Sleeping Pills Tranquilizers Barbiturates

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					       Sleeping Pills –
  Tranquilizers – Barbiturates


By: Ngoc Giang
    Chem. 12B
    05/10/05
               Outline
• Definition:
      • Sleeping pills
      • Tranquilizers
      • Barbiturates
• The differences and similarities
      • Some brand names and their structures
      • Their effects
      • Side effects
• Conclusion and future directions
         What are they???
                        Sedative Hypnotics
                    (Tranquilizers – Sleeping Pills)



       Barbiturates                            Benzodiazepines
    “Barb” = “Downers”

                               Clorazepate                  Diazepam
Secobarbital
                                (Tranxene)                   (Valium)
 (Seconal)
               Pentobarbital
                                             Chlordiazepoxide
               (Nembutal)
                                                 (Librium)
      Sleeping pills
        definition
• A sedative: Drug that depresses
  the central nervous system (CNS).
• Sedatives may be referred to as
  tranquilizers, depressants, sleeping
  pills, downers, etc.
• In the form of a pill or capsule
• Used to relieve insomnia
      Tranquilizers
• Drugs that promote tranquility by
  calming, soothing, quieting, or
  pacifying without depressant
  effects.
• Ex: hypothalamus (treatment of
  tension and mental illness),
  reserpine (modern Western
  medicine), etc.
       Barbiturates
• Drugs that are used to treat patients
  suffering from anxiety or who are
  having trouble sleeping.
• Street names: “reds”, “red devils”,
  “yellow jackets”, “blue heavens”,
  “Christmas trees” and “rainbows”.
        Similarities
• Tranquilizers and sleeping pills belong to
  a larger group of substances known as the
  sedative-hypnotics, which slow down or
  “sedate” the central nervous system
  (CNS). Both are known as depressants
• Both may relieve anxiety and sleeping
  difficulties.
             Cont….
• Barbiturates also belong to the CNS
  depressants.
• Barbiturates are also used to relieve
  nervousness or restlessness.
• Conclusion: Sleeping pills
  (sometimes referred as tranquilizers)
  and barbiturates have similar effects.
         Differences
• The main difference lies in their chemical
  structure.
• In general, barbiturates are stronger.
• Sleeping pills reduce the amount of
  activity in the brain further than
  tranquilizers (make people fall asleep.)
• Some sleeping pills are not classified as
  tranqulizers; they are barbiturates.
                     Examples


                                                    Diazepam (Valium)
 Secobrabital (Seconal)




                           Clorazepate (Tranxene)

Pentobarbital (Nembutal)
                                             Chlrodiazepoxide (Librium)
          Their Effects
• Sleeping pills and tranquilizers treat the
  symptoms of stress. The relief is only
  temporary.
• Tranquilizers may be used for the stress
  of everyday life, (but they’re not meant to
  be used for >7-10 days).
• Barbiturates should not be used for
  anxiety or tension caused by the stress of
  everyday life.
• Sleeping Pills
                Side Effects
   – Drowsiness
   – Light headache   • Tranquilizers
   – Confusion           – Drowsiness
   – Forgetfulness       – Sensitivity to light
   – Dependence          – Dry mouth
   – Muscle              – Difficulty urinating   • Barbiturates
     weakness            – Decreased sexual          – Memory
                           ability                   – Judgment
                         – Shakiness                 – Depression
                         – Blurred Vision            – Anger
                         – Fast heart beat           – Mood swings
                         – Slowed Movement
                         – Irritability
            Conclusion
• Should not use sleeping pills and
  tranquilizers for a long term. (more than a
  week.)
• Should not use barbiturates too frequently
  since they are strong.
• Don’t ever take these drugs with alcohol. It
  might lead to death.
• Alcohol and heroin are also effect the
  CNS, however, not the same way as
  sleeping pills.
       Future directions
• Chemists always try to find better drugs to
  help people’s problems, but no drugs
  have no side effects. Therefore, try to find
  a natural way to improve your health, not
  the dependence on drugs.
• The most liable pills on the market today
  are Zolpidem (Ambien) and Zaleplon
  (Sonata).
• Different experts may have different
  opinions about offering these drugs. The
  only way is not to use them for long-term.
Zolpidem (Ambien)

                    Zaleplon (Sonata)
                           Examples

 Secobarbital (Seconal)
                                                    Diazepam (Valium)
                           Clorazepate (Tranxene)



Pentobarbital (Nembutal)




                           Chrodiazepoxide (Librium)

   Zolpidem (Ambien)
                                                        Zaleplon (Sonata)
          References
• http://www.mind.org.uk/
• http://corp.aadac.com/the_basics_about_othe
  r_drugs/tranquilizers_abcs.asp
• http://www.zoot2.com/justthefacts/drugs/barbi
  turates.asp
• www.drugtestsuccess.com/barbiturates.htm
• http://www.streetdrugs.org/depressants.htm
• The dark side of sleeping pills – By Daniel
  F.Kripke, M.D.

				
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posted:11/3/2011
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