing Cosmo City housing
development by Teurlings Environmental CC (Ref: Gaut002/01-02/30) and the Record of Decision
(ROD) granted environmental authorisation to Codevco in January 2003 for the development.
Construction began in March 2005.


It is now proposed to extend the development, therefore this EIA process. Three township establishment
applications have been submitted on behalf of the CoJ in terms of Section 108 and 96 of the Town
Planning and Townships Ordinance, 1986 (Ordinance 15 of 1986) for the proposed housing
development as part of the extension of Cosmo City. These applications reflect the three portions into
which the development has been divided:
    (i)     “Malibongwe Ridge”,
    (ii)    “Malibongwe Ridge Ext 1” and
    (iii)   “Cosmo City Ext 16”.


The separate applications have been submitted for Malibongwe Ridge due to the fact that the
Malibongwe Ridge Ext 1 is in private ownership, owned by Trustees of the Itsoseng Community
Development Trust (TICDT) and the remainder in public ownership (CoJ). The informal settlement of
Itsoseng is currently located on the Itsoseng land, and is also rapidly spreading onto the CoJ land.


The proposed development will adhere to the Department of Housing’s “Breaking New Ground” (BNG)
policy which aims to ensure that settlements are sustainable and habitable to the basic original goal of
delivering housing and the eradication of informal settlements. Another objective is to provide affordable
housing for people not qualifying for fully subsidised houses, by the Credit Linked (partial subsidy)
housing scheme. The Financial Sector Charter (FSC) has been introduced, compelling financial
institutions to provide mortgage funding to that market thereby accelerating housing delivery. According


Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                            Page: iii
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
to the FSC financial institutions must provide a certain amount of funding for mortgageable loans for
housing units for households in the affordable housing sector. This type of development is thus required
for financial institutions to comply with the FSC.


The proposed development will benefit the residents of the informal settlement of Itsoseng that is located
on site. This settlement does not have access to bulk services or social services such as schools, and
was established without consideration to the environment. The settlement is increasing in size at a rapid
rate without any proper planning. The living conditions are poor and unsafe. In order to cross-subsidise
the affordable units a certain amount of subsidised and bonded units will also be constructed.


Description of the site
The site is situated on Malibongwe Drive just east of the N14 highway to Krugersdorp. It is located in
Region C and Ward 100 of the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality. The informal settlement
of Itsoseng is located on Portion 133 of the Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ and is now also invading the
surrounding properties.


The site is underlain by granite of the Halfway House Granite Suite with colluvial and residual soils
overlying the granite. A Phase 1 NHBRC Geotechnical Investigation was conducted for the site.
Overlying the basement granite the following horizons are present: Hillwash / topsoil, Pebble marker,
Residual granite, Pedogenic horizon, and Weathered granite. Groundwater seepage was encountered at
six of the test pits at between 0.6 m and 1.9 m. The presence of hardpan ferricrete is also an indication
of relic shallow water levels in the past. Conclusions from the Geotechnical Report indicate that the site
is considered suitable for the proposed development provided that the recommendations in the report
are adhered to. According the Gauteng Conservation Plan two areas on site can be classified as having
a high agricultural potential. However, the western section of the site that is classified as having high
agricultural potential, according to the Gauteng Agricultural Potential Atlas, is almost completely covered
by the Itsoseng Informal settlement and associated structures and can therefore not be considered as
high potential any longer. The northern portion that is considered as high agricultural potential has been
investigated as part of the geotechnical report. According to the report that portion consists of residual
granite 30 to 70 cm below the surface and from 70 cm downwards soft rock granite. The rockiness of
the area will greatly limit the agricultural potential.   The site is very rocky with shallow soil. The
agricultural potential is therefore considered low.


The site is characterised by a slightly undulating terrain, with a moderate ground slope and slope
                       .
gradients of up to 3-8° The northern corner is at a high point and the south-eastern boundary is the
lowest part of the site. The surface drainage of the site is towards the south-east, flowing towards the
Zandspruit, a non-perennial river to the south of the site. There is a wetland just south-west of
Malibongwe Drive draining towards the Zandspruit and this has an impact on the layout of the proposed
development. Preliminary assessments identified primary and secondary Egoli Granite Grassland on

Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                            Page: iv
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
site as well as a wetland. The wetland on site has been identified as having habitat for the African Grass
Owl. However, the specialist indicated that a formal development with a smaller buffer zone around the
wetland will be more desirable in terms of the habitat for the African Grass Owl than uncontrolled spread
of the informal settlement, with no formalised development. The Melodious Lark has also been observed
on site.


Graves were identified on site. Around the site, there is a mix between low income and high income
groups, specifically in the existing Cosmo City development, where both bonded and RDP residential
units are positioned directly adjacent to one another. North-east and west of the site is low density
residential and agricultural holdings. North of the site is the Lion Park which is also approved for a
township. On site is the informal settlement of Itsoseng. A ZCC church is located in Itsoseng as well as a
congregation of another church at a prominent tree, marked with white rocks. In 2008 there were 2331
families living in the Itsoseng settlement. Only 1081 of the 2331 families may qualify for subsidy. The
remaining number (1250) of registered residents are either single, under age or foreigners (45) or have
owned/own property. There is thus a large number of housing units required as well as rental units for
the non-qualifiers.


Project Description
The development is an integrated housing development. To accommodate all families/persons, whether
qualifying subsidy beneficiaries and/or potential lessees within the project area, the proposed
development will consist of BNG housing and conventional bonded housing. To provide sufficient BNG
housing a concept that has been effectively used in Alexandra, Johannesburg is proposed. The concept
consists of a cluster of four to ten full title erven around a central local access courtyard. Each erf
consists of a double storey subsidized unit and two single storey rental units. The double storey units
consist of a downstairs living room, kitchen and bathroom with sleeping quarters on the second floor.
Attached to the unit is a small stand alone room with outside bathroom, which the occupants of the main
unit can rent out to bring in additional income. Other housing typologies include free standing single
residential erven (credit-linked, bonded and subsidized housing market), linked row/duet housing on
individually registered erven (credit-linked, bonded and subsidized housing market), sectional title units
in security complexes/high density housing complex i.e. units within three storey blocks and high density
housing /flats/ residential complex purposes, to accommodate rental unit or sectional title ownership
developments (credit-linked, bonded and subsidized housing market). Erf sizes will range from 90m² for
the abovementioned erven to 550 m² for the bonded erven.


The 90m² erven will be located to the south of the site. The bonded erven will be north-east of
Malibongwe Drive. Commercial sites are located adjacent to Malibongwe Drive. The functions of the
Parks within the neighbourhood cells (not including any conservation area) may include urban agriculture
and play parks, under the management of the local authority. As far as possible the layout was designed
to accommodate existing trees within parks. Other supportive facilities include a school, community

Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                            Page: v
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
facilities, and institutional sites. Nodal areas (mixed land use) are located at the entrances to the
development.


Engineering Services
•   Roads: Road improvement projects are currently under way or planned for the near future on
    various intersections in the study area. In addition, a road will be built along the K56 alignment to the
    south-east of the site to provide additional access. Tarred roads will also be provided within the
    development.
•   Water: Johannesburg Water will provide the water for the proposed development from the Cosmo
    City Reservoir to be constructed in the next 12 months. Water will be provided by connecting to the
    bulk water main that passes through the site, adjacent to Provincial Road K29. A connection will also
    be provided to the existing water main in Cosmo City Ext 2.
•   Sewage: A full waterborne sewage system is proposed for all erven. Sewage generated from the
    proposed development will be pumped to the Klein Jukskei Outfall Sewer and then to the Northern
    Waste Water Treatment Works. The bulk sewer network has sufficient capacity to deal with the
    demand.
•   Electricity: The development can be supplied from the Cosmo City sub-station. Provision is made
    for areas to accommodate new 11kV feeder lines. Eskom is upgrading the capacity of the noted
    substation from 20 to 40MVA. The phased release of erven (transfer) will be subject to the
    completion of the upgrade.
•   Waste: Pikitup will remove domestic waste. Construction waste will be reused where possible in
    embankments etc or moved to a relevant landfill site by the contractor.
•   Stormwater Management: Provision has been made for stormwater attenuation to reduce the
    increase in stormwater run-off resulting from the development compared to pre-development
    volumes, through the incorporation of stormwater attenuation ponds and a stormwater management
    system.


Need and desirability
The need for the project relate to the objective of the local authority to eradicate all informal settlements
in its area of jurisdiction. The aim is to integrate the residents into the urban fabric of the area (where
they were settled) in a sensitive and sustainable manner, within the intent and bounds of the Strategic
Development Framework or an updated version of such framework. The proposed project will provide
housing for a market that suffers from a lack of housing availability. Other supportive land uses are
associated with residential development such as commercial facilities, social services (churches,
schools, clinics, community halls, libraries, cemeteries) and provision of bulk services. The development
will therefore not only benefit the future residents but also the surrounding areas by providing shopping
facilities and social services that is not currently in place.




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                              Page: vi
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
The benefit of the development is that beneficiaries can be relocated to completed units on fully serviced
stands, rather than the costly, retrospective approach to in-situ upgrading (Providing services to stands
where informal houses are located, and later formalizing the housing). The development is coordinated
with various developments in the area provide the opportunity to create urban form (including the
transportation networks and nodal developments) on a sub-regional basis. The sensitive environmental
areas on site can be integrated and development impacts mitigated to serve not only the conservation
function, but also to enhance the living environment (positive visual impact and to “break” the residential
densities. Currently the site is partly occupied by the Itsoseng informal settlement. By developing the site
in a responsible manner ways can be found to better conserve the wetland and other habitats. By just
leaving the site open informal settlers can and will invade the site causing further deterioration without
any management of the impacts. Currently some illegal activities are likely happening on site and
formalising the township will eradicate these.


The proposed development of the site is desirable from the perspective of availability and proximity of
engineering bulk services, compatibility with adjacent projects, accessibility, visibility, size, slope, locality
on a sub-regional and regional basis. The proposed development will also create employment, both
during the construction and operational phase. It is estimated that approximately 8500 jobs will be
created during construction of the Malibongwe Ridge housing development. Furthermore, the proposed
development will attract investment to the area on an ongoing basis


Alternatives
The following alternatives have been considered for the development:
•   Site Alternatives: The existing Itsoseng Informal Settlement is already located on site and belongs to
    the Itsoseng Community Development Trust, although the informal settlement is encroaching onto
    the adjacent properties belonging to CoJ. The land belonging to CoJ was included in the approved
    EIA for the existing Cosmo City development. CoJ and the Department of Housings want to provide
    housing to the people of Itsoseng and using the area where they already live is therefore ideal. The
    development is in line with RSDF within the Urban Edge. There are engineering services capacity to
    support the proposed development. Regional/district facilities also serve the site. Therefore the site
    is ideally suited for this type of development.
•   Layout Alternatives: Before commencing with layout design various technical investigations were
    conducted to determine the feasibility of the proposed project. The proposed design is based on
    various team meetings and workshops in order to plan the most efficient and feasible option. Three
    layout alternatives are proposed for Malibongwe Ridge. Malibongwe Ridge Alternative 1 has a buffer
    of 20 m around the wetland on site. Malibongwe Ridge Alternative 2 has a 50 m buffer around the
    wetland on site. The advantage of Alternative 2 is that it has a larger buffer around the wetland. The
    disadvantage is that the number of homes will be significantly reduced. The service costs per unit
    will increase significantly. This is considerable as the development comprises of RDP, Finance-



Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                                 Page: vii
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
    Linked and affordable housing units for people earning between R0 and R 7000.00 per month.
    Increase in cost will mean that the developer can only cater for people earning on the higher end of
    the salary scale which defeats the purpose of the development and the Breaking New Ground policy.
    Alternative 3 shows a 170 m buffer zone around the wetland and African Grass Owl habitat. If the
    wetland and a 170 m buffer around it is excluded from the development it ill lead to the loss of a
    large school site and a direct loss of almost 300 erven and a portion of a high density residential erf.
    Because the school has to be provided it will have to move to a different location which will lead to a
    larger loss in erven. This will increase the service cost per unit for installing bulk services by a large
    amount which will lead the development not to be financially feasible and no development can then
    take place. The avifaunal specialist states that creating a formal development in the area, with a
    smaller buffer zone around the wetland, will have a smaller impact on the habitat for the African
    Grass Owl than uncontrolled informal settlement on the vacant land. Therefore, no development
    taking place will have a worse impact on the African Grass Owl habitat than development with a
    smaller buffer zone.
•   Design Alternatives (Housing type): Conventional RDP housing has been considered but an
    alternative is proposed. The proposed housing concept for this development has been used
    successfully in the Alexandra East Bank, Alexandra Township. The concept basically constitutes a
    cluster of between four and ten full title erven, with a double storey subsidized unit and two single
    storey rental units on each erf. A certain amount of people qualifies for RDP housing and should get
    it but some should only get rental units. This alternative provides enough RDP housing units for the
    qualifiers as well as rental units for non-qualifiers. It prevents monotony that is common to standard
    RDP housing developments.
•   Design Alternatives (Energy saving methods): Various methods of designing the development to
    save as much energy as reasonable possible have been considered. As a start, the units should
    face north as far as possible to make use of the sun. The applicant is currently researching various
    energy efficiency design aspects at the existing Cosmo City development. Together with Kuyasa
    project they have installed solar water heaters, insulated ceilings and energy efficient lighting at
    houses in Cosmo City and are monitoring the difference between temperature inside the house as
    well as electricity consumption between the units with and without these clean development
    mechanisms. Different types of windows and window panes are also considered as a lot of energy is
    lost through the windows of a house. Houses should be installed with energy saving globes. The
    township design makes use of circles to aid traffic flow and prevent the need for traffic lights.
•   No go Alternative: The no-go alternative will keep the site in its current state. This alternative is
    undesirable in terms of the current housing demand. Currently the majority of the site is vacant, with
    part of it already occupied by the Itsoseng Informal Settlement. This settlement is spreading rapidly.
    Should the site remain in this state, the possibility and threat of further land invasions and squatters
    settling on the site exists. The bird specialist indicated that controlled development would be better
    for protection of the African Grass Owl habitat than no development.



Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                              Page: viii
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
Public Participation
Interested and/or Affected Parties (I&AP’s) were notified of the proposed project as per the requirements
of the Environmental Impact Regulations. A register of all I&AP’s was opened and maintained
throughout the EIA process. The initial public participation process commenced on 16 January 2008 until
the 15 February 2008 and included the following:
•   A legal notice placed in the Randburg Sun on the 16 January 2008
•   Site notices placed on and around the site and at strategic and visible locations on 15 January 2008;
•   Flyers and registration forms handed out in the surrounding area;
•   Key stakeholders and/or I&AP’s were directly notified via email, fax, post and hand-delivered letters.
    These key stakeholders received a Letter and Background Information Document (BID), including a
    registration and comment sheet.


Registered I&AP’s were provided the opportunity to comment on the Draft Scoping Report and the Draft
Environmental Impact Assessment Report (EIAR). Comments and concerns received to date have been
captured. Comments on the Draft EIAR will also be captured and considered once the comment period
has expired. Comments raised are included in the Comment and Response Report.


Comments include:
•   Happy about development as they will get houses.
•   EMP should be adhered to.
•   Water Use License is required for development in wetland.
•   Buffer zone required around wetland.
•   The land uses must be compatible to adjacent land uses.
•   The proposed development is in line with the RSDF of Sub Area 1 of Region C.
•   There is concern regarding access roads and additional traffic volumes.
•   Concern that there is no sewer capacity in pipelines.
•   Surface run-off plan should be included in EIAR.
•   Heritage survey is required.


Environmental impacts
The impacts was evaluated in terms of extent, duration and frequency, intensity/ severity, probability of
occurrence from which the significance was derived using a formula which gives the significance as the
product of probability and severity. The impacts and key mitigation measures are summarized in the
table below.




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                           Page: ix
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
          Impact                 Significance    Significance if                                                Key Mitigation
                                                no development
                                                                                Social
Moving people living in         Medium                             •   The community should be informed long before they have to move.
Itsoseng to different                                              •   Assistance should be provided during moving to the temporary housing as well as moving back into
location for the duration of                                           the new RDP houses.
the construction
Impact on tree with circle of   No impact                          •   No mitigation required
white rocks that is used as
a church - If open space is
not fenced: access
Impact on tree with circle of   Very High                          •   Access should be provided to open space.
white rocks that is used as
a church - if open space is
fenced: no access

Creation of job                 Positive                           •   Strict protocols should apply to the secondment of labour from outside of the area
opportunities, training and     Medium                             •   Contractors should be expected to provide on-the-job training to local labour in order to up-grade
skills development during                                              existing skills.
construction phase                                                 •   A “labour desk” or “labour office” should be established on or in close proximity of the site to
                                                                       facilitate the process.
Provision of housing and        Very High                          •   Positive impact therefore no mitigation required.
community facilities            Positive

Creation of job                 High Positive                      •   Positive impact therefore no mitigation required.
opportunities, training and
skills development during
operational phase
No go option – no housing                       Very High          •   Cannot be mitigated.
can be provided


No go option – no new job                       Very High          •   Cannot be mitigated.
opportunities
                                                                        Agricultural Potential
Loss of agricultural            Low                                •   No mitigation possible
potential on site.



Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                                 Page: x
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
          Impact                Significance    Significance if                                                 Key Mitigation
                                               no development
Providing residents of         Medium                             •   No mitigation necessary
proposed development with      Positive
the opportunity to produce
own food.
No go option – no loss of                      No impact          •   No mitigation necessary
agricultural potential on
site.
No go option - No                              Medium             •   No mitigation possible
opportunities for urban
agriculture to produce own
food.
                                                                       Biodiversity Impacts
Loss of habitat due to loss    High                               •   An independent, suitably qualified individual (at least a BSc (Hons) in the natural sciences) must
of vegetation will impact                                             act as the environmental control officer (ECO).
biodiversity and functioning                                      •   Monthly audit reports are required for the duration of the construction and rehabilitation phase.
of the ecosystem in                                               •   A person must be identified at GDARD and DWAE to review audit reports and aid in monitoring of
general.                                                              construction and rehabilitation.
Decline of species diversity   Medium                             •   Construction staff must receive training to increase their environmental awareness.
in the area                                                       •   Access of vehicles to the open space system and access of people must be controlled. Movement
Potential loss of species of   Medium                                 of all indigenous fauna must however be allowed (i.e. no solid walls).
conservation importance –                                         •   Compacting of soil must be avoided in areas to be included in the open space system.
most notably the African                                          •   During construction, materials such as sand and stone should, wherever possible, be sourced from
Grass Owl and Melodious                                               areas that are free of alien plants in order to avoid the spread of alien species.
Lark
                                                                  •   Adequate dust control strategies are to be implemented to minimize dust deposition and reduce
Malibongwe Ridge Layout        Medium                                 sedimentation on the river system.
Alternative 1: 30m buffer
                                                                  •   If any wild animal, including birds and reptiles, are observed, it should not be disturbed in any way.
around wetland
Malibongwe Ridge Layout        Medium
Alternative 2 50m buffer
around wetland
Malibongwe Ridge Layout                        Very High          •   No mitigation possible.
Alternative 3: 170m buffer
around wetland and African
Grass Owl habitat – no-go
option
Increase in alien invasive     Medium                             •   During construction, materials such as sand and stone should, wherever possible, be sourced from
species (weeds) which will                                            areas that are free of alien plants in order to avoid the spread of alien species.
occur on all disturbed areas                                      •   Natural open spaces should be left in their undeveloped state and any existing or new exotic
                                                                      vegetation that is present on the site should be removed and eradicated.
No go option – Area will be                    Very High          •   No mitigation measures possible.

Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                                Page: xi
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
           Impact                Significance   Significance if                                                  Key Mitigation
                                                no development
further invaded by informal
settlers and associated
activities which will lead to
habitat loss.
                                                                  Erosion and Sedimentation Impacts
Vegetation clearance,           High                               •   No surface stormwater generated as a result of the development may be directed directly into any
compacting of soil causing                                             natural drainage system or wetland.
decrease in surface                                                •   The stormwater management plan must be adhered to.
permeability thereby                                               •   Storm water on the site must be managed so as to reduce the silt loads in the system.
increasing surface and                                             •   Storm water attenuation ponds should be constructed outside the wetland area, but may encroach
stormwater runoff                                                      onto the buffer.
                                                                   •   Special care needs to be taken during the construction phase to prevent surface stormwater rich in
                                                                       sediments and other pollutants from entering the natural drainage systems / wetlands.
                                                                   •   No activity may be permitted in the wetland or its buffer during the construction phase. The crossing
                                                                       of natural drainage systems must be minimized and may only be constructed at the shortest
                                                                       possible route, perpendicular to the natural drainage system.
Increase in stormwater run-     High                               •   Appropriate erosion control structures must be put in place where soil may be prone to erosion;
off due to increase of hard                                        •   Erosion control measures that may be considered include gabion structures or bank sloping and
surface area which poses a                                             stabilization;
risk of erosion in the                                             •   The areas disturbed by the development, but not covered by the development, should be
wetland.                                                               rehabilitated as soon as possible and revegetated with indigenous species.
                                                                   •   Any water use and the crossing of rivers should only occur under the regulation of a Water Use
                                                                       License.
                                                                   •   Reduction in stormwater velocity, in order to prevent erosion in the wetland area, could be attained
                                                                       by implementation of the following:
                                                                       - Stormwater originating from the road should not be allowed to enter directly into the wetland
                                                                           areas, but must be buffered by some of the following on site erosion control and energy
                                                                           dissipating interventions (e.g. stormwater dissipaters, Infiltration basins/ trenches, gabions,
                                                                           grassed swales; vegetated filter strips, etc.) in order to prevent erosion from occurring in the
                                                                           wetland
                                                                       - Roads should retain a portion of a vegetated buffer strip as interface between itself and wetland
                                                                           system.
                                                                       - Site rehabilitation and maintenance of vegetation strips/buffers / rehabilitated areas should be
                                                                           an on-going process.
                                                                       - Paved areas should be considered to reduces the velocity of water

No go alternative                               No impact          •   No mitigation necessary




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                                Page: xii
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
          Impact                Significance   Significance if                                                   Key Mitigation
                                               no development
                                                                      Water Quality Impacts
Contamination risk to water    Medium                            •  All spillages must be seen to as soon as possible after occurrence. This is necessary to prevent the
bodies (incl. groundwater                                           spillage from spreading and to mitigate the impact of the spillage on the environment. In the case of
pollution) due to spillages                                         large spillages a spillage agency such as Rapid Spill Response has to be contacted immediately to
of hazardous substances                                             clear the spillage.
such as oil/petrol/                                              •  In accordance with the requirements of the NWA, surface and ground water shall not be polluted
diesel/cement and asphalt                                           (i.e. oil, cleaning materials, ash etc), under any circumstances.
from construction vehicles.                                      •  In the case of a small spillage, a spill absorbent has to be added to the spillage and the entire
                                                                    spillage and all the contaminated soil should be removed to an approved disposal centre and a
                                                                    spillage certificate obtained.
Decrease in water quality      Medium                            •  Construction vehicles must keep to the speed limit of 40 km/h to reduce the amount of dust.
due to an increase in                                            •  Clear only the required areas of immediate work during construction.
sediment load resulting                                          •  The area of where vegetation will be cleared should be kept to a minimum.
from increased runoff.                                           •  The cleared areas must be revegetated as soon as possible to prevent erosion and movement of
                                                                    surface soil.
                                                                 •  Appropriate measures to reduce dust, e.g. dampening with water, should be applied, especially
                                                                    during dry windy times.
                                                                 •  Rubble must be removed from the construction site frequently and disposed of at an approved
                                                                    dumping site as approved by the Council.
                                                                 •  An appropriate stormwater management plan must be implemented.
No go option – no sewage                       Medium            Sewage services should be provided by the municipality
services provided to
Itsoseng settlement
No go option – no                              No impact         No mitigation required.
construction related
impacts on the water.
                                                                       Air Quality Impacts
Decrease in air quality as a   Medium                            •   Construction vehicles must comply with standard roadworthiness regulations
result of construction                                           •   Dust control measures should be adhered to as proposed in the EMP
activities                                                       •   Appropriate dust suppression measures, e.g. dampening with water, should be used when dust
                                                                     generation is unavoidable, particularly during prolonged periods of dry weather in winter.
                                                                 •   Removal of vegetation shall be avoided until such time as soil stripping is required.
                                                                 •   Vehicles travelling on the roads must adhere to the speed limit in order to reduce excessive dust.
                                                                 •   Cover all vehicles transporting material that can be blown off (e.g. soil, rubble etc.), with a tarpaulin.
                                                                 •   Revegetation should start immediately upon completion of construction activities.
No go option - air quality                     No impact         •   No mitigation required.
stays as it is



Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                               Page: xiii
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
          Impact                 Significance   Significance if                                                  Key Mitigation
                                                no development
                                                                           Visual Impacts
Change in visual                High                              •   Little mitigation is possible.
appearance of the site –                                          •   The development should be properly designed to be visually pleasing
open space is replaced by                                         •   Placement of erven on layout has taken line of sight into account.
development                                                       •   Provide a variety of housing typologies to break visual monotony.
Change in visual                High                              •   Provide enough parks and trees.
appearance of the site –
informal settlement is
replaced by formal housing
No go option – Informal                         No impact         No mitigation possible.
settlement stays
No go option – larger open                      No impact         No mitigation required
space stays
                                                                           Noise Impacts
Increase in noise due to        Medium                            •   Employees will be supplied with hearing protection if required.
construction activities                                           •   All machines should be equipped with appropriate noise reduction equipment and all vehicles
                                                                      should be roadworthy (including meeting maximum noise specifications).
                                                                  •   All construction must follow standards conditions of working hours as stipulated in the SABS
                                                                      guideline for construction (SANS 10400:1990).
                                                                  •   Inform residents of nearby residential areas of planned unusual noisy activities.
Increase in the amount of       Medium                            No mitigation is possible for this impact.
noise once development
has been completed due to
increase in traffic & general
noise associated with
residential areas
No Go Alternative                               No impact         No mitigation necessary.
                                                                           Traffic Impacts
Heavy vehicles travelling to    Medium                            •   Limit construction activities strictly to daylight hours, and limit travel of construction vehicles during
and from the construction                                             peak traffic hours.
site transporting                                                 •   Proper warning should be given to surrounding motorists.
construction materials.
Increase in vehicle volumes     High                              •   The recommendations of the TIA should be adhered to.
during the operation phase                                        •   A road should be constructed along the K56.
due to the development
No go alternative                               No impact         •   No mitigation required.
                                                                          Heritage Impacts


Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                                Page: xiv
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
          Impact                Significance   Significance if                                                 Key Mitigation
                                               no development
Impact on heritage             Low                               •    Site 1 & 2 are buildings which have no heritage significance and therefore no mitigation is required.
resources other than the                                         •    If any archaeological artefacts or skeletal material is exposed during construction activities, the
graves                                                                activities should be halted and a museum or university contact to investigate.

Impact on grave                Very High                         •    Site 3 will require mitigation as graves have high heritage significance. Other graves may be
                                                                      located in the area.
                                                                 •    There are clear guidelines on the relocation of graves which should be followed. This process
                                                                      should be managed by a competent person.
                                                                 •    A concerted effort must be made to identify all buried individuals.
                                                                 •    If any living family members of the deceased can be traced, they must be approached in a sensitive
                                                                      way.
                                                                 •    The family members must choose where they want the graves relocated to, and all rituals must be
                                                                      observed according to their wishes, and at the cost of the developer.
                                                                 •    If graves are not moved, the area should be fenced, and the graves should be restored.
No go option                                   No impact         •    No mitigation required.

                                                                          Waste Impacts
Solid waste and/or littering   Medium                            •    Waste bins should be provided at strategic locations all around the construction site
on the construction site can                                     •    Waste separation should be encouraged especially separating hazardous substances from office
pollute land and water.                                               and kitchen refuse.
                                                                 •    ECO to monitor littering on a daily basis
                                                                 •    Waste bins to be emptied on a weekly basis/or as needed at the nearest licensed landfill site.
                                                                 •    Construction waste should be reused or recycled as much as possible.
                                                                 •    Construction waste should be removed to an approved landfill site if it cannot be reused.
                                                                 •    A tarpaulin should cover vehicles transporting construction waste.
No-go option: no                               No impact         •    No mitigation necessary
construction waste will be
generated
No-go option: illegal                          Medium            •    Little mitigation is possible.
dumping will continue.                                           •    Local residents should be educated on the impacts of dumping.
                                                                     Health and Safety Impacts
Nuisance to neighbours         Medium                            •    Residents and surrounding business owners should be notified well in advance of the construction
from noise and dust                                                   schedule;
emanating from                                                   •    Construction should be limited to working hours during the week 08:00 – 17:00 and between 08:00
construction activities                                               – 13:00 on Saturdays;
                                                                 •    No construction activities to take place on Sundays and other religious holidays which may occur
                                                                      during the construction phase
                                                                 •    Dust control measures shall be implemented such as dampening loose and exposed soil.

Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                               Page: xv
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
          Impact                Significance   Significance if                                                  Key Mitigation
                                               no development
Heavy vehicle traffic          Medium                            •   A road safety programme will be implemented in order to inform all relevant parties of the possible
increase that could impact                                           risks of the construction site.
negatively on safety of                                          •   Red flags should be used to warn the public and construction vehicle operators at least 100m
existing roads (Cumulative                                           before crossing points or access route into the construction area.
Impact)                                                          •   Develop an information campaign regarding the hazards associated with increased heavy vehicle
                                                                     traffic, and precautionary measures to be taken by Construction Company.
Leaking sanitation             Medium                            •   Adequate on-site chemical sanitation systems, at least one toilet for every 8 workers, must be
(chemical toilet facilities)                                         provided within walking distance from all construction activities.
could contaminate and                                            •   Strict penalties in re-numeration must be applied for workers that use other surrounding open areas
impact soil & water bodies                                           for this purpose.
and cause health concerns                                        •   Toilets must be located within the construction camp
                                                                 •   Toilets shall be serviced once a week to prevent spillages
                                                                 •   Under no circumstances may ablutions occur outside of the provided facilities
Increase in human              Medium                            •   No construction staff, other than security personnel, shall be allowed to overnight on property to
activities associated with                                           ensure safety of equipment stored on site.
job seekers poses a                                              •   Local labour should be used as construction workers
security threat to the                                           •   Transport to be provided for all construction workers too and from site on a daily basis.
surrounding communities
Open fires on construction     Low                               •   Cooking facilities for construction workers to be provided at the construction camp
site can cause destruction                                       •   No open fires will be allowed outside demarcated areas for this purpose
of surrounding vegetation,                                       •   All fires should be put out immediately
and possible injury to staff                                     •   Awareness regarding fire hazarders should be imprinted to all construction staff and monitored by
and neighbouring                                                     the ELO on site on a daily basis
communities.                                                     •   Emergency plan should be in place in the event of a fire will all safety equipment at demarcated
                                                                     areas and in good working order.
                                                                 •   All construction staff should be familiar with the above mentioned emergency plan.
Impact on health and safety    Very High                         •   No mitigation required.
of Itsoseng residents by       Positive
providing proper housing
and sanitation.
No go – crime in open                          High              •   No mitigation possible
area, poor sanitation at
existing informal settlement
                                                                     Change in sense of place
Change the sense of the        High Positive                     •   This may also be a neutral impact as different individuals will view the impact in either a positive or
place of the area from                                               negative light.
informal squatters to a                                          •   It is mostly not possible to mitigate impacts on the sense of place.
formal housing
development.


Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                               Page: xvi
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
          Impact                Significance   Significance if                                                  Key Mitigation
                                               no development
Change the sense of the        High                              •   It is mostly not possible to mitigate impacts on the sense of place.
place of the area from open
space to a formal housing
development.
Increased development in                       Medium            No mitigation is proposed as land-use for an area forms part of the special development planning of the
the area (future                                                 local municipality and cannot be controlled on EIA level, however, under the banner of sustainable
development) could have a                                        development with the implementation of sound environmental management plans, most impacts can be
similar impact on the social                                     mitigated successfully.
and bio-physical
environment of the area.
                                                                        Economic Impacts
Increase in economic           Very High                         •   The economic opportunities to the area should be maximised by utilising local labour and resources
opportunities in the area.     Positive                              as far as possible.
                                                                 •   Local entrepreneurs should be encouraged to provide some of the secondary services

No go alternative                              No impact         No mitigation possible.




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                              Page: xvii
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
Environmental opinion in terms of the way forward
A number of potentially significant environmental impacts have been identified. However, the
professional opinion of the EAP is that these impacts can be mitigated satisfactorily. It is recommended
that the proposed development is considered for implementation subject to the following
recommendations. Please note that detailed recommendations are provided in the EMP.

   •    The EMP attached to this report must be implemented. The EMP is a dynamic document and
        changes can be made throughout the approval and construction process.
   •    Provision has been made for a filling station site in the layout plan. However, the environmental
        impacts of the filling station have not been addressed in this EIA and a separate EIA must be
        conducted.
   •    An ECO must be appointed with preferably a BSc Hons in an environmental management or
        appropriate field.
   •    It is proposed that Malibongwe Ridge Layout Alternative 2 is chosen to be implemented with
        Cosmo City Ext 16.
   •    No development may be allowed within the wetland area except for necessary services
        crossings. Limited activities can be allowed within line with the management plan for the open
        space area.
   •    Any activity taking place in the water courses on site must first obtain a WULA from DWAF.
   •    A proper stormwater management plan must be implemented.
   •    All graves must be protected or exhumed and reburied in terms of the NHRA, and the
        applicable permits obtained before any relocation is undertaken.


Conclusion
There is a great need for affordable housing and the proposed development will not only provide
homes for approximately many families but also additional public amenities and services in an area in
need of infrastructure. Sensitive ecological features such as wetlands and Red Listed species occur
on site; however the ecological specialist indicated that a well-planned development is more desirable
than no development, in which case the Itsoseng Informal Settlement will expand further. The negative
impacts can be mitigated to a large extent with the implementation of various management measures.
In light of the social need and the management of the natural environment, it is recommended that the
development is authorised under certain conditions.




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                          Page: xviii
Environmental Impact Report – October 2009
Table of Contents
      Erosion and Sedimentation Impacts ..................................................................................................xii
      Noise Impacts ...................................................................................................................................xiv

1     Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 1
      1.1 Background to the Project ........................................................................................................ 2
            1.1.1 History.......................................................................................................................... 2
            1.1.2 Department of Housing................................................................................................ 3
            1.1.3 Financial Sector Charter .............................................................................................. 3
            1.1.4 Itsoseng Informal Settlement....................................................................................... 4
      1.2 Need and desirability ................................................................................................................ 4
      1.3 EIA Process to date .................................................................................................................. 5
      1.4 Town Planning Process for Malibongwe Ridge ........................................................................ 7
      1.5 Assumptions, Uncertainties and Gaps ..................................................................................... 7

2     Description of the property.............................................................................................................. 8
      2.1 Regional Locality....................................................................................................................... 8
      2.2 Locality...................................................................................................................................... 8
      2.3 Land Use on Site ...................................................................................................................... 9
      2.4 Land Use of Adjacent Areas ................................................................................................... 12
           2.4.1 Residential & Community Facilities ........................................................................... 13
           2.4.2 Industrial .................................................................................................................... 15
           2.4.3 Commercial ............................................................................................................... 15
           2.4.4 Recreational............................................................................................................... 15
           2.4.5 Agricultural................................................................................................................. 15
           2.4.6 Proposed developments in area (not yet developed) ................................................ 15
      2.5 Disturbance............................................................................................................................. 16

3     Description of the affected environment...................................................................................... 17
      3.1 Climate.................................................................................................................................... 17
      3.2 Topography............................................................................................................................. 17
      3.3 Hydrology................................................................................................................................ 18
      3.4 Geohydrology.......................................................................................................................... 18
      3.5 Geology & Geotechnical Investigation .................................................................................... 19
           3.5.1 Geotechnical Investigation Methodology ................................................................... 19
           3.5.2 Geotechnical Investigation Results............................................................................ 19
           3.5.3 Laboratory Results..................................................................................................... 20
           3.5.4 Recommendations based on the Geotechnical Report............................................. 20
      3.6 Soils and Agricultural Potential ............................................................................................... 23
      3.7 Air Quality ............................................................................................................................... 23
           3.7.1 Winds......................................................................................................................... 24
           3.7.2 Valley Drainage.......................................................................................................... 24
           3.7.3 Internal Sources......................................................................................................... 24
      3.8 Biodiversity.............................................................................................................................. 25
           3.8.1 Vegetation.................................................................................................................. 25
           3.8.2 Wetland ..................................................................................................................... 29


Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                                                                          Page: xix
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
           3.8.3 Avifauna..................................................................................................................... 30
           3.8.4 Sensitivity map........................................................................................................... 35
           3.8.5 Conclusions and Recommendations ......................................................................... 36
      3.9 Socio-Economic...................................................................................................................... 36
      3.10 Heritage .................................................................................................................................. 37
           3.10.1 Site 1.......................................................................................................................... 39
           3.10.2 Site 2.......................................................................................................................... 39
           3.10.3 Site 3.......................................................................................................................... 39
           3.10.4 Site 4.......................................................................................................................... 41
           3.10.5 Site 5.......................................................................................................................... 42
           3.10.6 Conclusions and Recommendations ......................................................................... 43

4     Description of proposed activity and alternatives ...................................................................... 45
      4.1 Proposed Layout and Land Use ............................................................................................. 46
           4.1.1 Residential use .......................................................................................................... 47
           4.1.2 Social and Supportive Facility Use ............................................................................ 49
           4.1.3 Parks ......................................................................................................................... 52
           4.1.4 Business /Commercial / markets and mixed use nodes ........................................... 52
      4.2 Bulk Services .......................................................................................................................... 54
           4.2.1 Transport and Access................................................................................................ 54
           4.2.2 Water ......................................................................................................................... 61
           4.2.3 Sewage...................................................................................................................... 62
           4.2.4 Stormwater ................................................................................................................ 62
           4.2.5 Electricity ................................................................................................................... 64
           4.2.6 Waste ........................................................................................................................ 64

5     Project Alternatives ........................................................................................................................ 65
      5.1 Site Alternatives ...................................................................................................................... 65
      5.2 Layout Alternatives ................................................................................................................. 66
      5.3 Design Alternatives: Housing Type......................................................................................... 69
      5.4 Design alternatives: Energy saving......................................................................................... 70
      5.5 No-Go alternative.................................................................................................................... 70
      5.6 Summary ................................................................................................................................ 71

6     Legal Requirements........................................................................................................................ 73
      6.1 Constitution of South Africa (Act No 108 of 1996).................................................................. 73
      6.2 National Environmental Management Act (Act No 107 of 1998) ............................................ 73
      6.3 National Water Act (Act No 36 of 1998) ................................................................................. 78
      6.4 The National Heritage Resources Act (Act 25 of 1999).......................................................... 78
      6.5 Housing Act (Act No 107 of 1997) .......................................................................................... 79
      6.6 Development Facilitation Act (Act No 67 of 1995) .................................................................. 79
      6.7 Department of Housing’s Breaking New Ground Policy / Comprehensive Plan for Sustainable
            Human Settlement (2004) ...................................................................................................... 80
      6.8 GDARD Policies and Programmes......................................................................................... 80
            6.8.1 Gauteng Conservation Plan (C-Plan) ........................................................................ 80
            6.8.2 Gauteng Red Data Plant Policy ................................................................................. 81
            6.8.3 Development Guideline for Ridges ............................................................................ 81


Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                                                                        Page: xx
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
               6.8.4 Gauteng Open Space Policy (GOSP)........................................................................ 82
      6.9      Local Planning Initiatives ........................................................................................................ 84
               6.9.1 Regional Spatial Development Framework ............................................................... 85

7     Public Participation Process ......................................................................................................... 89
      7.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 89
      7.2 Process followed to date......................................................................................................... 89
            7.2.1 Newspaper Advertisement ........................................................................................ 90
            7.2.2 Site Notice, Flyers and Posters ................................................................................. 90
            7.2.3 Direct Notification of Identified I & AP’s ..................................................................... 90
            7.2.4 Review of Scoping Report ......................................................................................... 90
            7.2.5 List of I&APs contacted to date ................................................................................. 91
      7.3 Comments and Responses Report ........................................................................................ 93

8     Methodology in assessing impacts ............................................................................................ 102
      8.1 Probability ............................................................................................................................. 102
      8.2 Intensity factor ...................................................................................................................... 102
      8.3 Duration ................................................................................................................................ 103
      8.4 Severity factor and severity rating......................................................................................... 103
      8.5 Significance .......................................................................................................................... 103

9     Description of Environmental Impacts and Potential Issues ................................................... 105
      9.1 Social Impacts ...................................................................................................................... 105
      9.2 Agricultural Potential............................................................................................................. 107
      9.3 Biodiversity Impacts.............................................................................................................. 107
      9.4 Erosion and Sedimentation Impacts..................................................................................... 110
      9.5 Water Quality Impacts .......................................................................................................... 111
      9.6 Air Quality Impacts................................................................................................................ 114
      9.7 Visual Impacts ...................................................................................................................... 114
      9.8 Noise Impacts ....................................................................................................................... 115
      9.9 Traffic Impacts ...................................................................................................................... 116
      9.10 Heritage Impacts .................................................................................................................. 117
      9.11 Waste Impacts...................................................................................................................... 118
      9.12 Health and Safety Impacts.................................................................................................... 119
      9.13 Change in sense of place ..................................................................................................... 120
      9.14 Economic Impacts ................................................................................................................ 121

10    Environmental Impact Statement ................................................................................................ 122
      Erosion and Sedimentation Impacts ............................................................................................... 124
      Noise Impacts ................................................................................................................................. 126

11    Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 132

12    References..................................................................................................................................... 134




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                                                                       Page: xxi
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
List of Tables


Table 1. Information Requested by GDARD. ................................................................................................ 6

Table 2. Average Monthly Rainfall and Maximum and Minimum Temperatures at Lanseria Weather
       Station (1993 – 1995). ........................................................................................................................ 17

Table 3: List of invasive species observed on site ...................................................................................... 29

Table 4. Summary of heritage features on site. .......................................................................................... 43

Table 5. Anticipated electrical supply demand for Malibongwe Ridge & Cosmo Ext 16 ............................. 64

Table 6. Listed activities according to Government Notice R387 of 21 April 2006 applicable to the project.74

Table 7. Listed activities according to Government Notice R386 of 21 April 2006 applicable to the project.74

Table 8. List of persons contacted during process. ................................................................................... 91

Table 9. Comments and Responses Report............................................................................................... 94

Table 10. Social Impacts, Significance and Mitigation .............................................................................. 106

Table 11. Agricultural Impacts, Significance and Mitigation...................................................................... 107

Table 12. Biodiversity Impacts, Significance Rating and Mitigation .......................................................... 109

Table 13. Erosion and Sedimentation Impacts, significance and mitigation. ............................................ 110

Table 14. Water quality impacts, significance and mitigation. .................................................................. 112

Table 15. Air Quality Impacts, Significance and Mitigation ....................................................................... 114

Table 16. Visual Impacts, Significance and Mitigation (Construction Phase) ........................................... 115

Table 17. Noise Impacts, significance and mitigation. .............................................................................. 115

Table 18. Traffic Impacts, Significance and Mitigation.............................................................................. 116

Table 19. Heritage Impacts. ...................................................................................................................... 117

Table 20. Waste impacts, significance and mitigation. ............................................................................. 118

Table 21. Health and Safety Impacts, significance and mitigation............................................................ 119

Table 22. Change in sense of place, significance and mitigation. ............................................................ 121

Table 23. Economic impacts, significance and mitigation......................................................................... 121

Table 24. Summary of impacts and key management strategies for the proposed housing development122




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                                                                       Page: xxii
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
List of Figures


Figure 1. Locality map on topographical map. .............................................................................................. 8

Figure 2. Municipality and Ward boundaries................................................................................................. 9

Figure 3. Cadastral information................................................................................................................... 10

Figure 4. Aerial photograph of the site with land use on site (Urban Dynamics 2009b). ............................ 11

Figure 5. Zoning of properties. .................................................................................................................... 12

Figure 6. The surrounding area indicating the land uses around the site. ......................................... 14

Figure 7. View of the existing Cosmo City housing development south of the site (Urban Dynamics
       2009b). ............................................................................................................................................... 14

Figure 8. Large-scale dumping in the quarry on site. .................................................................................. 16

Figure 9. Malibongwe Drive currently under construction. .......................................................................... 16

Figure 10. Topography and Hydrology on site. ........................................................................................... 18

Figure 11. Site Map showing NHBRC Classes and Inspection Pit Locations (Moore Spence & Jones
       2008). ................................................................................................................................................. 21

Figure 12. High Agricultural Potential areas................................................................................................ 23

Figure 13. Main vegetation communities on the site................................................................................... 26

Figure 14. Disturbance in wetland on site. .................................................................................................. 26

Figure 15. Hyparrhenia hirta – Themeda triandra Grassland...................................................................... 27

Figure 16. Secondary Hyparrhenia hirta Grassland. ................................................................................... 28

Figure 17. Ridge habitat invaded by Pinus spp. as observed near the southern extremity of the study site.28

Figure 18. Corridor area of suitable foraging habitat for the African Grass Owl (Tyto capensis), as
       proposed by Pachnoda Consulting (2009). ........................................................................................ 34

Figure 19. Site sensitivity map (MSA 2009). ............................................................................................... 35

Figure 20. Expansion of Itsoseng................................................................................................................ 37

Figure 21. Map indicating the position of the sites of potential heritage significance.................................. 38

Figure 22. Demolished multi-room structure (Coetzee 2008). .................................................................... 39

Figure 23. Multi-room brick house with corrugated iron roof....................................................................... 40

Figure 24. Two graves demarcated with packed stones............................................................................. 40

Figure 25. Initiation School.......................................................................................................................... 41


Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                                                                              Page: xxiii
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Figure 26. Hearth, part of initiation school................................................................................................... 42

Figure 27. Informal Cemetery (Teurlings 2002). ......................................................................................... 43

Figure 28. Position of Malibongwe Ridge, Malibongwe Ridge Ext 1 & Cosmo Ext 16. ............................... 46

Figure 29. Housing Concept. (Urban Dynamics 2009b). ............................................................................ 49

Figure 30. Housing concept illustrated from the Alexandra East Bank Project. (Urban Dynamics 2009b). 49

Figure 31. Housing in Alexandra Township positioned around a central open area. .................................. 49

Figure 32. Wetland and 50 m buffer zone across school site. .................................................................... 50

Figure 33. Access to Nooitgedacht School. ................................................................................................ 51

Figure 34. Location of Malibongwe Ridge in relation to provincial and national roads (Arcus Gibb 2009) . 56

Figure 35. Proposed access to Malibongwe Ridge and Malibongwe Ridge Ext 1. ..................................... 58

Figure 36. Proposed access to Cosmo City Ext 16..................................................................................... 59

Figure 37. Spine road crosses wetland at its narrowest point..................................................................... 61

Figure 38. Malibongwe Ridge Layout Alternative 1 (20m buffer). ............................................................... 68

Figure 39. Malibongwe Ridge 2 (50m buffer).............................................................................................. 68

Figure 40. 170 m buffer zone in relation to layout plan. .............................................................................. 69

Figure 41. Examples of other types of RDP housing. ................................................................................. 70

Figure 42. The Scoping/Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process............................................... 76

Figure 43. Areas of ecological importance in the study area (C-Plan)........................................................ 81

Figure 44. GOSP- Social PEI ...................................................................................................................... 83

Figure 45. GOSP: Ecological PEI................................................................................................................ 83




List of Appendices

Appendix A: Itsoseng Informal Settlement Survey

Appendix B: Application form and Landowners Consent Form

Appendix C: Correspondence with GDARD

Appendix D: Geotechnical Report

Appendix E: Biodiversity Report

Appendix F: Heritage Impact Assessment Report

Appendix G: Layout for Cosmo City Extension 16

Appendix H: Layout Alternative 1 for Malibongwe Ridge


Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                                                                  Page: xxiv
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Appendix I: Layout Alternative 2 for Malibongwe Ridge

Appendix J: Outline Scheme Report for Malibongwe Ridge

Appendix K: Outline Scheme Report for Cosmo City X16

Appendix L: Traffic Impact Assessment

Appendix M: Public Participation

Appendix M-1: Newspaper advertisement: Public Participation

Appendix N: Impact Assessment Spreadsheet

Appendix O: Environmental Management Plan (EMP) and Ecological Management and Rehabilitation
     Plan

Appendix P: Waste Management Plan

                             IMPORTANT NOTICE: CHANGE OF NAME

    The application form and the notices to Interested and Affected Parties were submitted by Exigent
   Environmental CC. Subsequently Exigent Environmental CC was acquired by MSA Geoservices (Pty)
     Ltd. All Exigent Environmental employees are now employees of the MSA Group. Accordingly, all
  documentation submitted here after will bear the details of The MSA Group. The original project team &
                                  contact details will remain unchanged.




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                          Page: xxv
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      ABBREVIATIONS
              American Association of State Highway
AASHTO                                                        IDP      Integrated Development Plan
              and Transportation Officials
AH            Agricultural Holdings                           MHDP     Municipal Housing Development Plan
ASPT          Average Score per Taxa                          MLM      Midvaal Local Municipality
                                                                       National Environmental Management Act
BAR           Basic Assessment Report                         NEMA
                                                                       (No.107 of 1998)
                                                                       National Environmental Management Air
BID           Background Information Document                 NEMAQA
                                                                       Quality Act (Act No 39 of 2004)
              Conservation of Agricultural Resources                   National Home Builders Registration
CARA                                                          NHBRC
              Act, (Act No 43 of 1983)                                 Council
                                                                       National Heritage Resources Act (No 25 of
CBD           Central Business District                       NHRA
                                                                       1999)
              City of Johannesburg Metropolitan
CoJ                                                           NWA      National Water Act ( Act No 36 of 1998)
              Municipality
              Department of Environmental Affairs and
DEAT                                                          PES      Present Ecological State
              Tourism
DO            Dissolved Oxygen                                PM       Particulate matter
DWAF          Department of Water Affairs and Forestry        POS      Public Open Space
EAP           Environmental Assessment Practitioner           PPP      Public Participation Process
EC            Electrical conductivity                         RI       Recurrence interval
              Environment Conservation Act (Act No. 73
ECA                                                           RP       Return period
              of 1989)
                                                                       South African National Heritage
ECO           Environmental Control Officer                   SAHRA
                                                                       Resources Agency
EIA           Environmental Impact Assessment                 SAPS     South African Police Service
EIAR          Environmental Impact Assessment Report          SARCC    South African Rail Commuter Corporation
ELM           Emfuleni Local Municipality                     SASS5    South African Scoring System, version 5
EMP           Environmental Management Plan                   SDF      Spatial Development Framework
FAII          Fish Assembly Integrity Index                   SDM      Sedibeng District Municipality
GAPA          Gauteng Agricultural Potential Atlas            SDP      Site Development Plan
              Gauteng Department of Agriculture and
GDARD                                                         SIA      Social Impact Assessment
              Rural Development
              Gauteng Department of Public Transport,
GDPTRW                                                        STP      Sewer Treatment Plant
              Road and Works
GFA           Gross Floor Area                                SWWTW    Sebokeng Wastewater Treatment Works
GPS           Global Positioning System                       TDS      Total Dissolved Solids
FSC           Financial Services Charter                      Temp     Temperature
HIA           Heritage Impact Assessment                      TIA      Traffic Impact Assessment
I&APs         Interested and Affected Parties                 TWQR     Target Water Quality Range




      Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development                                                           Page: xxvi
      Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
1         INTRODUCTION
Codevco (Pty) Ltd in conjunction with the City of Johannesburg and the Gauteng Department of Housing,
proposes to develop the next phase of the Cosmo City development on Portions 38, 133, the Remaining
Extent of Portion 4, Portion 120 (a portion of Portion 37) and the Remaining Extent of Portion 36 (a portion
of Portion 5) of the Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ (‘the site’). The proposed development is aimed at eradicating
the informal settlement of Itsoseng on site and accommodating the beneficiaries in formal housing in a
sustainable mixed use, integrated development. The proposed development will offer affordable housing
as well as other amenities and facilities such as open parks and schools in accordance with the “Breaking
New Ground” (BNG) Policy of Government. Codevco has appointed the MSA Group (MSA), as the
independent environmental assessment practitioner, to undertake the Scoping / EIA process for the
proposed housing development.


The development will consist of more than 2200 Residential 1 erven, Residential 4 erven for higher
density housing, numerous Municipal erven, Public Open Space and Private Open Space, Business
erven, Municipal Uses, Institutional uses (churches, crèches, institutional use, community facilities,
children’s home) and schools.


The establishment of the proposed development requires the installation of supporting service
infrastructure. The services and infrastructure required for the construction of the development will entail
the following:
     • Water: Johannesburg Water will provide the water for the proposed development from the Cosmo
        City Reservoir to be constructed in the next 12 months. Water will be provided by connecting to
        the bulk water main that passes through the site, adjacent to Malibongwe Drive. A connection will
        also be provided to the existing water main in Cosmo City Ext 2. A portion of the existing bulk
        water supply main running through Cosmo City Ext 5 will also be augmented by the installation of
        a parallel pipeline
     • Sewage: A full waterborne sewage system is proposed for all erven. Sewage generated from the
        proposed development will be pumped to the Klein Jukskei Outfall Sewer and then to the Northern
        Waste Water Treatment Works. The bulk sewer network has sufficient capacity to deal with the
        demand.
     • Roads: The existing road network will be utilised to service the proposed development. Road
        improvement projects currently under way or planned for the near future on various intersections
        in the study area will be able to accommodate the development traffic from the proposed
        development. In addition, a road will be constructed in the K56 road reserve.
     • Electricity: The development can be supplied from the Cosmo City sub-station. Eskom is
        currently upgrading the capacity of the substation. The phased release of erven (transfer) will be
        subject to the completion of the upgrade.
     • Waste: Pikitup will remove domestic waste.

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      • Stormwater Management: Provision has been made for stormwater attenuation to reduce the
         increase in stormwater run-off resulting from the development compared to pre-development
         volumes, through the incorporation of stormwater attenuation ponds and a stormwater
         management system.


1.1     Background to the Project
1.1.1     History
The existing Cosmo City was constructed with the purpose of providing an integrated housing
development to the people in the nearby informal settlements of Zevenfontein and River Bend. The
development was undertaken by the CoJ in partnership with the Gauteng provincial government. Codevco
was appointed as the overall developer and to act as the City's agent and initial planning started. An EIA
was conducted for the existing Cosmo City housing development by Teurlings Environmental CC (Ref:
Gaut002/01-02/30) and the Record of Decision (ROD) granted environmental authorisation to Codevco for
the construction of the development. Construction began in March 2005.


Cosmo City is an integrated mixed use development which caters for various income levels and housing
typologies with a full range of municipal and social facilities. A decision was taken by the Development
Planning and Urban Management Department of the City of Johannesburg (CoJ) to ensure that the
development for the Cosmo City land parcels on the northern side of Malibongwe Drive and the
Zandspruit, the Itsoseng land as well as the Remaining Extent of Portion 36 (A Potion of Portion 5) of the
farm Zandspruit 191 IQ and Portion 120 (a portion of Portion 37) of the Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ are
integrated and that it complies with the Cosmo City development principles.


Three township establishment applications have been submitted on behalf of the CoJ in terms of Section
108 and 96 of the Town Planning and Townships Ordinance, 1986 (Ordinance 15 of 1986) for the
proposed housing development by Urban Dynamics (2009):
•     “Cosmo City Ext. 16” (previously part of Cosmo City Ext 11 Township) situated on part of Portion 208
      (previously Portion 4) of the farm Zandspruit 191 IQ
•     “Malibongwe Ridge” situated on parts of Portion 208, the Remainder of Portion 36 and Portion 120 of
      the farm Zandspruit 191 IQ in terms of Section 108 of the Town Planning and Townships Ordinance,
      1986 (Ordinance 15 of 1986)
•     “Malibongwe Ridge Ext 1” situated on, Portion 133 of the farm Zandspruit 191 IQ in terms of Section
      96 of the Town Planning and Townships Ordinance, 1986 (Ordinance 15 of 1986)


Separate township applications have been submitted for Malibongwe Ridge and Malibongwe Ridge Ext 1
due to the fact that the land is in private ownership, owned by Trustees of the Itsoseng Community
Development Trust (TICDT) and in public ownership (CoJ) and hence submitted in terms of two separate
Clauses of the Town Planning and Townships Ordinance, 1986 (Ordinance 15 of 1986).

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Only one application for Environmental Authorisation has been submitted for all three township
applications. From hereon in the report, the entire development including “Malibongwe Ridge”,
“Malibongwe Ridge Ext 1” and “Cosmo City Ext 16” will be referred to in this report as the site, unless
separation into the individual portions is required for explanatory purposes.


1.1.2   Department of Housing
In terms of Section 26 of the Constitution, everyone has the right to have access to adequate housing.
The state must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve
the progressive realisation of this right. Section 2 of the Housing Act (Act No. 107 of 1997) compels all
three spheres of government to give priority to the needs of the poor in respect of housing development
(Section 2(1)(a)). In addition all three spheres of government must ensure that housing development:
    •   provides as wide a choice of housing and tenure options as is reasonably possible;
    •   is economically, fiscally, socially and financially affordable and sustainable;
    •   is based on integrated development planning; and
    •   is administered in a transparent, accountable and equitable manner, and upholds the practice of
        good governance (Section 2(1)(c)).


The Minister of Housing presented a comprehensive plan for the development of sustainable human
settlements to Cabinet in September 2004 commonly known as “Breaking New Ground” (BNG). BNG
builds on the housing policy outlined in the 1994 White Paper on Housing, and adds the imperative of
ensuring that settlements are sustainable and habitable to the basic original goal of delivering affordable
housing. The priorities of the plan are to:
    •   accelerate delivery of housing within the context of sustainable human settlements;
    •   provide quality housing to turn homes into assets;
    •   create a single, efficient formal housing market; and
    •   abolish apartheid spatial planning thereby restructuring and integrating human settlements.


1.1.3   Financial Sector Charter
To achieve the BNG’s objectives, a credit-linked subsidy to promote access to mortgage finance, thereby
accelerating housing delivery and promoting the development of a single functioning housing market is
required. The subsidy was designed as part of the Memorandum of Understanding signed by the DoH and
the financial institutions Financial Services Charter (FSC).


The FSC commits its signatories to “actively promoting a transformed, vibrant and globally competitive
financial sector that reflects the demographics of South Africa, and contributes opt the establishment of an
equitable society by effectively providing accessible financial services to black people and by directing
investment into targeted sectors of the economy” (http://www.fscharter.co.za/). The FSC commits

Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                 Page: 3
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Financial Institutions to provide funding which will be applied to mortgageable loans for housing units for
households in the affordable housing sector (households with a maximum income of R7500). The physical
need (or the housing backlog) in the FSC market segment is expected to increase given current
population trends to approximately 747,000 units by 2010 (Matthew Nell and Associates/The Settlement
Dynamics Project Shop, 2005).


According to Matthew Nell and Associates/The Settlement Dynamics Project Shop (2005) it is unlikely that
the spending targets of the FSC will be met unless new housing supply increases significantly. This type of
development is therefore crucial for meeting the housing demand.


1.1.4     Itsoseng Informal Settlement
Professional Mobile Mapping (PMM) was appointed by the City of Johannesburg Property Company to
conduct the Itsoseng Informal Settlement Survey (2008; Appendix A). The main objective of the survey
was to determine the housing demand for the Itsoseng Informal Settlement. There are currently
approximately 2,331 families in the informal settlement of Itsoseng on the site. Only 1,081 of the
confirmed 2,331 families on site may qualify for subsidy. The remaining number (1,250) of registered
residents are either single, under age or foreigners (45) or have owned/own property (PMM 2008).


The families will be relocated whilst construction is taking place. Two sites have been identified for the
purposed relocation namely the residential sites of the current Cosmo City development in Extension 2
and 4, erven 1173 and 3468 which totals 7 ha in size. The non-qualifiers in Itsoseng could be
accommodated by means of rental units that are being constructed (Davina Piek, letter dated 1 October
2008).


1.2      Need and desirability
The need for the project relate to the objective of the local authority to eradicate all informal settlements in
its area of jurisdiction. The aim is to integrate the residents into the urban fabric of the area (where they
were settled) in a sensitive and sustainable manner, within the intent and bounds of the Strategic
Development Framework or an updated version of such framework. The proposed project will provide
housing for a market that suffers from a lack of housing availability. Other supportive land uses are
associated with residential development such as commercial facilities, social services (churches, schools,
clinics, community halls, libraries, cemeteries) and provision of bulk services. The development will
therefore not only benefit the future residents but also the surrounding areas by providing shopping
facilities and social services that is not currently in place.


The benefit of the development is that beneficiaries can be relocated to completed units on fully serviced
stands, rather than the costly, retrospective approach to in-situ upgrading (Providing services to stands
where informal houses are located, and later formalizing the housing). The development is coordinated


Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                   Page: 4
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
with various developments in the area provide the opportunity to create urban form (including the
transportation networks and nodal developments) on a sub-regional basis. The sensitive environmental
areas on site can be integrated and development impacts mitigated to serve not only the conservation
function, but also to enhance the living environment (positive visual impact and to “break” the residential
densities. Currently the site is partly occupied by the Itsoseng informal settlement. By developing the site
in a responsible manner ways can be found to better conserve the wetland and other habitats. By just
leaving the site open informal settlers can and will invade the site causing further deterioration without any
management of the impacts. Currently some illegal activities are likely happening on site and formalising
the township will eradicate these.


The proposed development of the site is desirable from the perspective of availability and proximity of
engineering bulk services, compatibility with adjacent projects, accessibility, visibility, size, slope, locality
on a sub-regional and regional basis. The proposed development will also create employment, both during
the construction and operational phase. It is estimated that approximately 8500 jobs will be created during
construction of the Malibongwe Ridge housing development. Furthermore, the proposed development will
attract investment to the area on an ongoing basis.


1.3   EIA Process to date
The MSA Group (MSA), previously Exigent Environmental, act as the independent Environmental
Assessment Practitioner on behalf of Codevco for Environmental Impact Assessment process in terms of
Sections 24 and 24(D) of the National Environmental Management Act (Act No 107 of 1998) (NEMA), as
read with Government Notices R385, R386 and R387 in Government Gazette No 28753 of 21 April 2006.
In terms of these Regulations a Scoping / Environmental Impact Assessment is required.


An application has been lodged with the Gauteng Department of Agriculture, Conservation and
Environment (GDARD) (Appendix B) and was acknowledged on 22 November 2007 (Appendix C). The
reference number 002/07-08/N1067 has been assigned to the project.


Public announcement took place to alert Interested and Affected Parties (I&APs) of the project. The
registration period was from 21 January 2008 to 20 February 2008. A Scoping Report was compiled to
determine the range of issues to be considered during the EIA process, and the approach to be followed.
The Scoping Report was made available to I&APs and stakeholders for review from 29 April to 1 June
2009. Their comments were incorporated in the final Scoping Report which was submitted to GDARD on
29 June 2009. Acknowledgement of the report was received on the 11 August 2009 and permission was
given to proceed with the Environmental Impact Assessment phase of the process (Appendix C). Table 1
lists the information required in the EIA phase as requested by GDARD in their letter to MSA dated the 11
August 2009.




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                    Page: 5
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Table 1. Information Requested by GDARD.

                     GDARD Comment                                              MSA Response
 An Environmental Management Plan (EMP) and a Waste               Environmental Management Plan for the
 Management Plan                                                  proposed housing development can be
                                                                  found in Appendix P. A Waste Management
                                                                  Plan is included in Appendix Q.
 A Township Layout Plan that clearly indicates open               The township layout plans can be found in
 spaces, buffer zones, residential servitudes and servitudes      Appendix G and a description thereof in
 for bulk services                                                Section 4.
 Sensitivity maps indicating       sensitive   features     and   Sensitivity maps are included throughout
 associated buffer zones                                          the report but specifically in Section 3.8.
 Site Layout Plans for all site alternatives and design           Site layout plans for all alternatives can be
 alternatives                                                     found in Appendix G, Appendix H and
                                                                  Appendix I.
 Aerial locality, cadastral and topographic locality maps         Aerial locality, cadastral and topographic
                                                                  locality maps can be found in Figure 1,
                                                                  Figure 3 and Figure 4.
 An Engineering Services Outline Scheme Report must be            The Engineering Services Outline Scheme
 compiled by a qualified Engineer. The report must clearly        Reports has been compiled by Arcus Gibb
 indicate bulk services and available capacity to service the     and can be found in Appendix J and is
 proposed development i.e. all water, sanitation, electricity,    discussed in Section 4.2.
 roads and stormwater drainage services.
 A specialist qualified in accordance with the Natural            An ecological assessment was undertaken
 Scientific Professions Act (No. 27 of 2003) in the field of      by the MSA Group and can be found in
 Ecological Science must compile a Biodiversity                   Appendix E and discussed in Section 3.8.
 Assessment Report and Rehabilitation plan for the                The rehabilitation plan is included in the
 proposed development.                                            EMP in Appendix P.
 A Geotechnical Assessment report must be compiled to             Moore Spence Jones (Pty) Ltd conducted a
 investigate and determine the engineering properties of          Phase 1 NHBRC Geotechnical Investigation
 the soils underlying the site and to provide a report            for the site. Intraconsult looked in closer
 suitable for a township proclamation application.                detail to marshy areas and discussed
                                                                  remedial measures, if necessary. This can
                                                                  be found in Appendix D and is discussed in
                                                                  Section 3.5.
 A Pedological Specialist Study for the overall site must be      A geotechnical report investigating the soils
 undertaken. The study must amongst others, classify the          on site has been undertaken that describes
 in-situ soils, assess the land capability and delineate high     risks associated with the development of
 potential agricultural soils, to determine from the data         the soils in the area (Section 3.5). Please
 available the sensitivity and potential risks associated with    see Section 3.6 on agricultural potential.
 the development on the soils in the area.
 A qualified Wetland Specialist must compile a Wetland,           A wetland investigation was undertaken in
 Hydrology and Water Quality Assessment Report for the            conjunction with the ecological assessment
 proposed development. The specialist must assess the             (Appendix E) and discussed in Section
 extent to which the proposed development would impact            3.8.2. Correspondence with GDARD with
 the non-perennial river traversing the eastern part of the       regards to the Biodiversity Assessment is
 site.                                                            included in Appendix C.
 A Stormwater Management Plan (SMP) for management                A Conceptual Stormwater Management
 of environmental sensitivities must be designed for the          Plan (SMP) has been compiled by Cosmo
 proposed development.                                            Consult. The SMP can be found in
                                                                  Appendix K and Appendix J.


Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                  Page: 6
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
    A Heritage study must be conducted to determine the             A Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA) was
    existence of heritage features on the proposed                  undertaken by Mr. F. P. Coetzee from the
    development. The study must also consider assessing the         Department of Anthropology & Archaeology,
    extent to which the proposed development would have on          University of South Africa in June 2008. It is
    heritage features.                                              discussed in Section 3.10.
    Integration of environmentally friendly technologies into the   Various energy efficiency designs have
    proposed development must be investigated, particularly         been taken into account the planning of the
    from commercial, special and residential buildings design       development and will be taken by the
    philosophy. Malibongwe Ridge’s design philosophy must           architects (Section 5.4)
    be based on energy efficiency and water conservation.


In an email dated 17 March 2009 GDARD indicated that a specialist biodiversity study is required to
investigate the following aspects:
•     Birds, with specific reference to White-bellied korhaan and African Grass Owl.
•     Vegetation
•     Wetlands
It was also stated that all specialist studies must comply with GDARD Requirements for Biodiversity
Assessments Version 2. This assessment was done and is included in Section 3.8 and Appendix E.


The letter approving the Scoping Report (Appendix C) stated that a qualified Wetland Specialist must
compile a Wetland, Hydrology and Water Quality Assessment Report for the proposed development. The
specialist must assess the extent to which the proposed development would impact the non-perennial
river traversing the eastern part of the site. It was unclear what the Hydrology and Water Quality
Assessment Report should entail. Upon enquiry, we were informed that this refers to a wetland
assessment be in accordance with the GDARD Requirements for Biodiversity Assessments Version 2
requirements for biodiversity assessments (Email included in Appendix C).


1.4      Town Planning Process for Malibongwe Ridge
The Township Establishment Process, facilitated by Urban Dynamics, is a separate process from the EIA
process undertaken by MSA. Three township establishment applications have been submitted on behalf
of the CoJ in terms of the Town Planning and Townships Ordinance, 1986 (Ordinance 15 of 1986) for the
proposed housing development separated as: “Malibongwe Ridge” and “Malibongwe Ridge Ext 1”
(referred to as Malibongwe Ridge) and “Cosmo City Ext 16”.


1.5      Assumptions, Uncertainties and Gaps
It is assumed that all the information provided by specialists and technical design team members are
correct.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
2         DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPERTY
2.1     Regional Locality
The site is located in the north-west of Johannesburg, Gauteng (Figure 1). The site is situated at
Malibongwe Drive and the well-known ‘Lion-Park Crossing’, just east of the N14 highway to Krugersdorp.
It is divided into an eastern and western portion by Malibongwe Drive. The City of Johannesburg
Metropolitan Municipality (CoJ) is the relevant municipality and it is located in Region C and Ward 100.
The site is located on the border with Mogale City Local Municipality (Figure 2). It is located approximately
10 km from the Central Business District of Randburg and 3km from Northgate.




Figure 1. Locality map on topographical map.


2.2   Locality


The following properties form part of the application (Figure 3):


Property Description                                  Landowner                     Zoning (Figure 5)
Portion 38 of the Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ (Cosmo       City   of     Johannesburg   Public Open Space
City Ext 12)                                          Metropolitan Municipality


Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                Page: 8
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Portion 133 of the Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ             Itsoseng      Community     Agriculture
                                                      Development Trust
Part of the Remaining Extent of Portion 4 of the      City   of   Johannesburg    Undetermined
Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ (Cosmo City Ext 11, to         Metropolitan Municipality
be renamed as Cosmo City Ext 16)
Portion 120 (a portion of Portion 37) of the Farm     City   of   Johannesburg    Agriculture
Zandspruit 191 IQ                                     Metropolitan Municipality
Remaining Extent of Portion 36 (a portion of          City   of   Johannesburg    Agriculture
Portion 5) of the Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ.             Metropolitan Municipality


Portion 48 was part of the application form but it has since been decided to not include it in the township.




Figure 2. Municipality and Ward boundaries.


2.3   Land Use on Site
The informal settlement of Itsoseng is located on Portion 133 of the Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ and has also
invaded the surrounding properties. The Itsoseng site includes old houses, a ZCC church and shopping
centre ruin as seen in Figure 4 (Urban Dynamics 2009b). The Nooitgedaght School and the North Rand
Dutch Reformed Church (not adjacent to the site) is situated west of the Itsoseng informal settlement.
Zoning of the site includes agricultural, public open space and undetermined (Figure 5).


Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                 Page: 9
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
                                                                             Remainder of Portion 4 of
                                                                             the Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ /
                                                                             Erf 11461 Cosmo City




                                              Remainder of Portion 36 (a
                                              portion of Portion 5) of the
                                              Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ




                              Portion 133 of the
                              Farm     Zandspruit
                              191 IQ
                                                Portion   120     (a
                                                portion of Portion
                                                37) of the Farm
                                                Zandspruit 191 IQ




                                         Portion 38 of the
           Portion 38 of the Farm        Farm Zandspruit 191
           Zandspruit 191 IQ / Erf       IQ / Erf 11491
           11492 Cosmo City              Cosmo City                               COSMO CITY




                   Portion 25 of the
                   Farm Zandspruit
                   191 IQ / Erf 11491


Figure 3. Cadastral information.




    Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                   Page: 10
    Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
On Site features:
                                                                Newly constructed
Old Malibongwe Drive                                            Malibongwe Drive
(this section now closed)

Eskom Power line
Shopping Centre (now
demolished)
Partially constructed
Road
Farm House (now office)
Part of site used by                                        Eskom site
Nooitgedacht School                                       buildings (now
                                                           demolished)
Jhb Water Site

Tree used by church
congregations
Farm workers houses

Footpath
Itsoseng Settlement

                                                                                      Houses
                                                                                    constructed
                                                                                     here since
                                                                                        2006




Trees
Informal Sport fields



Trees
                                                                  Cosmo City


Zandspruit




Figure 4. Aerial photograph of the site with land use on site (Urban Dynamics 2009b).




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                             Page: 11
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Figure 5. Zoning of properties.



2.4     Land Use of Adjacent Areas
The existing Cosmo City development occupies the land to the south of the proposed development. The
Kya Sands Industrial area is located approximately four kilometres south-east of the site. In a northerly
direction, the R28/N14 is within 2 kilometres from the site and Lanseria Airport is approximately 8
kilometres from the site. The Randburg Central Business District is located approximately 12 kilometres
south-east of the proposed development. The areas around the site are mainly (i) Residential, (ii)
Industrial, (iii) Commercial, (iv) Recreational and (v) Agricultural (Figure 6).

Regional/district facilities, which may also serve the site, include the following (Urban Dynamics 2009b):
•     Open Space and recreational use: The Muldersdrift and Cradle of Human Kind, The Wits Botanical
      Gardens, Roodepoort Country Club and Athletics facility is easily accessible (via Cosmo City);
•     Educational: Existing schools in the area (within 5km) include seven schools in Cosmo City, Herron
      Bridge/Montessori school/college and Nooitgedacht School. Various crèches and play areas for
      children are available in Cosmo City and also in the Sonnedal area;




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                  Page: 12
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
•   A sub-regional community facility is being developed in Cosmo City, along South Africa Drive, less
    than 1km from the eastern boundary of the site. Such facility is situated along a bus/taxi route and will
    include facilities such as a library, social hall, pay points and sportsfields;
•   Various church erven have been provided in Cosmo City and subsequently a variety of
    denominations have developed facilities. There are existing facilities in the Lanseria, Muldersdrift and
    Sonnedal areas and erven planned for facilities within Lion Park Ext 4;
•   The closest police stations are the Krugersdorp, Muldersdrift and Honeydew Police Stations. The
    possible development of a police station in Cosmo City must still be confirmed;
•   The closest existing clinic (private) is approximately 1.5km away in Cosmo City. The Olivedale
    medical facility is located via Malibongwe Drive, towards the Johannesburg Centre;
•   Areas of possible work opportunities include the business nodes in the subregion (based on the
    accessibility of the site along the K52, N14, and Malibongwe Drive) as well as Kya Sands and potential
    planned land uses;
•   Municipal depot areas (including sub-station areas) are provided in the Cosmo City Ext 15 (was part
    of the approved Ext 11. A large erf zoned for municipal purposes is located in Cosmo City, adjacent
    to the site along the K56 (to be constructed).


2.4.1   Residential & Community Facilities
To the north and west of the site, the land is used typically for Agricultural Holdings. Such areas are
characterised by single large houses on extensive properties. While the area is described as Agricultural
Holdings, there is limited agricultural activity taking place on these properties. The existing Cosmo City
development with mixed housing is located to the south of the proposed site (Figure 7) while to the north-
east, high-income rural-residential areas such as Chartwell/Farmhall Agricultural Holdings can be found.
North of the site at the Lion Park interchange (R512/K52 and R114/K56) is a large informal settlement.




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                               Page: 13
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
 Figure 6. The surrounding area indicating the land uses around the site.




 Figure 7. View of the existing Cosmo City housing development south of the site (Urban
 Dynamics 2009b).


The site where the Lion Park is currently located is earmarked for mixed residential development (Lion
Park Township). It has received environmental authorisation and DFA tribunal approval. Construction has
commenced on proposed Cosmo City Ext 15, to the east of the site. The residential (high density)

Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                          Page: 14
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
development on Zandspruit Ext 4, east of Cosmo City Ext 15, along Malibongwe Drive, has also
commenced (Urban Dynamics 2009b). The Jackal Creek Golf Estate and Zandspruit informal settlement
are located south of the site. Another informal settlement is also located at Kya Sands. A concentration of
non-residential uses, including the Nooithgedacht School, North Rand Dutch Reformed Church, the
Nooitgedacht Nursery School, Shell Garage and shop, Alsida Supermarket and Liquor Store, an informal
taxi rank and a Scaffolding business is situated along the north-western border of the site.

2.4.2   Industrial
Cosmo City Ext 11, a business park, is currently under construction. Kya Sands, an industrial area, is
located approximately 3 km south-east of the site. Further south along the R512, the Northlands Deco and
Business Park, a retail and industrial business park can be found.

2.4.3   Commercial
The largest commercial centre in the surrounding area, Northgate Mall, is located approximately 6 km
south of the proposed project on the R512. Attractions to this centre include the Coca Cola Dome, where
numerous large scale shows take place as well as the ice-rink within the mall.


2.4.4   Recreational
The Lion Park is situated adjacently north-east of the site. The Diepsloot Nature Reserve is found a further
8km north of the site, adjacent to Lanseria Airport. Both are conservation areas which serve as
educational and recreational facilities. There is currently a proposal to establish a mixed use residential
development at the Lion Park area. This development has received environmental authorisation and DFA
tribunal approval.

2.4.5   Agricultural
Various forms of farming occur on the surrounding land. The main types being (1) traditional farming,
including crops, orchards and livestock, (2) factory farming, including chicken farms, trout farms or
nurseries, and (3) smallholding farms, which are mainly for recreational purposes. This is however not
directly adjacent to the site.

2.4.6   Proposed developments in area (not yet developed)
Various developments and development proposals are planned for the area and have been considered in
the design of the land use, services and traffic planning of the area:
 • Proposed Lion Park Township on Portion 2 and Portion 21 of the Farm Nietgedacht 535 JQ to
     accommodate 2 228 residential erven and approximately 4 000 high density units (DFA approval and
     EIA approval, redesigned) This development is proposed as bonded residential estate, with a
     business and high density residential component along K52 and K56;
 • Cosmo City Ext 15 is an approved (now redesigned) industrial Area (Part of the approved Cosmo City
     Ext 11).


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
     • A high density development on Portions 19 and 20 of the Farm Nietgedacht 535 JQ, proposed by the
         Gauteng Housing Department
     • Upgrading of services and infrastructure in the Lanseria Airport area, proposed by the City of
         Johannesburg.
     • The Aerotropilis Development next to Lanseria Airport
     • Two new business parks near Lanseria Airport adjacent to Malibongwe Drive.
     • An industrial and commercial development to the west of Malibongwe Ridge, consisting of 94 erven
         between 800m2 and 3000m2 is close to approval and may commence within the next two years
         (Arcus Gibb 2009).
     • Higher density residential developments are planned to the west and southeast of Malibongwe Ridge,
         with densities ranging from 100 units per hectare to 20-30 units per hectare. Approximately 650
         subsidy housing units are planned (Arcus Gibb 2009).


   2.5    Disturbance
   A relatively large part of the site is disturbed by anthropogenic influences. The main contributor to this is a
   large informal settlement on the north western part of the site. Disturbance factors include the destruction
   of natural vegetation and rubbish dumping. A particularly large dumping site, inside an old quarry, is
   located near the eastern boundary of the site, just north-east of Malibongwe Drive (Figure 8). Alien plants
   are found across the site, in especially high concentrations at places where anthropogenic disturbances
   have taken place. Erosion is another disturbance factor, due to the vehicle tracks and footpaths across
   the site. Malibongwe Drive is currently under construction (Figure 9).




Figure 8. Large-scale dumping in the quarry on site.       Figure 9. Malibongwe           Drive   currently    under
                                                           construction.




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   Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
3          DESCRIPTION OF THE AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT
3.1     Climate
Rainfall patterns at the proposed site are typical of the eastern half of the country and the Highveld, with
the highest rainfall occurring in the summer months (October – March) and very little falling during winter
months. Winter months in the Highveld are characterised by clear skies, low relative humidity and low
wind velocities. In summer the site is subjected to thunderstorms. This may lead to stormwater issues.


Mean annual precipitation ranges between 620 and 800 millimetres. See Table 2 for the average monthly
rainfall and maximum and minimum temperatures at Lanseria Weather station located approximately 5km
from the site (Teurlings Environmental, 2002).


Table 2. Average Monthly Rainfall and Maximum and Minimum Temperatures at Lanseria Weather
Station (1993 – 1995).
Month                  Average Rainfall Average Maximum          Average Minimum
                             (mm)                 Temperature (°C)             Temperature (°C)
January                      149.9                27.8                         16.2
February                     96.1                 28.0                         15.8
March                        113.6                26.7                         14.2
April                        54.9                 24.7                         9.7
May                          0                    23.3                         5.3
June                         0                    19.0                         1.3
July                         0                    19.6                         1.5
August                       0                    21.1                         3.9
September                    15.7                 27.6                         9.2
October                      119.7                25.8                         12.3
November                     75.9                 27.2                         14.2
December                     60.8                 29.0                         15.5
TOTAL                        685.7


3.2     Topography
The site is characterised by a moderate to relatively steep slope. Altitudes range from 1420 - 1480 m
above sea level. Highs occur in the northern corner and lows along the south-eastern boundary. The
majority of the site slopes towards the south-east. A small portion of the Malibongwe Ridge site (north
western corner) drains to the northwest as indicated by the contour lines in Figure 10. No major drainage
paths traverse the area, but a wetland has been identified in the north western section of the Malibongwe
Ridge site, parallel to Malibongwe Drive (Urban Dynamics 2009b). The Zandspruit, a non-perennial river
flows to the south of the site.


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3.3   Hydrology
The Zandspruit, a tributary of the Jukskei River, flows south of the site (Figure 10). No major drainage
paths traverse the site. The site is located within the quaternary catchment A21C which drains into the
Crocodile River. There is a wetland just south-west of Malibongwe Drive draining towards the Zandspruit.
The wetland is discussed in Section 3.8.


The area is affected by a flood-line. The 1:100 year flood line is indicated on the draft layout plan. No
development is proposed in this area (or within 32m from the flood line).




Figure 10. Topography and Hydrology on site.


3.4   Geohydrology
The site has a shallow layer of soil over a bedrock of granite. The granite presents an impermeable barrier
to water occurring in the surface soil layers. Soil water therefore collects on this impermeable surface.
Where the granite bedrock occurs close to natural ground level, this water will periodically (depending on
seasonal rain) come to the surface and cause wet conditions on site. Should the wet conditions occur long
enough that vegetation adapts to saturated conditions, i.e. hydrophytic vegetation types, the area is
classified as a wetland (as per the DWA definition of wetlands). Wetlands are therefore distinguished
based on two indicators: the vegetation types as well as the wet soil characteristics. Where the surfacing

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
of the mentioned soil water occurs for short periods and does not affect the vegetation, the area can not
be classified as wetlands. These wet conditions then need to be considered and managed from a
geotechnical, construction perspective and not an ecological perspective, due to the significant
implications for potential flooding and building stability.


3.5     Geology & Geotechnical Investigation
The proposed development falls within the Zandspruit Granite-Greenstone Terrain. The site is underlain
by granite of the Halfway House Granite Suite with colluvial and residual soils overlying the granite.
Various Archaean Greenstone rocks, consisting of mafic and ultramafic rocks, are associated with the
granite. Younger intrusive dykes and sills are also present in the area. A north-south orientated shear
zone stretches along the north-western boundary of the site, with corresponding lithologies of migmatite
and banded gneiss present in these areas (Teurlings Environmental 2002; Moore Spence Jones 2008).
The site is not affected by dolomite or undermining.


Moore Spence Jones (Pty) Ltd conducted a Phase 1 NHBRC Geotechnical Investigation for the site
(Appendix D). The purpose of the investigation was to determine the nature and engineering properties of
the underlying soil and rock strata, make recommendations with respect to the design and construction of
foundations, draw attention to ground water conditions, provide preliminary NHBRC site classes, provide
information on site and foundation conditions and provide preliminary design and specifications to render
the site serviceable.


3.5.1      Geotechnical Investigation Methodology
The geotechnical study involved two phases:
      1. Inspection Pit Investigation
      2. Laboratory Testing


The first phase comprised the excavation of 19 inspection pits. The average depth of the pits was 1.7 m.
Soil samples were taken at various levels within various inspection pits. The position of the investigation
pits was determined by on-site constraints and the need to provide a spread of data across the site. The
second phase involved the testing of five disturbed and two undisturbed samples for foundation indicator,
collapse potential and aggressiveness (Moore Spence Jones 2008).


3.5.2      Geotechnical Investigation Results
The detailed site investigation indicates that overlying the basement granite the following horizons are
present:


•     Hillwash / Topsoil: This horizon was present in all inspection pits, except for one, and the thickness
      was generally between 0.2m (eastern areas of the site) and 1.2m (western areas of the site). The


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
    average thickness of the layer is 0.7m and is characterised by being moist, red brown to grey brown,
    loose silty fine sand (Moore Spence Jones 2008).
•   Pebble marker: The pebble marker was present in five of the inspection pits and has an average
    thickness of 0.3m. This layer can be described as “slightly moist, red brown to grey brown silty fine
    sand with scattered gravel of quartz” (Moore Spence Jones 2008).
•   Residual granite: Residual granite was encountered in nearly all of the inspection pits due to the site
    being underlain by bedrock granite. This layer ranges from 0.5 m in thickness to over 2.5 m and can
    be described as orange brown to yellow brown speckled black, grey, red and yellow, medium dense to
    dense, silty sand. Ferruginised residual granite is found in the northern areas of the site (Moore
    Spence Jones 2008).
•   Pedogenic horizon: Hardpan ferricrete was encountered in approximately 20% of the inspection pits
    and more often in the northern half of the site (Moore Spence Jones 2008).
•   Weathered granite: Highly weathered granite occurred in seven of the inspection pits at depths
    ranging from 0.8 m to 2.7 m (Moore Spence Jones 2008).


Groundwater seepage was encountered at six of the test pits at between 0.6 m and 1.9 m, and therefore
deeper than the wetland definition. It is also located in the area indicated as wetland by the wetland
specialist. The level of seepage is associated with sidewall instability and sloughing. The presence of
hardpan ferricrete is also an indication of relic shallow water levels in the past (Moore Spence Jones
2008).


3.5.3    Laboratory Results
Sieve analysis, foundation indicator tests and collapse potential tests were performed on specific soil
samples collected from site. All samples were tested for material quality for earthworks and layerworks
construction including foundation characteristics. The results indicated that the majority of the materials
encountered on site are suitable from a construction perspective. They are considered inert as a result of
their low potential for expansion. The soil also displays a low potential for compressibility. In addition,
testing showed that the collapse settlement is expected in the greatest part of the proposed site for the
housing development. Aggressiveness testing indicates that the soils have a low pH, however,
conductivity results suggest non-corrosive conditions (Moore Spence Jones 2008).


3.5.4    Recommendations based on the Geotechnical Report
The Geotechnical Report (Moore Spencer Jones 2008) indicate that in terms of the NHBRC Residential
Site Class Designations together with the evaluation of the engineering soil characteristics at the site, it
can be designated as Site Class C with subordinate inclusions of C2, P(marsh), C1/R and C1/H1 (Figure
11) and may be developed given the construction type and foundation design guidelines provided (Urban
Dynamics 2009b). The Geotechnical zones, descriptions and proposed measures are included in a table
format on the draft layout plan (Appendix G, Appendix H and Appendix I).

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Figure 11. Site Map showing NHBRC Classes and Inspection Pit Locations (Moore Spence &


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Jones 2008).


Conclusions from the initial Geotechnical Report indicate that the site is considered suitable for the
proposed development provided that the recommendations in the report are adhered to (Moore Spence
Jones 2008). These recommendations are:


    •   The design of the stormwater management system should allow for the drainage of accumulated
        surface water. Any water of this type should be directed towards the natural drainage lines;
    •   All drainage installations should be completed prior to the house construction;
    •   Surface drainage of building platforms should be designed to direct water away from fill edges
        and directed to the drainage lines;
    •   Grassing or protection of fill embankments must be carried immediately after constructions to
        minimise ponding of water which would reduce slope stability;
    •   Run-off from building roofs should be piped from gutters and discharged in the stormwater
        reticulation system;
    •   The subsoil drains are designed to the specific filter criteria of the in situ soils to prevent piping
        from the material and subsequent rapid erosion of material;
    •   All vegetation should be cleared from the areas over which structures area to be built;
    •   All earthworks to be carried out in accordance with SANS 1200;
    •   All cuts and slopes and fill embankments to have a maximum slope of 1:2;
    •   Foundation solutions are modified normal or stiffened strip footings or RC rafts, or a deeper-than-
        normal strip footing as the potentially collapsible hillwash layer is limited.


An additional assessment was conducted by Intraconsult (2009) to assess the areas indicated as marshy
by Moore Spence Jones (2008). Although these areas are not considered as wetland, they may be too wet
after a rain event to continue with construction and may impact on construction schedules. When
Intraconsult conducted the site visit, some of the areas that were delineated as marshy by Moore Spence
Jones (2008) was dry and could not be identified. Intraconsult assessed the marshy areas and outlined
some generic remedial measures that can be used during construction to drain areas. These include the
installation of subsurface drainage systems and, once adequately drained, ground preparation works
adopted to minimize disruption of construction during the rainy season.


The ‘marshy’ areas can change during the season, was also confirmed by difference in marshy area
delineated by MSJ and Intraconsult. Only during construction will it be determined where there are
problems and then a specific solution for that area will be proposed. No drains will be constructed in the
wetland on site.




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3.6   Soils and Agricultural Potential
According the Gauteng Conservation Plan two areas on site can be classified as having a high agricultural
potential (Figure 12). However, the western section of the site that is classified as having high agricultural
potential is almost completely covered by the Itsoseng Informal Settlement and associated structures and
can therefore not be considered as high potential any longer. The northern portion that is considered as
high agricultural potential has been investigated as part of the geotechnical report (Moore Spence Jones
2008). According to the report that portion consists of residual granite 30 to 70 cm below the surface and
from 70 cm downwards soft rock granite. The rockiness of the area will greatly limit the agricultural
potential. It is therefore not considered necessary for a pedological assessment to be conducted.




Figure 12. High Agricultural Potential areas.



3.7   Air Quality
SRK (1998) stated that air pollution was relatively low in the area due to the existence of large open
spaces. Industries, vehicles, veld fires and the burning of coal by households without electricity are the
main causes of air pollution. However, the site for the proposed development will have higher pollution
levels now as a result of the increased number of pollution sources in the area after the development in
the last 10 years. Air pollution is worst during winter as a result of winter inversions (Teurlings
Environmental 2002), which can cause chronic respiratory diseases.

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
The study undertaken by SRK (1998) indicated that the following aspects affected the air pollution of the
site namely:

3.7.1   Winds
•   North-westerly wind throughout the year: These winds occurring throughout the year have a distinct
    implication for the air quality over the study area. There are notable sources of air pollution to the
    north-west of the study area, however these sources contaminate the air before entering the study
    area and at present are far enough away to allow for good dispersal, meaning that the concentration
    levels over the study area are very low.
•   South-westerly winds in summer: South-westerly winds associated with highveld storm weather
    systems are common in the summer months. These winds pick up large amounts of dust and also
    draw the pollution of Soweto and the Orlando Power Station across the study area.
•   East to North-easterly winds in summer: East to north-easterly winds associated with storm down draft
    after rain storms also blow over the study area during the summer months. These winds do not stir up
    large amounts of dust as they occur after rain, however, they transport in the pollution from the
    Midrand and Pretoria areas into the study area.
•   North to north-easterly winds during the winter: During the winter months, the area of interest
    experiences north to north-easterly winds, which are associated with the period preceding the arrival
    of cold fronts. They carry the pollution loads from Midrand and Pretoria.
•   South-westerly winds during the winter: The south-westerly winds blowing during the winter months
    are responsible for the greatest concentration of air pollution in the study area. Pollution from Soweto
    and the Orlando Power Station are carried over the study area by these winds (Teurlings
    Environmental 2002).


3.7.2   Valley Drainage
Due to the topography of the study area, polluted air derived from Modderfontein, Midrand and the
northern suburbs of Johannesburg will move across the study area (Teurlings Environmental 2002).


3.7.3   Internal Sources
The main causes of air pollution in the immediate vicinity of the proposed site are:
    •   Industries (from areas such as Kya Sands industrial area)
    •   Vehicles (particularly from the main roads such as Malibongwe Drive)
    •   Veld Fires (more prevalent during winter)
    •   Household coal fires (informal settlements without electricity)
    •   Dust from the excavation of borrow pits and current construction of Malibongwe Drive adjacent to
        the site may have a significant impact on the development.
    •   Burning of waste (Teurlings Environmental 2002).


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
3.8     Biodiversity
In an email dated 17 March 2009 GDARD requested that a specialist biodiversity study is conducted to
investigate Birds, with specific reference to White-bellied Korhaan and African Grass Owl, Vegetation and
Wetlands. Exigent Environmental (now the MSA Group) and Pachnoda Consulting CC conducted the
biodiversity assessment (MSA 2009). The biodiversity assessment was conducted in accordance with the
GDARD Requirements for Biodiversity Assessments v2 (2009).


3.8.1    Vegetation
The report can be found in Appendix E (MSA 2009). The site is located in the Grassland Biome and Egoli
Granite Grassland vegetation type (Mucina & Rutherford 2006). The Grassland Biome has a high
biodiversity and is becoming increasingly threatened due to urban encroachment, mining and
industrialisation. The Egoli Granite Grassland is classified as endangered with a conservation target of
24% (Mucina & Rutherford 2006).


Methodology
The site was stratified into relatively homogeneous vegetation/habitat units on the basis of the morphology
of the terrain and the growth-form of the vegetation. Sample areas were identified visually to ensure a true
representation of the plant species composition, structure and habitat of that vegetation unit. Vegetation
surveys were conducted in each of the identified vegetation units, where plant species composition and
vegetation condition was recorded (MSA 2009).


Vegetation communities

The vegetation can be divided into four communities (Figure 13) (MSA 2009):

1. Sedge and Grass Wetland
2. Hyparrhenia hirta – Themeda triandra Grassland
3. Secondary Hyparrhenia hirta Grassland
4. Ridge


      1. Sedge and Grass Wetland

The wetland on site is located south of Malibongwe Drive. It follows two slight depressions that drain down
the slope into the Zandspruit. Disturbance exists in the wetland in the form of alien plants, littering and
footpaths (Figure 14). The prevalent species found in the temporary zone of the wetland include
Hyparrhenia hirta, Eragrostis gummiflua, Imperata cylindrica and Themeda triandra. No red data plant
species was observed (MSA 2009). The wetland delineation took place on 15 February 2008 and the
delineated wetland area on site is included in Figure 13.


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Figure 13. Main vegetation communities on the site.




             Figure 14. Disturbance in wetland on site.



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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
   2. Hyparrhenia hirta – Themeda triandra Grassland
The primary grassland can be found north of Malibongwe Drive only. Some slight disturbances are
present in the form of littering and footpaths traversing this vegetation community. Besides these the
vegetation appears to be in a fairly good condition. The dominant graminoids include Hyparrhenia hirta,
Aristida congesta subsp congesta, Aristida congesta subsp barbicolis, Elionurus muticus, Themeda
triandra and Eragrostis curvula (MSA 2009).




              Figure 15. Hyparrhenia hirta – Themeda triandra Grassland.


   3. Secondary Hyparrhenia hirta Grassland
The secondary Hyparrhenia hirta grassland community is the largest vegetation community on site. The
vegetation in this area is quite disturbed by anthropogenic factors such as footpaths, littering and alien
plant infestation. These portions of the site were ploughed in the past. North of Malibongwe Drive, a large
quarry is situated where extensive illegal dumping is taking place. Alien plants are common throughout
this community. The dominant graminoid species in this community are Themeda triandra, Helictotrichon
turgidulum, Tristachya leucothrix, Schizachirium sanguinum and Andropogon appendiculatus (MSA 2009).


   4. Ridge
The ridge community occurs at the very southern end of the site. Plant species composition and extent of
disturbance are the same as the secondary grassland, with the exception that a higher density of Pinus
species individuals was encountered along the ridge. The disturbance to the ridge vegetation is extensive
and this has significantly affected the ecosystem functions of the ridge. The ridge has a relatively steep
                ),
gradient (8- 10° compared to the remainder of the site (MSA 2009). Please note that the ridge
community is at another location from the ridge indicated in C-Plan.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Figure 16. Secondary Hyparrhenia hirta Grassland.




    Figure 17. Ridge habitat invaded by Pinus spp. as observed near the southern extremity of the
    study site.


Medicinal plant species
The following medicinal plant species occur on site (MSA 2009):
•    Acacia karroo
•    Aloe greatheadii
•    Datura stramonium
•    Helichrysum species
•    Vernonia oligocephala


Invasive Plant Species
Any plant that occurs in an area where it is not indigenous is referred to as an alien (exotic, foreign,
introduced, non-native and non-indigenous) plant. If these plants are able to maintain populations without
human help they can be referred to as naturalised plants. If such naturalised plants are also able to

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
spread over considerable distances into new, undisturbed, natural areas and replace the indigenous
vegetation, they are regarded as alien invasive plants, or invaders (Klein 2002).


The control of invasive plant species is addressed under the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act
(CARA), Regulations 15 and 16. Invasive species are classified under three categories according to their
invasiveness, uses and threat to the environment. Category 1 invaders are species that will no longer be
allowed to occur on any property in South Africa, because their harmful properties outweigh their useful
qualities (Landcare South Africa, no date).


Category 2 plants are species proven to have a potential for becoming invasive, but with commercial
value. Provision is made in CARA in Regulation 15 and 16 for the species to occur in certain demarcated
areas, but the species have to be removed from all areas outside the demarcated areas. Category 2
plants may never occur within 30m of the 1:50 year floodline of any wetlands or watercourses (Landcare
South Africa, no date).


Category 3 plant invaders are plants that are proven to have the potential of becoming invasive. These
plants are however, popular garden plants (ornamentals or shade trees) and it will take a long time to
replace these species. Category 3 plants are not allowed to occur anywhere, unless the plants were
already in existence when the regulations came into effect. None of the plants may occur within 30m of
the 1:50 year flood zone of any wetlands or water courses (Landcare South Africa, no date).


Table 3 contains a list of invasive species observed during the site visit.


Table 3: List of invasive species observed on site
 Species name             Common name
 *Datura stramonium       Common Thorn apple
 *Eucalyptus species      Gum tree
 *Pinus species           Pine tree


Failure of the owner to remove Category 1 and 2 invaders from his/her property may result in prosecution
under CARA.


3.8.2   Wetland
According to the National Water Act (Act No 36 of 1998) a wetland is defined as, “land which is transitional
between terrestrial and aquatic systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface, or the land
is periodically covered with shallow water, and which land in normal circumstances supports or would
support vegetation typically adapted to life in saturated soil.” Any area where water collects for long
enough and often enough to influence the flora, fauna and soil, can be classified as a wetland. The main
distinguishing features of wetlands are the presence of water at or near the surface, hydromorphic soil

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
and vegetation adapted to saturated soils. These features can be used to determine if a wetland occurs
on site or not. The wetland on site was delineated according to the procedures set out in the Department
of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) field guide (2003), “A practical field procedure for identification and
delineation of wetlands and riparian areas”.


The wetland delineation took place on 15 February 2008 and the delineated wetland area on site is
included in Figure 13. The wetland on site is located south of Malibongwe Drive. It follows two slight
depressions that drain down the slope into the Zandspruit. The vegetation of this community is adapted to
saturated conditions and the soils of this community show indications of being saturated by water. The
soil in the wetland area is grey to light brownish grey to reddish grey to pinkish grey in colour, with red to
yellow mottles present. The soil is indicative of saturation for prolonged periods of time, including
permanent, seasonal and temporary saturation. The soil in most of the wetland area is indicative of
seasonal saturation.


Functions that may be performed by this wetland (as calculated in Wet-EcoServices) are:

    •     Erosion control
    •     Flood attenuation
    •     Maintenance of biodiversity


GDARD (2009) states that a wetland and a protective buffer zone, beginning from the outer edge of the
wetland temporary zone, must be designated as sensitive. The buffer zone for wetlands inside the urban
edge is 30m. These buffer zones are essential to ensure healthy functioning and maintenance of wetland
ecosystems (Figure 19).


3.8.3     Avifauna


3.8.3.1    Methodology

A number of references were consulted including books, IUCN data, South African Bird Atlas Project
(SABAP1), additional distributional data was sourced from the SABAP2 database (sabap2.adu.org.za)
and verbal communication with various avifaunal specialists (Pachnoda Consulting 2009).


A site survey was conducted during April 2009. A total of 6 hours was spent on the site, whereby the
following methods were implemented (Pachnoda Consulting 2009):
    •     Birds were identified by means of random transect walks while covering as much of the available
          habitat as possible. Species, where necessary, were verified using Roberts Birds of Southern
                     th
          Africa, VII ed. (Hockey et al., 2005);



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    •     Birds were also identified by means of their calls and other signs such as nests, discarded egg
          shells and feathers. Particular attention was paid to suitable roosting, foraging and nesting habitat
          for Red List species, in particular the African Grass Owl (Tyto capensis) and White-bellied
          Korhaan (Eupodotis senegalensis);
    •     Additional data were collected by means of point counts. Points were chosen to represent areas
          of natural vegetation and were approximately 200m apart to ensure independence of
          observations. Counts lasted 5min per point. Data from the point counts were analysed to
          determine typical or dominant species, and was based on the percentage contribution (%) of each
          species, as well as the consistency (calculated as the similarity coefficient/standard deviation) of
          its contribution; and
    •     All areas consisting of apparent suitable Grass Owl habitat were surveyed by means of dragging a
          60m rope.


3.8.3.2    Habitat types on site

The avifaunal assessment identified six habitat types on site (Pachnoda Consulting 2009):
    •     Hyparrhenia hirta – Themeda triandra grassland: north of Malibongwe Drive. A section of this
          habitat (primarily the southern portion) was mowed prior to the survey, which will definitely act as a
          deterrent for large terrestrial (e.g. korhaan taxa and cranes) and specialised grassland species
          (e.g. lark taxa endemic to South Africa).
    •     Secondary Hyparrhenia hirta grassland: The majority of the study site consists of tall
          Hyparrhenia hirta grassland
    •     Hillslope seep: The area immediately south of Malibongwe Drive consists of a hillslope seep with
          two distinct drainage lines that merges near the eastern boundary of the site, before it drains into
          the Sandspruit River. This area was delineated as wetland by MSA (2009). A small localised seep
          habitat was also observed on the central part of the study site (0.4ha). This was however, not
          delineated as wetland.
    •     Mixed Acacia caffra bush clumps: A number of Acacia caffra dominated bush clumps are
          scattered across the study site
    •     Ridge habitat: A small ridge occurs on the southern extremity of the study site.
    •     Transformed and Landscapes areas: The remainder of the study site consists of an extensive
          area of informal settlements and other transformed habitat


3.8.3.3    Species Richness and Composition

A total of 160 bird species are expected to occur on the study area of which approximately 50 were
confirmed during the site visit. According to the South African Bird Atlas Project (SABAP1) (Harrison et al.,
1997), a total of 323 bird species have been recorded from the quarter degree grid cell (QDGC) 2627BB
that corresponds to the study area (Pachnoda Consulting 2009).


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The avifaunal community residing on the study site is typical of the Grassland Biome with a number of
species with strong Zambezian affinities. Results obtained from the count data showed that the Zitting
Cisticola (Cisticola juncidis), Common Fiscal (Lanius collaris), Southern Masked Weaver (Ploceus
velatus), Melodious Lark (Mirafra cheniana) and Tawny-flanked Prinia (Prinia subflava) were the most
typical (most dominant) species on the study site. These species are all widespread although the
Melodious Lark (Mirafra cheniana) is currently classified as “Near-threatened” (Barnes, 2000).


3.8.3.4   Red Listed Bird Species

According to the latest Red Data book on southern African birds (Barnes, 2000), GDARD identified 14
priority species, of which 9 are listed as “Vulnerable” and 5 are listed as “Near-threatened” (GDARD,
2009). However, a number of additional species were also recorded from the Gauteng Province, but many
of these represent single observations and should be treated as vagrants. According to the atlas data, the
area is likely to support 21 Red listed species as defined by Barnes (2000).


The Melodious Lark (Mirafra cheniana) (Vulnerable) has been observed on site. The Lesser Kestrel (Falco
naumanni) (Vulnerable) may be a regular summer visitor to the area as grassland patches provide
marginal foraging habitat. The site presents suitable foraging, roosting and breeding habitat for the African
Grass Owl (Tyto capensis) (Pachnoda Consulting 2009).


African Grass Owl (Tyto capensis)
The African Grass Owl is categorised as “Vulnerable” in the Red Data book of Birds (Barnes, 2000) of
which the southern African population is less than 5 000 individuals. It is a secretive and strictly nocturnal
species that is seldom seen unless flushed from its daytime roosting site or nest (Kemp, 2005).


The African Grass Owl was not recorded from the study site although suitable habitat was observed. A
small localised seep zone (not identified as a wetland by MSA 2009) on the central part of the study site
provides suitable roosting and nesting habitat for this species while the larger hillslope seep area (located
just south of Malibongwe Drive) (identified as wetland by MSA 2009) provides additional suitable foraging
habitat. However, the presence of human disturbances such as pedestrians and the close proximity of
informal human settlements are possible reasons for the absence of Grass Owls on the study site. More
importantly, the suitable areas are burned on an annual basis, thereby preventing grass owl individuals
from colonising the study site. According to the SABAP2 data, there are no recent records of Grass Owls
recorded from the area (Pachnoda Consulting 2009).


According to the GDARD minimum requirements for biodiversity studies (GDARD, 2009), the assessment
should determine whether suitable habitat occurs on the proposed development site or neighbouring
properties for priority Red List species (including the African Grass Owl) whose distribution overlaps with

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the study site. This essentially means that the assessment should evaluate the site in terms of its
likelihood of providing suitable habitat and not necessarily the actual presence of the species. Secondly,
where the distribution and habitat availability suggest a high probability of one or more priority Red List
bird species occurring on site, the assessor must map all suitable habitat (foraging, breeding and roosting
habitat) and provide and indication on the number of individuals/pairs that could potentially be supported,
given that it is unlikely that all birds will be located during a limited survey (Pachnoda Consulting 2009). In
this case some habitat is available on site.


The GDARD sensitivity mapping requirements for African Grass Owls should make provision for a 100 ha
of suitable foraging habitat with a minimum terrestrial buffer of 170 m from the edge of the wetland or
stream. On the site, the total surface area of the hillslope seep areas and buffer for foraging, breeding and
roosting habitat is too small and is not considered viable to sustain a population of this species in the long
term. The foraging habitat on the study site appears to be limited due to an increased demand for human
settlement areas and thus not worthy of any conservation effort on its own. Additional suitable foraging
habitat would be necessary for this species to persist on the study site (Pachnoda Consulting 2009).
Pachnoda Consulting proposed that additional foraging habitat be required with connectivity to the nearby
Lion Park reserve (Figure 18). However, this area is already earmarked for development and approval has
been obtained. Therefore, obtaining additional foraging habitat to the north and north-east is not possible.
The only additional foraging habitat is towards the south-east to the existing Cosmo City development’s
open areas.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
                                                                 To be
            Approved Cosmo
                                                                 developed
            City X11




                                                         Cosmo City
                                                         Business Park,
                                                         currently being
                                                         constructed




Figure 18. Corridor area of suitable foraging habitat for the African Grass Owl (Tyto capensis), as
proposed by Pachnoda Consulting (2009).


The expansion of the Itsoseng informal settlement on site poses a significant threat to the Grass Owl
habitat on site. The encroachment of the settlement into the roosting and foraging habitat will have a
significant detrimental effect on the environment (Pachnoda Consulting 2009)


White Bellied Korhaan (Eupodotis senegalensis)
The White-bellied Korhaan is currently listed as “Vulnerable” by Barnes (2000) with a total population of
less than 5 000 individuals. It is threatened by overgrazing, agriculture and urbanisation (Barnes, 2000)
and generally avoids transformed areas (Pachnoda Consulting 2009).


The study site is found unsuitable for the White-bellied Korhaan to occur although the Hyparrhenia hirta -
Themeda triandra grasslands provide sub-optimal foraging habitat. The high frequency of human activity
and associated disturbances, and the small surface area of apparent suitable habitat (c. 14.2 ha) will
discourage this species from occurring on the study site (Pachnoda Consulting 2009).


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3.8.4     Sensitivity map
According to the GDARD Requirements for Biodiversity Assessments (2009) a 30m buffer is required
around all wetlands inside the urban edge (Figure 19). The north-western portion of the wetland on site is
very disturbed and not functional any more and this portion is dominated by Hyparrhenia hirta. However, it
was still excluded from development. In this case, the wetland will form part of a school site. It will not be
developed; the school will be built outside that area. The hillslope seep habitat as identified by Pachnoda
Consulting (2009) was also mapped as sensitive even though it was not delineated as a wetland by MSA
(2009).


The GDARD requirements for biodiversity assessments indicate that 100 ha of suitable foraging habitat
with a minimum terrestrial buffer of 170 m from the edge of a wetland/stream should apply for an African
Grass Owl. However, there are not 100 ha of suitable habitat available on site. The total surface area of
the hillslope seep areas and buffer for foraging, breeding and roosting habitat is too small and is not
considered viable to sustain a population of this species in the long term. Please note that, in this case, a
significant portion of the buffer is already transformed due to informal settlements.




Figure 19. Site sensitivity map (MSA 2009).


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3.8.5      Conclusions and Recommendations
      •    The majority of the site is disturbed by anthropogenic disturbances and alien species abound
           throughout the site;
      •    No Red Data plant species were observed or expected on site.
      •    The Melodious Lark was recorded on site. Habitat is available for the African Grass Owl but the
           habitat is no considered big enough for a sustainable population. It is not expected that the White
           Bellied Korhaan will be found on site;
      •    The habitat map must be used as a decision tool to guide the proposed layout of the
           development;
      •    Controlled development is more desirable than expansion of the informal settlement; and
      •    Proper flood attenuation features should be constructed. Flood retention structures should not
           impede on the normal hydrological function of any wetland or riparian system.


3.9       Socio-Economic
The proposed site falls within Region C, Sub-Area 1 of the CoJ Metropolitan Municipality, one of seven
regions making up the City of Johannesburg (Draft Regional Spatial Development Framework 2008).
Region C is characterized by a number of developmental and population trends, one of them being an
influx of people in the region caused by the different employment, tertiary education institutions and
residential opportunities the region possesses. Informal settlements such as Zandspruit and Lion Park
occur in the northern parts of Region C. The existing Cosmo City housing development is the major
mixed-income, mixed-density housing initiative currently situated in the northern part of the Region. The
proposed Malibongwe Ridge development will be an additional housing initiative benefiting the
surrounding communities living in informal settlements.


Around the proposed site, there is a mix between low income and high income groups, specifically in the
existing Cosmo City development, where both bonded and RDP residential units are positioned directly
adjacent to one another. The Itsoseng Informal Settlement is located on site and is discussed in Section
1.1.4. The Itsoseng settlement is spreading rapidly. Figure 20 shows an aerial photo of 2004 with the
current outline of Itsoseng in red.


This region is characterised by a large number of existing business nodes where a significant number of
employment opportunities already exist. It is expected that a large portion of residents of the proposed
Cosmo City will find employment opportunities in this sector.


The Draft Regional Spatial Development Framework, 2009, City Of Johannesburg Region C (RSDF C),
being a review of the approved RSDF 2008/09 lists key issues which has a direct impact on this
development. One of these is the “need for low-income housing opportunities to assist the poor out of

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poverty and cater for the informal settlements in the Region. The issue engages directly with meeting the
challenge of poverty and ensuring that vulnerability, inequality and social exclusion are addressed.
Furthermore, the incorporation of innovative lower-income housing typologies into the broader urban fabric
will directly provide a range of different housing types for different economic needs within the same
township”. “The informal settlements located in the southern and northern parts of the Region need to be
progressively eradicated to ensure the poor are absorbed to be bona fide urban citizens. The City needs
to be aggressive in containing the sprawling of informal settlements”.




Figure 20. Expansion of Itsoseng.



3.10 Heritage
All archaeological remains, artificial features and structures older than 100 years and historic structures
older than 60 years are protected by the relevant legislation, in this case the National Heritage Resources
Act (NHRA) (Act No. 25 of 1999). The Act makes an archaeological impact assessment as part of an EIA
and EMPR mandatory. No archaeological artefact, assemblage or settlement (site) may be moved or
destroyed without the necessary approval from the South African Heritage Resources Agency (SAHRA).
Graves older than 100 years are protected under this Act. A “grave” may include any place above or below
the level of the ground in which a body is intended to be whether in a coffin or other receptacle or not as

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well as any monument, tombstone, cross, inscription, rail, fence or chain that is associated with the grave
(Teurlings 2002). If graves are to be relocated, a permit must be obtained from SAHRA and the process of
relocating must be overseen by a qualified archaeologist accredited by SAHRA and the Cultural
Resources Management Section of the South African Association of Archaeologists.


A Heritage Impact Assessment (HIA) was undertaken by Mr. F. P. Coetzee from the Department of
Anthropology & Archaeology, University of South Africa in June 2008. The aim of the cultural heritage
survey is to record and document cultural heritage remains consisting of visible archaeological and
historical artefacts, structures (including graves) and settlements of cultural significance within the
boundaries of the proposed area of the Malibongwe Ridge housing development (Appendix F).


A field survey was undertaken in June 2008 and the site was traversed by foot. Three sites of potential
significance were identified on the study site (Figure 21). Two other sites were identified by Teurlings
(2002).




Figure 21. Map indicating the position of the sites of potential heritage significance.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
3.10.1 Site 1
The site consists of a multi-room brick house and a larger brick structure, both of which have been
destroyed (Figure 22). The structures are not older than 60 years and therefore not protected by the
NHRA (Act 25 of 1999). No middens or any other features were recorded. The site has a low significance.
The data has been recorded sufficiently and no further mitigation is required (Coetzee 2008)




                  Figure 22. Demolished multi-room structure (Coetzee 2008).


3.10.2 Site 2
The site consists of several multi-room brick houses with corrugated iron roofs (Figure 23). They are both
currently occupied. These structures have been incorporated into the new formal and informal houses that
occur in the area. The structures are not older than 60 years and therefore not protected by the NHRA
(Act 25 of 1999). No middens or any other features were recorded. The site has a low significance. The
data has been recorded sufficiently and no further mitigation is required (Coetzee 2008).


3.10.3 Site 3
The site consists of two graves which have a north-south orientation, with the headstones on the northern
side. No inscriptions were noted on the headstones (Figure 24). The graves are protected under Section
36 the NHRA (Act No 25 of 1999). No other structures or features were recorded in association with the
graves. It has potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of South Africa’s natural
and cultural heritage and has importance to the wider understanding of the temporal change of cultural
landscapes, settlement patterns and human occupation. It has strong or special association with a
particular community or cultural group for social, cultural or spiritual reasons.



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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
                 Figure 23. Multi-room brick house with corrugated iron roof.




                 Figure 24. Two graves demarcated with packed stones.



This site has a high significance rating and recommended mitigation includes the following:
    •   The graves must be fenced;
    •   A minimum 10 metres buffer zone should be maintained around the graves;
    •   If further impact is envisaged, please note the following:
            o   Phase 2 investigation
            o   Social consultation
            o   Exhumation and reburial

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If the graves are to be removed, the relevant legal process must be followed with SAHRA.


3.10.4 Site 4
Guides pointed out to Matakoma Archaeological and Environmental Consultants indicated in Teurlings
(2002) that this site was used a few years ago as an initiation school site. It was moved to another site
because it was too close to the current informal Lion Park Settlement. This site is associated with the
Ndebele tribe.




Figure 25. Initiation School.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Figure 26. Hearth, part of initiation school.


3.10.5 Site 5
Matakoma Archaeological and Environmental Consultants indicated in Teurlings (2002) this site. It is a
cemetery consisting of 11 stone packed graves. Once has an inscription reading ‘Jacob Mmesi’. Some
grave goods occur in the form of glass bottles and snuff boxes. Letters were sprayed on some of the
graves reading ‘SM’ or ‘M’ (Teurlings 2002).




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Figure 27. Informal Cemetery (Teurlings 2002).


3.10.6 Conclusions and Recommendations
Table 4 summarises the findings of the HIA undertaken on the study site.


Table 4. Summary of heritage features on site.
 Site     Coordinates                 Site Type           Statement of     Impact   Mitigation
                                                          Significance

 Site 1   26.00192° S 27.92461° E     Modern Structure    Low              High     None

 Site 2   26.00513° S 27.92165° E     House               Low              High     None

 Site 3   26.01657° S, 27.91736° E    Graves              High             High     • Phase 2
                                                                                    • Social consultation
                                                                                    • Exhumation & reburial

 Site 4   26°00’22” S, 27°55’46” E    Initiation school   To be determined by SAHRA

 Site 5   26°00’51” S, 27°55’15” E    Graves              High             High     • Phase 2
                                                                                    • Social consultation
                                                                                    • Exhumation & reburial


Stone Age & Iron Age settlements
No Stone Age or Iron Age settlements, structures, features or artefacts were recorded during the survey.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Buildings
Although houses were recorded, of which two structures (Site 1) were destroyed and two houses (Site 2)
are currently occupied, none are older than 60 years and therefore not protected under the NHRA (Act No
25 of 1999). No further action is required.


Graves
A total of 2 graves were recorded at one site (Site 3). Eleven graves were identified at another site(Site 5).
Both cemeteries are protected under the NHRA (Act 25 of 1999). If impact will occur in the near future,
mitigation measures may entail full grave relocation. Such a relocation process must be undertaken by
suitably qualified individuals with a proven track record and accredited by SAHRA and the Cultural
Management Resource Section of the South African Association of Archaeologists. The relocation must
also be undertaken in full cognisance of all relevant legislation, including the specific requirements of the
National Heritage Resource Act (Act no. 25 of 1999). Furthermore, a concerted effort must also be made
to identify all buried individuals and to contact their relatives and descendants. Other legislative measures
which may be of relevance include the Removal of Graves and Dead Bodies Ordinance (Ordinance No. 7
of 1925), the Human Tissues Act (Act no. 65 of 1983, as amended), the Ordinance on Excavations
(Ordinance no. 12 of 1980) as well as any local and regional provisions, laws and by-laws that may be in
place.


It should be kept in mind that archaeological deposits usually occur below ground level. Should
archaeological artefacts or skeletal material be revealed in the area during construction activities, such
activities should be halted, and a university or museum notified in order for an investigation and evaluation
of the find(s) to take place. The Regulations also state that should a burial be discovered accidentally,
that:
    •    SAHRA or the provincial authority must, in co-operation with the police, inspect the grave and
         decide whether it is likely to be older than 60 years or otherwise protected in terms of the NHRA
         (Act No. 25 of 1999), and whether any other graves are present in the vicinity;
    •    No activity is resumed in the immediate vicinity of the grave without SAHRA’s or the provincial
         authority’s approval; and
    •    SAHRA or the provincial authority may modify the provisions in order to expedite the satisfactory
         resolution of the matter (Teurlings 2002).




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4        DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED ACTIVITY AND ALTERNATIVES

Due to town planning requirements the development has been separated into three townships (Figure 28).
    1. ‘Malibongwe Ridge’ is located to the west of the R512 and includes Remainder of Portion 36 (a
        portion of Portion 5) of the Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ, Portion 120 (a portion of Portion 37) of the
        Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ, Portion 38 of the Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ / Erf 11491 Cosmo City and
        Portion 38 of the Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ / Erf 11492 Cosmo City.
    2. ‘Malibongwe Ridge Ext 1’ is also located to the west of the R512 and includes Portion 133 of the
        Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ, belonging to the Trustees of the Itsoseng Community Development
        Trust.
    3. Cosmo City Ext 16 is located east of the R512 and includes the Remainder of Portion 4 of the
        Farm Zandspruit 191 IQ / Erf 11461 Cosmo City. It was previously a part of Cosmo City Ext 11,
        which was approved in the implementation phase of the existing Cosmo City development, initially
        phased into 12 extensions, however was not yet proclaimed. Development in this area was
        previously zones as “undetermined”. Given development and development proposal in the area, it
        is proposed to utilize this land parcel for residential purposes (bonded housing estates) and a
        Mixed Use Node, which may include retail use, business buildings, residential buildings,
        professional rooms, public garage and offices. For a detailed diagram of the property boundaries
        and extensions of Cosmo City, see Figure 3.


All three townships fall within the scope of this EIA and have been investigated as such.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
                                                                         Cosmo Ext 16

                           Malibongwe Ridge




                             Malibongwe
                             Ridge Ext 1




Figure 28. Position of Malibongwe Ridge, Malibongwe Ridge Ext 1 & Cosmo Ext 16.


The proposed development is aimed at eradicating the informal settlement of Itsoseng on site and
accommodating the beneficiaries in formal housing in a sustainable mixed use, integrated development.
The successful upgrading of the Itsoseng settlement calls for a specific approach to accommodate all
families/persons, whether qualifying subsidy beneficiaries and/or potential lessees within the project area.


The proposed development will consist of fully subsidised, credit linked, conventional bonded and rental
stock, complying with the BNG principles. To provide sufficient housing for all the qualifiers a concept that
has been effectively used in Alexandra Township, Johannesburg is proposed.


4.1      Proposed Layout and Land Use
Malibongwe Ridge is designed as an integrated housing development, around a collector/spine road,
which will link to Malibongwe Drive (viaR114/K52) and the K56 at four points. Nodal areas (mixed land
use) are located at the entrances to the development. The K56 and K29 are classified as mobility routes
and as such the development activities will mostly be focused inward, towards the spine road. Residential
units are clustered in neighbourhoods, with parks and community facility erven dispersed through the
area. The latter uses are located at accessible positions (vehicle and/or pedestrian) (Urban Dynamics
2009).


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The Mixed Use Component of Cosmo City Ext 16 is placed at the intersection of Malibongwe Drive and
the K56, where it is most accessible via Oslo Street and will form the “entrance” to the adjacent residential
cells. The proposed use also provides an interface between the approved Industrial township (Cosmo City
Ext 11 part) and the proposed residential development (Lion Park). Oslo Street continues through the Lion
Park development to link the K56 with the K52 and the residential layout of the proposed Cosmo City Ext
16 is an extension of the urban fabric of the Lion Park layout. Note that the layout design was done to
function as a separate unit, should the Lion Park development not proceed immediately.


The layout consists of the following land uses:


4.1.1   Residential use
At Cosmo City Ext 16 residential units, in four typologies, are proposed, grouped into two security
estates (in addition to possible rental units within the mixed use node area). All units will be developed
with the aim to release the erven/units in the bonded housing market.
•   Free standing houses;
•   Linked (row/duet);
•   Sectional title units in security complexes/ high density housing estate, i.e. units within three storey
    blocks
•   Residential Units within the mixed use zone (Urban Dynamics 2009).


Residential erf sizes on Cosmo City Ext 16 vary from 200m² (10x20m) for linked housing to a maximum of
550m² for free standing units. The average erf size is approximately 350m². Erf 1 is zoned to
accommodate a rental- or sectional title complex, with a maximum of 154 units (Urban Dynamics 2009)..


At Malibongwe Ridge, residential Use, in five typologies, is proposed:
•   Free Standing Single residential erven (credit-linked, bonded and subsidized housing market);
•   Linked Row/duet housing on individually registered erven (credit-linked, bonded and subsidized
    housing market);
•   Sectional title units in security complexes/high density housing complex i.e. units within three storey
    blocks
•   Two erven for high density housing /flats/ residential complex purposes, to accommodate rental
    unit or sectional title ownership developments (credit-linked, bonded and subsidized housing market).
    Note that residential units may also be included in the mixed use nodes referred to above.
•   Subsidized housing: individual subsidised housing units and two rental rooms clustered around an
    access courtyard, on individually registered erven. This is a new innovative subsidy housing concept
    to address the Itsoseng residents who do not qualify for a subsidy but still need housing. The concept
    consists of a cluster of four to ten full title erven around a central local access courtyard. Each erf

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
    consists of a double storey subsidized unit and two single storey rental units. The double storey units
    consist of a downstairs living room, kitchen and bathroom with sleeping quarters on the second floor
    (Figure 29, Figure 30 and Figure 31). Attached to the unit is a small stand alone room with outside
    bathroom, which the occupants of the main unit can rent out to bring in additional income. The local
    access courtyard will be zoned as “Municipal” provided that the erf shall be used solely for private
    gardens, access purposes, services and parking. The erven where houses are to be located will be
    zoned as “Residential” provided that the erf shall be used solely for residential purposes. Erven will
    generally be 7.5m x 12m = 90m² (Urban Dynamics 2009).


Residential erf sizes in the Malibongwe Ridge development vary from 90m² for subsidized cluster units, to
an average of 200m² (10x20m) for linked housing to a maximum of 550m² for free standing units. The
high density residential erven is zoned to accommodate a rental- or sectional title complex, with a
maximum of 130units/ha (Urban Dynamics 2009).


All erven have access from a public street or access courtyard. The configuration of the residential
clusters (around access courtyard) was done with effective access and stormwater management in mind.
North orientation of bedrooms will be considered in the individual placement of structures on the erven.
The placement of the bedrooms on the first floor in the main subsidy unit will assist in achieving the aim of
sun infiltration into bedroom areas. The high density erven have been placed close to the possible
transport facilities and close to the entrances of the development, to discourage traffic through
neighborhood cells (lower order roads) (Urban Dynamics 2009).




                                    Rental Room 1, Rental room 2 Subsidy Unit 1, linked subsidy unit

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Figure 29. Housing Concept. (Urban Dynamics 2009b).




   (UI ERXQGDULHV




                                Rental Room 1, Rental room 2 Subsidy Unit 1, linked subsidy unit
Figure 30. Housing concept illustrated from the Alexandra East Bank Project. (Urban Dynamics
2009b).




Figure 31. Housing in Alexandra Township positioned around a central open area.


4.1.2   Social and Supportive Facility Use
Approximately 12.16ha has been set aside to accommodate social (educational facilities, churches,
crèches and other facilities (Urban Dynamics 2009b).




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
4.1.2.1   Educational

Only one new facility is proposed, in view of the existing facilities in Cosmo City (the Itsoseng
Community’s children are mostly attending schools in the area, within 1.5km walking distance). The
majority of the school sites in neighboring Cosmo City have been developed, but there are still
undeveloped stands). The Nooitgedacht School is situated adjacent to the site (Urban Dynamics 2009b).


It is proposed that a primary school be accommodated on site. The school site was placed centrally, along
the spine road (transport route). A portion of the wetland and its buffer is included in the school site and
may be included in the use and maintenance responsibilities of the school but no development in this area
will be allowed (Figure 32) (Urban Dynamics 2009b).




Figure 32. Wetland and 50 m buffer zone across school site.


The land use of the Nooitgedacht School extends over the project site. Provision has been made in
Malibongwe Ridge to formalize such use. A 16 m road access has been provided to either serve as an
alternative access to the school (Main Access from R114) or to facilitate an educational facility (adult
education/training) should the site not be included in the use of the existing school (Figure 33) (Urban
Dynamics 2009b).




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Figure 33. Access to Nooitgedacht School.


4.1.2.2   Institutional (Community Facilities)

The proposed crèche facilities were place at accessible locations, but within the neighborhoods, i.e. not
adjacent to shopping complexes/ranks. Note that crèches may also be accommodated on the two
educational sites, in combination with other uses. The two mentioned erven may be developed as
private/public facilities and may also serve as possible sites for a Children’s Home (Urban Dynamics
2009b).


The church erven were placed along higher order roads to ensure easy access to members of the
congregations that come from outside the developments. The ZCC church has an existing facility in
Itsoseng and the layout was designed to accommodate the use (Urban Dynamics 2009b).


Note that a variety of uses may be included within erven zoned “Institutional”. It must be mentioned that
some uses have a regional function and placement must be coordinated via the responsible authorities
(local and provincial level). Should any authorities require the placement of community/social/
health/municipal uses within the project site, such uses may be accommodated in the mixed use nodes,
after consideration of all factors (Urban Dynamics 2009b).




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4.1.3   Parks


Cosmo City X 16
Provision is made for play parks within the residential cells. These will be privately (home owner
association) maintained. A total area of approximately 1 ha is reserved for private play/recreation area to
serve a maximum of 388 residential units. This area excludes a part of Erf 38, which may be used for
stormwater attenuation structures. An additional area (3 500m²) of Public Open Space has been set
aside, being an extension of the Open Space Area in Lion Park, at the entrance to the township (along
Oslo Street). Play/Open Space areas should be provided within the mixed use node, should residential
units be included in such node. Play parks and park lanes were placed central to the estate areas to
facilitate walking access and provide a focal point. The placement was also done with stormwater
management in mind (Urban Dynamics 2009a).


Malibongwe Ridge
In addition to a variety of regional recreation areas, provision is made for large parks within the residential
cells for subsidised housing. Discussions are underway to utilize the Park areas for active recreation and
agriculture purposes. Ownership of these erven will remain with the CoJ, but management structures will
be put in place to allow public/private partnerships to use, manage and maintain these areas. The
Johannesburg City Parks will be a key player in the development of the parks as they have previously
been very successful in developing active use parks in the area. Play parks and sport field and urban
agriculture areas were placed centrally to neighborhood cells to facilitate walking access and to provide a
focal point taking storm water management into consideration (Urban Dynamics 2009b).


An area has been identified which will be excluded from development (Public Open Space / Conservation
area) due to the presence of a wetland. There is a tree within the conservation area which is currently
used as a congregation point for religious groups. It is proposed that such use should be retained and
managed via the Environmental Management Plan (Urban Dynamics 2009b).


4.1.4   Business /Commercial / markets and mixed use nodes


Three nodal areas are proposed.
    1. The northern node Malibongwe Ridge Node, along Malibongwe Drive, accessed from the R114
        (and eventually from the K52) will be situated on both sides of the internal spine road. It can be
        used for a shopping centre, office buildings and residential buildings. This node is proposed to
        function in synergy with the Cosmo City Ext 16 node (predominantly office node, limited retail
        relating to a convenience shopping facility.
    2. The southern node in Malibongwe Ridge is defined as a community node or market square. Uses
        proposed include markets (formal and informal), taxi and other public transport, public garage,



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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
          municipal offices/use and retail (shops). If a garage is constructed a separate EIA should be
          conducted.
    3. A mixed use node is also planned at Cosmo City Ext 16, which accommodates retail (shops,
          business buildings, laundromat, hairdresser, bakery, restaurants, and public garage), office use
          and residential buildings. This node is proposed to function in synergy with the Malibongwe Ridge
          Node and the character of this portion should lean towards offices rather than retail (Urban
          Dynamics 2009).


The approach to provide formal, combined retail facilities was favoured over the provision of many small
corner shops. The combined facilities can be better managed from an access, maintenance and impact
perspective. There are currently informal traders in Itsoseng and these traders fulfil an important role in
the community. The project provided a site for the provision of a market, where traders will have the
benefit of “feet” from the taxi rank (Urban Dynamics 2009).


4.1.4.1    Aspects Considered for Layout

During the process of compiling the layout the following aspects were considered, amongst others
(Lynette Groenewald, pers comm):
•   Roads/Access:
    o There are four main access points to the site from the provincial road network, which have been
       used to position collector roads;
    o Where possible provision was made for future access to the west to the R114;
•   Topography and drainage:
    o The slope of the site influenced the positioning and position of stormwater attenuation measures
       and advised the orientation of street-blocks and roads;
•   Environmental Considerations:
    o The wetland area and a buffer zone were identified and influenced the layout.
    o Crossing of this wetland area was minimized (only one road crossing that could not be avoided);
    o A distinction was made between active use Open Space areas (Parks, Stormwater attenuation
       areas, servitude areas) and conservation areas (wetland and grassland);
    o As far as possible the Open spaces provided were linked to community/retail/high density facilities
       in order to facilitate possible maintenance-use agreements. Similarly a section of the school site
       may not be used for the construction of buildings as a wetland and its buffer zone is located on site,
       but the protected area will fall within the maintenance responsibility of the school. It is proposed that
       sports-fields may be accommodated on a section. The area available outside the environmental
       area is sufficient to accommodate the school buildings and play grounds. The alternative will be the
       retention of a section of the site as park, in which case the maintenance will be the responsibility of
       the local authority;



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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
    o The functions of the Parks within the neighbourhood cells (not including any conservation area) may
        include urban agriculture, play parks etc, under the management of the local authority;
    o Visual impact along Malibongwe Drive was considered in view of the existing and proposed land-
        uses on site and adjacent;
    o As far as possible the layout was designed to accommodate existing trees within parks;
    o Although the two grave sites identified on site fall within a GDPTRW Road Reserve and the Open
        Space (Conservation area) proposed, investigations are underway regarding the possible relocation
        of the graves;
    o The utilization of all geotechnical zones for development purposes is currently being finalized and
        may result in a change of the layout.
•     Existing land use:
    o None of the formal buildings on site are to be accommodated within the layout, except for the ZCC
        church, which is now formalized within a site zoned “Institutional: church purposes”;
    o The informal use of a small section of the site by the Nooitgedacht School will be acknowledged;
    o The informal settlement will be accommodated within proposed housing/rental units in a phased
        relocation process to allow for the total upgrading and effective service provision in the area;


4.2     Bulk Services
Separate Services Outline Scheme Reports (OSR) for Malibongwe Ridge and Cosmo City Ext. 16 were
compiled by Cosmo Consult (consisting of Arcus Gibb, Trinamics Engineers Inc and KV3 Engineers), the
consulting engineers appointed by Codevco for the proposed development. The OSRs identify the
availability of bulk services for the development of Malibongwe Ridge, Malibongwe Ridge Ext 1 and
Cosmo City Ext 16 and outline the preliminary design (Appendix J & Appendix K).


All the services will be designed in accordance with the “Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and
Design” as compiled under patronage of the Department of Housing in collaboration with the CSIR, the
New Red Book, as amended in 2000. Cognizance will further be taken of the principles contained in the:
1. “Guidelines for the Provision of Engineering Services in Residential Townships” published by the
    Department of Community Development in 1983 (Blue Book);
2. “Guidelines on the Planning and Design of Township Roads and Stormwater Design” of the SA
    institution of Civil Engineers; and
3. The Municipality’s and Department of Housing’s requirements (Cosmo Consult 2009a & Cosmo
    Consult 2009b).


4.2.1     Transport and Access
A Transport Impact Assessment (TIA) was undertaken by Arcus Gibb for the whole development (See
Appendix L). The analysis hours in the TIA are based on weekday morning and afternoon peak hours.
The new developments in the area were all considered. These include the ‘Lion Park development’,


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Gauteng Department of Housing development at Nietgedacht and developments at the Lanseria Airport
(Arcus Gibb 2009).


4.2.1.1    Existing and planned road network

The existing road network will be utilised to service the proposed development with the construction of
additional roads within the proposed development. The development is located near National Route N14
(approximately 1km north of the site), accessible via Malibongwe Drive (R512/K29) at the Lanseria
interchange or via Muldersdrift Road at the Honeydew interchange. The major municipal roads in the
study area include are Marina and South Africa Drive. The development is located adjacent to a number
of existing roads as well as planned future roads. The current and future roads include (Arcus Gibb 2009)
(Figure 34):


    •     Malibongwe Drive (R512/K29), which is currently being upgraded to a dual carriageway road.
          The site is situated south and east of the corner of the intersection of the K29 (upgraded
          Malibongwe Drive/R512) and the R114/K52 (Lion Park Road)).
    •     The R114 (K52) runs to the north of the proposed Malibongwe Ridge development;
    •     The future K56 route runs to the south of the site. Sections of this route will be implemented to
          provide access to the site.
    •     A section of the D2159, Rietvallei Road (Zandspruit Road) over the planned Cosmo Business
          Park is currently in the process of being deproclaimed. It is envisaged that the D2159 would
          become a municipal road once the K56 has been implemented up to the 6th Road (R552) in
          Chartwell A.H;
    •     The future PWV3 freeway (planned from the Randburg CBD area to the Hartebeespoort area
          and beyond); and
    •     The future PWV5 freeway (planned to run in between and parallel to the existing N1 and N14
          freeways in the wider study area surrounding Malibongwe Ridge).


4.2.1.2    Trip Generation

It is expected that the proposed development will generate some 2 072 passenger car unit (pcu)
equivalent trips, of which 311 would be internal trips and 1 762 external trips. Of the 2 072 pcu’s
generated, approximately:
•   1 719 pcu trips would be made by private car;
•   321 pcu trips would be made by taxi (equates to 268 taxis); and
•   32 pcu trips would be made by bus (equates to 21 buses).
The inbound: outbound split is 25:75 in the morning peak and reverse in the afternoon peak.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
                                    N14
                                                                       R114/   Lion
                                                                       Park Rd




                                                                               Malibongwe
                                                                               Drive




Figure 34. Location of Malibongwe Ridge in relation to provincial and national roads (Arcus Gibb
2009)


4.2.1.3    Proposed Roadway and Intersection Improvements

Road improvement projects are currently underway (implementation of K29) or planned for the near future
on various intersections in the study area (Arcus Gibb 2009). These improvements will be able to
accommodate the development traffic from the proposed development (Arcus Gibb 2009). Other
improvements include the following upgrading projects:
    •     Construction of all internal Class 3-5 roadways and intersections;
    •     Constructions of a road along the alignment of K56, north and south of K29, including selected
          intersections, for which a Special Municipal Infrastructure Grant (SMIG) application is currently
          being finalised for the funding of its design and construction;
    •     Upgrading of the R114 (future K52) access intersection.


No further external intersection improvements are required to accommodate residential traffic volumes to
and from the proposed development (Arcus Gibb 2009).


4.2.1.4    Road Access Requirements

The west of the Malibongwe Ridge development will be accessed from an intersection with the R114
(future K52). There is also a possibility of a further connection or two with the R114 (K52) which would


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
require an extension of the internal Class 4 roads on the land on the Mogale City side of Malibongwe
Ridge. Other planned intersections include (Arcus Gibb 2009) (Figure 35 and Figure 36):
    •   Two intersections for the portion of Malibongwe Ridge to the north-east of the K29
    •   One intersection is planned off the K56 to provide access to the Cosmo Business Park and the
        proposed ‘Lion Park’ development along with a second access from the K52 planned via the
        roadways in the proposed ‘Lion Park’ development
    •   An intersection south-west of the K29/K56 intersection to provide access to Malibongwe Ridge but
        not to Cosmo City
    •   Another intersection off the K56 to provide access to both Malibongwe Ridge and Cosmo City
    •   An intersection constructed in subsequent phases to provide access to Cosmo City only


All road accesses/intersections with the provincial roads (K29/K52/K56) would be designed in consultation
with the Gauteng Department of Public Transport, Roads and Works (Gautrans) and the Johannesburg
Roads Agency (JRA).




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
    Malibongwe Drive has recently been
    upgraded.    The     approved       plans
    relating to the upgrading of the
    R114/K52 provide for an access point
    to the north-west to which the main
    access to the township is linked.                                        No road intersections
    (Urban Dynamics 2009b).                                                  (at grade) along the
    The   K52     road    reserve      makes                                 boundary of the site
                                                                             where      it   abuts
    provision for the interim linkage with
                                                                             Malibongwe Drive will
    the R114, as is currently used to                                        be allowed
    provide     access         to    Itsoseng
    Settlement. An informal taxi rank is
    located near this point.




                 Future
                 access
                 point




                                                                      Access to
                                                                      Malibongwe
                                                                      Ridge




                                                 Access to
                                    Access to    Malibongwe
                                    Malibongwe   Ridge and
                                    Ridge        Cosmo City


Figure 35. Proposed access to Malibongwe Ridge and Malibongwe Ridge Ext 1.


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
                                                                                   Access to the township
                                                                                   has     previously   been
                                                                                   approved at Oslo Street
                                                                                   (from the K56).      Such
                                                                                   intersection   point  will
                                                                                   connect to the internal
                                                                                   road network, proposed
                                                                                   within the Lion Park
                                                                                   Township




                                                                    Access
                                                                    from the
                                                                    K56

  No lower order road
  intersections along the
  boundary of the site where
  it abuts Malibongwe Drive
  will be allowed,




Figure 36. Proposed access to Cosmo City Ext 16.


4.2.1.5   Internal road network

A central spine road will collect traffic within Malibongwe Ridge and channel it towards the south (currently
via Cosmo City and South Africa Drive) or north towards R114 and Malibongwe Drive. This connectivity
will be further enhanced by the construction of the K56. The remainder of the uses in the site is accessed
via a system of streets. The southern section of the site allows for access to residential erven/units via an
access courtyard. This concept assists, from a traffic perspective in limiting access points along the local
access collector roads (Urban Dynamics 2009).


Access to and from the K29 and K56 (except at approved points along the K56, as indicated on the layout
plan) will not be allowed and a 16m wide building line will be applicable along the K56 and K29 reserve
boundaries. Provision is however made, on recommendation from the traffic and transportation engineer
to link the business node in Malibongwe Ridge to the node in Cosmo City Ext 16. A right of way servitude
has thus been included on Erf 2 in order to secure the possibility of providing such link. Prior to the
construction of the link detailed designs must be done to the satisfaction of the local authority and the
GDPTRW, funding of the bridge (level crossing not currently considered) must be linked to the nodal
developments and the final consent of all roads authorities be obtained (Urban Dynamics 2009).




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4.2.1.6    Pedestrian and public transport routes

The K56 has been identified as a BRT route. Facilities may be provided within the mixed use to
collect/drop off people in order to discourage pedestrians from crossing the K56 to use existing
transportation routes in Cosmo City. These routes are, however connected to the site via Namibia and
Angola Avenues. The latter mentioned two roads will connect the spine road (South Africa Drive) in
Cosmo City, being the main public transport vein, to the spine road proposed in Malibongwe Ridge. The
configuration of the project site allows for all units to be a maximum of 500m from the spine road and the
said collector road, together with the 20m reserve road next tot eh school should be sufficient
infrastructure to accommodate the extension of the taxi/bus routes in the area. The wide (30m) reserve
width of the Spine road will also accommodate pedestrian movement. Pedestrian movement from the site
to adjacent areas is channeled via specific (three) points to cross the K29 and K56, to ensure the safety of
pedestrian and cyclists (Urban Dynamics 2009b).


4.2.1.7    Wetland crossing by spine road

The spine road crosses the wetland at its narrowest point. Access from the R114 from the north can only
be obtained from a certain intersection point. From there, there should be a certain distance before the
road may start to bend. Also, the bend may only be certain curvature and not bend too sharply. The road
needs to cross the wetland at some point and the narrowest area was chosen. A Water Use License will
be applied for at the Department of Water Affairs (Figure 37).


4.2.1.8    Conclusions and Recommendations

The key TIA study findings are as follows (Arcus Gibb 2009):
    •     Roadway improvement projects along the R512 (K29) are currently underway or planned for
          implementation of roads, in particular the K56, in the near future. These improvements will be able
          to accommodate the development traffic from the proposed development based on the capacity
          analysis/modelling assessments completed;
    •     No further improvements are recommended to accommodate the Malibongwe Ridge development
          traffic volumes, other than at the planned external access intersections and the internal roadway
          construction as part of the development;




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
                                                        May only start
                                                        to bend here




Figure 37. Spine road crosses wetland at its narrowest point.


4.2.2   Water
Johannesburg Water will supply water from the Cosmo City Reservoir in Cosmo City Ext 3, to be
constructed in the next 12 months. A water network will be established on site. The site will be connected
to the existing 450 mm bulk water main that runs adjacent to Malibongwe Drive. A connection will also be
provided to the existing 315 mm water main in Cosmo City Ext 2 at the intersection of Angola Ave and
Namibia Ave (Cosmo Consult 2009a).


The average annual daily demand (AADD) for the Malibongwe Ridge development is estimated at
2890kl/day. Storage capacity will be available from the Cosmo City reservoir that is being constructed


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
(Cosmo Consult 2009a). The average annual daily demand (AADD) for Cosmo City Ext 16 is estimated at
820kl/day (Cosmo Consult 2009b).


All stands will be connected to a comprehensive piped water network to be installed in the street reserves.
The design requirements of Johannesburg Water will be adhered to (Cosmo Consult 2009a & Cosmo
Consult 2009b).


4.2.3   Sewage
A full waterborne sewage system is proposed for all erven. The internal sewer will be connected to the
bulk sewer line adjacent to the Zandspruit which drains towards the Northern Waste Water Treatment
Works. All stands will be connected to a comprehensive piped water network to be installed in the street
reserves. The design requirements of Johannesburg Water will be adhered to (Cosmo Consult 2009a &
Cosmo Consult 2009b).


The average daily sewage flow from the development is calculated as 2460kl/day and 690kl/day for
Malibongwe Ridge and Cosmo Ext 16 respectively, based on the expected water demand.


    •   Zandspruit Outfall Sewer
        The internal sewer network will be connected to the existing outfall sewer adjacent to the
        Zandspruit in Cosmo City Ext 2. This has sufficient capacity to accommodate the expected
        sewage flow from the proposed development. Parts of this sewer have recently been upgraded
        recently from 450mm diameter to 800mm diameter pipes.


    •   Zandspruit Pumpstation
        The pumping capacity of the Zandspruit Pumpstation was recently increased from 215l/s to
        515l/s, providing sufficient capacity for the development.


    •   Zandspruit Rising Main
        The Zandspruit Rising Main has sufficient capacity to accommodate the development after the
        450mm diameter rising main was replaced by a 600mm diameter rising main.


4.2.4   Stormwater
A Conceptual Stormwater Management Plan (SWMP) has been compiled by Cosmo Consult (2009a &
2009b). The SWMP’s for Malibongwe Ridge and Cosmo City Ext. 16 can be found in Annexure F of both
Appendix J & Appendix K of this report.


The natural drainage of the site is towards the south east towards the Zandspruit. A wetland is located on
site but no other major watercourses. Provision has been made for stormwater attenuation to reduce the


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increase in stormwater run-off resulting from the development compared to pre-development volumes,
through the incorporation of stormwater attenuation ponds and a stormwater management system. Ponds
will be constructed throughout the site for attenuation purposes taking into account the topography,
gradients, general drainage and existing structures as well as sensitive areas on the proposed site. These
will allow for the collection of stormwater and effective stormwater management (Cosmo Consult 2009a &
2009b)


4.2.4.1    Detention pond design

The stormwater detention ponds serving the drainage system of Malibongwe Ridge have been designed
as end of drainage system components (Cosmo Consult 2009). The available space at the outlet of each
stormwater drainage system was assessed to determine the preliminary available attenuation volumes.
The available surface area was restricted by the following:
    •     The 1:100 year floodline;
    •     Cadastral boundaries of the development area;
    •     The position of services.


The detention ponds have been designed to reduce the future development scenario peak flow rates for
both the 1 in 2 year and 1 in 25 year return period storm events, to be approximately equal to those of the
pre-development scenario. A spillway was designed for each pond to convey the 1 in 60 year return period
storm event peak flow rate. The detention ponds will incorporate energy dissipating devices at their inlets
and silt removal traps upstream of their outlets. The basin and embankment walls should be vegetated
with suitable indigenous plants. The outlets of the ponds should discharge into the Zandspruit in such a
way as to keep the velocity of the overland flow to a maximum of 1.5m/s (Cosmo Consult 2009a & 2009b).


The entire development was divided into small sub-catchments based on the outlet points of the drainage
system, namely the attenuation ponds. The runoff for each sub-catchment has been determined by using
the sub-catchment area, run-off characteristics for the sub-catchment, storm duration, and rainfall (Cosmo
Consult 2009a & 2009b).


4.2.4.2    Maintenance Activities

The following maintenance will need to occur once the ponds have been constructed:
    •     Routine mowing and trimming of unwanted vegetation (twice per annum)
    •     Removal of debris and litter from the outlets to prevent clogging and from the basin area to
          improve aesthetics (three times during rainy season).
    •     Inspection of the condition of the structures, inlets and outlets (annually); and
    •     Removal of silt from the silt traps (at least three times per year) (Cosmo Consult 2009a & 2009b).




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
4.2.5   Electricity
Eskom has stated that they will provide sufficient capacity to the development. This will be provided from
the newly constructed Cosmo City substation to the northeast of the development. Numerous 11kV link
lines will be constructed from the substation linking to Cosmo City Ext 16 and then further onto
Malibongwe Ridge.


The required capacity for the development is approximately 16.26MVA for Malibongwe Ridge and
4.76MVA for Cosmo City Ext 16 respectively (Cosmo Consult 2009a) with a substation diversity factor of
70% used. Table 5 shows the electrical supply demand for the development. The capacity of the
substation will be upgraded from 20MVA firm (2 x 20MVA transformers) to at least 40MVA firm capacity
based on this and further demand from other proposed developments in the area.


Table 5. Anticipated electrical supply demand for Malibongwe Ridge & Cosmo Ext 16
                  Land Use                        Load Demand (MVA)              Load Demand (MVA)
                                                   Malibongwe Ridge               Cosmo City Ext 16
 Housing (subsidies, credit linked, bonded,                7.57                           0.65
 institutional, Res 4)
 Business and Other Land Uses                              8.69                           4.11

 TOTAL EXPECTED DEMAND                                    16.26                           4.76


The electrical network will be overhead, with the service connections to the houses both overhead and
underground. Due to the density of this development the partial installation of underground medium
voltage cables will be investigated and if financially viable, will be done. The electrical network will be
designed in accordance with the ESKOM Distribution Standards (Cosmo Consult 2009a).


Street lighting will be provided in all applicable streets according to City Power standards and the
standards approved for the existing Cosmo City. These guidelines would be applied at the discretion of
the designer given the actual layout and design requirements, and based on available funding levels.
Reduced funding may imply reduced service levels and vice versa (Cosmo Consult 2009a & Cosmo
Consult 2009b).


4.2.6   Waste
Construction activities produce waste such as off cuts of concrete and PVC pipes as well as rubble from
demolished structures on site. This waste will be mostly used as fill material at other placed in the
construction area. The remainder will be taken by the contractor to an approved landfill site. However,
hazardous waste is also produced, including cement bags, empty paint cans, turpentine and thinners. The
hazardous waste should be taken to a dedicated waste site suitable for hazardous waste.



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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Pikitup will remove domestic waste as is currently done in the existing Cosmo City. A waste management
plan is included in Appendix Q.


5           PROJECT ALTERNATIVES

According to the NEMA EIA Regulations the competent authority must take into account, “any feasible and
reasonable modifications or changes to the activity that may minimise harm to the environment”, when
considering an application. In the Government Notice R385 of Government Gazette No.28753 of 21 April
2006, alternatives are defined as, “different means of meeting the general purpose and requirements of
the activity”. The feasibility and reasonability of the alternatives will be measured against the proposed
project taking into account the general purpose, as well as, the impacts on the environment and
community. It is, therefore very important that the identification, investigation and assessment of
alternatives address the issues and impacts of the proposed project.


According to DEAT (2006) alternatives are different means of meeting the general purpose and need of a
proposed activity. Alternatives may include:
      •    Location or site alternatives;
      •    Layout alternatives;
      •    Activity alternatives;
      •    Process or technology alternatives;
      •    Temporal alternatives;
      •    The no-go alternative which is the option of not undertaking the proposed activity or any of its
           alternatives.


5.1       Site Alternatives
The existing Itsoseng Informal Settlement is already located on site and belongs to the Itsoseng
Community Development Trust, although the informal settlement is encroaching onto the adjacent
properties belonging to CoJ. The land belonging to CoJ was included in the approved EIA for the existing
Cosmo City development. CoJ and the Department of Housings want to provide housing to the people of
Itsoseng and using the area where they already live is therefore ideal.


The development is in line with RSDF as discussed in Section 6.9.1. It is also located within the Urban
Edge. There are engineering services capacity to support the proposed development. The site represents
an infill portion of land in view of the development of the approved Lion Park Estates, and the approved
Cosmo City Industrial and existing residential development (Urban Dynamics 2009b).


Regional/district facilities, which may also serve the site, include the following (Urban Dynamics 2009b):
•     Open Space and recreational use: The Muldersdrift and Cradle of Human Kind, The Wits Botanical
      Gardens, Roodepoort Country Club and Athletics facility is easily accessible (via Cosmo City);

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•     Educational: Existing schools in the area (within 5km) include seven schools in Cosmo City, Herron
      Bridge/Montessori school/college and Nooitgedacht School. Various crèches and play areas for
      children are available in Cosmo City and also in the Sonnedal area;
•     A sub-regional community facility is being developed in Cosmo City, along South Africa Drive, less
      than 1km from the eastern boundary of the site. Such facility is situated along a bus/taxi route and will
      include facilities such as a library, social hall, pay points and sportsfields;
•     Various church erven have been provided in Cosmo City and subsequently a variety of
      denominations have developed facilities. There are existing facilities in the Lanseria, Muldersdrift and
      Sonnedal areas and erven planned for facilities within Lion Park Ext 4;
•     The closest police stations are the Krugersdorp, Muldersdrift and Honeydew Police Stations. The
      possible development of a police station in Cosmo City must still be confirmed;
•     The closest existing clinic (private) is approximately 1.5km away in Cosmo City. The Olivedale
      medical facility is located via Malibongwe Drive, towards the Johannesburg Centre;
•     Areas of possible work opportunities include the business nodes in the subregion (based on the
      accessibility of the site along the K52, N14, and Malibongwe Drive) as well as Kya Sands and potential
      planned land uses;
•     Municipal depot areas (including sub-station areas) are provided in the Cosmo City Ext 15 (was part
      of the approved Ext 11. A large erf zoned for municipal purposes is located in Cosmo City, adjacent
      to the site along the K56 (to be constructed).


Therefore the site is ideally suited for this type of development.


5.2     Layout Alternatives
Before commencing with layout design various technical investigations were conducted to determine the
feasibility of the proposed project. The proposed design is based on various team meetings and
workshops in order to plan the most efficient and feasible option. Several workshops were held discussing
the most feasible options with regards to environmental constraints, bulk services, topography as well as
other constraints. This approach to a large-scale development will result in a well-planned area with
sufficient services provision.


One layout alternative is proposed for Cosmo City Ext 16 which ties in with the adjacent Lion Park
development (Appendix G). Two layout alternatives are proposed for Malibongwe Ridge (Appendix H and
Appendix I). The difference between these layouts is indicated in Figure 38 and Figure 39.


Malibongwe Ridge Alternative 1 has a buffer of 20 m around the wetland on site (Figure 38). Malibongwe
Ridge Alternative 2 has a 50 m buffer around the wetland on site (Figure 39).




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
The advantage of Alternative 2 is that it has a larger buffer around the wetland. The disadvantage is that
the number of homes that can be provided will be significantly reduced. The service costs per unit will
increase significantly. This is considerable as the development comprises of RDP, Finance-Linked and
affordable housing units for people earning between R0 and R 7000.00 per month. Increase in cost will
mean that the developer can only cater for people earning on the higher end of the salary scale which
defeats the purpose of the development and the Breaking New Ground policy. The opposite is true for
Alternative 1.


Alternative 3 shows a 170 m buffer zone around the wetland identified by MSA (2009) and the potential
roosting, foraging and nesting habitat for the African Grass Owl (Pachnoda Consulting 2009) (Figure 40).
If these areas and a 170 m buffer around it are excluded from the development it will lead to the loss of a
large school site and a direct loss of almost 300 erven and a portion of a high density residential erf
(Figure 40). Because the school has to be provided it will have to move to a different location which will
lead to a larger loss in erven. This will increase the service cost per unit for installing bulk services by a
large amount which will lead the development not to be financially feasible and no development can then
take place. In addition, the total surface area of the hillslope seep areas and buffer for foraging, breeding
and roosting habitat is too small and is not considered viable to sustain a population of this species in
the long term. The avifaunal specialist states that creating a formal development in the area, with a
smaller buffer zone around the wetland, will have a smaller impact on the habitat for the African Grass
Owl than uncontrolled informal settlement on the vacant land. Therefore, no development taking place will
have a worse impact on the African Grass Owl habitat than development with a smaller buffer zone. It is
therefore motivated that it will be beneficial to the biodiversity and African Grass Owl to develop the area
identified as potential roosting, foraging and nesting habitat. Because there will be no development should
this option be chosen no layout for this option has not been fully developed.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
                                                                 Larger high density
                                                                 residential

                                                                 Have a 2.4 ha high
                                                                 density residential

                                                                 Difference in buffer
                                                                 zone

                                                                 Different road
                                                                 alignment

                                                                 Have a Crèche

                                                                 More Erven




Figure 38. Malibongwe Ridge Layout Alternative 1 (20m buffer).




                                                                   Smaller high density
                                                                   residential

                                                                   Lose 2.4 ha high
                                                                   density residential

                                                                   Difference in buffer
                                                                   zone

                                                                   Different road
                                                                   alignment

                                                                   Lose Crèche

                                                                   Lose Erven



Figure 39. Malibongwe Ridge 2 (50m buffer).


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Figure 40. 170 m buffer zone in relation to layout plan.


5.3    Design Alternatives: Housing Type
Conventional RDP housing has been considered but an alternative is proposed. The proposed housing
concept for this development has been used successfully in the Alexandra East Bank, Alexandra
Township and is discussed in detail in Section 4.1.1. The concept basically constitutes a cluster of
between four and ten full title erven, with a double storey subsidized unit and two single storey rental units
on each erf. A certain amount of people qualifies for RDP housing and should get it but some should only
get rental units. This alternative provides enough RDP housing units for the qualifiers as well as rental
units for non-qualifiers. It prevents monotony that is common to standard RDP housing developments. If
conventional RDP housing with single houses is considered, rental units should be provided in a different
way.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Figure 41. Examples of other types of RDP housing.


5.4       Design alternatives: Energy saving
Various methods of designing the development to save as much energy as reasonable possible have
been considered. As a start, the units should face north as far as possible to make use of the sun’s
energy. The applicant is currently researching various energy efficiency design aspects at the existing
Cosmo City development. Together with Kuyasa project they have installed solar water heaters, insulated
ceilings and energy efficient lighting at houses in Cosmo City and are monitoring the difference between
temperature inside the house as well as electricity consumption between the units with and without these
clean development mechanisms. Different types of windows and window panes are also considered, as a
high amount of energy is lost through the windows of a house. Houses should be installed with energy
saving globes. The township design makes use of circles to aid traffic flow and prevent the need for traffic
lights.


5.5       No-Go alternative
The no-go alternative will keep the site in its current state. This acts as a baseline scenario (even in cases
where the no-go alternative is not a realistic alternative).


This alternative is undesirable in terms of the current housing demand. Currently the majority of the site is
vacant, with part of it already occupied by the Itsoseng Informal Settlement. This settlement is spreading
rapidly. Should the site remain in this state, the possibility and threat of further land invasions and
squatters settling on the site exists.


The bird specialist indicated that controlled development would be better for protection of the African
Grass Owl habitat than no development.


Without development there will be no job opportunities during construction.




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5.6     Summary
The existing Itsoseng Informal Settlement is already located on site and belongs to the Itsoseng
Community Development Trust, although the informal settlement is encroaching onto the adjacent
properties belonging to CoJ. The land belonging to CoJ was included in the approved EIA for the existing
Cosmo City development. CoJ and the Department of Housings want to provide housing to the people of
Itsoseng and using the area where they already live is therefore ideal.


The development is in line with RSDF as discussed in Section 6.9.1. It is also located within the Urban
Edge. There are engineering services capacity to support the proposed development. The site represents
an infill portion of land in view of the development of the approved Lion Park Estates, and the approved
Cosmo City Industrial and existing residential development (Urban Dynamics 2009b).


Regional/district facilities, which may also serve the site, include the following (Urban Dynamics 2009b):
•     Open Space and recreational use: The Muldersdrift and Cradle of Human Kind, The Wits Botanical
      Gardens, Roodepoort Country Club and Athletics facility is easily accessible (via Cosmo City);
•     Educational: Existing schools in the area (within 5km) include seven schools in Cosmo City, Herron
      Bridge/Montessori school/college and Nooitgedacht School. Various crèches and play areas for
      children are available in Cosmo City and also in the Sonnedal area;
•     A sub-regional community facility is being developed in Cosmo City, along South Africa Drive, less
      than 1km from the eastern boundary of the site. Such facility is situated along a bus/taxi route and will
      include facilities such as a library, social hall, pay points and sportsfields;
•     Various church erven have been provided in Cosmo City and subsequently a variety of
      denominations have developed facilities. There are existing facilities in the Lanseria, Muldersdrift and
      Sonnedal areas and erven planned for facilities within Lion Park Ext 4;
•     The closest police stations are the Krugersdorp, Muldersdrift and Honeydew Police Stations. The
      possible development of a police station in Cosmo City must still be confirmed;
•     The closest existing clinic (private) is approximately 1.5km away in Cosmo City. The Olivedale
      medical facility is located via Malibongwe Drive, towards the Johannesburg Centre;
•     Areas of possible work opportunities include the business nodes in the subregion (based on the
      accessibility of the site along the K52, N14, and Malibongwe Drive) as well as Kya Sands and potential
      planned land uses;
•     Municipal depot areas (including sub-station areas) are provided in the Cosmo City Ext 15 (was part
      of the approved Ext 11. A large erf zoned for municipal purposes is located in Cosmo City, adjacent
      to the site along the K56 (to be constructed).


Therefore the site is ideally suited for this type of development.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
     Description of              Need and desirability & Advantages                              Disadvantages
      Alternative

Site alternative:      Site belongs to Itsoseng and CoJ. The development is in        Associated with negative impacts on
preferred site         line with RSDF and is also located within the Urban Edge.      the environment but this will be the
                       There are engineering services capacity to support the         same at a different site as well.
                       proposed development. The site represents an infill portion
                       of land in view of the development of the approved Lion
                       Park Estates, and the approved Cosmo City Industrial and
                       existing residential development. Residents of Itsoseng will
                       be accommodated in the area where they live currently.
Malibongwe Ridge       There is a big need for affordable housing in South Africa.    Will have a bigger impact on the
Layout Alternative 1   The CoJ supports the development. It will create jobs.         wetland.
(20 m buffer around    Desirable housing typologies.
the wetland)           More homes can be provided. The cost of installation of
                       services will be less per unit and home owners to the lower
                       end of the market can be accommodated within the
                       development, thereby meeting the aims of the
                       development.
                       It will attract future investors in the area. Responsible
                       conservation of open space.
Malibongwe Ridge       There is a big need for affordable housing in South Africa.    Less homes can be provided to
Layout Alternative 2   The CoJ supports the development. It will create jobs.         people. The cost of installation of
(50 m buffer around    Desirable housing typologies. Will have a smaller impact       services will increase per unit and
the wetland)           on the wetland.                                                therefore the market that can be
                       It will attract future investors in the area. Responsible      targeted will be a higher income.
                       conservation of open space.
Malibongwe Ridge       GDARD proposes a 170 m buffer zone around African              The development will not take place
Layout Alternative 3   Grass Owl habitat in their Guidelines for Biodiversity         if this option is chosen as it will not
(170 m buffer)         Assessments. Smaller impact on the wetland in the very         be financially feasible. The bird
                       short term.                                                    specialist indicated that no
                                                                                      development will have a detrimental
                                                                                      effect on the wetland and habitat for
                                                                                      the African Grass Owl.
                                                                                      No development will mean no
                                                                                      additional employment.
Design alternative:    Innovative concept to accommodate qualifiers and non-          Housing design may be foreign to
housing typology –     qualifiers in Itsoseng. Provide open space for urban           people.
Alexander East Bank    agriculture.
Concept
Design alternative:    Rental units to enable occupants of units to earn additional No rental units available for non-
housing typology –     income. Rental units available fore non-qualifiers living in qualifiers. No additional income for
conventional RDP       Itsoseng.                                                    home owners. Monotonous.
housing
Design alternative:    Familiar housing design.                                       May be more costly to install.
energy saving          Clean design mechanisms is required in South Africa so
                       save energy and water.
No go alternative      No immediate change in existing conditions.                    Expansion of Itsoseng Settlement
                                                                                      and long-term impact on the
                                                                                      wetland. Will not meet great housing
                                                                                      needs. No job opportunities.



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   Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
6           LEGAL REQUIREMENTS


6.1       Constitution of South Africa (Act No 108 of 1996)
The Constitution of South Africa (Act No. 108 of 1996) also creates a duty on the State to protect the
environment. Section 24 provides that:

“Everyone has the right to have the environment protected, for the benefit of present and future
generations through reasonable legislative and other measures that - prevent pollution and ecological
degradation; promote conservation; and secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural
resources while promoting justifiable economic and social development”.

Section 26 also states that:
1. Everyone has the right to have access to adequate housing.
2. The state must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to
achieve the progressive realisation of this right.


6.2       National Environmental Management Act (Act No 107 of 1998)
The principles underpinning environmental management contained in the National Environmental
Management Act (Act No. 107 of 1998), must be taken into account by any organ of state in the exercise
of any power that may impact on the environment. Section 2 (4a) states that sustainable development
requires the consideration of all relevant factors including the following:
      ‰    That the disturbance of ecosystems and loss of biological diversity are avoided, or where they
           cannot be altogether avoided, are minimised and remedied;
      ‰    That pollution and degradation of the environment are avoided, or, where they cannot be
           altogether avoided, are minimised and remedied;
      ‰    That the development, use and exploitation of renewable resources and the ecosystems of which
           they are a part do not exceed the level beyond which their integrity is jeopardised;
      ‰    That negative impacts on the environment and on people’s environmental rights be anticipated
           and prevented, and where they cannot be altogether prevented, are minimised and remedied.


The Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations in terms of Chapter 5 of the National Environmental
Management Act (NEMA) (Act no. 107 of 1998) were promulgated on 21 April 2006. These regulations
were implemented on 1 July 2006. The listed activities applicable to this project in Table 6 require a
Scoping/Environmental Impact Assessment Process, in terms of Section 24 and 24D of NEMA. Table 7
lists activities applicable to the project that requires a Basic Assessment Process in terms of Section 24
and 24D of NEMA. The Scoping/Environmental Impact Assessment Process incorporates the listed
activities for a Basic Assessment.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Table 6. Listed activities according to Government Notice R387 of 21 April 2006 applicable to the
project.
 Listed Activity                                                                        Why is it applicable?
           The     construction   of    facilities   or   infrastructure,   including
                                                                                        This listed activity is included should
           associated structures or infrastructure, for the aboveground
                                                                                        any fuel be        stored on site for
           storage of a dangerous good, including             petrol, diesel, liquid
                                                                                        construction purposes. If any filling
 1(c)      petroleum gas or paraffin, in containers with a combined capacity
                                                                                        station is to be constructed on site, a
           of 1000 cubic metres or more at any one location or site including
                                                                                        separate EIA must be conducted. .
           the storage of one or more dangerous good, in a tank farm;
           Any development activity, including associated structures and
                                                                                        The site is approximately 150ha in
 2         infrastructure, where the total area of the development is, or is
                                                                                        extent.
           intended to be, 20 hectares or more.
           The route determination of roads and design of associated
           physical infrastructure, including roads that have not yet       been
           built for which routes have been determined before the publication
           of this notice and which has not been authorised by a competent              Some of the road reserves on the
           authority in terms of the Environmental Impact Assessment                    proposed layout plan is wider than
 5
           Regulations, 2006 made under section 24(5) of the Act and                    30 metres and cater for more than
           published in Government Notice No. R. 385 of 2006, where                     one lane of traffic in both directions.
            (c) the road reserve is wider than 30 metres; or
           (d) the road will cater for more than one lane of traffic in both
               directions;




Table 7. Listed activities according to Government Notice R386 of 21 April 2006 applicable to the
project.
 Listed Activity                                                                        Why is it applicable?
           The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated       The sport fields of the various schools
           structures or infrastructure for any purpose where lawns, playing            will cover an area of more than 3
 1 (e)
           fields or sports tracks covering an area of more than 3 hectares,            hectares.
           but less than 10 hectares, will be established.
           The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated       The transportation of sewage and water
           structures or infrastructure for the bulk transportation of sewage           on site will take place in pipelines with
 1 (k)     and water, including storm water, in pipelines with – (i) an internal        an internal diameter of more than 0,36
           diameter of 0,36 metres or more; or (ii) a peak throughput of 120            metres.
           litres per second or more.
           The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated       A sewer pipeline and road will cross the
           structures or infrastructure for any purpose in the one in ten year          wetland on site.
 1 (m)
           flood line of a river or stream, or within 32 m from the bank of a
           river or stream where the flood line is unknown excluding



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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
 Listed Activity                                                                   Why is it applicable?
         purposes associated with residential use; but including – (i)
         canals, (iii) bridges
         The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated    This listed activity is included to make
         structures or infrastructure for the recycling, re-use, handling,         provision for the storage of construction
 1 (o)   temporary storage or treatment of general waste with a throughput         waste, should it be necessary.
         capacity of 20 cubic meters or more daily average measure over a
         period of 30 days.
         The construction of facilities or infrastructure, including associated    This listed activity is included to make
 1 (p)   structures or infrastructure for the temporary storage of hazardous       provision for the storage of construction
         waste.                                                                    waste, should it be necessary.
 4       The dredging, excavation, infilling, removal or moving of soil, sand      A sewer pipeline and road will cross the
         or rock exceeding 5 cubic metres from a river, tidal lagoon, tidal        wetland on site.
         river, lake, in-stream dam, floodplain or wetland.
         The above ground storage of a dangerous good, including petrol,           This listed activity is included should
         diesel, liquid petroleum, gas or paraffin, in containers with a           any   fuel   be    stored    on   site   for
 7
         combined capacity of more than 30 cubic metres but less than              construction purposes.
         1000 cubic metres at any one location or site.
         The transformation or removal of indigenous vegetation of 3               More than 3 hectares of indigenous
         hectares or more or of any size where the transformation or               vegetation will be removed as part of
         removal would occur within a critically endangered or an                  the proposed project, although the
 12
         endangered ecosystem listed in terms of it section 52 of the              vegetation that will be removed is not
         National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, 2004 (Act            considered to be within a critically
         No. 10 of 2004).                                                          endangered ecosystem.
         The construction of a road that is wider than 4 metres or that has a      The roads on site will be more than 4
         reserve wider than 6 metres, excluding roads that fall within the         metres wide and the reserve wider than
 15
         ambit of another listed activity or which are access roads of less        6 metres.
         than 30 metres long.
         The transformation of undeveloped, vacant or derelict land to –           An area of more than 1 hectare will be
         (b) residential, mixed, retail, commercial, industrial or institutional   transformed.
 16
         use where such development does not constitute infill and where
         the total area to be transformed is bigger than 1 hectare.
                                                                                   This listed activity was included in the
                                                                                   application phase as it was not certain
         The subdivision of portions of land 9 hectares or larger into             how the land would be subdivided. A
 18
         portions of 5 hectares or less.                                           township     establishment    process     is
                                                                                   being followed and this activity is
                                                                                   therefore not applicable.
 20      The transformation of an area zoned for use as public open space          Portion 38 of the Farm Zandspruit 191
         or for a conservation purpose to another use.                             IQ (Cosmo City Ext 12) is zoned as
                                                                                   public open space and will form part of
                                                                                   the housing development.


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Figure 42 below outlines the process that will be followed during the EIA Process. The Scoping/EIA
process entails the following:


Activity 1: Application phase
An application form outlining the relevant listed activity that requires environmental authorisation was
submitted to the GDARD in November 2007. Along with the application form, a signed landowner consent
form and declaration of interest by the EAP was submitted (Appendix B). The application was
acknowledged on 22 November 2007 and the reference number 002/07-08/N1067 has been assigned to
the project.




Figure 42. The Scoping/Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process.

Activity 2: Public Participation Process
The public participation process undertook the following activities (21 January 2008 to 20 February 2008):
     • The public were notified of the proposed activity by placing an advertisement in a local and
        regional newspaper, and notices were placed on site.
     • Pre-identified interested parties were notified of the proposed activity in writing.
     • Any written comments received on the Scoping Report were included in the Report which was
        submitted to GDARD.


This is discussed in detail in Section 6.


Activity 3: Scoping Report
The scoping report consists of the following:


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
    • A description of the proposed activity, property and the environment that will be affected by the
        proposed activity;
    • Legislation and guidelines relevant to the proposed activity;
    • A description of environmental issues and potential impacts, as well as cumulative impacts
        identified;
    • A description of the methodology that will be used to assess the identified impacts and
    • A description of the public participation process undertaken.


The Scoping Report was made available to I&APs and stakeholders for review from 29 April to 1 June
2009. Their comments were incorporated in the final Scoping Report which was submitted to GDARD on
29 June 2009. Acknowledgement of the report was received on the 11 August 2009 and permission was
given to proceed with the Environmental Impact Assessment phase of the process.


Activity 4: Plan of Study for EIA
The compilation of a Plan of Study for EIA which include:
    • A description of the tasks to be undertaken during the EIA process, including any specialist
        studies and processes that will be undertaken;
    • Indicate the stages at which the competent authority will be consulted;
    • Description of the proposed method that will be used to assess environmental issues and
        alternatives; and
    • Details of the public participation process that will be undertaken during the EIA process.


This was included in the Scoping Report.


Activity 5: Environmental Impact Assessment Report (EIAR)
The content of the EIA report includes the following:
    • Details of the EAP and the expertise of the EAP to undertake the EIA process;
    • A description of the proposed activity, property and the environment that will be affected by the
        proposed activity, including the physical, biological, social, economic and cultural aspects of the
        environment;
    • A description of the public participation process undertaken;
    • A description of the need and desirability;
    • Description of the method that will be used to assess the significance of the potential impacts;
    • Description and comparison of all alternatives identified during the EIA process, as well as a
        summary of the findings and recommendations of any specialist report;
    • A description of the environmental issues identified, an assessment of the significance of each
        issue, as well as the extent to which the issue can be addressed through mitigation measures;
    • A description of assumptions, uncertainties and gaps in knowledge;

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      • Deliver an opinion as to whether or not the activity should be approved; and
      • An Environmental Impact Statement containing a summary of the key findings during the EIA
          process.


Activity 6: Draft Environmental Management Plan: describes the methods and procedures needed for
the mitigation and monitoring processes of the environmental impacts identified in the Environmental
Impact Assessment Report (EIAR).


6.3     National Water Act (Act No 36 of 1998)
Water use is controlled by the National Water Act (Act no 36 of 1998) and the enforcing authority is
Department of Water Affairs (DWA). The National Water Act recognises that water is a scarce resource in
South Africa and its provisions are aimed at achieving sustainable use of water to the benefit of all users.
The provisions of the Act are thus aimed at discouraging pollution and waste of water resources.
According to Section 21 of the National Water Act the following activity is considered a use, and therefore
requires a permit:


          (c) Impeding or diverting the flow of water in a watercourse.
          (i) Altering the bed, banks, course or characteristics of a watercourse.


An application for a water use licence will be submitted to the DWA for the road crossing and sewer line in
the wetland on site.


6.4     The National Heritage Resources Act (Act 25 of 1999)
The protection and management of South Africa’s heritage resources are controlled by the National
Heritage Resources Act. South African National Heritage Resources Agency (SAHRA) is the responsible
authority for implementing the National Heritage Resources Act (NHRA) (No. 25 of 1999).


Section 38(1) of the National Heritage Resources Act (NHRA) (No. 25 of 1999) lists development activities
that would require authorisation by the responsible heritage resources authority. Activities considered
applicable to the proposed project include the following:
      (c) Any development or other activity which will change the character of a site:
          (i) exceeding 5 000 m2 in extent.
          (ii) the rezoning of a site exceeding 10 000 m2 in extent


A heritage impact assessment has been conducted and is discussed further in Section 3.10.




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6.5       Housing Act (Act No 107 of 1997)
The aim of the Act is to provide for the facilitation of a sustainable housing development process. It
recognises that housing:
      •    as adequate shelter, fulfils a basic human need;
      •    is both a product and a process;
      •    is a product of human endeavour and enterprise;
      •    is a vital part of integrated developmental planning;
      •    is a key sector of the national economy; and
      •    is vital to the socio-economic well-being of the nation;


According to the Act national, provincial and local spheres of government must:
      •    give priority to the needs of the poor in respect of housing development;
      •    ensure that housing development-
               o   provides as wide a choice of housing and tenure options as is reasonably possible;
               o   is economically, fiscally, socially and financially affordable and sustainable;
               o   is based on integrated development planning;
      •    promote higher density in respect of housing development to ensure the economical utilisation of
           land and services;
      •    take due cognisance of the impact of housing development on the environment;
      •    observe and adhere to the principles in Chapter 1 of the Development Facilitation Act, 1995 (Act
           67 of 1995), in respect of housing development


The proposed project is in line with this Act.


6.6       Development Facilitation Act (Act No 67 of 1995)
The aim of the Act is to introduce measures to facilitate and speed up the implementation of
reconstruction and development programmes and projects in relation to land; and in so doing to lay down
general principles governing land development throughout the Republic.


General principles include:
      •    Policy, administrative practice and laws in relation to land development should:
               o   Provide for a range of settlement types in both urban and rural areas.
               o   Promote sustained protection of the environment.
               o   Discourage the illegal occupation of land while recognising informal land development
                   processes.
               o   Promote efficient and integrated land development, including the social, economic,
                   institutional and physical integration, and discouraging urban sprawl.
               o   Encourage partnerships so as to maximise our capacity to undertake land development.

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
               o   Promote the establishment of viable communities.
               o   Meet the basic needs of all citizens in an affordable way.
               o   Promote sustainable land development at the required scale.
               o   Promote speedy land development.
      •    Each proposed land development area should be judged on its own merits. No particular land use
           (residential, commercial, conservational, industrial, etc.) should be favoured.
      •    Land development should result in security of tenure for all persons, and provide for the widest
           possible range of tenure alternatives, including individual and communal tenure.


6.7       Department of Housing’s Breaking New Ground Policy / Comprehensive Plan for
          Sustainable Human Settlement (2004)
The National Department of Housing’s 'Breaking New Ground' Policy or ‘Comprehensive Plan for
Sustainable Human Settlement’ seeks to promote sustainable human settlements and cites a commitment
to socially inclusive and integrated housing projects and developments. Sustainable human settlements as
defined in the NDoH's Comprehensive Plan of 2004 for Sustainable Human Settlements are, “Well-
managed entities where economic growth and social development are in balance with the carrying
capacity of the natural systems on which they depend for their existence and result in sustainable
development, wealth creation, poverty alleviation and equity. The present and future inhabitants of
sustainable human settlements located both in urban and rural areas, live in safe and secure
environments, and have adequate access to economic opportunities, a mix of safe and secure housing
and tenure types, reliable and affordable basic services, educational, entertainment and cultural activities
and health, welfare and police services. Land utilization is well planned, managed and monitored to
ensure the development of compact, mixed land-use, diverse, life-enhancing environments with maximum
possibilities for pedestrian movement and transit via safe and efficient public transport.”


6.8       GDARD Policies and Programmes
GDARD has developed a number of policies and programmes to assist them in their decision-making
process. These policies and programmes are listed below.


6.8.1      Gauteng Conservation Plan (C-Plan)
Gauteng C-Plan software was developed by the Gauteng Biodiversity Gap Analysis Project (BGAP)
(Gauteng BGAP 2003). The aim of BGAP is to identify and map areas that are important for the protection
of biodiversity in Gauteng and link it to a systematic and empirical conservation planning programme. The
project also has to provide recommendations and strategies to conserve and manage the identified areas.
C-Plan therefore, focuses on irreplaceable and important sites, as well as, existing protected areas. This
information is contained in spatial format in a GIS database. C-Plan 2 incorporates important ecological
processes, e.g., hydrological dynamics (C-Plan ver2 2005). Figure 43 indicates the areas of importance
around the proposed housing development. The Zandspruit and its tributary are important for ecological

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processes. West of the site is an area that is considered as an important site due to the presence of
primary vegetation.


6.8.2   Gauteng Red Data Plant Policy
GDARD developed the Red Data plant policy for use in environmental impact evaluations. The localities of
all the Red Data plant species in Gauteng were collated to form the Red Data plant database. Each
species was assessed and scored in terms of their relative importance in Gauteng and ranked from the
most important to the least. These rankings are (Pfab 2001):
    •   A1 – Species endemic to Gauteng.
    •   A2 – Species endemic to Gauteng and one other province or country.
    •   A3 – Species endemic to Gauteng and two or more other provinces or countries.
    •   B – Species not endemic to Southern Africa.
A buffer zone of between 200m-600m is required around individuals of Red Data plant species.




Figure 43. Areas of ecological importance in the study area (C-Plan).


6.8.3   Development Guideline for Ridges
The term ridge refers to hills, koppies, mountains, kloofs, gorges etc. A ridge is a topographic feature with
a slope of 5° (8.8%) or more. GDARD used a Geographic Information System (GIS) digital elevation

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model to determine slopes in a landscape and creating a digital elevation model. All features with a slope
of 5° or more have been digitised to create a spatial layer indicating the spatial distribution of ridges in
Gauteng. A variability in topography provides spatial heterogeneity due to the range of differing aspects,
slopes and altitudes which results in differing soil, light and hydrological conditions. This provides a greater
diversity of potential niches for plants and animals contributing to the high biodiversity of southern Africa
(Pfab 2001).


C-Plan indicates two ridges on site (Figure 43). All ridges in Gauteng were classified into four classes.
Each class has certain guidelines regarding development on these ridges. The ridges on site are
classified as a Class 1 ridge. The northern ‘ridge’ is actually a borrow pit used for material for road
construction. It does not provide any habitat of ridges whatsoever and will therefore not be regarded as a
ridge. The ecological report indicates that the ridge plant community is located further to the south of the
site than indicated on C-Plan. The area where the ridge is indicated on C-Plan is in fact secondary
grassland (MSA 2009).


6.8.4   Gauteng Open Space Policy (GOSP)
In GOSP all the open spaces in Gauteng are mapped and assessed according to their ecology,
agricultural potential, heritage and social value. The lack of information on open land in the urban areas of
Gauteng, as well as, on their present uses, which include conservation, recreation, agriculture etc,
resulted in the commissioning of the first phase of the Gauteng Open Space Project (GOSP V2, 2000).
Phase 2 of GOSP mapped all open spaces in Gauteng, assessing their Provincial Environmental
Importance (PEI) in terms of ecology, agricultural potential, heritage and social value, and in GOSP 3, the
detail of the GIS layers were updated (GOSP V3, 2004) (Gauteng BGAP 2003). The majority of the site is
of high Social PEI (Figure 44) and medium Ecological PEI (Figure 45).




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          Figure 44. GOSP- Social PEI




          Figure 45. GOSP: Ecological PEI.


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6.9     Local Planning Initiatives
The City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality’s Integrated Development Plan (IDP) based on the
City's vision sets out the strategic plan for the City over the medium term. The priorities for the City and
accompanying plans and interventions for the remaining mayoral term have been outlined in the 2008/09
IDP. These IDP interventions are in line with the Growth and Development Strategy (GDS) and are
currently at differing stages of planning and implementation.


The key IDP intervention strategies, including specific plans applicable to the proposed development are:
•     Proactive absorption of the poor
•     Settlement restructuring
              o   Formalise informal settlements.
              o   Provide basic services.
              o   Deliver affordable housing by creating a favourable environment for private investment in
                  mixed-use and mixed-income property developments.
•     Balanced and shared growth
•     Social mobility and reduced inequality
•     Sustainability and environmental justice
              o   Green the city by accelerating tree planting programmes, maintaining public open spaces,
                  and regulating land use to conserve green spaces.
•     Innovative governance solutions

The City’s Spatial Development Framework (SDF) prescribes a series of development strategies and
policy guidelines to address development challenges and to re-structure and re-engineer the current urban
form. The City faces the challenges of increasing urbanisation and immigration, poverty, high levels of
unemployment and increasing the accessibility to basic services. This translates into a series of localised
challenges and opportunities for the City including:
•     Assimilating and assisting the poor, specifically, addressing the housing backlogs for the poorest of
      the poor (estimated to be 200,000 in need of formal housing);
•     Providing an effective and affordable citywide public transportation network noting the reliance of the
      low-income communities on public transport and the dependence of middle-higher income
      communities on private modes. in an effective and co-ordinated manner;
•     Determining and communicating reasonable and effective development policies and strategies;
•     Investing in infrastructure in a cost-effective and pro-active fashion whilst ensuring that historical
      backlogs are addressed; and
•     Harnessing golden public investment opportunities such as Gautrain, the 2010 Soccer World Cup and
      the Bus Rapid Transport Network.



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The vision of the Gauteng Development Strategy (GDS) is “To ultimately create a better life for all
citizens”. The following strategic objectives have been defined with a view to realising this vision:
     1. Provision of social and economic infrastructure and services that will build sustainable
        communities and contribute to halving poverty;
     2. Accelerated, labour absorbing economic growth that will create long-term sustainable jobs and
        contribute to halving unemployment;
     3. Sustainable socio-economic development;
     4. Enhanced government efficiency and cooperative governance;
     5. Deepening participatory democracy, provincial and national unity and citizenship; and

The potential impact of every development must be assessed to ensure a future City that is sustainable,
efficient and accessible to all. Therefore the following aspects must be considered in the EIAR:
•   Assessing implications and demonstrating impact of development on City’s defined strategies and
    desired urban structure / form
•   Assessing implications and demonstrating impact on surrounding area
            o    Availability of infrastructure (social/physical)
            o    Compatibility/Character of surrounding areas
            o    Adequacy of access
            o    Site topography
            o    Natural features
            o    Heritage Features
•   Recognising opportunities/mitigating against constraints
•   Optimising the development via the application of sound urban design guidelines


The development complies with these aspects.


6.9.1   Regional Spatial Development Framework
The strategic planning context of the site is outlined in the Draft Regional Spatial Development
Framework, 2009 City of Johannesburg Region C (RSDF C 2009) being a review of the approved RSDF
2008/09 (Urban Dynamics 2009b). Key issues in the area include:


•   There are areas in the Region where there is entrenched poverty including Itsoseng that require on-
    going development and support.
•   The need for low-income housing opportunities to assist the poor out of poverty and cater for the
    informal settlements in the Region is a critical issue in this Region. The issue engages directly with
    meeting the challenge of poverty and ensuring that vulnerability, inequality and social exclusion are
    addressed. Furthermore, the incorporation of lower-income housing typologies into the broader urban




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    fabric will provide a range of different housing types for different economic needs within the same
    township.
•   The informal settlements located in the southern and northern parts of the Region need to be
    progressively eradicated to ensure the poor are absorbed to be bona fide urban citizens.
•   The City needs to be aggressive in containing the sprawling of informal settlements
•   The Region is recognised as having a unique open space system, which needs to be developed,
    managed and capitalised upon for the benefit of the local and metropolitan communities.
•   There is currently immense pressure to move the Urban Development Boundary further westwards.
•   The capacity of social facilities needs to be improved in order to cater for the increased residential
    densification and intensification of non-residential developments in the Region so as to ensure that
    citizens have access to a safe and healthy urban environment.


The SDF further mentions the following spatial “form giving” elements as important in the general
planning/design/pattern of the urban fabric (Urban Dynamics 2009b):


•   Transportation
    Malibongwe Drive (R512) is noted in the SDF as a Mobility Spine, defined as an arterial along which
    through traffic flows with minimum interruption. Development abutting the spine may include mixed
    land uses at identified intersection nodal points and/or predominantly higher density residential (RSDF
    C 2009).
    The K56 is identified as a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Route in sub-area A, linking through Kya Sands
    to Fourways and linking through to Sub Area D to Beyers Naude. The positions of the BRT stations
    need to be finalized, in view of the technical constraints of the route (RSDF C 2009).
    The SDF indicates a Taxi Rank in the Itsoseng Informal Settlement, but this facility is proposed to be
    formalised along the K56 (RSDF C 2009).
    The SDF refers to road capacity problems along Hans Strijdom Drive (now Malibongwe Drive). The
    current implementation of the road GDPTRW upgrading program, which includes the K29, will
    address the issue.
•   Nodes
    “Nodes are locations of concentrated activity often associated with the presence of employment
    opportunities and high density residential development located on or adjacent to Mobility Roads and
    Spines, and as such act as destinations for public transport…… The nodes in Region C are critical in
    maintaining the economic prominence enjoyed by the City.” (RSDF C 2009)
    Northgate is listed as a Regional Node, with a few District nodes (Florida CBD and Dobsonville)
    shown in the sub-region area, not close to the site. It is proposed that the node at the proposed
    development be earmarked as a district node.




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•   Residential Densification
    The City seeks to promote strategic residential densification in order to promote a more compact and
    concentrated urban form. Strategic densification is promoted in and around acknowledged and
    defined nodes, along transport routes (Mobility Spines and Mobility roads), in relation to low-income
    housing initiatives, within areas of focused public-sector investments, in selected areas of strong
    private sector investment and economic activity as highlighted in the RSDF’s and on consideration of
    site specifics of a given application. “Densification must go hand in hand with the provision of housing
    solutions for low to middle income earners”…. “In Region C increased densities relating to subsidized
    housing will relate to the social developments in …… Zandspruit and other project relating to provision
    for gap market housing options as well as formalization of informal settlements”.


The following environmental aspects are specified in the RSDF (RSDF C 2009):
•   The following requirements apply to the management of watercourses:
            o   A buffer of 32 metres each side of the watercourse edge (or greater as is necessary to
                maintain ecological functioning) shall be provided adjacent to all wetlands and
                watercourses.
            o   The 1:100 year flood-line should be respected at all times.
•   Ridges play an important role in ecosystem sustenance and biological biodiversity as they provide
    habitats for certain fauna and flora. They must be seen as part of the wider ecological continuum and
    a part of the Ecological Open Space Network that must be preserved as a migratory corridor for
    faunal movement, as well as a habitat and roosting site. Development on ridges should not be allowed
    and if considered it should be subject to conditions i.e. ecological audit or an environmental impact
    study should be conducted (RSDF C 2009).


The Housing Strategy of CoJ aims to facilitate to most fundamental change in the City by promoting the
provision of sustainable housing environments housing within close proximity to economic opportunities
and social amenities. Appropriate housing typologies meeting a range of needs throughout the City are a
pre-requisite to a City that is accessible, efficient and sustainable. Beyond the provision of
accommodation, new housing delivery must address the provision of adequate social and economic
amenities to ensure the concept of sustainable housing environments. The City’s Housing programs form
the basis of the City’s delivery targets of developing 100 000 units by 2011. These units must be made
available to include a range of tenure options and typologies. The Housing programs include the
formalization of various informal settlements in the region (23 informal settlements in Region C). These
areas are marginalized as they are vulnerable when it comes to sustainability issues due to lack of proper
housing, safety and security, social amenities and proper engineering services. The strategy is to
formalize the existing informal settlements in the Region in order to pro-actively absorb the poor (RSDF C
2009). Cosmo City is among the existing Housing Focus Areas and planning initiatives. According to the
RSDF Cosmo City is a particularly good example of a public/private housing initiative that has finally


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realised tangible results. This housing initiative has addressed issues of mixed-income housing typologies
and residents (RSDF 2008).


Cosmo City falls within Sub area 1 of Region C of CoJ. The following objectives / interventions proposed
in the RSDF apply to the Malibongwe Ridge development:
•   Support commercial/industrial economic opportunities in the area bounded by the proposed PWV5
    Road, Proposed K56,Pelindaba Road and Jackson Road in support of the Cosmo City settlement
•   Facilitate and/or provide incentives to service providers to ensure the timeous development of social
    and related services in Cosmo City.
•   Implement the Cosmo City Development Plan
•   Stimulate the development of a viable local economy in the area.
            o   Concentrate non-residential uses around defined nodes in support of higher order
                economic activity in terms of the Cosmo Development Plan.
            o   Provide for and regulate informal trading in the area.
•   Expedite the provision of bulk infrastructure and development of social facilities in the Sub Area
    through coordination with service providers.
•   Protection of environmentally sensitive areas (RSDF 2008).

A letter from Lebo Molefe (Director: Environmental Regulatory Services) at CoJ dated 28 May 2009
indicates that the proposed development is in line with the RSDF of CoJ. This letter is included in
Appendix M with the Public Participation Information.




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7          PUBLIC PARTICIPATION PROCESS

7.1     Introduction
The Public Participation Process (PPP) forms an integral component of the Environmental Impact
Assessment Process by affording Interested and Affected Parties (I&APs) the opportunity to identify
environmental issues and concerns relating to the proposed development, which they feel should be
addressed in the Environmental Impact Assessment Process. The National Environmental Management
Act (No. 107 of 1998) states in Section 2(4)(f), “the participation of all interested and affected parties in
environmental governance must be promoted, and all people must have the opportunity to develop the
understanding, skills and capacity necessary for achieving equitable and effective participation, and
participation by vulnerable and disadvantaged persons must be ensured”.


The process followed to date has been described below, however all associated documentation has not
been included in this report as it has been included in the Scoping Report which can be referred to for
reference.


7.2     Process followed to date
Interested and/or Affected Parties (I&AP’s) were notified of the proposed project as per the requirements
of the Environmental Impact Regulations published in Government Notice R385 in Government Gazette
No. 28753 of 21 April 2006, under Section 24(5) of the National Environmental Management Act, 1998
(Act No. 107 of 1998), as amended.


A register of all I&AP’s was opened and maintained in accordance with Regulation 57 of Government
Notice R385 throughout the EIA process. Registered I&AP’s is also provided the opportunity to comment
on the Draft Scoping Report, in accordance with Regulation 58 and will have the opportunity to comment
on the Draft EIAR. Comments and concerns received to date, have been captured. Comments on the
Draft Scoping Report will also be captured and considered once the comment period has expired.
Comments raised are included in the Comment and Response Report. Refer to Table 9 below.


The initial public participation process commenced on 16 January 2008 until the 15 February 2008 and
included the following:
•     An advertisement was placed in the local newspaper;
•     Site notices placed on and around the site;
•     Flyers and registration forms handed out in the surrounding area;
•     Key stakeholders and/or I&AP’s were directly notified.


Proof of all of these actions was included in the Scoping Report that was submitted to GDARD in June
2009.

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7.2.1   Newspaper Advertisement
An advertisement, notifying the public of the EIA process and inviting I&AP’s to participate in the process
by registering their comments, was placed in the main body of the Randburg Sun on the 16 January 2008
(Appendix M-1).


7.2.2   Site Notice, Flyers and Posters
In order to notify the surrounding communities and immediate adjacent landowners of the proposed
development, as well as inviting them to participate in the EIA process by registering their comments, site
notices were erected at strategic and visible locations on 15 January 2008 (Appendix M-2).


7.2.3   Direct Notification of Identified I & AP’s
Key stakeholders and/or I&AP’s were directly notified via email, fax, post and hand-delivered letters.
These key stakeholders received a Letter and Background Information Document (BID), including a
registration and comment sheet. They had until 15 February 2008 to provide comments, but comments
received later were included in the Scoping Report. The key stakeholders are from the following spheres:
             o    Provincial Authorities and Local Authorities having jurisdiction / interest in the area of
                  development and/or the activities of the proposed development;
             o    Ward Councillors;
             o    Service Providers and supply authorities;
             o    Non-governmental Organisations;
             o    Businesses;
             o    Relevant Forums, Boards and clubs;
             o    Direct Adjacent Landowners, as well as
             o    Relevant stakeholders associated with the adjacent land uses.


Appendix M-3 includes a copy of the BID, cover letter, registration sheet and a flyer. Proof of notification
that was sent to all I&APs were included in the Scoping Report. .


7.2.4   Review of Scoping Report
The Scoping Report was made available for review from 29 April to 1 June 2009. I&APs were notified by
means of faxes, emails and letters. A copy was available at Cosmo City Junior Primary School Nr 2632
Angola Avenue close to South Africa Drive. Reports were sent to the Ward Councillor Ms Maureen
Schneeman, Ms Jennifer Kitto at SAHRA, Masego Khambule at the Department of Water Affairs and
Environment (DWAE) and Ms Linda Kuhn at the City of Johannesburg: Senior Specialist Region C:
Environmental Management and Planning. All comment received during the Scoping phase have been
included in the final Scoping Report that was submitted to GDARD in June 2009. Proof of all
correspondence that the Scoping Report is available was included in the Scoping Report. An example of
the notification letter is included in Appendix M-4.


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 7.2.5   List of I&APs contacted to date



 Table 8. List of persons contacted during process.
National Authority
Mr   Yusef           Patel         Department of Provincial and Local Government
                                   The    Director:      Land     Use      and       Soil     Management
                                   Department of Agriculture
Ms   Rachel          Masango       Department of Land Affairs
Mr   Humphrey        Mashiyane     Commission on Restitution of Land Rights- Gauteng Regional Office

Provincial Authority
Mr   Rens            Botha         DWAF: Crocodile (West) Marico WMA (Quantity)

Mr   Justice         Maloleka      Department of water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF)- Quality
     Masego          Khambule      Department of water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF)
Mr   Sipho           Mbele         Director: Transport PlanningDepartment of Public Transport, Roads and
                                   Works
Mr   John            Falkner       Gauteng Department of Public Transport, Roads and Works
Mr   Neo             January       Provincial Manager: South African Heritage Resources           Agency
                                   (SAHRA)
Mr   Amos            Mulaudzi      Cultural Officer- South African Heritage Resources Agency (SAHRA)
Mr   Jennifer        Kitto         Cultural Officer- South African Heritage Resources Agency (SAHRA)

Mr   Peter           Mills         Cradle of Humankind
Mr   Steyn           Van Blerk     Gauteng Department of Housing Director: Special Projects
Local Authority
Mr   George          Wolvaardt     Johannesburg Roads Agency
Mr   Etienne         Allers        City of Johannesburg
Ms   Linda           Kuhn          City of Johannesburg: Senior Specialist Region C Environmental
                                   Manager
Mr   Belinda         Sterly        City of Johannesburg: Stormwater and Roads Section

Ms   Nozipho         Maduse        City of Johannesburg: Environmental Planning and Management
                                   Section
Ms   Maanda          Mandavha      City of Johannesburg: Environmental Planning and Management
                                   Section
Ms   Samkelisiwe     Mdalose       City of Johannesburg: Environmental Planning and Management
                                   Section
Ms   Maureen         Schneeman     Councillor (Ward 100)
Service Provider
Ms   Bernadette      Botha         Rand Water

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Mr    Francois       Van Wyk       Rand Water Pipeline
Mr    Mike           Reeves        Rand Water Pipeline
      Vusi           Msweli        Rand Water
Mr    Duncan         Hulley        Johannesburg Water
Mr    Peter          Edwards       Johannesburg Water
Mr    Dave           Lucas         Eskom- Environment Section
Mr    Arthur         Hunter        Eskom - Transmission
Mr    Kritesh        Bedessie      Eskom- Distribution
Mr    Shallandra     Mallgee       Eskom - Electricity Supplier
NGO
Ms    Carla          Hudson        Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa (WESSA)
Mr    Garth          Barnes        Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa (WESSA)
Mr    Bob            Dehning       Tree Society /Gauteng Coservancy Association
I&Aps
Mr    Paul         Fairall         Emifula Wetland Consulting
Mr    Leon         Sanderson       Chairperson: Farmall Landowners and Residents Association
Mrs   Bonnita      Hill            Sonnedal Committee -Liaison Officer
Ms    Lyn (L.A.)   Spaan           Sonnedal Committee -Secretary
Mr    Wessel       Swart           Mostyn Park, Sandspruit & Sandpark Residents Association
Mr    A.           Leonsins        Chartwell & Farmall Residents Association
Mr    C            Borges          Farmall Residents Association
Mr    R.           Torr            Lanseria Development Forum
Mr    R.           Cathrall        Farmall Residents Association
      B.           Liber           Randburg Chamber of Commerce
Mr    R.A.         Bradley         I&AP
Mr    Ian          Melass          Manager: South African Lion Park
Ms    Ds           Retief          Dutch Reformed Church:Nooitgedatcht
                                   Greenbelt Action Group
Mr    Ian          Fuhr            Acqviprops (Pty) Ltd
Mr    Ebrahim      Patel           Acqviprops (Pty) Ltd
Ms    Diane        Albertyn
      S            Nhlapo          Zandspruit Development Forum
      Audrey       Twala           Learning Performance Link
      Linda        Webb            Plot 93, Nooitgedacht
      Jean         Davidson        Plot 131, Nooitgedacht
                                   Laerskool Nooitgedacht
Mr    Cliff        Crutchfield
Mr                 Swart           Jukskei Crocodile Catchment Area Committee of residents Associations
                                   Portion 109 of the farm Zandspruit


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Mrs    Linda      Webb             Plot No 93, Nooitgedacht
       Ian        Melass           S.A Lion Park
Mr     Anton      Crouse           Cosmopolitan Projects


 7.3     Comments and Responses Report
 Interested and affected parties registered by completing registration forms and forwarding comments via
 e-mail, fax and telephone. Registered I&AP’s concerns raised, as well as responses to these concerns,
 are detailed in Table 9.

 Refer to Appendix M-5 for comments that were received during the announcement phase, Appendix M-6
 for comments received during Scoping Phase and Appendix M-7 for comments received after the Scoping
 Report was submitted to GDARD.




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  Table 9. Comments and Responses Report.
                             ISSUE/COMMENT                                        COMMENTATOR           SOURCE                                RESPONSE
                                                                                      GENERAL
She is happy about the development since she hopes she’ll get an                Audrey Twala          Telephone       Comment noted.
affordable house there.                                                         Individual Learning   23 Jan 2008
                                                                                Performance Link
The recommendations and mitigation measures from the specialist reports         Lebo Molefe /         Fax             The recommendations by the specialists will be
should be included in the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) and               Etienne Allers        28 May 2009     incorporated into the Environmental Management Plan and
should be strictly adhered to during the implementation phase of the project.   Environmental                         all contractors must adhere to this EMP, as is currently
                                                                                Regulatory Services                   undertaken on the existing Cosmo City
                                                                                City of Joburg
All applicable municipal by-laws must be adhered to.                            PN Ngomane            Fax             Noted.
                                                                                DWA                   2 Sep 2009
                                                                                   BIODIVERSITY
A water use license application is required for any purpose in a watercourse.   Masego Khambule       Letter          A water use license application will be submitted to DWAE
DWAF Ref No: 16/2/7/A210/N.                                                     DWAF                  18 Feb 2008     for all activities in a watercourse on site.

Indigenous trees should be provided along the internal roads of the             Lebo Molefe /         Fax             In terms of the agreement between the City of
township. This should be in line with the Joburg City Parks Open Space          Etienne Allers        28 May 2009     Johannesburg and Codevco, Johannesburg City Parks is
Management Plan.                                                                Environmental                         responsible for all trees planted in parks and streets, in the
                                                                                                                      same manner as was done in the existing Cosmo City.
                                                                                Regulatory Services
                                                                                City of Joburg
The functionality of the conservation area must be assessed as part of this     Lebo Molefe /         Fax             GDARD wants all wetland areas to be fenced but this
proposal. Lessons were learned from Phase One of Cosmo City in terms of         Etienne Allers        28 May 2009     seems not to be feasible. The City of Johannesburg is
conservation areas.                                                             Environmental                         currently unable to carry out (financially and physically) the
                                                                                                                      repairs to the existing fence at Cosmo City. In addition, the
                                                                                Regulatory Services                   local residents threatened to remove the fence completely
                                                                                City of Joburg                        as they claim that criminals hide there at night. It is
                                                                                                                      proposed to work together with the City to devise soft
                                                                                                                      barriers that will prevent vehicular access to demarcate
                                                                                                                      passive Public open spaces.
                                                                                                                      Joburg City Parks is responsible for the management of
                                                                                                                      public open spaces on Cosmo City.
C-Plan indicates two Class 1 ridges on site. No development is allowed on       Lebo Molefe /         Fax             One ‘ridge’ is actually a borrow pit used to source material
Class 1 ridge.                                                                  Etienne Allers        28 May 2009     for the upgrade of Malibongwe Drive. It does not provide

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                                                                                    Environmental                         any habitat of ridges whatsoever and will therefore not be
                                                                                    Regulatory Services                   regarded as a ridge. The draft ecological report indicates
                                                                                    City of Joburg                        that the ridge plant community is located further to the
                                                                                                                          south in the site than indicated on C-Plan. The area where
                                                                                                                          the ridge is indicated on C-Plan is in fact secondary
                                                                                                                          grassland and not regarded as sensitive ridge habitat. This
                                                                                                                          is also addressed in the biodiversity assessment.
The wetlands on site must be delineated and the wetland area and a 32m              Lebo Molefe /         Fax             The wetlands have been delineated (Section 3.8.2).
buffer zone measured from the edge of the stream should be regarded as a            Etienne Allers        28 May 2009     Malibongwe Ridge Layout Alternative 1 shows development
no-go zone.                                                                         Environmental                         in the buffer area. Malibongwe Ridge Layout Alternative 2
                                                                                    Regulatory Services                   excludes development 50 m from the wetland.
                                                                                    City of Joburg

                                                                                         WATER
The following activities mention in the Scoping Report constitute water uses        PN Ngomane            Fax             A water use license will be applied for in terms of Section
according to the National Water Act (Act 36 of 1998):                               DWA                   2 Sep 2009      21 (c) & (i) for the crossing wetland by the spine road.
Activity 1m: Section 21 (c) & (i)                                                                                         Activity 1(n) will not be conducted and therefore a Section
Activity 4: Section 21 (c) & ( i)                                                                                         21(b) application is not required.
Activity 1n: Section 21(b)                                                                                                The reason why Activity 1p was included in this application
Activity 1p: Section 21(g)                                                                                                is for the event that fuel for construction vehicles will be
                                                                                                                          temporarily stored on site, as well as for hazardous building
                                                                                                                          materials such as paint and thinners. Section 21(g) of the
                                                                                                                          National Water Act is for disposing of waste in a manner
                                                                                                                          which may detrimentally impact on a water resource. Non of
                                                                                                                          these construction wastes will be disposed of in a manner
                                                                                                                          which may detrimentally impact on a water resource and
                                                                                                                          therefore this waster use will not apply.
No development may occur within a wetland as described by the NWA.                  PN Ngomane            Fax             The wetlands have been delineated (Section 3.8.2) and no
Please refer to ‘A practical field procedure for identification and delineation     DWA                   2 Sep 2009      development takes place within the wetland.
of wetland and riparian area” as published by DWA.
                                                                                  TOWNPLANNING/ LAYOUT
Provision must be made for state schools and hospitals                              Greenbelt Action Fax                  Provision was made for schools. The need for a hospital will
                                                                                    Group            12 Feb 2008          be discussed with the Department of Health.
The proposed extension of Cosmo City does not adversely affect Rand                 Vusi Msweli      Fax                  Noted.


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  Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Water’s services or infrastructures. Rand Water File No: 15/9/1Vol10           Rand Water             5 Feb 2008
High density residential uses should not be adjacent to agricultural uses.     L Sanderson Farmall    Email              It was requested that Mr Sanderson elaborate on his
                                                                               Resident Association                      comment to ensure that it is properly addressed during the
                                                                                                                         EIA process.
The land uses must be compatible to adjacent land uses. It is felt that high   L Sanderson Farmall    Email              Noted.
density residential uses next to rural residential uses are inappropriate.     Resident Association   27 Feb 2008
There must be a gradual change from high density to lower density to
mitigate effects on the surrounding communities.
Me Albertyn is concerned regarding the density and nature of development.      Diane Albertyn         Email              Noted.
                                                                                                      6 Mar 2008
The proposed development is in line with the RSDF of Sub Area 1 of Region      Lebo Molefe /          Fax                Noted.
C.                                                                             Etienne Allers         28 May 2009
                                                                               Environmental
                                                                               Regulatory Services
                                                                               City of Joburg
The township layout plan should include the size of the open spaces and        Lebo Molefe /          Fax                The township layout will indicate the size of the open
must be zoned “Public Open Space”.                                             Etienne Allers         28 May 2009        spaces and zone it as Public Open Space
                                                                               Environmental
                                                                               Regulatory Services
                                                                               City of Joburg
                                                                                 TRAFFIC/ROADS
It is requested that the comments on the original Cosmo City EIA is referred   L Sanderson            Email              It was requested that Mr Sanderson elaborate on his
to. In particular regarding the future of district roads 2159.                 Farmall Resident                          comment to ensure that it is properly addressed during the
                                                                               Association                               EIA process

There is concern regarding the external roads providing access to the          Greenbelt Action       Fax                The Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA) in Section 4.2.1
development particularly PWV’s                                                 Group                  12 Feb 2008        addressed the traffic issues. The TIA indicates that there
It is felt that the road network within Farmall is unable to cater for any     L Sanderson            Email              will be sufficient capacity with the required road
additional traffic volumes. Current volumes exceed the capacity of the road    Farmall Resident       27 Feb 2008        construction and intersection upgrades.
network. It is proposed that Provincial Road 2159 is closed and thus any       Association
incremental traffic volumes will be limited. The traffic studies undertaken
previously took account of this intention as did the Gautrans planning as
presented to us.


  Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                       Page: 96
  Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Me Albertyn is concerned regarding the traffic.                                     Diane Albertyn       Email
                                                                                                         6 Mar 2008
The dirt roads, for example, Zandspruit Road, are operating at capacity and         Alex Leonsins        Email           Zandspruit Road
this leads to clouds of dust obscuring visibility and the road surface is of poor   Farmall Landowners   29 May 2009     No traffic is planned to be diverted towards the Zandspruit
quality. The proposed developments in the area will require the tarring of          & Ratepayers                         Road (Rietvallei Road/D2159) instead use of the R114
roads in Farmall (a total of 47 kms) as the suburb will be used as a cut-           Association.                         (future K52) is taken into account. The likely closure of
through area to the retail and commercial facilities in the Cedar Road area.                                             Zandspruit Road at the Cosmo Business Park boundary
The proposal reports for the various developments in the area make                                                       would effectively stop the use of this road to/from
reference to planned roads, namely the K29, K52 and K56. These roads                                                     Malibongwe Drive (K29) by motorised vehicles.
cannot be used to justify adequate traffic and transport facilities when they                                            The closure/deproclamation of a section of Rietvallei Road /
will not be constructed.                                                                                                 Zandspruit Road (D2159) has not yet been approved, or
It is believed that building small sections of roads to resolve the problems is                                          otherwise, by the Gauteng Department of Public Transport,
flawed. The 1980 PWV/Gauteng Road Plan is an integrated solution and the                                                 Roads and Works ('Gautrans') to the traffic engineers
K56 and other roads must open into other roads of similar or higher order                                                knowledge.
roads.
                                                                                                                         Provincial K-routes
                                                                                                                         • Malibongwe Drive (R512) is currently being upgraded in
                                                                                                                             terms of the planning for the K29 (between South Africa
                                                                                                                             Drive/Dawn Road and Lanseria and including the
                                                                                                                             upgrading of the N14/K29 Interchange);
                                                                                                                         •   Part of the development a road will be constructed along
                                                                                                                             the alignment of the K56 from Malibongwe Drive This
                                                                                                                             would included for the construction of the quarter link
                                                                                                                             interchange between the K56 and the K29; and
                                                                                                                         •   The R114 substantially follows the alignment of the
                                                                                                                             future K52. Upgrading of the R114 is planned at key
                                                                                                                             intersections;
                                                                                         SERVICES
Proposed Substations in the area of development Land required for new               Shalandra Mallgee    Fax             It was requested that the question/ comment regarding
substation sites                                                                                         25 Jan 2008     proposed substations in the area of the development are
                                                                                                                         clarified.
Eskom has registered as an Interested and Affected party as it intends to           Shalandra Mallgee    Email           Noted.
construct new substations in the area.                                                                   28 Jan 2008
Eskom Transmission is not affected by the application. Application will be          DLC Motsisi          Letter          Noted.
forwarded to Eskom Distribution.                                                    Eskom Transmission   19 May 2009

  Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                       Page: 97
  Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Eskom will raise no objection to this application provided its rights and        MG Phala             Fax             Noted.
services are acknowledged and respected at all times and the requirements        Eskom Distribution   17 Aug 2009
as laid down by the Occupational Health and Safety Act No 85/1993 are
complied with. The following conditions should be complied with:
•    Eskom Lanseria Technical Service Centre should be notified at least
     seven days prior to commencement of any work under or in close
     proximity to Eskom services.
•    Any cost and claims due to interruptions, interference or relocation to
     Eskom services causing power supply loss or loss of income, due to this
     application will be borne by the applicant.
•    Eskom must have ingress to and egress from its services at all times.
•    No mechanical equipment, including mechanical excavators, may be
     used under or in close proximity to Eskom services without the prior
     approval of Eskom authorised representatives.
•    The consent is subject to the Landowner’s permission for the proposed
     development. A copy of the permission must be filed with Eskom seven
     days before any work is carried out in the servitude area.
•    Eskom shall not be liable for the death of or injury to any person or for
     the loss of or damage to any property cause d in whatsoever manner by
     the applicant, his employees, agents or contractors. The applicant
     indemnifies Eskom against all claims including claims for consequential
     damages by third parties which includes but is not limited to claims as a
     result of damage to or interruption of or interference with Eskom
     services or equipment. The applicant’s attention is drawn to Electricity
     Regulation Act (Act 4 of 2006).
•    No excavation may be executed closer than 1.5 metres from the
     underground cables and closer than six metres from the overhead
     power lines unless there is an Eskom authorised representative on site.
     Cross trenching must be done to establish the exact position of
     underground cables.
•    No blasting may be undertaken under or in close proximity of Eskom
     services unless minimum charges with adequate matting is used and
     then only under the strict supervision of Eskom authorised


  Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                    Page: 98
  Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
     representative who require at least three days prior notification.
•    Statutory clearances shall be complied with.
•    Eskom underground cables must be sleeved if crossed by storm water
     pipes etc. The sleeves must be provided and installed by the applicant.
•    The contractor in charge of construction or maintenance work on site
     must at all times be in possession of the letter of approval of the service
     concerned, as well as all plans that are required, so that during an
     inspection the contractor can present the documentation to Eskom
     officials.
•    No relocation work may proceed prior to the submission of a formal
     application and acceptance of the relocation costs by the applicant.
The existing sewer capacity is inadequate and this can clearly be seen in the      Alex Leonsins         Email            The Services OSR (Appendix J & Appendix K) states that
Jukskei River. The existing system cannot cope with the sewage volume.             Farmall Landowners    29 May 2009      there are sufficient capacity in the Zandspruit rising main,
The north-eastern part of CoJ relies on a pumped system to drain into              & Ratepayers                           gravity outfall sewer and pump station.
Northern Sewerage Works. The pump stations and the rising mains are not            Association.
coping nor are they robust enough to process these large volumes
especially given unreliable Eskom supplies, inadequate maintenance and
other weaknesses in the system. It is believed that gravity outfall sewers to a
new sewerage works at the confluence of the Main Jukskei and Crocodile
rivers ultimately can only provide the correct engineering solutions to this
problem of the developmental pressures of the proposed projects and future
projects that will inevitably follow. It is argued that no further development
should be approved without first carrying out a major sewer upgrade
Johannesburg Water should be consulted regarding the capacity of the               Lebo Molefe /         Fax
Northern Waste Water Treatment Works as the proposed development will              Etienne Allers        28 May 2009
place an additional burden on the treatment works.                                 Environmental
                                                                                   Regulatory Services
                                                                                   City of Joburg
An agreement letter from Johannesburg Water should be supplied where               PN Ngomane            Fax              An agreement letter could not be obtained yet. This will be
they confirm that they are able to supply the development with the bulk water      DWA                   2 Sep 2009       provided upon approval of the Services OSR which has
required as well as that there is capacity at the Northern Waste Water                                                    been submitted to them.
Treatment Works for treatment of the additional sewage.
A comprehensive surface water runoff management plan should be included            Lebo Molefe /         Fax              A stormwater runoff plan will be included in Annexure F in
                                                                                                                          Appendix J & Appendix K of the EIAR
    Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                      Page: 99
    Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
in the EIAR. The management plan must be in line with the Catchments              Etienne Allers         28 May 2009
Management Policy of the City of Johannesburg.                                    Environmental
                                                                                  Regulatory Services
                                                                                  City of Joburg
                                                                                        HERITAGE
It is recommended that a desktop heritage survey is undertaken to enable          Amos Mulaudzi          Fax             A heritage impact assessment was conducted.
SAHRA to identify and asses any heritage resources on site.                       SAHRA                  6 Feb 2008
A copy of the Scoping Report was requested.                                       Tebogo Molokomme       Letter          The Scoping Report was made available to SAHRA.
                                                                                  SAHRA                  29 May 2009
                                                                                          CRIME
Securing of the various development sites, as required by law, but often not      Alex Leonsins          Email           In the Environmental Management Plan that all contractors
adequately policed, will be an essential requirement if the development           Farmall Landowners     29 May 2009     must adhere to, security aspects are addressed. This
phase is to be properly managed. Existing residents will require written proof    & Ratepayers                           includes measure such as that no workers may live on site
of what is agreed on, in order to monitor the situation.                          Association.                           and only construction workers have access to the site. A
                                                                                                                         security company will be appointed to monitor the situation
                                                                                                                         on site.

                                                                                 PUBLIC PARTICIPATION
A copy of the Scoping Report/EIAR must be forwarded to the Environmental          Linda Kuhn           Email             The Scoping Report was available for review and the City of
Management Planning Department of the CoJ once it has been drafted.               City of Johannesburg 23 Jan 2008       Johannesburg commented. The draft EIAR is now available
                                                                                                                         for review.
Registered as an I&AP.                                                            Ian Fuhr               Fax             Added to the I&AP database.
                                                                                  Acqviprops (Pty) Ltd   12 Feb 2008
Registered as an I&AP.                                                            Ian Melass             Fax             Added to the I&AP database.
                                                                                  SA Lion Park           12 Feb 2008
Registered as an I&AP.                                                            Ebrahim Patel          Fax             Added to the I&AP database.
                                                                                  Acqviprops (Pty) Ltd   12 Feb 2008
Registered as an I&AP.                                                            Diane Albertyn         Email           Added to the I&AP database.
                                                                                  Acqviprops (Pty) Ltd   6 March 2008
Inform the Zandspruit Development Forum of any public meetings to be held         S Nhlapo               Fax             All registered I&APs will be informed of all public
regarding the proposed development.                                               Zandspruit             20 Feb 2008     participation actions.
                                                                                  Development Forum
Information is requested regarding the proposed development.                      L Sanderson Farmall    Email           Information pertaining to the EIA was emailed on 8 Feb


  Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                      Page: 100
  Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
                                                                               Resident Association   4 Feb 2008      2008.
According to the records of the National Department of Agriculture, the farm   Department of          Letter          An application was lodged.
Zandspruit 191 IQ, is still agricultural land. A formal application must be    Agriculture            25 Aug 2008
lodged for the township in terms of the Subdivision of Agricultural Land Act
(Act No 70 of 1970).
The application has been captured in the electronic AgriLand tracking and      Department of          Letter          Noted.
management system. AgriLand Ref No: 2008-01-0320.                              Agriculture            21 Jan 2009
The application has been captured in the electronic AgriLand tracking and      Department of          Letter          Noted.
management system. AgriLand Ref No: 2009-04-0242.                              Agriculture            4 May 2009
Is it possible to make the Scoping Report available on the internet?           Jo Dunstan             Email           The report was made available at on the internet.
                                                                               Housing &              5 May 2009
                                                                               Development
                                                                               Services (Pty) Ltd.
The public participation undertaken is in line with the EIA regulations of     Lebo Molefe /          Fax             Comments, no need for response.
2006.                                                                          Etienne Allers         28 May 2009
                                                                               Environmental
                                                                               Regulatory Services
                                                                               City of Joburg
Locality map requested.                                                        L. Motsisi             Telephone       Locality map sent.
                                                                               Eskom                  19 May 2009




  Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                   Page: 101
  Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
8          METHODOLOGY IN ASSESSING IMPACTS
The environment is a combination of the physical, biological, social and economic aspects of our
surroundings. Any analysis of the impacts on the environment must therefore take into account any
potential change, positive or negative, on the biophysical and socio-economic environment which may
result from the proposed actions (Jain et al. 1977). Project activities are linked to changes in the
environment. Not all changes are considered to be impacts. The level of change determines the
significance of a change, which is assessed in terms of spatial extent, duration, probability and
intensity. This informs the assessment if the changes are significant impacts, or not. Once the
assessment of potential impacts has been completed, mitigating measures are described to prevent
and reduce the potential impacts. These measures may alter project design. For implementation, an
Environmental Management Plan is compiled to ensure that these mitigation measures are
implemented. This also includes monitoring to evaluate the effectiveness of the mitigation measures
(Lohani et al. 1997).


The aim of an EIA is to determine whether the project is likely to cause significant environmental
impacts. To determine the significance, impacts were evaluated on the parameters of duration,
intensity and probability from which the significance of the impact was derived. In terms of the
Significance Assessment Methodology, the significance of an impact is the product of a probability
rating and a severity rating. A detailed description of the mentioned methodology follows.


8.1    Probability
Probability describes the likelihood of the impact actually occurring, and is rated as follows:


Impossible              Impact will not occur                                             1
Improbable              Low possibility of impact to occur due to design or history       2
Probable                Distinct possibility that impact will occur                       3
Highly probable         Most likely that impact will occur.                               4
Definite                Impact will occur regardless of any prevention measures.          5


8.2    Intensity factor
The intensity factor is awarded to each impact according to the following method:


Low             Nature and/or man made functions not affected (minor process damage or            1
                human/wildlife injury could occur
Medium          Environment affected but natural and/or manmade functions and processes           2
                continue (Some process damage or human/ wildlife injury may have occurred)
High            Environment affected to the extent that natural and/or human-made functions are   4
                altered to the extent that it will temporarily or permanently cease (Major process
                damage or human/wildlife injury could occur)


8.3   Duration
Duration is assessed and a factor awarded in accordance with the following:


Short term       <1 to 5 years                                                                          2
Medium term      5 to 15 years                                                                          3
Long term        Impact will only cease after the operational life of the activity has ended, either    4
                 because of natural process or by human intervention
Permanent        Mitigation, either by natural process or by human intervention, will not occur in      4
                 such a way or in such a time span that the impact can be considered transient




8.4   Severity factor and severity rating
The severity rating is obtained from calculating a severity factor from the combined effect of intensity
and duration. For example:
The Severity factor        =   Intensity factor X Duration factor
                           =   2x3
                           =   6
A Severity factor of six (6) equals a Severity Rating of Medium severity (Rating 3) as indicated below.


FACTOR                               RATING
Calculated values 2 to 4             Low Severity            2
Calculated values 5 to 8             Medium Severity         3
Calculated values 9 to 12            High Severity           4
Calculated values 13 to 16           Very High severity      5
Severity factors below 2 indicate no significant impact


8.5   Significance
A Significance Rating is calculated by multiplying the Severity Rating with the Probability Rating. The
significance rating should influence the development project as described below:


Low             Significance Rating      Positive and negative impacts of low significance should have no
                4 to 6                   significant influence on the proposed development project.
Medium          Significance Rating      Positive impact: Should weigh towards a decision to continue
                ≥ 7 to 12                Negative impact: Should be mitigated before project can be



Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                 Page: 103
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
                                       approved
High            Significance Rating    Positive impact: Should weigh towards a decision to continue,
                ≥ 13 to 18             should be enhanced in final design.
                                       Negative impact: Should weigh towards a decision to terminate
                                       proposal,   or   mitigation should    be performed to reduce
                                       significance to at least a medium significance rating.
Very High       Significance Rating    Positive impact: Continue
                ≥ 19 to 25             Negative impact: If mitigation cannot be implemented effectively,
                                       proposal should be terminated.




A spreadsheet is used to calculate the significance. It is included in Appendix O.




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                            Page: 104
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
9         DESCRIPTION            OF     ENVIRONMENTAL            IMPACTS         AND      POTENTIAL
          ISSUES

The spreadsheet used to calculate the significance is included in Appendix O.


9.1   Social Impacts
The people living in Itsoseng will have to be moved for the duration of the construction. This will impact
on the way they live their lives. Moving in itself is a stress factor. The location of where they will be
living may impact negatively or positively on their lives. They may be farther or closer to transport
facilities, social amenities and their place of work.


The tree with white rock packed in a circle around it that is used as a church will not be impacted upon
as it is located in the open space area.         However, should the open space area be fenced the
congregation will not have access.


During the construction phase, a number of employment opportunities will be created by the developer.
Certain jobs will be accessible by community members in the surrounding areas. Apart from the direct
jobs that will be created, a number of spin-offs will be created. These opportunities will relate to
transport services and maintenance services amongst others, many of which do not require a high
level of skills. On the job training and skill development will result in community upliftment and have a
positive impact on the socio-economic aspects in the area. Recruitment is a sensitive issue, and must
be handled carefully, since it could lead to social unrest if the processes were deemed as unfair. It
must also be noted that jobs created in the construction period are not sustainable jobs, and only
provide people with a temporary income. Transparent and honest communication about the availability
and levels of jobs available must happen on an ongoing basis.


One of the greatest impacts of the proposed housing development is the provision of housing and
community facilities to individuals currently on the site in informal dwellings as well as other members
from the surrounding communities. This will alleviate some of the housing backlog currently
experienced in the City of Johannesburg and will provide a secure environment for children to be
brought up in. Throughout the operational phase of the development there will be employment
opportunities created by the many facilities, shops and businesses that will be located in the
development. This will benefit the surrounding communities substantially as individuals will be able to
provide for their families in an area where unemployment is high.


Malibongwe Ridge Layout Alternative 1 provides more housing opportunities than Malibongwe Ridge
Layout Alternative 2. It will therefore have a larger positive impact. Malibongwe Ridge Alternative 3


Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                              Page: 105
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
constitutes the no-go option. If the people living in Itsoseng are not moved the development cannot be
constructed and they would not get housing and associated social benefits. There will also be no new
job opportunities. It can be argued that the development can take place around the Itsoseng
community and they can stay here they are, just as they are but this will defy the purpose of the
development which is to provide them with housing. There will be no social benefits should the no-go
option be favoured.


Table 10. Social Impacts, Significance and Mitigation
       IMPACT             SIGNIFICANCE                                 MITIGATION

 Moving people            Medium          •   The community should be informed long before they have to
 living in Itsoseng to                        move.
 different location for                   •   Assistance should be provided during moving to the
 the duration of the                          temporary housing as well as moving back into the new RDP
 construction                                 houses.
                                          •   The temporary housing that will be provided should be
                                              discussed with the community. All may not be happy about it
                                              but reasonable housing should be provided.
 Impact on tree with      No impact       •   No mitigation required
 circle of white rocks
 that is used as a
 church - If open
 space is not fenced:
 access
 Impact on tree with      Very High       •   Access should be provided.
 circle of white rocks
 that is used as a
 church - if open
 space is fenced: no
 access
 Creation of job          Positive        •   Strict protocols should apply to the secondment of labour
 opportunities,           Medium              from outside of the area
 training and skills                      •   Contractors should be expected to provide on-the-job training
 development during                           to local labour in order to upgrade existing skills.
 construction phase                       •   Meetings should be held with the Department of Labour and
                                              with local community officials to explain the processes and to
                                              alert these institutions to employment opportunities that will
                                              come about.
                                          •   A database should be developed and a process put in place
                                              to facilitate the recruitment of local labour by the Contractors.
                                          •   A “labour desk” or “labour office” should be established on or
                                              in close proximity of the site to facilitate the process.
 Creation of job          High Positive   •   No mitigation required
 opportunities,
 training and skills
 development during
 operational phase
 Provision of             Very High       •   Positive impact therefore no mitigation required. However, the
 housing and              Positive            surrounding communities must be given access to the social
 community facilities                         infrastructure. No benefit will be experienced if they are
                                              denied entrance and use of the facilities.
 No go option – no        Very High       •   Cannot be mitigated.
 housing can be
 provided



Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                      Page: 106
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
 No go option – no       Very High           •      Cannot be mitigated.
 new job
 opportunities


9.2    Agricultural Potential
Activities associated with development limits the potential for agriculture on site. However, agricultural
potential on site is considered to be low and therefore the loss in land for agriculture is not significant.
The properties that are not covered by the Itsoseng Informal Settlement belongs to the City of
Johannesburg and it is not expected that they will practice agricultural activities. Also, commercial
agriculture is unlikely next to an informal settlement due to theft.


Part of the project proposal is that some projects are launched for the cultivation of community
vegetable gardens within the development. The layout plan makes provision for open space, especially
within the RDP housing area. Urban agriculture and permaculture will provide the homeowners with
vegetables and food. This will save them money as they would not need to buy these and would also
provide them with the opportunity to eat more healthily.


The no-go option will prevent an impact on the agricultural potential of the larger site. However, no
organised initiatives and food producing opportunities will be provided by the developers to the people
and especially the residents of Itsoseng will then lose out on the benefits of producing their own food.


Table 11. Agricultural Impacts, Significance and Mitigation
                      IMPACT                             SIGNIFICANCE                  MITIGATION
 Loss of agricultural potential on site.                       Low         No mitigation possible
 Organised opportunities for residents to produce                          No mitigation necessary
                                                         Medium Positive
 own food.
 No go option – no loss of agricultural potential                          No mitigation necessary
                                                            No impact
 on site.
 No go option - No organised opportunities for                             No mitigation possible
                                                             Medium
 urban agriculture to produce own food.


9.3    Biodiversity Impacts
Although the site is disturbed and alien species are abundant, the habitats and ecosystem services are
important to the biodiversity of the area. Construction of the proposed development will lead to the loss
of habitat and vegetation which will impact on the functioning of the area. A portion of the site will be
kept as open space to protect the wetland habitat.


The loss of habitat and construction activities will result in the decrease of species diversity. Species
diversity may decline due to death of individuals during construction activities, the destruction of habitat
essential for the foraging, roosting, breeding of faunal species and hunting of animals.



Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                                Page: 107
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
The proposed development may impact on the wetland located on site. Potential habitat is available on
site for the African Grass Owl and the Melodious Lark has been observed on site.


Malibongwe Ridge Alternative 1 has a buffer of 20 m around the wetland on site (Figure 38).
Malibongwe Ridge Alternative 2 has a 50 m buffer around the wetland on site (Figure 39). The
advantage of Alternative 2 is that it has a larger buffer around the wetland and it will have a smaller
impact on the wetland.


Malibongwe Ridge Alternative 3 shows a 170 m buffer zone around the wetland identified by MSA
(2009) and the potential roosting, foraging and nesting habitat for the African Grass Owl (Pachnoda
Consulting 2009) (Figure 40). If these areas and a 170 m buffer around it are excluded from the
development it will lead to the loss of a large school site and a direct loss of almost 300 erven and a
portion of a high density residential erf (Figure 40). Because the school has to be provided it will have
to move to a different location which will lead to a larger loss in erven. This will increase the service
cost per unit for installing bulk services by a large amount which will lead the development not to be
financially feasible and no development can then take place. In addition, the total surface area of the
hillslope seep areas and buffer for foraging, breeding and roosting habitat is too small and is not
considered viable to sustain a population of this species in the long term. The avifaunal specialist
states that creating a formal development in the area, with a smaller buffer zone around the wetland,
will have a smaller impact on the habitat for the African Grass Owl than uncontrolled informal
settlement on the vacant land. Therefore, no development taking place will have a worse impact on the
African Grass Owl habitat than development with a smaller buffer zone. It is therefore motivated that it
will be beneficial to the biodiversity and African Grass Owl to develop the area identified as potential
roosting, foraging and nesting habitat.


The same is true for the wetlands on site. The residents of the informal settlement use the wetland
area for activities such as dumping of rubble and various footpaths traverse the area. Contaminated
run-off will also enter the system. Controlled development will prevent the informal settlement from
spreading into the wetland area.


Therefore the no-option is not favoured by the ecologists. The development should just take place
responsible with protection measures for the biodiversity on site and this will have a nett positive
impact on the biodiversity.


Disturbance at the site may aid exotic species to invade the site. It may also be introduced by
gardening activities. These exotic species may infest the site and adjacent properties.




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                             Page: 108
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Table 12. Biodiversity Impacts, Significance Rating and Mitigation
               IMPACT                  SIGNIFICANCE                       MITIGATION
 Loss of habitat due to loss of                         •   An independent, suitably qualified individual
 vegetation will impact biodiversity                        (at least a BSc (Hons) in the natural
 and functioning of the ecosystem in       High
                                                            sciences) must act as the environmental
 general.                                                   control officer (ECO).
                                                        •   Monthly audit reports are required for the
 Decline of species diversity in the                        duration of the construction and rehabilitation
 area                                                       phase.
                                          Medium
                                                        •   A person must be identified at GDARD and
                                                            DWAE to review audit reports and aid in
 Potential loss of species of                               monitoring of construction and rehabilitation.
 conservation importance – most                         •   Construction staff must receive training to
                                          Medium            increase their environmental awareness.
 notably the African Grass Owl and
 Melodious Lark                                         •   All areas earmarked for development must be
                                                            fenced off from the open space system
 Malibongwe Ridge Layout                                    before construction commences. All
 Alternative 1: 30m buffer around         Medium            construction-related impacts (including roads)
 wetland                                                    must be contained within the fenced-off
                                                            development areas.
 Malibongwe Ridge Layout
 Alternative 2 50m buffer around                        •   Access of vehicles to the open space system
 wetland                                                    and access of people must be controlled.
                                                            Movement of all indigenous fauna must
                                                            however be allowed (i.e. no solid walls).
                                                        •   Compacting of soil must be avoided in areas
                                                            to be included in the open space system.
                                                        •   During construction, materials such as sand
                                                            and stone should, wherever possible, be
                                                            sourced from areas that are free of alien
                                                            plants in order to avoid the spread of alien
                                          Medium            species.
                                                        •   Adequate maintenance of equipment and
                                                            facilities to prevent leakages and spillages.
                                                        •   Adequate dust control strategies are to be
                                                            implemented to minimize dust deposition and
                                                            reduce sedimentation on the river system.
                                                        •   Permits will need to be obtained for the
                                                            removal and/or destruction of any protected
                                                            plant species identified on site.
                                                        •   If any wild animal, including birds and
                                                            reptiles, are observed, it should not be
                                                            disturbed in any way.
 Malibongwe Ridge Layout                                •   No mitigation possible.
 Alternative 3: 170m buffer around
                                         Very High
 wetland and African Grass Owl
 habitat – no-go option
 Increase in alien invasive species                     •   During construction, materials such as sand
 (weeds) which will occur on all                            and stone should, wherever possible, be
 disturbed areas                                            sourced from areas that are free of alien
                                                            plants in order to avoid the spread of alien
                                                            species.
                                                        •   Natural open spaces should be left in their
                                                            undeveloped state and any existing or new
                                          Medium
                                                            exotic vegetation that is present on the site
                                                            should be removed and eradicated.
                                                        •   A monitoring programme should be put in
                                                            place to remove exotic vegetation and
                                                            maintain open space areas free from exotic
                                                            invasions. CARA (Act No 43 of 1983).
                                                        •   Removal of these species should take place



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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
               IMPACT                    SIGNIFICANCE                       MITIGATION
                                                              in an environmentally friendly way and should
                                                              limit the disturbance from the removal of the
                                                              species to as small an area as possible.
 No go option – Area will be further
 invaded by informal settlers and
                                           Very High      No mitigation measures possible.
 associated activities which will lead
 to habitat loss.




9.4    Erosion and Sedimentation Impacts
Vegetation clearance and creation of impermeable surfaces will result in sheet erosion in areas across
the site. The clearance of vegetation will further reduce the capacity of the land surface to retard the
flow of surface water, thus decreasing infiltration, and increasing both the quantity and velocity of
surface water runoff and erosion. The particles in suspension will be transported towards the wetland
and increase the sedimentation in the wetland, thereby degrading water quality.


The proposed development will increase the amount of impermeable surfaces and therefore decrease
the amount of groundwater infiltration. As a result, the amount of stormwater during rainfall events will
increase. If proper stormwater management measures are not implemented this will impact negatively
on the water courses close to the site.



Table 13. Erosion and Sedimentation Impacts, significance and mitigation.

        IMPACT              SIGNIFICANCE                             MITIGATION
 Vegetation clearance,     High              •   No surface stormwater generated as a result of the
 compacting of soil                              development may be directed directly into any natural
 causing decrease in                             drainage system or wetland.
 surface permeability                        •   The stormwater management plan attached in Appendix J
 thereby increasing                              and Appendix K must be adhered to.
 surface and                                 •   Storm water on the site must be managed so as to reduce
 stormwater runoff                               the silt loads in the system. Measures must be implemented
                                                 to distribute storm water as evenly as possible to avoid
                                                 point sources of erosion.
                                             •   Storm water attenuation ponds should be constructed
                                                 outside the wetland area, but may encroach onto the buffer.
                                             •   Special care needs to be taken during the construction
                                                 phase to prevent surface stormwater rich in sediments and
                                                 other pollutants from entering the natural drainage systems
                                                 / wetlands.
                                             •   No activity such as temporary housing, temporary ablution,
                                                 disturbance of natural habitat, storing of equipment or any
                                                 other use of the buffer/flood zone whatsoever, may be
                                                 permitted during the construction phase. The demarcated
                                                 buffer/flood zone must be fenced during the construction
                                                 phase to prevent any misinterpretation of the demarcated
                                                 no-go zone.
                                             •   The crossing of natural drainage systems must be
                                                 minimized and may only be constructed at the shortest
                                                 possible route, perpendicular to the natural drainage


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
       IMPACT             SIGNIFICANCE                               MITIGATION
                                               system.
                                           •   It is recommended that river crossings be avoided where
                                               possible. If not, crossings should be constructed (by a
                                               qualified engineer) in such a way to do as least ecological
                                               damage as possible.
                                           •   Should any diversions of any of the river systems or their
                                               associated tributaries be required, this should be done in
                                               consultation with an aquatic ecologist.
                                           •   Appropriate erosion control structures must be put in place
                                               where soil may be prone to erosion;
                                           •   Checks must be carried out at regular intervals to identify
                                               areas where erosion is occurring. Appropriate remedial
                                               action are to be undertaken where erosion is evident;
                                           •   The areas disturbed by the development, but not covered
                                               by the development, should be rehabilitated as soon as
                                               possible and revegetated with indigenous species.
                                           •   The species should be indigenous to the specific area and
                                               the composition of the vegetation should reflect the natural
                                               vegetation.
                                           •   Any water use and the crossing of rivers should only occur
                                               under the regulation of a Water Use License.
 Increase in             High              •   The stormwater management plan (in Appendix J and
 stormwater run-off                            Appendix K) must be implemented effectively.
 due to increase of                        •   Reduction in stormwater velocity, in order to prevent
 hard surface area                             erosion in the wetland area, could be attained by
 which poses a risk of                         implementation of the following:
 erosion in the                                 - Stormwater originating from the roads should not be
 wetland.                                          allowed to enter directly into the wetland areas, but must
                                                   be buffered by on-site erosion control and energy
                                                   dissipating interventions (e.g. stormwater dissipaters,
                                                   Infiltration basins/ trenches, gabions, grassed swales;
                                                   vegetated filter strips, etc.) in order to prevent erosion
                                                   from occurring in the wetland
                                                - Roads should retain a portion of a vegetated buffer strip
                                                   as interface between itself and wetland system.
                                                - Site rehabilitation and maintenance of vegetation
                                                   strips/buffers / rehabilitated areas should be an on-going
                                                   process.
                                           •   A storm water management system should be designed in
                                               such a way that the natural flow regime (velocity of the
                                               water) of the wetland is not exceeded by 50% in the event
                                               of 1:10 year flood to prevent the possibility of erosion in the
                                               wetland.
 No go alternative       No impact         •   No mitigation necessary


9.5   Water Quality Impacts
Construction activities can lead to the contamination of ground and surface water resources through
spillages of fuel and other pollutants. Road construction is also associated with bitumen and other
chemicals. However, only a small amount of hazardous chemicals and pollutants will be present on
site. The clearance of vegetation will reduce the capacity of the land surface to retard flow of surface
water, thus decreasing infiltration, and increasing both the quantity and velocity of the surface water
run-off and erosion.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Water quality of receiving watercourses can deteriorate as a result of sedimentation from erosion of
the wetland, or due to hazardous substance (pollutants) contamination. Hazardous substances may
include oil, petrol or diesel from vehicles or other machinery. Spills of these substances may be small
initially but over time the impact on the groundwater and the soil increases. During the operational
phase of the development, effective measures to minimise sedimentation and limit water pollution must
be implemented to prevent further deterioration of the water quality on an already stressed resource in
the province.


Currently there are no formalised sewage services and therefore the surface water is contaminated by
excrement and waste water. This may lead to groundwater pollution and pollution to the Zandspruit. If
the no go option is chosen no sewage facilities will be provided and pollution will continue. However,
the no-go option will also prevent contamination of water due to construction related activities.



Table 14. Water quality impacts, significance and mitigation.

      IMPACT           SIGNIFICANCE                                  MITIGATION
 Contamination risk   Medium             •   All spillages must be seen to as soon as possible after
 to water bodies                             occurrence. This is necessary to prevent the spillage from
 (incl. groundwater                          spreading and to mitigate the impact of the spillage on the
 pollution) due to                           environment. In the case of large spillages a spillage agency
 spillages of                                such as Rapid Spill Response has to be contacted immediately
 hazardous                                   to clear the spillage.
 substances such as                      •   In accordance with the requirements of the NWA, surface and
 oil/petrol/                                 ground water shall not be polluted (i.e. oil, cleaning materials,
 diesel/cement and                           ash etc), under any circumstances.
 asphalt from                            •   In the case of a small spillage, a spill absorbent has to be added
 construction                                to the spillage and the entire spillage and all the contaminated
 vehicles.                                   soil should be removed to an approved disposal centre and a
                                             spillage certificate obtained.

                                         Site camp
                                         •    All vehicles should be in good condition and containers should
                                              be stored in a secure area.
                                         •    Construction vehicles must be kept in good working order and
                                              should not leak fuel or oil
                                         •    All hazardous materials must be stored in one place in suitable
                                              containers.
                                         •    The position of the site camp must be chosen in conjunction with
                                              the ECO.
                                         •    The storage area should have impermeable floors.
                                         •    Stockpiles must be bermed to prevent erosion and sediment run-
                                              off
                                         •    Concrete shall be mixed only in areas, which have been
                                              specially demarcated for this purpose.
                                         •    All concrete must be mixed on mixing trays.
                                         •    All concrete that is spilled outside these demarcated areas shall
                                              be promptly removed by the Contractor and taken to an
                                              approved dumpsite.
                                         •    After all concrete mixing is complete; all waste concrete shall be
                                              removed from the batching area and disposed of at an approved
                                              dumpsite.
                                         •    Storage of potentially hazardous materials should be above the
                                              1:100 year flood line. These materials include fuel, oil, cement,


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      IMPACT            SIGNIFICANCE                                 MITIGATION
                                           bitumen etc.
                                       •   Sufficient care must be taken when handling these materials to
                                           prevent pollution.

                                       Worker facilities
                                       •  An adequate number of portable/chemical toilets shall be
                                          supplied for construction crew. The sewage facility must be
                                          adequate.
                                       •  Provide facilities for workers such as water and ablution facilities




 Decrease in water      Medium         •   Construction vehicles must keep to the speed limit of 40 km/h to
 quality due to an                         reduce the amount of dust.
 increase in                           •   Clear only the required areas of immediate work during
 sediment load                             construction.
 resulting from                        •   The area of where vegetation will be cleared should be kept to a
 increased runoff.                         minimum.
                                       •   The cleared areas must be revegetated as soon as possible to
                                           prevent erosion and movement of surface soil.
                                       •   Appropriate measures to reduce dust, e.g. dampening with
                                           water, should be applied, especially during dry windy times.
                                       •   Rubble must be removed from the construction site frequently
                                           and disposed of at an approved dumping site as approved by the
                                           Council.
                                       •   The stormwater management plan (Appendix J and Appendix K)
                                           must be implemented.
                                       •   The pre-development and post-development run-off must be the
                                           same.
                                       •   The flow rate of water released into the system should be equal
                                           to or less than prior to development
                                       •   The stormwater attenuation system must be maintained.
                                       •   Erosion control measures should be implemented where the
                                           water enters all natural systems.
                                       •   Stormwater design must be vegetated where possible (grass
                                           lined channels, grass pavers, engineered wetlands for storage
                                           and filtration). Only indigenous vegetation may be used.
                                       •   Where piped releases are used flow dissipaters and reinforced
                                           areas (grass pavers) must be used at discharge points.
 No go option – no      Medium         •   Sewage services should be provided by the municipality as
 sewage services                           described in the Services Reports (Appendix J and Appendix K)
 provided to Itsoseng
 settlement
 No go option – no      No impact      •   No mitigation required.
 construction related
 impacts on the
 water.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
9.6    Air Quality Impacts
During construction activities, the heavy vehicles that will be used will cause dust, and release
hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and sulphur oxides into the air. Workers on site may cook food over
open fires. The clearing of the site will result in open soil surface and wind can pick up and transport
soil particles. Dust is regarded as a nuisance as it reduces visibility, affects the health of humans and
retards plant growth. The quantity of dust generated would be dependent on which season the
construction takes place and the prevailing wind directions.

The no go option will not have an impact on air quality as no construction will take place.


Table 15. Air Quality Impacts, Significance and Mitigation
         IMPACT                SIGNIFICANCE                             MITIGATION
 Decrease in air quality as   Medium           •   Construction vehicles must comply with standard
 a result of construction                          roadworthiness regulations
 activities                                    •   Dust control measures should be adhered to as proposed in
                                                   the EMP
                                               •   Appropriate dust suppression measures, e.g. dampening
                                                   with water, should be used when dust generation is
                                                   unavoidable, particularly during prolonged periods of dry
                                                   weather in winter.
                                               •   Removal of vegetation shall be avoided until such time as
                                                   soil stripping is required.
                                               •   Vehicles travelling on the roads must adhere to the speed
                                                   limit in order to reduce excessive dust.
                                               •   Where possible, soil stockpiles shall be located in sheltered
                                                   areas where they are not exposed to the erosive effects of
                                                   the wind.
                                               •   Cover all vehicles transporting material that can be blown
                                                   off (e.g. soil, rubble etc.), with a tarpaulin.
                                               •   Revegetation should start immediately upon completion of
                                                   construction activities.
 No go option                 No impact        •   No mitigation required.




9.7    Visual Impacts
The site is already disturbed and occupied by informal settlers at the northern boundary with the
remainder of the site being vacant open space. The informal settlement is unsightly, although this is a
subjective opinion.


During the construction phase of the development vegetation clearance and general construction
activities will be unattractive.


There will be no change to the visual aesthetics if the no-go alternative is favoured. The informal
settlement will stay as it is and expand. The area north of Malibongwe Drive will in the short-term at
least, remain unchanged.

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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
Table 16. Visual Impacts, Significance and Mitigation (Construction Phase)
             IMPACT                    SIGNIFICANCE                         MITIGATION
 Change in visual appearance of      High               •    Little mitigation is possible.
 the site – open space is                               •    The development should be properly designed
 replaced by development                                     to be visually pleasing
 Change in visual appearance of      High               •    Placement of erven on layout has taken line of
 the site – informal settlement is                           sight into account.
 replaced by formal housing                             •    Provide a variety of housing typologies to break
                                                             visual monotony.
                                                        •    Provide enough parks and trees.
 No go option – Informal             No impact          No mitigation possible.
 settlement stays
 No go option – larger open          No impact          No mitigation required
 space stays




9.8    Noise Impacts
Construction activities, construction personnel on site, and heavy vehicles moving to and from site will
result in an increase in ambient noise levels in the area


Noise generated from traffic and residential dwellings and facilities will affect those living in the housing
development throughout the operational phase. This can impact on the health and wellbeing of
individuals depending on the noise levels and the individual’s tolerance for noise.


There will be no noise impact if the no-go alternative is favoured.


Table 17. Noise Impacts, significance and mitigation.
 IMPACT                       SIGNIFICANCE       MITIGATION

 Increase in noise due to     Medium             •    Employees will be supplied with hearing protection if
 construction activities                              required.
                                                 •    All machines should be equipped with appropriate noise
                                                      reduction equipment and all vehicles should be
                                                      roadworthy (including meeting maximum noise
                                                      specifications).
                                                 •    The vehicles exhaust and baffle systems must be
                                                      maintained regularly to ensure that the noise from these
                                                      vehicles is within the required noise specification.
                                                 •    All construction must follow standards conditions of
                                                      working hours as stipulated in the SABS guideline for
                                                      construction (SANS 10400:1990).
                                                 •    Inform residents of nearby residential areas of unusual
                                                      planned noisy activities.
                                                 •    All mechanical equipment should be in good working
                                                      order and adhere to relevant noise requirements of the
                                                      Road Traffic Act
                                                 •    Safety measures that generate noise, including reverse
                                                      gear alarms, should be adjusted to minimise noise




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
 Increase in the amount of   Medium              No mitigation is possible for this impact.
 noise once development
 has been completed due
 to increase in traffic &
 general noise associated
 with residential areas

 No Go Alternative           No impact           •   No mitigation necessary.




9.9    Traffic Impacts
Construction vehicles will cause an increase in traffic.


Impacts on traffic are dealt with in the traffic impact assessment undertaken by Arcus Gibb (2009)
(Appendix L). Roadway improvement projects along the R512 (K29) are currently underway or planned
for implementation on roads and a road will be constructed along the K56 road reserve. These
improvements will be able to accommodate the development traffic from the proposed development
based on the capacity analysis/modelling assessments completed. No further improvements are
recommended to accommodate the Malibongwe Ridge development traffic volumes, other than at the
planned external access intersections and the internal roadway construction as part of the
development;


Throughout the operational phase of the development, the access roads and road within the
development will require constant maintenance. This is the responsibility of the local municipality and is
one of the greatest impacts of the development.


There will be no traffic impact if the no-go alternative is favoured.


Table 18. Traffic Impacts, Significance and Mitigation
         IMPACT               SIGNIFICANCE                                MITIGATION
 Heavy vehicles travelling   Medium              •   Limit construction activities strictly to daylight hours, and
 to and from the                                     limit travel of construction vehicles during peak traffic
 construction site                                   hours.
 transporting construction                       •   Red flags should be used to warn the public and
 materials.                                          construction vehicle operators at least 100m before
                                                     crossing points or access route into the construction
                                                     area.
                                                 •   Develop an information campaign regarding the hazards
                                                     associated with increased heavy vehicle traffic, and
                                                     precautionary measures to be taken by Construction
                                                     Company.
 Increase in vehicle         High                •   The recommendations of the TIA should be adhered to.
 volumes during the                              •   A road should be constructed along the K56.
 operation phase due to
 the development
 No go alternative           No impact           •   No mitigation required.



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9.10 Heritage Impacts
Although two sites with houses were recorded on the site, neither is older and 60 years and therefore is
not protected under the NHRA (Act 25 of 1999). Therefore there will be no impact on these resources.


If the grave sites are impacted by construction activities, full grave relocation may be required.


An initiation site is located on site. The significance of this site could not be established and should be
advised by SAHRA.


There will be no impact on heritage resources if the no-go alternative is favoured.


Table 19. Heritage Impacts.
         IMPACT              SIGNIFICANCE                              MITIGATION
 Impact on heritage         Low                 •   If any archaeological artefacts or skeletal material is
 resources other than the                           exposed during construction activities, the activities
 graves                                             should be halted and a museum or university contact to
                                                    investigate.
 Impact on graves           Very High           •   If the grave sites cannot be retained a phase 2
                                                    investigation must take place as well as social
                                                    consultation, exhumation and reburial. Such a relocation
                                                    process must be undertaken by suitably qualified
                                                    individuals with a proven track record. The relocation
                                                    must also be undertaken in full cognisance of all
                                                    relevant legislation, including the specific requirements
                                                    of the National Heritage Resource Act (Act no. 25 of
                                                    1999).
                                                •   There are clear guidelines on the relocation of graves
                                                    which should be followed. This process should be
                                                    managed by a competent person.
                                                •   If any living family members of the deceased can be
                                                    traced, they must be approached in a sensitive way.
                                                •   The family members must choose where they want the
                                                    graves relocated to, and all rituals must be observed
                                                    according to their wishes, and at the cost of the
                                                    developer.
                                                •   If graves are not moved, the area should be fenced, and
                                                    the graves should be restored.
                                                •   Other legislative measures which may be of relevance
                                                    include the Removal of Graves and Dead Bodies
                                                    Ordinance (Ordinance no. 7 of 1925), the Human
                                                    Tissues Act (Act no. 65 of 1983, as amended), the
                                                    Ordinance on Excavations (Ordinance no. 12 of 1980)
                                                    as well as any local and regional provisions, laws and
                                                    by-laws that may be in place.
                                                •   It should be kept in mind that archaeological deposits
                                                    usually occur below ground level. Should archaeological
                                                    artefacts or skeletal material be revealed in the area
                                                    during construction activities, such activities should be
                                                    halted, and a university or museum notified in order for
                                                    an investigation and evaluation of the find(s) to take
                                                    place.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
             IMPACT            SIGNIFICANCE                             MITIGATION
 No go option                 No impact          •   No mitigation required.



9.11 Waste Impacts
With all the contractors and personnel on a construction site it is highly likely that there will be littering
and the production of other solid waste which needs to be managed in order to prevent pollution of
surface water and land. Construction activities produce waste such as off cuts of concrete and PVC
pipes as well as rubble from demolished structures on site. This waste will be mostly used as fill
material at other placed in the construction area. The remainder will be taken by the contractor to an
approved landfill site. However, hazardous waste is also produced, including cement bags, empty paint
cans, turpentine and thinners. The hazardous waste should be taken to a dedicated waste site suitable
for hazardous waste.


Waste will continually be produced during the operational phase of the development. If not properly
managed, this can impact negatively on land and water resources.


There will be no impact as a result of waste production during construction if the no-go alternative is
favoured. If the no-go alternative is favoured, there will be a waste problem on site if the illegal
dumping continues. There is no way of controlling what sort of waste is dumped, which poses a serious
health concern for those living near to the dumping site, if for example, medical waste is dumped
illegally.



Table 20. Waste impacts, significance and mitigation.

             IMPACT            SIGNIFICANCE                             MITIGATION
 Solid waste and/or           Medium             •   Waste bins should be provided at strategic locations all
 littering on the                                    around the construction site
 construction site can                           •   Waste separation should be encouraged especially
 pollute land and water.                             separating hazardous substances from office and
                                                     kitchen refuse.
                                                 •   ECO to monitor littering on a daily basis
                                                 •   Waste bins to be emptied on a weekly basis/or as
                                                     needed at the nearest licensed landfill site.
                                                 •   Construction waste should be reused or recycled as
                                                     much as possible.
                                                 •   Construction waste should be removed to an approved
                                                     landfill site if it cannot be reused.
                                                 •   A tarpaulin should cover vehicles transporting
                                                     construction waste.
 No-go option: no             No impact          •   No mitigation necessary
 construction waste will be
 generated

 No-go option: illegal        Medium             •   Little mitigation is possible.
 dumping will continue.                          •   Local residents should be educated on the impacts of


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
                                                    dumping.


9.12 Health and Safety Impacts
A number of health and safety threats exist during construction activities. Individuals in the community
can suffer from dust and noise from construction activities on site, accidents on roads as a result of
increased traffic and deteriorated roads and poor sanitation related to improper management of
chemical toilet facilities. Crime also often increases during construction due to an increase in human
activities in the area which will affect the surrounding communities. Finally, construction workers often
build open fires which have the potential to burn out of control and seriously injure individuals and
housing near by.


The proposed development will have a positive impact on the health and safety of the Itsoseng
residents. The residents do not have proper water and sanitation facilities currently and the living
conditions are unhealthy.


If the no-go alternative is favoured, and the site is left vacant with only the Itsoseng informal settlement
along the northern boundary, there will be health and safety issues. Crime will most likely increase
seeing that the site will be left open for people to walk through and used for dumping. Crime and
sexual assault has been reported by pedestrians using the open space to walk through. Informal
dumping can increase the risk of contracting diseases. Poor sanitation at the informal settlement can
also cause serious illnesses, especially in children and the aged.


Table 21. Health and Safety Impacts, significance and mitigation.
         IMPACT              SIGNIFICANCE                                MITIGATION
 Nuisance to neighbours     Medium              •   Residents and surrounding business owners should be
 from noise and dust                                notified well in advance of the construction schedule;
 emanating from                                 •   Construction should be limited to working hours during the
 construction activities                            week 08:00 – 17:00 and between 08:00 – 13:00 on
                                                    Saturdays;
                                                •   No construction activities to take place on Sundays and
                                                    other religious holidays which may occur during the
                                                    construction phase
                                                •   Dust control measures shall be implemented such as
                                                    dampening loose and exposed soil.
 Heavy vehicle traffic      Medium              •   A road safety programme will be implemented in order to
 increase that could                                inform all relevant parties of the possible risks of the
 impact negatively on                               construction site.
 safety of existing roads                       •   Red flags should be used to warn the public and
                                                    construction vehicle operators at least 100m before
                                                    crossing points or access route into the construction area.
                                                •   Develop an information campaign regarding the hazards
                                                    associated with increased heavy vehicle traffic, and
                                                    precautionary measures to be taken by Construction
                                                    Company.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
          IMPACT                 SIGNIFICANCE                                 MITIGATION
 Leaking sanitation             Medium               •   Adequate on-site chemical sanitation systems must be
 (chemical toilet facilities)                            provided within walking distance from all construction
 could contaminate and                                   activities.
 impact soil & water                                 •   Under no circumstances may ablutions occur outside of the
 bodies and cause health                                 provided facilities
 concerns                                            •   Strict penalties in re-numeration must be applied for
                                                         workers that use other surrounding open areas for this
                                                         purpose.
                                                     •   Toilets must be located within the construction camp
                                                     •   Toilets shall be serviced once a week to prevent spillages
 Increase in human              Medium               •   No construction staff, other than security personnel, shall
 activities associated with                              be allowed to overnight on property to ensure safety of
 job seekers poses a                                     equipment stored on site.
 security threat to the                              •   Local labour should be used as construction workers
 surrounding communities                             •   Transport to be provided for all construction workers too
                                                         and from site on a daily basis.
 Open fires on                  Low                  •   Cooking facilities for construction workers to be provided at
 construction site can                                   the construction camp
 cause destruction of                                •   No open fires will be allowed outside demarcated areas for
 surrounding vegetation,                                 this purpose
 and possible injury to                              •   All fires should be put out immediately
 staff and neighbouring                              •   Awareness regarding fire hazarders should be imprinted to
 communities.                                            all construction staff and monitored by the ECO on site on a
                                                         daily basis
                                                     •   Emergency plan should be in place in the event of a fire will
                                                         all safety equipment at demarcated areas and in good
                                                         working order.
                                                     •   All construction staff should be familiar with the above
                                                         mentioned emergency plan.
 Impact on health and           Very High Positive   •   No mitigation required.
 safety of Itsoseng
 residents by providing
 proper housing and
 sanitation.
 No go – crime in open          High                 •   No mitigation possible
 area, poor sanitation at
 existing informal
 settlement



9.13 Change in sense of place
Sense of place can be described as defining oneself in terms of a given piece of land. It is the manner
in which humans relate or feel about the environments in which they live. A portion of the site is
currently occupied by an informal settlement and the remainder of the site is vacant. The development
will eradicate the informal settlement which is positive impact but replace the area, including the
current open area with development. The change in the sense of place in the area will start in the
construction phase, and by the time the proposed development is operational the sense of place would
have been changed permanently and irreversibly. There is also the cumulative impact of the various
developments in the area.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
There will not be an immediate impact on the sense of place if the no-go option be favoured. Over
time, the site will deteriorate as the informal settlement increases in size and as it is continually used
as a dumping site. After a number of years the sense of place will change negatively. A greater amount
of time, effort and money will be required to return it to a reasonable state should any development be
approved at a later stage.



Table 22. Change in sense of place, significance and mitigation.

               IMPACT                      SIGNIFICANCE                             MITIGATION
 Change the sense of the place of         High Positive       •    This may also be a neutral impact as different
 the area from informal squatters to                               individuals will view the impact in either a positive
 a formal housing development.                                     or negative light.
                                                              •    It is mostly not possible to mitigate impacts on
                                                                   the sense of place.
 Change the sense of the place of         High                •    It is mostly not possible to mitigate impacts on
 the area from open space to a                                     the sense of place.
 formal housing development.

 Increased development in the area        Medium              No mitigation is proposed as land-use for an area
 (future development) could have a                            forms part of the special development planning of the
 similar impact on the social and bio-                        local municipality and cannot be controlled on EIA
 physical environment of the area.                            level, however, under the banner of sustainable
 (Cumulative impact)                                          development with the implementation of sound
                                                              environmental management plans, most impacts can
                                                              be mitigated successfully.


9.14 Economic Impacts
It is anticipated that the economic spin-offs of the housing development will create a positive impact on
the social environment of the area. The construction of the development and associated infrastructure
will attract economic development to the area. It will create a diversification of economic activities in the
area.


There will be no economic benefits in the area should the no-go alternative be favoured.



Table 23. Economic impacts, significance and mitigation.

            IMPACT                     SIGNIFICANCE                            MITIGATION
 Increase in economic               Very High Positive    •   The economic opportunities to the area should be
 opportunities in the area.                                   maximised by utilising local labour and resources
                                                              as far as possible.
                                                          •   Local entrepreneurs should be encouraged to
                                                              provide some of the secondary services
 No go alternative                  No impact             •   No mitigation possible.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
10         ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT

Table 24 provides a summary of the impacts and key management strategies for minimising these impacts for the proposed development. Activities
that have no impact have been omitted. Only key management measures have been included.


Table 24. Summary of impacts and key management strategies for the proposed housing development
           Impact                 Significance   Significance if                                               Key Mitigation
                                                 no development
                                                                               Social
Moving people living in          Medium                            •   The community should be informed long before they have to move.
Itsoseng to different location                                     •   Assistance should be provided during moving to the temporary housing as well as moving back into
for the duration of the                                                the new RDP houses.
construction
Impact on tree with circle of    No impact                         •   No mitigation required
white rocks that is used as a
church - If open space is not
fenced: access
Impact on tree with circle of    Very High                         •   Access should be provided to open space.
white rocks that is used as a
church - if open space is
fenced: no access

Creation of job                  Positive                          •   Strict protocols should apply to the secondment of labour from outside of the area
opportunities, training and      Medium                            •   Contractors should be expected to provide on-the-job training to local labour in order to up-grade
skills development during                                              existing skills.
construction phase                                                 •   A “labour desk” or “labour office” should be established on or in close proximity of the site to
                                                                       facilitate the process.
Provision of housing and         Very High                         •   Positive impact therefore no mitigation required.
community facilities             Positive

Creation of job                  High Positive                     •   Positive impact therefore no mitigation required.
opportunities, training and
skills development during
           Impact                  Significance    Significance if                                              Key Mitigation
                                                  no development
operational phase
No go option – no housing                         Very High          •   Cannot be mitigated.
can be provided


No go option – no new job                         Very High          •   Cannot be mitigated.
opportunities
                                                                         Agricultural Potential
Loss of agricultural potential    Low                                •   No mitigation possible
on site.
Providing residents of            Medium                             •   No mitigation necessary
proposed development with         Positive
the opportunity to produce
own food.
No go option – no loss of                         No impact          •   No mitigation necessary
agricultural potential on site.
No go option - No                                 Medium             •   No mitigation possible
opportunities for urban
agriculture to produce own
food.
                                                                          Biodiversity Impacts
Loss of habitat due to loss       High                               •   An independent, suitably qualified individual (at least a BSc (Hons) in the natural sciences) must
of vegetation will impact                                                act as the environmental control officer (ECO).
biodiversity and functioning                                         •   Monthly audit reports are required for the duration of the construction and rehabilitation phase.
of the ecosystem in general.                                         •   A person must be identified at GDARD and DWAE to review audit reports and aid in monitoring of
Decline of species diversity      Medium                                 construction and rehabilitation.
in the area                                                          •   Construction staff must receive training to increase their environmental awareness.
Potential loss of species of      Medium                             •   Access of vehicles to the open space system and access of people must be controlled. Movement
conservation importance –                                                of all indigenous fauna must however be allowed (i.e. no solid walls).
most notably the African                                             •   Compacting of soil must be avoided in areas to be included in the open space system.
Grass Owl and Melodious                                              •   During construction, materials such as sand and stone should, wherever possible, be sourced from
Lark                                                                     areas that are free of alien plants in order to avoid the spread of alien species.
Malibongwe Ridge Layout           Medium                             •   Adequate dust control strategies are to be implemented to minimize dust deposition and reduce
Alternative 1: 30m buffer                                                sedimentation on the river system.
around wetland


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
           Impact                Significance    Significance if                                                  Key Mitigation
                                                no development
Malibongwe Ridge Layout         Medium                               •   If any wild animal, including birds and reptiles, are observed, it should not be disturbed in any way.
Alternative 2 50m buffer
around wetland
Malibongwe Ridge Layout                         Very High            •   No mitigation possible.
Alternative 3: 170m buffer
around wetland and African
Grass Owl habitat – no-go
option
Increase in alien invasive      Medium                               •   During construction, materials such as sand and stone should, wherever possible, be sourced from
species (weeds) which will                                               areas that are free of alien plants in order to avoid the spread of alien species.
occur on all disturbed areas                                         •   Natural open spaces should be left in their undeveloped state and any existing or new exotic
                                                                         vegetation that is present on the site should be removed and eradicated.
No go option – Area will be                     Very High            •   No mitigation measures possible.
further invaded by informal
settlers and associated
activities which will lead to
habitat loss.
                                                                   Erosion and Sedimentation Impacts
Vegetation clearance,           High                                 •   No surface stormwater generated as a result of the development may be directed directly into any
compacting of soil causing                                               natural drainage system or wetland.
decrease in surface                                                  •   The stormwater management plan must be adhered to.
permeability thereby                                                 •   Storm water on the site must be managed so as to reduce the silt loads in the system.
increasing surface and                                               •   Storm water attenuation ponds should be constructed outside the wetland area, but may encroach
stormwater runoff                                                        onto the buffer.
                                                                     •   Special care needs to be taken during the construction phase to prevent surface stormwater rich in
                                                                         sediments and other pollutants from entering the natural drainage systems / wetlands.
                                                                     •   No activity may be permitted in the wetland or its buffer during the construction phase. The crossing
                                                                         of natural drainage systems must be minimized and may only be constructed at the shortest
                                                                         possible route, perpendicular to the natural drainage system.
Increase in stormwater run-     High                                 •   Appropriate erosion control structures must be put in place where soil may be prone to erosion;
off due to increase of hard                                          •   Erosion control measures that may be considered include gabion structures or bank sloping and
surface area which poses a                                               stabilization;
risk of erosion in the                                               •   The areas disturbed by the development, but not covered by the development, should be
wetland.                                                                 rehabilitated as soon as possible and revegetated with indigenous species.
                                                                     •   Any water use and the crossing of rivers should only occur under the regulation of a Water Use


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
           Impact                 Significance   Significance if                                               Key Mitigation
                                                 no development
                                                                       License.
                                                                   •   Reduction in stormwater velocity, in order to prevent erosion in the wetland area, could be attained
                                                                       by implementation of the following:
                                                                       - Stormwater originating from the road should not be allowed to enter directly into the wetland
                                                                           areas, but must be buffered by some of the following on site erosion control and energy
                                                                           dissipating interventions (e.g. stormwater dissipaters, Infiltration basins/ trenches, gabions,
                                                                           grassed swales; vegetated filter strips, etc.) in order to prevent erosion from occurring in the
                                                                           wetland
                                                                       - Roads should retain a portion of a vegetated buffer strip as interface between itself and wetland
                                                                           system.
                                                                       - Site rehabilitation and maintenance of vegetation strips/buffers / rehabilitated areas should be
                                                                           an on-going process.
                                                                       - Paved areas should be considered to reduces the velocity of water

No go alternative                                No impact         •   No mitigation necessary
                                                                       Water Quality Impacts
Contamination risk to water      Medium                            •   All spillages must be seen to as soon as possible after occurrence. This is necessary to prevent the
bodies (incl. groundwater                                              spillage from spreading and to mitigate the impact of the spillage on the environment. In the case of
pollution) due to spillages of                                         large spillages a spillage agency such as Rapid Spill Response has to be contacted immediately to
hazardous substances such                                              clear the spillage.
as oil/petrol/ diesel/cement                                       •   In accordance with the requirements of the NWA, surface and ground water shall not be polluted
and asphalt from                                                       (i.e. oil, cleaning materials, ash etc), under any circumstances.
construction vehicles.                                             •   In the case of a small spillage, a spill absorbent has to be added to the spillage and the entire
                                                                       spillage and all the contaminated soil should be removed to an approved disposal centre and a
                                                                       spillage certificate obtained.
Decrease in water quality        Medium                            •   Construction vehicles must keep to the speed limit of 40 km/h to reduce the amount of dust.
due to an increase in                                              •   Clear only the required areas of immediate work during construction.
sediment load resulting from                                       •   The area of where vegetation will be cleared should be kept to a minimum.
increased runoff.                                                  •   The cleared areas must be revegetated as soon as possible to prevent erosion and movement of
                                                                       surface soil.
                                                                   •   Appropriate measures to reduce dust, e.g. dampening with water, should be applied, especially
                                                                       during dry windy times.
                                                                   •   Rubble must be removed from the construction site frequently and disposed of at an approved
                                                                       dumping site as approved by the Council.


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
           Impact               Significance   Significance if                                                 Key Mitigation
                                               no development
                                                                 •  An appropriate stormwater management plan must be implemented.
No go option – no sewage                       Medium            Sewage services should be provided by the municipality
services provided to
Itsoseng settlement
No go option – no                              No impact         No mitigation required.
construction related impacts
on the water.
                                                                       Air Quality Impacts
Decrease in air quality as a   Medium                            •   Construction vehicles must comply with standard roadworthiness regulations
result of construction                                           •   Dust control measures should be adhered to as proposed in the EMP
activities                                                       •   Appropriate dust suppression measures, e.g. dampening with water, should be used when dust
                                                                     generation is unavoidable, particularly during prolonged periods of dry weather in winter.
                                                                 •   Removal of vegetation shall be avoided until such time as soil stripping is required.
                                                                 •   Vehicles travelling on the roads must adhere to the speed limit in order to reduce excessive dust.
                                                                 •   Cover all vehicles transporting material that can be blown off (e.g. soil, rubble etc.), with a tarpaulin.
                                                                 •   Revegetation should start immediately upon completion of construction activities.
No go option - air quality                     No impact         •   No mitigation required.
stays as it is
                                                                         Visual Impacts
Change in visual               High                              •   Little mitigation is possible.
appearance of the site –                                         •   The development should be properly designed to be visually pleasing
open space is replaced by                                        •   Placement of erven on layout has taken line of sight into account.
development                                                      •   Provide a variety of housing typologies to break visual monotony.
Change in visual               High                              •   Provide enough parks and trees.
appearance of the site –
informal settlement is
replaced by formal housing
No go option – Informal                        No impact         No mitigation possible.
settlement stays
No go option – larger open                     No impact         No mitigation required
space stays
                                                                          Noise Impacts
Increase in noise due to       Medium                            •   Employees will be supplied with hearing protection if required.
construction activities

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           Impact                Significance   Significance if                                                  Key Mitigation
                                                no development
                                                                  •   All machines should be equipped with appropriate noise reduction equipment and all vehicles
                                                                      should be roadworthy (including meeting maximum noise specifications).
                                                                  •   All construction must follow standards conditions of working hours as stipulated in the SABS
                                                                      guideline for construction (SANS 10400:1990).
                                                                  •   Inform residents of nearby residential areas of planned unusual noisy activities.
Increase in the amount of       Medium                            No mitigation is possible for this impact.
noise once development
has been completed due to
increase in traffic & general
noise associated with
residential areas
No Go Alternative                               No impact         No mitigation necessary.
                                                                          Traffic Impacts
Heavy vehicles travelling to    Medium                            •   Limit construction activities strictly to daylight hours, and limit travel of construction vehicles during
and from the construction                                             peak traffic hours.
site transporting                                                 •   Proper warning should be given to surrounding motorists.
construction materials.
Increase in vehicle volumes     High                              •   The recommendations of the TIA should be adhered to.
during the operation phase                                        •   A road should be constructed along the K56.
due to the development
No go alternative                               No impact         •   No mitigation required.
                                                                         Heritage Impacts
Impact on heritage              Low                               •   Site 1 & 2 are buildings which have no heritage significance and therefore no mitigation is required.
resources other than the                                          •   If any archaeological artefacts or skeletal material is exposed during construction activities, the
graves                                                                activities should be halted and a museum or university contact to investigate.

Impact on grave                 Very High                         •   Site 3 will require mitigation as graves have high heritage significance. Other graves may be
                                                                      located in the area.
                                                                  •   There are clear guidelines on the relocation of graves which should be followed. This process
                                                                      should be managed by a competent person.
                                                                  •   A concerted effort must be made to identify all buried individuals.
                                                                  •   If any living family members of the deceased can be traced, they must be approached in a sensitive
                                                                      way.
                                                                  •   The family members must choose where they want the graves relocated to, and all rituals must be

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          Impact                Significance   Significance if                                                Key Mitigation
                                               no development
                                                                      observed according to their wishes, and at the cost of the developer.
                                                                 •    If graves are not moved, the area should be fenced, and the graves should be restored.
No go option                                   No impact         •    No mitigation required.

                                                                          Waste Impacts
Solid waste and/or littering   Medium                            •    Waste bins should be provided at strategic locations all around the construction site
on the construction site can                                     •    Waste separation should be encouraged especially separating hazardous substances from office
pollute land and water.                                               and kitchen refuse.
                                                                 •    ECO to monitor littering on a daily basis
                                                                 •    Waste bins to be emptied on a weekly basis/or as needed at the nearest licensed landfill site.
                                                                 •    Construction waste should be reused or recycled as much as possible.
                                                                 •    Construction waste should be removed to an approved landfill site if it cannot be reused.
                                                                 •    A tarpaulin should cover vehicles transporting construction waste.
No-go option: no                               No impact         •    No mitigation necessary
construction waste will be
generated
No-go option: illegal                          Medium            •    Little mitigation is possible.
dumping will continue.                                           •    Local residents should be educated on the impacts of dumping.
                                                                     Health and Safety Impacts
Nuisance to neighbours         Medium                            •    Residents and surrounding business owners should be notified well in advance of the construction
from noise and dust                                                   schedule;
emanating from construction                                      •    Construction should be limited to working hours during the week 08:00 – 17:00 and between 08:00
activities                                                            – 13:00 on Saturdays;
                                                                 •    No construction activities to take place on Sundays and other religious holidays which may occur
                                                                      during the construction phase
                                                                 •    Dust control measures shall be implemented such as dampening loose and exposed soil.
Heavy vehicle traffic          Medium                            •    A road safety programme will be implemented in order to inform all relevant parties of the possible
increase that could impact                                            risks of the construction site.
negatively on safety of                                          •    Red flags should be used to warn the public and construction vehicle operators at least 100m
existing roads (Cumulative                                            before crossing points or access route into the construction area.
Impact)                                                          •    Develop an information campaign regarding the hazards associated with increased heavy vehicle
                                                                      traffic, and precautionary measures to be taken by Construction Company.
Leaking sanitation (chemical   Medium                            •    Adequate on-site chemical sanitation systems, at least one toilet for every 8 workers, must be


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
          Impact                 Significance   Significance if                                                 Key Mitigation
                                                no development
toilet facilities) could                                               provided within walking distance from all construction activities.
contaminate and impact soil                                       •    Strict penalties in re-numeration must be applied for workers that use other surrounding open areas
& water bodies and cause                                               for this purpose.
health concerns                                                   •    Toilets must be located within the construction camp
                                                                  •    Toilets shall be serviced once a week to prevent spillages
                                                                  •    Under no circumstances may ablutions occur outside of the provided facilities
Increase in human activities    Medium                            •    No construction staff, other than security personnel, shall be allowed to overnight on property to
associated with job seekers                                            ensure safety of equipment stored on site.
poses a security threat to                                        •    Local labour should be used as construction workers
the surrounding                                                   •    Transport to be provided for all construction workers too and from site on a daily basis.
communities
Open fires on construction      Low                               •    Cooking facilities for construction workers to be provided at the construction camp
site can cause destruction of                                     •    No open fires will be allowed outside demarcated areas for this purpose
surrounding vegetation, and                                       •    All fires should be put out immediately
possible injury to staff and                                      •    Awareness regarding fire hazarders should be imprinted to all construction staff and monitored by
neighbouring communities.                                              the ELO on site on a daily basis
                                                                  •    Emergency plan should be in place in the event of a fire will all safety equipment at demarcated
                                                                       areas and in good working order.
                                                                  •    All construction staff should be familiar with the above mentioned emergency plan.
Impact on health and safety     Very High                         •    No mitigation required.
of Itsoseng residents by        Positive
providing proper housing
and sanitation.
No go – crime in open area,                     High              No mitigation possible
poor sanitation at existing
informal settlement
                                                                      Change in sense of place
Change the sense of the         High Positive                     •    This may also be a neutral impact as different individuals will view the impact in either a positive or
place of the area from                                                 negative light.
informal squatters to a                                           •    It is mostly not possible to mitigate impacts on the sense of place.
formal housing
development.
Change the sense of the         High                              •    It is mostly not possible to mitigate impacts on the sense of place.
place of the area from open
space to a formal housing


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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
           Impact               Significance   Significance if                                               Key Mitigation
                                               no development
development.
Increased development in                       Medium            No mitigation is proposed as land-use for an area forms part of the special development planning of the
the area (future                                                 local municipality and cannot be controlled on EIA level, however, under the banner of sustainable
development) could have a                                        development with the implementation of sound environmental management plans, most impacts can be
similar impact on the social                                     mitigated successfully.
and bio-physical
environment of the area.
                                                                       Economic Impacts
Increase in economic           Very High                         •   The economic opportunities to the area should be maximised by utilising local labour and resources
opportunities in the area.     Positive                              as far as possible.
                                                                 •   Local entrepreneurs should be encouraged to provide some of the secondary services

No go alternative                              No impact         No mitigation possible.




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Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
A number of potentially significant environmental impacts have been identified. However, the
professional opinion of the EAP is that these impacts can be mitigated satisfactorily. It is recommended
that the proposed development is considered for implementation subject to the following
recommendations. Please note that detailed recommendations are provided in the EMP.

   •    The EMP attached to this report must be implemented. The EMP is a dynamic document and
        changes can be made throughout the approval and construction process.
   •    An ECO must be appointed with preferably a BSc Hons in an environmental management or
        appropriate field.
   •    The Open Space area as indicated in the layout plan must be established. An ecological
        management plan must be compiled.
   •    It is suggested that Malibongwe Ridge Layout Alternative 2 are chosen. This will ensure that
        the wetland on site is properly protected. No development may be allowed within the wetland
        area or its 50 m buffer zone except for necessary services crossings. Limited activities can be
        allowed within line with the management plan for the open space area.
   •    Any activity taking place in the water courses on site must first obtain a WULA from DWAE.
   •    A proper stormwater management plan must be implemented.
   •    All graves must be protected or exhumed and reburied in terms of the NHRA, and the
        applicable permits obtained before any relocation is undertaken.
   •    Ensure ongoing community participation in the proposed development and participatory
        monitoring during construction and implementation.
   •    The measures indicated in the TIA and services reports should be implemented.
11         CONCLUSION
There is a great need for affordable housing and the proposed development will not only provide homes
for approximately 9 000 families but also additional public amenities and services for people currently
living in poor housing conditions on the site in Itsoseng informal settlement.


There is a wetland on site as well as potential habitat for a Red Listed avifaunal species. The wetland,
which is already disturbed, can be protected if sufficient measures are put into place to reduce any impact
on the wetland system. Care will need to be taken when dealing with Red Listed species as in the case of
the African Grass Owl (Tyto capensis).


The residential component integrates with the designs of the adjacent projects and, read with the total
development proposals in the immediate area (Lion Park Residential Estates, Cosmo City Ext 15, 16 and
Malibongwe Ridge) provides a balanced, sustainable living environment to cater for the needs of a variety
of income groups. The development of the site is not only desirable from the perspective of availability and
proximity of engineering bulk services, compatibility with adjacent projects, accessibility, visibility, size,
slope, locality on a sub-regional and regional basis, but the proposed development on site is desirable
because it provides housing and the opportunity for job creation (Urban Dynamics 2009b).


In terms of the Development Facilitation Act, 67 of 1995 (“DFA”) which is aimed at the promoting compact
cities, optimal use of existing infrastructure and resources, as well as integrated planning in support of
sustainable development, MSA believes that the proposed Malibongwe Ridge housing development aims
to:
      −   Promote the integration of the social, economic, institutional and physical aspects of land
          development;
      −   Promote integrated land development in rural and urban areas in support of each other;
      −   Promote the availability of residential and employment opportunities in close proximity to, or
          integrated with each other;
      −   Optimise the use of the existing resources including such resources relating to bulk infrastructure,
          roads, transportation and social facilities;
      −   Contribute to the correction of the historically distorted spatial pattern of settlement in the
          Republic;
      −   Encourage environmentally sustainable land development practices and processes;
      −   Promote land development which is within the fiscal, institutional and administrative means of the
          Republic;
      −   Promote the establishment of a viable community;
      −   Meet the basic needs of all citizens in an affordable way.



Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                               Page: 132
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
A large percentage of the site is already covered by houses and shacks and other deteriorating structures
where irreparable damage to the natural vegetation has occurred and thus the development will likely
repair some of the damage already caused on site and left to deteriorate further. The negative impacts of
the development can be mitigated to a large extent with the implementation of various management
measures. In light of the social need and the management of the natural environment, it is recommended
that the proposed development is authorised under the conditions mentioned in this report.




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                          Page: 133
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
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    RAGEE 6:44-61.
SRK Consulting. 1998. Draft Strategic Environmental Assessment for the Northern Sector.           Report
    246112/1 prepared for the Northern Metropolitan Local Council, July 1998.
Strategic Environmental Focus. 2002. Gauteng Agricultural Potential Atlas (GAPA). Gauteng Department
    of Agriculture, Conservation, Environment and Land Affairs. Johannesburg.
Teurlings Environmental CC. 2002. Environmental Impact Assessment Report for the proposed Cosmo
    City Township Development.
The MSA Group 2009. Biodiversity Assessment for the Proposed Malibongwe Ridge Development.
Urban Dynamics, 2009a. Motivation Memorandum in support of the application Cosmo City Ext 16
    (previously part of Cosmo City Ext 11 Township)
Urban Dynamics, 2009b. Motivating Memorandum in support of the applications for the township
    establishments for Malibongwe Ridge and Malibongwe Ridge Ext 1.
www.sabap2.adu.org.za




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                                          Page: 135
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix A: Itsoseng Informal Settlement Survey




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 136
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix B: Application form and Landowners
      Consent Form




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 137
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix C: Correspondence with GDARD




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 138
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix D: Geotechnical Report




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 139
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix E: Biodiversity Report




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 140
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix F: Heritage Impact Assessment Report




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 141
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix G: Layout for Cosmo City Extension 16




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 142
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix H: Layout Alternative 1 for Malibongwe
      Ridge




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 143
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix I: Layout Alternative 2 for Malibongwe
      Ridge




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 144
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix J: Outline                               Scheme   Report      for
      Malibongwe Ridge




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                     Page: 145
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix K: Outline Scheme Report for Cosmo
      City X16




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 146
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix L: Traffic Impact Assessment




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 147
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix M: Public Participation




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 148
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix N-1: Newspaper advertisement: Public
      Participation




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 149
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix M-2 Site notices, flyers and posters




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 150
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix M-3: BID, cover letter, registration sheet
      a flyer




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 151
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix M-4: Scoping Report Notification Letter




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 152
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix M-5: Comments                            received   during
      announcement phase




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                               Page: 153
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix M-6: Comments received during Scoping
      Phase




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 154
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix M-7: Comments received after                the
      Scoping Report was submitted to GDARD




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 155
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix O: Impact Assessment Spreadsheet




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 156
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix P: Environmental Management Plan
      (EMP)     and     Ecological Management and
      Rehabilitation Plan




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 157
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix                  Q:          Waste       Management   Plan




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                                Page: 158
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009
      Appendix Q: Details of Environmental Assessment
      Practitioner




Proposed Malibongwe Ridge development                   Page: 159
Environmental Impact Assessment Report – October 2009

				
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