# ME401 Dynamic Systems _ Controls by xiuliliaofz

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ME401: Dynamic Systems & Controls
Textbook Cross Mapping Form
for
ME401: Dynamic Systems & Controls

Purpose of Course
The study of dynamic systems focuses on the behavior of physical systems as well as the physics of
individual components and the interactions between them. Control systems are designed to enable
dynamic systems to respond in a specific manner. In this course, we will learn about the mathematical
modeling, analysis, and control of physical systems that are in rest, in motion, or acted upon by a force.
Dynamic systems can be mechanical, electrical, thermal, hydraulic, pneumatic, or any combination thereof.
An electrical motor is a good example of a dynamic system in which electricity is used to drive the motor’s
mechanical movement. The operation of the motor is controlled by altering the electric current or voltage.
Another good example is a car’s suspension system, which is designed to curb abnormal vibrations while
riding on a bumpy road. In order to design a suspension system, you must analyze the mathematical
equations of the physics of the suspension and its response (i.e. how effectively the system absorbs the
vibrations). The springs between the tires and the chassis balance the weight and maintain the height of
the car. The suspension system is controlled by actuators (serving as shock absorbers) that curb the
vibrations and therefore make for a more comfortable driving experience.
This course explores the dynamics of mechanical, thermal, fluid, electrical, and hybrid systems and sub-

We will begin by learning about the different types of dynamic systems through various examples and
reviewing relevant mathematical material (much of which you may already know), which will enable you to
better understand the material covered in this course. We will then learn how to represent these systems
using different mathematical forms before analyzing them in terms of frequency, time domain, and stability
with respect to controller design. You will also take a close look at various controller designs and learn how
to apply SCILAB. Finally, we will conclude the course by visiting advanced topics and case studies in the
field.
Overall Matching
How well does the textbook meet course objectives? (Rate 1 to 5)
Learning Outcomes:
Define dynamic systems and types.
Identify how mechanical, thermal, fluid, and electrical systems are modeled.
Develop and review the required mathematical background for dynamic systems and control.
Identify the characteristics of first- and second-order dynamic systems.
Analyze dynamic systems in time-domain and frequency-domain.
Identify stability of dynamic systems for controller design.
Explain how dynamic systems are controlled.
Define feedback control and identify various types of feedback controllers.
Explain how controllers are designed for dynamic systems.
Migrate from MATLAB to SCILAB.
Analyze first- and second-order systems using SCILAB.
Generate response and analyze response results using SCILAB.
Identify and design controllers using SCILAB.
Solve controller design through an example using SCILAB.
Explain advanced control techniques such as digital controls, robust controls, and Z-transformations.
Relate the application of control systems to real world problems using various case studies.

Totals
Course Overview
Unit 1: Dynamic Systems
Unit One will introduce dynamic systems. Dynamic systems are mathematically modeled as differential
equations representing various components and the interactions between them. As all dynamic systems
are represented mathematically, this unit will first review differential equations and Laplace transforms
matrices in order to help you better understand controller design, which we will cover in subsequent
chapters. After we have completed our math review, we will learn how to represent dynamic systems in
various forms. You will discover that the analysis of dynamic systems is usually performed in either time-
domain or frequency-domain. You will also learn how to represent dynamic systems in transfer function
using Laplace transforms.

Unit 1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
Define dynamic systems and types.
Identify how mechanical, thermal, fluid, and electrical systems are modeled.
Develop and review the required mathematical background for dynamic systems and control.
Identify the characteristics of first- and second-order dynamic systems.
Average

Unit Blueprint

1.1 Dynamic Systems: Introduction and Modeling
1.1.1 Introduction to Dynamic System and Controls.
1.1.2 Examples of Dynamic Systems
1.1.3 Mechanical Systems
1.1.4 Fluid Systems
1.1.5 Electrical Systems
1.1.6 Linear Dynamic Systems
1.1.7 Non-Linear Dynamic Systems
1.2 Mathematical Background
1.2.1 Differential Equations
1.2.2 Laplace Transforms
1.2.3 Matrices
1.2.4 Transfer Functions
1.3 Dynamic System Order and Types
1.3.1 First-Order Dynamic Systems
1.3.2 Second-Order Dynamic Systems
1.4 Characteristics of Second-Order Dynamic Systems
1.4.1 Impulse Response
1.4.2 Overshoot vs. Damping Ratio
1.4.3 Step Response
1.4.4 Pole Location
Average
Unit 2: Analysis of Dynamic Systems
Unit Two builds on the material covered in Unit One by asking you to analyze dynamic systems with
respect to their responses to various input signals. Systems can be subjected to constant or varying
inputs. Therefore, an understanding of how these systems react to various inputs is crucial to designing
the appropriate controllers. The characteristic equations of dynamic systems convey significant
information regarding the system’s poles and zeros. The response of a dynamic system in time and
frequency domain is used to determine whether a system is stable, marginally stable, or unstable. Once
the system is analyzed for stability, appropriate controllers can be designed for the desired response.

Unit 2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
Analyze dynamic systems in time-domain.
Analyze dynamic systems in frequency-domain.
Identify stability of dynamic systems for controller design.
Average

Unit Blueprint

2.1 Analysis and Response of Dynamic Systems in Time-Domain
2.1.1 Response of Systems
2.1.3 Root-Locus
2.2 Analysis and Response of Dynamic Systems in Frequency-Domain
2.2.1 Bode’ Plots
2.2.2 Bode’ Plot of First-Order Systems
2.2.3 Concept of Decibels
2.2.4 Bode’ Plot of Second-Order Systems
2.2.5 Bode’ Plot for Large Systems
2.2.6 Nyquist Plots
2.2.7 Gain Margin
2.3 Stability of Dynamic Systems
2.3.1 Relative Stability
2.3.2 Bode’ Plots for Stability Determination
2.3.3 Gain for Stability Using Bode’ Plot
2.3.4 Phase for Stability Using Bode’ Plot
2.3.5 Nyquist Stability Criterion
2.3.6 Gain for Stability Using Nyquist Plot
2.3.7 Phase Margin
2.3.8 Effect of Poles and Zero on Stability
Average
Unit 3: Control Systems Design
Every dynamic system has a control (corrective) action for a desired response. For instance, a car’s
cruise control can help you drive at a given velocity. A dynamic system cannot be designed completely
without incorporating some form of controller. Feedback Controllers (i.e. proportional (P), derivative (D),
integral (I), or combinations thereof, like PI, PD, or PID) are commonly used in the industry. These
controllers are commonly designed in time-domain. SCILAB should be used wherever appropriate to
prevent errors in hand calculations and to validate calculations elsewhere.

Unit 3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
Identify how dynamic systems are controlled.
Identity feedback control and various types.
Identify how controllers are designed for dynamic systems.
Average

Unit Blueprint

3.1 Control of Dynamic Systems
3.1.1 Controlled Systems
3.1.2 Components of Controlled Systems
3.1.3 Feedback Control Systems
3.1.4 Examples of Control Systems
3.1.5 Closed-Loop Systems
3.1.6 First-Order Controlled Systems
3.1.7 Second-Order Controlled Systems
3.2 Feedback Control Systems
3.2.1 Proportional (P) Controllers
3.2.2 Integral (I) Controllers
3.2.3 PID Controllers
3.2.4 On-Off Controllers
3.3 Design of Control Systems
3.3.1 Controller Design Based on Frequency Response
3.3.2 Controller Design Based on Compensation Techniques
3.3.3 Overall Controller Design
Average
Unit 4: SCILAB Applications in Dynamic Systems and Control
Now that you are familiar with the theory behind modeling, analyzing, and optimizing dynamic
systems, you will learn to simplify the process using a computational tool known as SCILAB.
You have used SCILAB in ME101. This tool will not only save time but also help us achieve
accurate results. Much of controller design involves complex mathematical calculations that can
be handled through mathematical computation tools like SCILAB, MATLAB, MathCAD, and
Maple. MATLAB users who are not familiar with SCILAB can used a tool in SCILA,B which
converts MATLAB codes to SCILAB codes. In this unit, you will learn how to use SCILAB to
convert systems from one mathematical form to another using simple commands. You will also
learn to use the SCILAB scripting tool to analyze these systems. We will conclude by
discussing design controller parameters and using SCILAB to examine whether these control
actions generate desired responses.

Unit 4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
Migrate from MATLAB to SCILAB.
Analyze first- and second-order systems using SCILAB.
Generate response and analyze response results using SCILAB.
Identify and design controllers using SCILAB.
Solve controller design through an example using SCILAB.
Average

Unit Blueprint

4.1 SCILAB versus MATLAB Review
4.2 First-Order System Analysis Using SCILAB
4.2.1 First-Order System in SCILAB
4.2.2 Simulating the system
4.2.3 Root Locus of Simple Systems using SCILAB
4.2.4 Bode’ Plot of Simple Systems using SCILAB
4.3 Second Order System Analysis using SCILAB
4.3.1 Second Order Overdamped Systems in SCILAB
4.3.2 Second-Order Underdamped Systems in SCILAB
4.3.3 Second-Order Undamped Systems in SCILAB
4.3.4 Second-Order Critically Damped Systems in SCILAB
4.4 Response and Analysis of Systems using SCILAB
4.4.1 State Space Representation of Systems in SCILAB
4.4.2 State Space Simulation of Systems in SCILAB
4.4.3 Nyquist Plot of Systems in SCILAB
4.4.4 Steady State Error of Systems in SCILAB
4.4.5 Root Locus of Systems in SCILAB
4.5 Controller Design and Analysis Using SCILAB
4.5.1 Proportional Controller in SCILAB
4.5.2 Proportional Integral (PI) Controller in SCILAB
4.5.3 Proportional Derivative (PD) Controller in SCILAB
4.5.4 Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) Controller in SCILAB
4.6 Example of System Dynamics and Control using SCILAB
Average
Unit 5: Advanced Topics and Case Studies
Once we have an understanding of dynamic systems and controls, it is good to explore other advanced
topics such as the ones outlined below. We will also look at case studies pertaining to controller designs
for various dynamic systems.

Unit 5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
Explain advanced control techniques such as digital controls, robust controls, and Z-transformations.
Relate the application of control systems to real world problems using various case studies.
Average

Unit Blueprint

5.1 Digital Control
5.2 Robust Control
5.3 Z-Transforms
5.4 Case Studies
5.4.1 Case 1: Dynamics and Control of a Cruise Control System
5.4.2 Case 2: Dynamics and Control of a Bus Suspension System
5.4.3 Case 3: Dynamics and Control of a Ball and Beam System

Average
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