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Symptoms of Pregnancy

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					Pregnancy and Birth
 Am I Pregnant?
 Common Symptoms ….
Missed   menstrual
 period
Breast tenderness

Morning sickness

More frequent urination
     Diagnosing Pregnancy
 Presumptive   Signs: breast changes,
  amenorrhea, nausea, vomiting,
  fatigue, frequent urination
 Probable Signs: Positive pregnancy
  test, physical changes in the uterus
 Positive Signs: Ultrasound or X-ray
  of fetus, fetal heartbeat, fetal
  movement
   Pregnancy Tests

 Physician tests
 Home pregnancy tests

 test based on detection of hCg

 Human chorionic gonadotropin -
  a hormone secreted by the
  placenta; it is the substance
  detected in pregnancy tests
     Prenatal Development
 Nine  months of pregnancy are
  divided into three equal periods of
  three months – called trimesters
– First trimester - months 1 to 3
(embryo- first 2 months)
(fetus- next 7 months)
– Second trimester - months 4 to 6
– Third trimester - months 7 to 9
    The Embryo and Its Support
    Systems
 Placenta - an organ formed on the
  wall of the uterus through which the
  fetus receives oxygen and nutrients
  and gets rid of waste products
 Umbilical cord - the tube that
  connects the fetus to the placenta
 Amniotic fluid - the watery fluid
  surrounding a developing fetus in the
  uterus
    Fetal Development During the
    First Trimester

 Develops into a fetus with most of
  the major organ systems present
• 4th to 8th week - external body
  parts develop
 7th week - liver, lungs, pancreas,
  kidneys, and intestines have formed
  and begun limited functioning
 End of 12th week - 10 centimeters
  long;weighs 19 grams
    Mom’s Physical Changes:
    First Trimester
 Large increase in levels of hormones
 Breasts swell and tingle;
  development of
  mammary glands
 Need to urinate
 Morning sickness
 Vaginal discharges may increase
 Feelings of fatigue and sleepiness
 Depression is common
 Emotional roller coaster
Fetal Development During the
Second Trimester
 Quickening  occurs - woman
  becomes aware of fetal
  movements
– around the end of the 14th
  week
 Fetal heart beat can be
  detected
 Fetus opens its eyes
    Mom’s Physical Changes:
    Second Trimester

 Morning sickness disappears
 Constipation and nosebleeds
  sometimes
  occur
 Edema - water retention and swelling

 Colostrum may come out of the
  nipple
 Emotional well-being improves
  Fetal Development During the
  Third Trimester

 Fetus’s skin is wrinkled and
  covered with downlike hair-
  lanugo and a waxy protective
  layer- vernix
 Fetus turns in uterus to
  assume a head-down position
 Fetus experiences rapid growth
 Sex During Pregnancy

 Intercourse can continue
  safely throughout
  pregnancy, unless otherwise
  stated by doctor
 Some anecdotal evidence of
  hormones in semen inducing
  labor
   Nutrition During Pregnancy

 Diet  during is extremely
  important
 Woman must get enough protein,
  folic acid, calcium, magnesium
  and vitamin A
 The fetus comes first – it draws
  the nutrients it needs first, and
  whatever is left is for mom
  Nutrition Deficiencies

 Calcium   – future risk of bone
  and tooth loss
 Folic acid – (folate) much
  higher risk of neural tube
  defects. (decreases risk by
  50%)
 Zinc – malformations of the
  central nervous system
Effects of Drugs Taken During Pregnancy
   Teratogens - a substance that produces
    defects in a fetus
Examples of teratogens:
 Antibiotics

 Alcohol - fetal alcohol syndrome

 Tobacco

 Other psychoactive drugs (cocaine, heroin)

 Thalidomide- drug that can cause limb
  defects
 Other drugs - check with physician and
  “when in doubt, don’t”
Birth: The Beginning of Labor


 Bloody show- discharge of
  mucous plug, along with
  some blood, that sealed the
  cervix
 Amniotic sac ruptures-
  “water breaking”
 Contractions may start

 Labor divided into 3 stages
    The First Stage of Labor:
    Dilation and Contractions
 Regular contraction of uterus muscles
 Effacement of cervix (thinning)

 Dilation of cervix (enlargement)

o Divided into 3 stages:

– Early first-stage labor (0-5 cm
  dilation)
– Late first-stage labor (5-8 cm
  dilation)
– Transition phase (8-10cm dilation)
          Pain Management
   Epidural or Spinal Medication
    regional blocks prevent the nerves from sending signals to the
    brain; numbs or reduces pain in part of the body (from the
    abdomen down).
   Mental Relaxation Techniques
    Some techniques aim to focus your thoughts, others to distract
    you. Music, breathing, visualization are common.
   Narcotic Analgesics
    reduces your entire body’s ability to sense pain or discomfort.
    Administered through a shot or IV and will wear off within a few
    hours. Not recommended if you are within two hours of your
    baby’s birth.
   Physical Comfort Measures
    Hot and cold packs, massage, sipping cool water are common.
   Position Changes
    Some positions improve your baby's ability to navigate through
    the pelvis, other positions hinder his efforts. Some positions can
    help to reduce the pressure associated with a back labor, other
    positions make it easier to relax your body and rest.
   Water
    Tubs and showers help to handle contractions with less
    discomfort.
The Second Stage of Labor:
Delivery of the baby
   Begins when cervix is fully dilated
   Urge to push or bear down
   Crowning – top of the head is visible
   Fontanel- soft spots between the skull bones
    of the baby
   Episiotomy may be performed
    – incision that is sometimes made at the
    vaginal entrance during birth
   Baby is born
The Third Stage of Labor:
Delivery of the afterbirth
 Placenta  detaches from walls
  of the uterus
 Afterbirth is expelled

 Several contractions may
  accompany placental
  expulsion
 Episiotomy and tears are
  sewn up
     Cesarean Section
 A method of delivering a baby surgically,
  by an incision in the abdomen
 Reasons to have a C Section:

– Baby is too large, mother’s pelvis is too
  small
- Baby not in head down position
– Cervix is not dilating
– Umbilical cord prolapses
– Excessive bleeding
– Placenta previa
                       Newborn testing

   APGAR- the rating (0-2) of
    baby’s physical characteristics   A   activity
    1 and 5 minutes after birth
   If there are problems with the    P   pulse
    baby an additional score is
    given at 10 minutes.              G   grimace
   A score of 7-10 is considered
    normal, while 4-7 might           A   appearance
    require some resuscitative
    measures, and a baby with         R   respiration
    apgars of 3 and below
    requires immediate
    resuscitation.
The 4th trimester

 Parenting   a newborn
 Physical and emotional
  changes again
 Post-partum depression a
  possibility

				
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posted:11/3/2011
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