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					  Town of Hollis, NH




Hazard Mitigation Plan 2006
      Prepared with the assistance of the

    Nashua Regional Planning Commission



         This project was funded by
                                                       Town of Hollis NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                                       July 2006



                                                                Table of Contents

ADOPTION RESOLUTION ............................................................................................................................iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...............................................................................................................................iv

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..................................................................................................................................v

CHAPTER I.                   Introduction...................................................................................................................... 1
           A.     Background...........................................................................................................................................1
           B.     Hazard Mitigation Goals and Objectives of the State of New Hampshire ..................................1
           C.     Hollis Hazard Mitigation Committee Goals ....................................................................................2
           D.     Methodology ........................................................................................................................................2

CHAPTER II.                  Community Profile .......................................................................................................... 5
           A.     Town Overview ...................................................................................................................................5
           B.     Development Trends ...........................................................................................................................7

CHAPTER III.                 Community Hazards....................................................................................................... 8
           A.     Hazard Descriptions............................................................................................................................8
           B.     Past Hazard Events..............................................................................................................................8
           C.     Potential Hazards to Critical Facilities and Areas of Concern ....................................................13

CHAPTER IV                   Risk Assessment............................................................................................................. 21
           A.     Prioritization of Critical Facilities and Areas of Concern.............................................................21
           B.     Vulnerability Assessment .................................................................................................................24
           C.     Critical Facilities Matrix ....................................................................................................................24
           D.     Calculating the Potential Loss..........................................................................................................26
           E.     Assessment of Future Development Losses...................................................................................30

CHAPTER V.                   Existing and Proposed Hazard Mitigation Strategies............................................... 32
           A.     Existing Mitigation Strategies ..........................................................................................................32
           B.     Proposed Mitigation Strategies........................................................................................................34
           C.     Prioritization of Proposed Mitigation Strategies ...........................................................................36

CHAPTER VI.                  Implementation Schedule ............................................................................................. 41

CHAPTER VII.                 Updating the Plan and Continued Public Involvement........................................... 43
           A.     Maintenance and Update of the Hazard Mitigation Plan ............................................................43
           B.     Utilization of Existing Municipal Plans, Regulations and Programs .........................................43
           C.     Continued Public Involvement ........................................................................................................43




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                                                  Town of Hollis NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                                  July 2006



                                                     Table of Contents (cont)

CHAPTER VIII.           Recommendations ......................................................................................................... 45
        A.   Communications/Emergency Response ........................................................................................45
        B.   Infrastructure and Capital Improvements .....................................................................................45
        C.   Public Education/Involvement .......................................................................................................45
        D.   Safety Plans.........................................................................................................................................45



LIST OF MAPS

Map 1: Watershed Boundaries in Hollis
Map 2: Location of Past Hazards in Hollis
Map 3: Location of Critical Facilities and Areas of Concern in Hollis
Map 4: Structures Partially or Completely Located in the 100-Year and 500-Year Floodplains
Map 5: Facilities in Hollis Identified in Potential Loss Analysis



LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Watersheds in Hollis
Table 2: Past Hazard Events in Hollis and Hillsborough County
Table 3: Hazards to Critical Facilities and Areas of Concern in Hollis
Table 4: Critical Facilities Matrix
Table 5: Existing Mitigation Strategies and Proposed Improvements
Table 6: Proposed Mitigation Strategies
Table 7: STAPLEE Analyses of Proposed Mitigation Strategies
Table 8: Prioritized Mitigation Projects and Action Plan
Table 9: Plan Update and Public Involvement Agenda




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                               Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                July 2006



                           CERTIFICATE OF ADOPTION


                          TOWN OF HOLLIS, NEW HAMPSHIRE
                               BOARD OF SELECTMEN
             A RESOLUTION ADOPTING THE HOLLIS HAZARD MITIGATION PLAN
                                  ________, 2006


WHEREAS, the Town of Hollis received funding, administered by the Nashua Regional
Planning Commission, from the NH Bureau of Emergency Management to prepare the Hollis
Hazard Mitigation Plan; and


WHEREAS, several planning meetings were held between July and November 2005 regarding the
development and review of the Hollis Hazard Mitigation Plan; and



WHEREAS, the Hollis Hazard Mitigation Plan contains several potential future projects to
mitigate hazard damage in the Town of Hollis; and


WHEREAS, a duly-noticed public hearing was held by the Hollis Board of Selectmen on
_____________ to formally approve and adopt the Hollis Hazard Mitigation Plan.


NOW, THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that the Hollis Board of Selectmen adopts the Hollis
Hazard Mitigation Plan.


ADOPTED AND SIGNED this _____ day of _____________.



                                                            _____________________________________
                                                                         Mark Johnson, Chairman


                                                            __________________________________
                                                                             Vahrij Manoukian

                                                            _____________________________________
                                                                              Raymond Lindsay

ATTEST                                                      _____________________________________
                                                                                 Peter Band


_____________________________________                       _____________________________________
                                                                             Melinda Willis, Clerk




                                                Page iii.
                                Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                 July 2006



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The Hollis Hazard Mitigation Committee was comprised of the following individuals who met
from July 2005 through August 2005 to develop this Plan:

   Cath Hallsworth – Director of Administration
   Don McCoy – Emergency Management Director
   Chief Richard Towne – Fire Chief
   Chief Richard Darling – Police Chief
   Arthur LeBlanc – Public Works Director
   Michael Pischetola – Hollis Communications Director
   Jonathan Heiss - NRPC

Other individuals contributed to the development of this Plan:

   •   Camille Patterson – Senior Transportation Planner, NRPC
   •   Kerrie Diers – Assistant Director, NRPC
   •   Ryan Friedman – GIS Transportation Planner, NRPC
   •   Steve Schaffer – GIS Manager, NRPC
   •   Sam Lingeman – GIS Planner, NRPC
   •   Danielle Fillis-Land Use/Environmental Planner, NRPC
   •   Joan Tinklepaugh – Hollis Historical Society




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                                       Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                        July 2006



EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

       The following natural hazards are addressed:
       •   Flooding
       •   Dam Failure
       •   Hurricanes
       •   Tornado/Downbursts
       •   Lightning
       •   Wildfire
       •   Severe Winter Weather
       •   Earthquake/Landslides

       The following manmade hazards are addressed:
       •   Fire/Explosions
       •   Traffic Congestion/Accidents
       •   Hazardous Material Incidents
       •   Terrorism

       The list of critical facilities includes:
       •   Electric Power Lines, Sub-Stations;
       •   Water Facilities;
       •   Fire Stations and Law Enforcement Facilities;
       •   Schools;
       •   Transportation Routes; and
       •   Facilities Storing Chemicals and/or Hazardous Materials.

       The list of areas of concern include:
       •   Large Open Spaces Susceptible to Wildfire/Lightning Strikes;
       •   Known Flooding Locations;
       •   Recreational Facilities;
       •   Churches; and
       •   Multi-Family Housing.

        The Hollis Hazard Mitigation Plan is considered a work in progress and must be revised on a
regular basis to assess whether the existing and suggested mitigation strategies are successful. Copies
have been distributed to all municipal departments, and a copy will remain on file at the Nashua
Regional Planning Commission.




                                                         Page v.
                                    Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                     July 2006



CHAPTER I.               INTRODUCTION

A.      Background
         The New Hampshire Bureau of Emergency Management (NH BEM) has a goal for all
communities within the State of New Hampshire to establish local hazard mitigation plans as a means to
reduce and mitigate future losses from natural or manmade hazard events. The NH BEM outlined a
process whereby communities throughout the State may be eligible for grants and other assistance upon
completion of a local hazard mitigation plan. A handbook entitled Hazard Mitigation Planning for New
Hampshire Communities was created by NH BEM to assist communities in developing local plans. The
state’s Regional Planning Commissions are charged with providing assistance to selected communities to
develop local plans.

         The Hollis Hazard Mitigation Plan was prepared by Hollis Hazard Mitigation Committee with the
assistance and professional services of the Nashua Regional Planning Commission (NRPC) under
contract with the OEM operating under the guidance of Section 206.405 of 44 CFR Chapter 1 (10-1-97
Edition). The Hollis Hazard Mitigation Plan serves as a strategic planning tool for use by the Town of
Hollis in its efforts to identify and mitigate the future impacts of natural and/or manmade hazard events.
This Plan does not constitute any section of the Hollis Master Plan, Zoning Ordinance or Emergency
Operations Plan.

B.      Hazard Mitigation Goals and Objectives of the State of New Hampshire
        The State of New Hampshire Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan, which was prepared and is
maintained by the NH BEM, sets forth the following, as related to overall hazard mitigation goals and
objectives for the State of New Hampshire:
        1.   To improve upon the protection of the general population, the citizens of the State and
             guests, from all natural and manmade hazards.
        2.   To reduce the potential impact of natural and manmade disasters on the State’s Critical
             Support Services.
        3.   To reduce the potential impact of natural and manmade disasters on Critical Facilities in the
             State.
        4.   To reduce the potential impact of natural and manmade disasters on the State’s
             infrastructure.
        5.   To improve Emergency Preparedness.
        6.   To improve the State’s Disaster Response and Recovery Capability.
        7.   To reduce the potential impact of natural and manmade disasters on private property.
        8.   To reduce the potential impact of natural and manmade disasters on the State’s economy.
        9.   To reduce the potential impact of natural and manmade disasters on the State’s natural
             environment.
        10. To reduce the State’s liability with respect to natural and manmade hazards generally.
        11. To reduce the potential impact of natural and manmade disasters on the State’s specific
            historic treasures and interests as well as other tangible and intangible characteristics which
            add to the quality of life of the citizens and guests of the State.
        12. To identify, introduce and implement cost effective Hazard Mitigation measures so as to
            accomplish the State’s Goals and Objectives and to raise the awareness of, and acceptance of
            Hazard Mitigation generally.




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                                      Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                       July 2006


C.       Hollis Hazard Mitigation Committee Goals
The Hollis Hazard Mitigation Committee decided to declare a set of overall goals to help guide the
development of the plan. These goals are derived from both the interests of the committee and derived
from the New Hampshire Multi-Hazard Mitigation Plan Goals and Objectives.

The main goal of the Hollis Hazard Mitigation Committee is to create a Hazard Mitigation Plan that will
be used to prevent future life and property losses caused by natural, human, and technological hazard
events before they occur.

The Committee identified the following goals as necessary for the successful development and
implementation of the Plan:

     •   Identify the natural hazards that may impact Hollis.
         Examples include landslides, earthquakes, snowstorms and wildfires.

     •   Identify possible risks from natural hazards.
         Examples include identifying where these hazards have occurred in the past as well as what areas might be
         impacted if to occur again in the future.

     •   Identify resources, strategies, actions or plans available to Hollis to help mitigate the impact of
         the natural hazard events.
         Examples include critical facility protection and ordinance/regulation revision.

     •   Increase public awareness and education of emergency preparedness.

     •   Create a dynamic and ever-evolving Hazard Mitigation Plan.
         Develop a schedule for updating the plan on a regular basis.

D.       Methodology
         In July of 2005, the Nashua Regional Planning Commission organized the first Committee
meeting with representatives from the Town of Hollis to begin the initial planning stages of the Hollis
Hazard Mitigation Plan (herein after, the Plan). NRPC, the Hollis Hazard Mitigation Committee, and
participants from the Town developed the content of the Plan using the nine-step process set forth in the
Hazard Mitigation Planning for New Hampshire Communities. The group also used both the Hollis and
Pelham Hazard Mitigation Plans, as templates for a general outline and format. Meetings were held on July
18th, 2005; August 10th, 2005; August 31st, 2005; September 28th, 2005; and October 27th, 2005. The draft
plan was presented to the Hollis Board of Selectmen on November 28th, 2005. These meetings involved
the Hollis Hazard Mitigation Committee and representatives from various town departments. The
following is a summary of the nine-step process conducted to compile the Hollis Hazard Mitigation Plan.

         Step 1 – Establish and Orient Hazard Mitigation Committee

             The Hollis Hazard Mitigation Committee was established in the summer of 2005 and was
         comprised of the Emergency Management Director/Police Chief, Fire Chief, Communications
         Director, DPW Director, and the Director of Administration. Meeting notifications were sent by
         the Nashua Regional Planning Commission.

         Step 2 – Map the Hazards and Identify Critical Facilities

             Participants identified areas where damage from historic natural disasters have occurred and
         areas where critical manmade facilities and other features may be at risk in the future for loss of



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                             Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                              July 2006


life, property damage, environmental pollution and other risk factors. NRPC generated a set of
base maps that were used in the process of identifying past and future hazards.

    Participants then identified facilities and areas that were considered to be important to the
Town for emergency management purposes, for provision of utilities and community services,
evacuation routes, and for recreational and social value. Using existing databases, local
orthophotos, community maps, local assessing data, and floodplain maps, NRPC plotted the
location of these sites on a map. The locations marked on the map represent the entrance to a
building or the approximate center of open area sites.

Step 3 – Assessing Vulnerability

    Once the critical facilities and areas of concern were identified, NRPC discussed the potential
loss of critical facilities based on the frequency and potential severity of the following hazards: 1)
severe winter weather; 2) hurricanes; 3) dam failure; 4) landslides/earthquakes; 5) wildfires; 6)
tornado/downbursts; 7) lightning, 8) flooding; 9) dam failure; 10) traffic congestion and vehicular
accidents; 11) explosions/fires; 12) hazardous materials incidents; and 13) terrorism. This section
also contains a Critical Facilities Matrix that ranks each critical facility and area of concern by the
potential risk of being affected by a natural or manmade hazard. Each hazard is ranked as
having a low, medium or high risk of potentially severely affecting the facility.

Step 4 - Analyzing Development Trends

    Current development trends are identified at the end of Chapter II, in Section B, Development
Trends. Future development trends are identified at the end of Chapter IV, in Section E, Assessment
of Future Development Losses.

Step 5 - Identify Currently Established Strategies and Gaps in Current Protection

    After collecting detailed information on each critical facility in Hollis, the Town participants
and NRPC staff identified existing Town mitigation strategies relative to flooding, wind, fire, ice
and snow events, earthquakes, hazardous material leaks, traffic congestion and vehicular
accidents. The existing strategies were then reviewed for coverage and effectiveness, as well as
the need for improvement. The Hollis Emergency Management Plan was also referenced to avoid
replication of existing protection measures.

Step 6 – Brainstorm and Evaluate Disaster Minimization Alternatives

   After developing a list of existing hazard mitigation strategies, the team was able to identify
gaps in the existing mitigation measures. These gaps were taken into consideration during the
development of mitigation goals and proposed mitigation measures.

Step 7 – Select Actions

    The proposed hazard mitigation actions and strategies were reviewed and each strategy was
rated (good, average, or poor) for its effectiveness according to seven factors (e.g., technical and
administrative applicability, political and social acceptability, legal authority, environmental
impact, financial feasibility). Each factor was then scored and all scores were totaled for each
strategy. Strategies were ranked by overall score for preliminary prioritization then reviewed
again under Step 8.




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                           Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                            July 2006


    The preliminary prioritization list was reviewed in order to make changes and determine a
final prioritization for new hazard mitigation actions and existing protection strategy
improvements identified in previous steps.

Step 8 –Develop a Strategy

    An implementation strategy was created which included person(s) responsible for
implementation (who), a timeline for completion (when), and a funding source and/or technical
assistance source (how) for each identified hazard mitigation action.

Step 9 – Adopt and Monitor the Plan, and Continued Public Input

     The Emergency Management Director will be responsible for ensuring that the Town
Departments and the public have adequate opportunity to participate in the maintenance and
update of the Plan. The Hollis Hazard Mitigation Committee may solicit direct involvement
from the Board of Selectmen and Town Departments. The Committee must advertise the process
in the local paper, in town offices and via the internet. A public hearing will be held to receive
public comment during the review period, and the final product adopted by the Board of
Selectmen appropriately.




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                                             Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                              July 2006




CHAPTER II.                   COMMUNITY PROFILE

A.      Town Overview
                                                                               The Town of Hollis is located in
                                                                               Hillsborough County in south central
                                                                               New Hampshire. Hollis is bordered on
                                                                               the west by the Towns of Brookline and
                                                                               Milford, the State of Massachusetts to the
                                                                               south, the Town of Merrimack and the
                                                                               City of Nashua to the east, and the Town
                                                                               of Amherst to the north.

                                                                               Hollis has experienced rapid population
                                                                               growth over the last five decades. There
                                                                               was a 79% population increase from 1970-
                                                                               1980 with the current 2003 population
                                                                               estimated at 7,489. Population density in
                                                                               Hollis averages 227 persons per square
                                                                               mile, with 32.3 square miles of land area
                                                                               within the town. Elevations range from
                                                                               approximately 120 feet above mean sea
                                                                               level (aMSL) near the Nashua River to 821
                                                                               feet aMSL on top of Birch Hill, the Town’s
                                                                               highest point.

                                                                The entire Town of Hollis is located
                                                                within the greater Merrimack River
                                                                watershed, which covers 5,010 square
                                                                miles in New Hampshire and
                                                                Massachusetts. In Hollis, the Nashua
                                                                River and Pennichuck Brook sub-basins
                                                                are the largest, encompassing the
southern two-thirds and the northern third of the Town. Within these three greater watersheds, Hollis
has fourteen sub-watersheds shown on Map 2. Four major bodies of water are found in Hollis: Dunklee
Pond, Flints Pond, Rocky Pond and Silver Lake. A portion of the Nashua River flows through the bottom
right corner of the town. Spalding Park Town Forest, Silver Lake State Park and Beaver Brook Recreation
Area are Hollis’ most popular outdoor recreation areas. Beaver Brook Association and Silver Lake Parks
alone provide the town with 1,785 acres of conserved land. There is an extensive network of
conservation, recreation and public land under public and private ownership. The Beaver Brook
Association land holdings are the largest in Hollis, with approximately 1,700 acres or roughly 50% of the
conservation land. Other major parcels are the town forest (365 acres) and the 109 acre Spalding Park.1
There are currently over 4,051 acres of permanent open space in Hollis, or roughly 19% of the total land
use (see Table 3).

                                             Table 1: Watersheds in Hollis
                               Watershed               Acres in Hollis         Percentage of Hollis
                          Nashua River                      74333.4                         36%
                          Nissitissit River                  5581.8                         27%
                          Pennichuck Brook                  7618.3                          37%
                          Total Area:                       20633.6                        100%

        1   1998 Hollis Master Plan Update


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     Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                      July 2006



Map 1: Watershed Boundaries in Hollis




                      Page 6.
                                          Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                           July 2006


B.      Development Trends2

The development of Hollis during the course of its history has resulted in a landscape that is particularly
appealing to the residents of the Town and region. While Hollis’ population has increased substantially
in the past two decades, the overall appearance of the Town has remained largely rural and undeveloped.
The Town has retained its historic center as the focus of community life and as its center for business
activity. Lacking a wholly rural or a wholly urbanized area, substantial areas of open land and
agricultural land remain in and around the Town Center and along Hollis’ borders with neighboring
communities. It is this dispersion and diversity of land uses as well as its gentle landscape that gives
Hollis its unique character.

Until the last 20 years, Hollis has been known principally as a prosperous farming community. The years
1875 to 1900 witnessed the peak of individual, small self-sufficient farms in Hollis growing strawberries,
dairying, raising poultry especially for table eggs, and orcharding. Dairying began to develop to a large
degree in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Poultry, in particular, represented a boom industry in
Hollis’ agricultural history. During the 1890’s Hollis had about one thousand fowl. Now all of the local
poultry farms have gone out of business and virtually all of the dairying operations have also
disappeared. However, the population of pleasure horses is now on the rise and feed hay once grown for
dairy and beef cattle is now being sold to the growing number of horse owners.

Residential development patterns in Hollis have generally resulted in the development of low density
and moderate density housing alongside each other and often as a part of the same development. In
1998, approximately 5,071 acres of land in Hollis was devoted to residential land uses. This represents
about 47% of the town’s total developed land and 25% of the total area of the town.

Commercial development of all types encompasses less than 200 acres of land in Hollis. As with other
uses, however, commercial uses tend to be located in highly visible locations along major transportation
routes, and therefore appear to be more extensive than they actually are in area. Most of the commercial
uses are concentrated in the Town’s central Agricultural and Business Zone (A&B Zone) in the vicinity of
the junction of NH Routes 122 and 130 along Main and Ash Streets and Proctor Hill Road.
Industrial land uses in 1998 encompassed only 81 acres of land in Hollis. The town’s two industrial zones
are located on either side of Proctor Hill Road at the Brookline town line and on Clinton Drive adjacent to
NH Route 111.

With continual pressures of residential development has arisen the need for Hollis to identify and
purchase high priority resources such as open space parcels for the environmental, social and visual
benefits that such parcels provide to a growing municipality. In 2000, the Town of Hollis Board of
Selectmen created the Hollis Land Protection Study Committee (LPSC) with a mission “to preserve the
natural heritage and rural character of Hollis’ by recommending the protection of selected open lands that
meet specific criteria such as: visual appeal, agricultural value, water resource, trails potential, citizen
interest, flora/fauna, woodlands, and connection to existing town property.”3 The Town of Hollis with
the help of the new LPSC recommendations has been actively purchasing land since 2001 with a total of
912 currently protected from future development pressures. As Southern New Hampshire, and Hollis in
particular continues to experience new residential development, the continuing challenge will be to
decide which parcels should be allowed for development and which parcels should be acquired for
protection.




        2   1998 Hollis Master Plan Update
        3   Hollis Land Protection Study Committee 2003 Annual Report


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                                          Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                           July 2006



CHAPTER III.                 COMMUNITY HAZARDS
A.      Hazard Descriptions
        The first step in planning for natural and manmade hazards is to identify hazards that may affect
the Town. Some communities are more susceptible to certain hazards (i.e., flooding near rivers,
hurricanes on the seacoast, etc.). The twelve hazards that are most applicable to the State of New
Hampshire and the Town include:
        •      Flooding, debris-impacted infrastructure, erosion, mudslides, rapid snow pack melt, and
               river ice jams;
        •      Dam Failure;
        •      Hurricanes;
        •      Tornadoes/Downbursts;
        •      Lightning;
        •      Wildfires, including grass fires, forest fires, drought-related fires, and issues with isolated
               homes and residential areas;
        •      Severe Winter Weather, including heavy snow storms, ice storms, “Nor’-Easters,” blizzards,
               and hailstorms;
        •      Earthquakes/Landslides, and other geologic hazards related to seismic activity;
        •      Hazardous Materials Incidents, including spills or leaks from businesses in Hollis and
               Nashua;
        •      Explosions/Fires
        •      Traffic Congestion and Vehicular Accidents, most prominent in the Town Center and along
               major thoroughfares;
        •      Terrorism – Domestic and International, including the use of explosives and release of
               chemicals and biological agents4

        Appendix A includes more in-depth definitions of these hazards that have occurred or could
occur in New Hampshire and identifies the potential for each hazard to occur in the Town of Hollis.

B.      Past Hazard Events
         The next step in hazard mitigation planning is to identify where hazard events have occurred in
the past and, if possible, what facilities or areas were adversely impacted. A Base Map that included all
of the critical facilities and areas of concern in Hollis, the 100-year floodplain, political boundaries,
waterbodies and the road network was used to locate all of the past hazard events. This step in the
planning process serves as a stepping stone for predicting where future hazards could potentially occur.
NRPC and Hollis participants identified past events in the Town of Hollis, which are included in Map 2
and Table 2.




        4   Northeast States Emergency Consortium: http://www.nesec.org/hazards/Terrorism.cfm.


                                                           Page 8.
      Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                       July 2006



Map 2: Location of Past Hazards in Hollis




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                                              Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                               July 2006



                  Table 2: Past Hazard Events in Hollis and Hillsborough County

 Hazard              Date                 Location           Critical Facility or                 Remarks/Description
                                                             Area Impacted
                                                                                     Caused many roads to wash out and required
  Flood              1927              Southern NH              Road Network                       money for repair.
                                                                                       Flooding caused by heavy snowfall totals,
  Flood          March 11-21,               NH                  Road Network        heavy rains and warm weather at the same time.
                    1936                                                                 Run-off from melting snow with rain
                                                                                                 overflowed the rivers.
                                    Cheshire, Carroll,                                Caused by snowmelt and intense rain FEMA
  Flood          April 16, 1987   Grafton, Hills., Merri.,    Low-lying fields in   Disaster Declaration # 789 $4,888,889 in damage.
                                  Rock., & Sull. Counties,     Hollis and along
                                            NH                       river.
                                      Belknap, Carroll,                              A series of storm events with moderate to heavy
  Flood          August 7-11,     Cheshire, Coos, Grafton,        Unknown                rains FEMA Disaster Declaration #-876,
                    1990               Hillsborough,                                               $2,297,777 in damage.
                                   Merrimack & Sullivan
                                       Counties, NH
                                   Grafton, Hillsborough,                           Heavy rains. FEMA Disaster Declaration #-1144.
  Flood          October 1996            Merrimack,               Unknown                        $2,341,273 in damage.
                                        Rockingham,
                                    Strafford & Sullivan
                                       Counties, NH
                                                                                    13 died, 494 injured throughout NH. Total storm
  Great          September 21,      All of Southern New        Road Network;        losses of $12,337,643 (not adjusted for inflation).
Hurricane            1938                  England               structures            Many acres of downed trees in Hollis and
 of 1938                                                      damaged, flooding         flooding. Some barns and chicken coops
                                                                                      collapsed with loss of livestock and poultry.

Hurricane         August 31,      Southern New England       Extensive tree and        SAFFIR/SIMPSON HURRICANE SCALE5 –
 (Carol)            1954                                      crop damage in                Category 3, winds 111-130 mph.
                                                              NH. Unknown if
                                                             Hollis was affected.
Hurricane        September 12,     Southern and Central           Unknown            Category 3, heavy flooding in some parts of the
 (Donna)             1960                  NH                                                             State.

Hurricane         September       Southern New England        Electric structures            Category 2, winds 96-110 mph.
 (Gloria)            1985                                       damaged; tree
                                                                   damages
                                                                Tree damage,
Hurricane        August 1991      Southern New England        possible electrical      Structural damage in town from fallen trees.
 (Bob)                                                             damage.
                 March 11-14,                                                          Snow accumulations 30-50 inches, one of the
Snowstorm           1888               New England                Unknown               most severe winter storms ever to hit New
                                                                                                         England
                                                                                      City of Nashua called in to help plow drifts on
Snowstorm            1922          Most of New England.         Road Network         Broad Street. Plow failed half way to destination
                                                                                        and Hollis became isolated for 3 to 4 days.
Snowstorm        February 14-          New England             Paralyzed New           Snow depths exceeded 30 cm and very high
                   15, 1940                                       England                                 winds
Snowstorm        February 14-      Southeastern, western,        Unknown                   Snow accumulations to 20-33 inches
                   17, 1958           and central NH
                                     South central and            Unknown                     Snow accumulations between
Snowstorm        March 18-21,         west central NH                                                22-24 inches
                    1958
                  March 2-5,         South central and            Unknown                     Snow accumulations up to 25
Snowstorm           1960             Southeastern NH                                             inches in some areas

                 January 18-20,      Southeastern and             Unknown             Snow accumulations up to 25 inches in some
Snowstorm            1961            south central NH                                  areas, Blizzard or near-blizzard conditions
                                                                                             developed across the northeast

          5   For a complete description of the Saffir/Simpson Hurricane Scale see Appendix __.


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                                               Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
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 Hazard               Date                 Location            Critical Facility or                 Remarks/Description
                                                               Area Impacted
Snowstorm         January 11-14,     Southern and central           Unknown                  Snow accumulations up to 12 inches
                      1964                   NH
                                                                                          Snow accumulations between 24-98 inches
Snowstorm          February 22-          Central NH                 Unknown              (higher totals in western NH), slow moving
                     28, 1969                                                                     storm with long duration
Snowstorm         December 25-               NH                     Unknown            Snow accumulations 12-18 inches in most areas
                     28, 1969
Snowstorm         January 19-21,    Southern and Central            Unknown                 Little known affect on Hollis. Snow
                       1978                 NH                                                 accumulations up to 16 inches
Snowstorm                                                           Trapped             Snow accumulations between 25-33 inches in
 “Blizzard        February 5-7            Statewide              commuters on          NH, Snow accumulations between 24-38 inches
  of ‘78”             1978                                      roads, businesses                     in New England
                                                                     closed
Snowstorm        April 5-7, 1982     Southern and central          Unknown                Late-season storm with thunderstorms
                                             NH                                               produced 18-22 inches of snow
Snowstorm          March, 1983          New England              Road network,          Winds of 30-40 mph. Deposited 18+ inches of
                                                                businesses closed                     snow in Hollis.
Snowstorm          March, 1993          New England                Unknown
Snowstorm         February,1996         New England                Unknown                Snow, ice, bitter temperatures throughout
                                                                                                          central NH
                                                               Electrical structures    14” of snow deposited in Hollis. Most of town
Snowstorm          December,                 NH                     damaged,                   was without power for 3-4 days.
                     1996                                       businesses closed

                                                                                           Two feet of snow accumulated on Mt.
Snowstorm           March 23,                NH                     Unknown              Washington and high winds were reported.
                     1999

Snowstorm         March, 2001           New England               Road network
 Ice Storm        December 29-             NH                      Unknown                     Glaze storm of severe intensity.
                    30, 1942                                                                    Little known impact to Hollis.
                                                                                         FEMA Disaster Declaration-1199. Six injuries
Ice Storm           January 7,         State of NH, 52          Phone and power         and one fatality, 20 major road closures, 67,586
                       1998          communities in nine         disrupted, road       without electricity, 2,310 without phone service,
                                      counties impacted              network           one communication tower failure, $12,446,202 in
                                                                                                            damages.

                                                                                             Bitter cold and blustery winds made
  Severe           January 16,               NH                     Unknown                temperatures feel as cold as -40 degrees.
   Cold               2004                                                              Outdoor exposure in the State was deadly and
                                                                                        lead to six deaths. Wind chills in Hollis to -30
                                                                                                            degrees.

 Drought             1929-36                 NH                     Unknown
                                                               Farms had minimal        For two consecutive years in the mid 1960s,
 Drought             1960-69                 NH                 grass for grazing       wells went dry. Longest recorded continuous
                                                                animals and poor           spell of less than normal precipitation
                                                                      crops
                                                               Farms affected, low       Drought warning was issued by governor’s
 Drought              1999                   NH                water levels in dug                 office on 06/29/99
                                                                      wells
                                   All counties in the State   Farms affected, low     First time low-water conditions have progressed
 Drought           March, 2002       of NH except Coos         water levels in dug     beyond the Level Two, Drought Warning stage.
                                           County                     wells
Earthquake        November 18,           Grand Banks              No Damage                     Richter Magnitude Scale: 7.26
                      1929              Newfoundland
Earthquake        December 20,           Ossipee, NH               No Damage                     Richter Magnitude Scale: 5.5
                      1940                                                                        Felt over 341 miles away.




           6   For a complete description of the Richter Magnitude Scale see Appendix __.


                                                                Page 11.
                                            Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                             July 2006



 Hazard            Date                 Location             Critical Facility or                      Remarks/Description
                                                             Area Impacted
Earthquake    December 24,            Ossipee, NH                  Unknown                          Richter Magnitude Scale: 5.5
                  1940                                                                                Felt over 550 KM away.
Earthquake    June 15, 1973        Near NH Quebec               Minor Damage                        Richter Magnitude Scale: 4.8
                                     Border, NH
Earthquake      January            West of Laconia              Little Damage                       Richter Magnitude Scale: 4.5
                19,1982                                                                               42.62 LAT/71.39 LONG
Past Hazards Specific to Hollis
  Vehicle      Recurrent        Routes 111 and 111A in          Road Network           Usually caused by driver error.
 Accidents                      Hollis
                                Intersection of Proctor         Road Network           Usually caused by driver error.
  Vehicle      Recurrent        Hill Road, Silver Lake
 Accidents                      Road, Main Street, and
                                Ash Street (4 Corners)
  Vehicle      Recurrent        Route 130 – Proctor Hill        Road Network           Continual accidents in winter due to winter
 Accidents      (winter)        Road & South                                           conditions and topography.
                                Merrimack Road
                                Town Hall and Police          Loss of electricity      Two structures are struck by lightning.
 Lightning        Date          Station hit during
  Strikes      Unknown          storms
Hazardous                       From Propane Company         Spill leaks downhill
  Material        Date          in Nashua into Hollis         from South Depot
   Leaks       Unknown                                          Road (111A) in
                                                             Nashua into Hollis


                                             Sources: American Meteorological Society;
                                                 Concord Monitor, September 1938;
                                       Hollis Historical Society, http://www.hollis-history.org/;
                                              National Earthquake Information Center;
                                       New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services;
                               New Hampshire Office of Emergency Management, 2000; Town of Hollis;
                          Northeast States Emergency Consortium (NESEC) Website: http://www.nesec.org;
                                 Pembroke Town History, http://www.pembroke-nh.com/history.asp;
                    US Army Corp of Engineers Ice Jam Database, http://www.crrel.usace.army.mil/cgi-bin/ice/ijdb;
                           The Bow Times, http://www.yourneighborhoodnews.com/bow-times/index.html;
                                  The Manchester Union Leader, http://www.theunionleader.com/;
                                          Tornado Project, http://www.tornadoproject.com;




                                                               Page 12.
                                     Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                      July 2006



C.      Potential Hazards to Critical Facilities and Areas of Concern
         After past events have been identified, the next step in the planning process is to determine
where future hazards could potentially occur and what structures or areas could be affected. This
requires determining which facilities and areas in the community are considered critical and why they
are considered critical (i.e., is the facility in the floodplain? Storing hazardous materials? Is it a primary
shelter?). Each critical facility and area was mapped. Table 3 presents the critical facilities and areas of
concern identified by the Town of Hollis. Map 3 illustrates the locations of these facilities and areas in
Hollis. Chapter IV will present an analysis of each of these facilities and areas in the community and
their priority in case of an emergency.




                                                Multi-Family Housing




                                                      Page 13.
                    Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                     July 2006



Map 3: Location of Critical Facilities and Areas of Concern in Hollis




                                     Page 14.
Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                 July 2006




     Map 3: (Continued)




                 Page 15.
                                           Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                            July 2006



       Table 3: Hazards to Critical Facilities and Areas of Concern in Hollis
                                                                       100- year
                                                                                               Size of
                                                                         flood     500-year               Type of Hazard Most
   Facility Name           Facility Type      Stories   Generator                             Building
                                                                                    flood                    Vulnerable to
                                                                                              (gross ft2)



  Critical Facilities

  Police Station/          Emergency
                                                                                                              All Natural and
   Emergency              Facility/Town          2         Yes           No          No         10,659
                                                                                                             Manmade Hazards
 Operations Center           Facility
                              Town
                                                                                                              All Natural and
     Town Hall            Hall/Historic          2         Yes           No          No         12,595
                                                                                                             Manmade Hazards
                            Structure
    Public Works                                                                                              All Natural and
                               DPW               1         No            No          No          8,358
     Department                                                                                              Manmade Hazards
                           Emergency
                                                                                                              All Natural and
     Fire Station         Facility/Town          2         Yes           No          No         19,312
                                                                                                             Manmade Hazards
                             Facility
                                                                                                              All Natural and
    Hollis Village        Elderly Housing        2         Yes           No          No         23,396
                                                                                                             Manmade Hazards
    Hollis Upper                                                                                              All Natural and
                          School/Shelter         2         Yes           No          No         80,569
 Elementary School                                                                                           Manmade Hazards
Hollis-Brookline High                                                                                         All Natural and
                      School/Shelter             3         Yes           No          No        159,994
        School                                                                                               Manmade Hazards
                                                                                                              All Natural and
  Hollis Academy              School             2         Yes           No          No          9,424
                                                                                                             Manmade Hazards
                                                                                                              All Natural and
  Hollis Preschool            School             2         No            No          No          4,952
                                                                                                             Manmade Hazards
                                                                                                              All Natural and
Hollis Primary School         School             1         No            No          No         56,750
                                                                                                             Manmade Hazards
  Hollis-Brookline                                                                                            All Natural and
                              School             2         No            No          No         51,827
   Middle School                                                                                             Manmade Hazards
                                                                                                              All Natural and
    TLC Nursery             Child Care           2         No            Yes         No          6,020       Manmade Hazards
                                                                                                                 (flooding)
    Young Minds                                                                                               All Natural and
                            Child Care           1         No            No          No       Unknown
     Preschool                                                                                               Manmade Hazards
Electrical Substation -      Electrical
                                               n/a         n/a           No          No       Unknown          Fire/Explosion
        PSNH                Substation
                                                                                                                Terrorism/
Water Pump Stations       Pump Stations        n/a         n/a           No          No          n/a          Earthquake/ Ice
                                                                                                                   Storm
                                                                                                                Terrorism/
Flint Pond Co. Water
                           Pump Station        n/a         n/a           No          No           64          Earthquake/ Ice
    Pump Station
                                                                                                                   Storm
                                                                                                              Contamination/
        Wells                 Wells             n/a        n/a           No          Yes         n/a
                                                                                                                 Terrorism

        Dams                   Dam             n/a         n/a           Yes         No          n/a        Dam failure/Flooding

                            Hazardous                                                          960/4,858
     Lorden Oil                                  2         No            No          No                        Fire/Explosion
                            Materials                                                         2 Buildings
                            Hazardous
 Hollis Construction                             1         No            No          No       unknown          Fire/Explosion
                            Materials
                            Hazardous
     Hollis Auto                                 1         No            No          No          5,542         Fire/Explosion
                            Materials
                            Hazardous
Woodmont Orchards                                1         No            No          No          6,478         Fire/Explosion
                            Materials
                            Hazardous
      Lull Farm                                  1         No            No          No          3,959         Fire/Explosion
                            Materials
                            Hazardous
Brookdale Fruit Farm                             1         No            No          No       unknown          Fire/Explosion
                            Materials



                                                            Page 16.
                                          Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                           July 2006


                                                                      100- year
                                                                                              Size of
                                                                        flood     500-year               Type of Hazard Most
    Facility Name         Facility Type      Stories   Generator                             Building
                                                                                   flood                    Vulnerable to
                                                                                             (gross ft2)


  State Maintenance        Hazardous
                                                1         No            No          No         5,940      Fire/Explosion
        Garage             Materials
                           Hazardous                                                                      Fire/Explosion/
  Diamond Casting                               1         Yes           No          No        75,842
                           Materials                                                                         Terrorism
                           Hazardous                                                                      Fire/Explosion/
Kerk Motion Products                            1         Yes           No          No        23,308
                           Materials                                                                         Terrorism
                           Hazardous                                                                      Fire/Explosion/
       Skillings                                2         No            No          No         9,452
                           Materials                                                                         Terrorism
                           Hazardous                                                                      Fire/Explosion/
Hollis Transfer Station                         1         No            No          No         144
                           Materials                                                                         Terrorism
                           Hazardous                                                                      Fire/Explosion/
    Stump Dump                                  1         No            No          No         121
                            Materials                                                                        Terrorism
                          Commercial
                           Complex/                                                                      All Natural and
     Hatch Plaza                                1         No            No          No         7,026
                           Emergency                                                                    Manmade Hazards
                            Supplies
                          Commercial/
                                                                                                         All Natural and
Hollis Village Grocery     Emergency            1         No            No          No         3,584
                                                                                                        Manmade Hazards
                            Supplies
                          Commercial/
    Hollis Village                                                                                       All Natural and
                           Emergency            1         No            No          No       unknown
     Pharmacy                                                                                           Manmade Hazards
                            Supplies
                          Commercial/
    Hollis Village                                                                                       All Natural and
                           Emergency            1         No            No          No        39,785
    Marketplace                                                                                         Manmade Hazards
                            Supplies
                                                                                                                Dam
                                                                                                          Failure/Flooding
   Runnells Bridge           Bridge           n/a         n/a           Yes         Yes        n/a
                                                                                                            (could flood
                                                                                                         evacuation routes)
                                                                                                                Dam
  South Merrimack                                                                                         Failure/Flooding
                             Bridge           n/a         n/a           Yes         Yes        n/a
    Road Bridge                                                                                             (could flood
                                                                                                         evacuation routes)
                                                                                                                Dam
    Toddy Brook                                                                                           Failure/Flooding
                             Bridge           n/a         n/a           No          No         n/a
      Crossing                                                                                              (could flood
                                                                                                         evacuation routes)
                                                                                                                Dam
                                                                                                          Failure/Flooding
  West Hollis Road
                             Bridge           n/a         n/a           Yes         No         n/a          (could flood
       Bridge
                                                                                                         evacuation routes)

                                                                                                            Snowstorm,
                                                                                                             Lightning,
    TDS Telecom               Tele-
                                              n/a         No            No          No         966        Earthquake, and
 Telephone Structure      communication
                                                                                                             Terrorism.

                                                                                                            Snowstorm,
                                                                                                             Lightning,
 Belltronics Cellular         Tele-
                                              n/a         n/a           No          No         n/a        Earthquake, and
        Tower             communication
                                                                                                             Terrorism.

                                                                                                            Snowstorm,
  Birch Hill Cellular         Tele-                                                                          Lightning,
                                              n/a         n/a           No          No         n/a
        Tower             communication                                                                   Earthquake, and
                                                                                                             Terrorism.
                             Town
                                                                                                         All Natural and
 Hollis Social Library Facility/Historic        1         No            No          No        16,201
                                                                                                        Manmade Hazards
                           Structure




                                                           Page 17.
                                           Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                            July 2006


                                                                       100- year
                                                                                               Size of
                                                                         flood     500-year               Type of Hazard Most
   Facility Name           Facility Type      Stories   Generator                             Building
                                                                                    flood                    Vulnerable to
                                                                                              (gross ft2)


                                                                                                             All Natural and
   US Post Office             Federal            2         No            No          No         18,048
                                                                                                            Manmade Hazards
                                                                                    Yes –
                             Outdoor                                Yes – Near      Near                    Terrorism, Extreme
Silver Lake State Park                         n/a         n/a                                   1,568
                            Recreation                              Silver Lake     Silver                  Weather, Flooding
                                                                                    Lake
                                                                                                            Terrorism, Extreme
    Nichols Field              Park             n/a        n/a           No          No          n/a
                                                                                                                 Weather
                                                                                                            Terrorism, Extreme
  Wallace’s Grove        Recreation Center     n/a         n/a           No          No          n/a
                                                                                                                 Weather
                                                                                                            Terrorism, Extreme
 Little Nichols Field        Ball Field         n/a        n/a           No          No          n/a
                                                                                                                 Weather
 Alpine Ridge Golf                                                                                          Terrorism, Extreme
                           Golf Course           1         No            Yes         No         12,104
       Club                                                                                                 Weather, Flooding
                                                                                                            Terrorism, Extreme
 Overlook Golf Club        Golf Course           1         No            Yes         Yes         3,773
                                                                                                            Weather, Flooding
                                                                                                            Terrorism, Extreme
Middle School Fields         Ball Field         n/a        n/a           No          No          n/a
                                                                                                                 Weather
                                                                                                            Terrorism, Extreme
 High School Fields          Ball Field        n/a         n/a           No          No          n/a
                                                                                                                 Weather
  Hollis Historical                                                                                          All Natural and
                         Historic Structure      2         No            No          No          3,108
      Society                                                                                               Manmade Hazards
                                                                                                             All Natural and
   Lawrence Barn         Historic Structure      1         No            No          No       unknown
                                                                                                            Manmade Hazards
                                                                                                             All Natural and
   Wheeler House         Historic Structure      2         No            No          No       unknown
                                                                                                            Manmade Hazards
                         Church/Historic
  Congregational                                                                                             All Natural and
                           Structure/            2         No            No          No         11,951
  Church of Hollis                                                                                          Manmade Hazards
                         Potential Shelter
  Silver Lake Road
                              Bridge           n/a         n/a           Yes         No          n/a            Flooding
       Bridge

 Ames Road Bridge             Bridge           n/a         n/a           Yes         Yes         n/a            Flooding

  Federal Hill Road
                              Bridge           n/a         n/a           Yes         No          n/a            Flooding
       Bridge

 Broad Street Bridge          Bridge           n/a         n/a           Yes         Yes         n/a            Flooding

 Depot Road Bridge            Bridge           n/a         n/a           Yes         Yes         n/a            Flooding

  Runnells Bridge             Bridge           n/a         n/a           Yes         Yes         n/a            Flooding

 Twiss Lane Bridge            Bridge           n/a         n/a           Yes         Yes         n/a            Flooding

  Worcester Road
                              Bridge           n/a         n/a           Yes         No          n/a            Flooding
     Bridge
   First Wesleyan           Church/                                                                          All Natural and
                                                 1         No            No          No          5,100
       Church            Potential Shelter                                                                  Manmade Hazards
   Kingdom Hall        Church/                                                                               All Natural and
                                                 1         No            No          No          5,751
Jehovah’s Witnesses Potential Shelter                                                                       Manmade Hazards
                                                                                              12464/2832
                            Church/                                                                          All Natural and
Faith Baptist Church                             2         No            No          No       2 Buildings
                         Potential Shelter                                                                  Manmade Hazards
                                                                                                               Snowstorm,
   TDS Telecom                Tele-                                                                             Lightning,
                                               n/a         No            No          No          n/a
Telephone Structure       communication                                                                      Earthquake, and
                                                                                                                Terrorism.




                                                            Page 18.
                                        Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                         July 2006


                                                                    100- year
                                                                                            Size of
                                                                      flood     500-year               Type of Hazard Most
  Facility Name         Facility Type      Stories   Generator                             Building
                                                                                 flood                    Vulnerable to
                                                                                           (gross ft2)


                                                                                                          Snowstorm,
Belltronics Cellular       Tele-                                                                           Lightning,
                                            n/a         n/a           No          No         n/a
       Tower           communication                                                                    Earthquake, and
                                                                                                           Terrorism.
                                                                                                          Snowstorm,
Birch Hill Cellular        Tele-                                                                           Lightning,
                                            n/a         n/a           No          No         n/a
      Tower            communication                                                                    Earthquake, and
                                                                                                           Terrorism.
                        Mobile Home                                                         139,500     All Natural and
  Pitary’s Homes                              1         No            No          No
                           Park                                                            (approx)    Manmade Hazards
                                                                                                        All Natural and
Runnells Landing       Condominiums           2         No            No          No        226,000
                                                                                                       Manmade Hazards
                                                                                                        All Natural and
 Village at Hollis                                                                                     Manmade Hazard
                       Condominiums           2         No            No          No        148,334
      Depot                                                                                           Events-High Potential
                                                                                                          for Flooding
                                                                                                        All Natural and
    The Block            Apartments           3         No            No          No        13,488
                                                                                                       Manmade Hazards
                                                                                                        All Natural and
    Lund Farm            Apartments           2         No            No          No        51,184
                                                                                                       Manmade Hazards
Hollis Haven Social      Community                                                                      All Natural and
                                              2         No            No          No       unknown
       Club                Center                                                                      Manmade Hazards
                                                                                                          Snowstorm,
                          Tele-                                                                            Lightning,
Phone Switch Box                            n/a         n/a           No          No         n/a
                       Communication                                                                    Earthquake, and
                                                                                                           Terrorism.

 Areas of Concern

                                                                                                        All Natural and
    Powerlines         PSNH Powerlines      n/a         n/a           n/a         n/a        n/a
                                                                                                       Manmade Hazards

 Nashua Airport
                         Flight Path        n/a         n/a           n/a         n/a        n/a      Accident/Explosion
  Flight Paths


                        Road Network                                Yes – In    Yes - In                All Natural and
Evacuation Routes                           n/a         n/a                                  n/a
                         and Bridges                                 Places      Places                Manmade Hazards




                                                         Page 19.
                         Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                          July 2006



Map 4: Structures Partially or Completely Located in the 100-Year and 500-Year
                                 Floodplains




                                          Page 20.
                                      Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                       July 2006



CHAPTER IV.              RISK ASSESSMENT

        The next step in the Hazard Mitigation planning process is to prioritize the facilities and areas of
concern that were identified. It is important for the community to determine what resources are needed
to protect each facility and area of concern in the case of a hazard event. The facilities were broken into
three prioritization categories. The first category contains services needed for emergency response in the
event of a hazard event. The second category lists the facilities and areas of concern that the Town wishes
to protect. The third category is an inventory of potential resources for services, shelters, or supplies.
The location of each of these facilities is displayed on Map 3.

A.      Prioritization of Critical Facilities and Areas of Concern
        Category 1: Emergency Response

            The Town has identified the following emergency response services and facilities as the
        highest priority for protection from natural and manmade hazards:

        1.      Hollis Police Station / Emergency Operations Center (EOC)

        2.      Hollis Fire Station


        3.      Public Works/Highway Garage

        4.      Emergency Fuel Stations
                                                                                    Insert Hollis Picture
                •       Lorden Oil
                •       Hollis Auto
                •       Hollis Department of Public Works

        5.      Emergency Shelters                                                     Police Station

                •       Hollis / Brookline High School (generator)


        6.      Evacuation Routes

                ●       NH 130 E (Broad St)
                ●       NH 130 W (Proctor Hill Rd)
                ●       NH 122 N (Silver Lake Rd)
                ●       NH 122 S (Main St/Pepperel Rd)
                ●       Depot Road

        7.      Bridges Located on Evacuation Routes

                •       Runnells Bridge
                •       S. Merrimack Road
                •       Toddy Brook Crossing
                •       West Hollis Road                                                  Fire Station

        8.      Communications

                •       Hollis Communications Center




                                                       Page 21.
                           Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                            July 2006


Category 2: Facilities and Areas to Protect in a Hazard Event

        The Town has identified these facilities as non-emergency facilities; however, they are
considered essential for the everyday operation of Hollis.

1.   Dams
        •       Beaver Brook Wildlife Pond Dam
        •       Haydens Reservoir Dam
        •       Haydens Mill Pond Dam
        •       Worcester Mill Pond Dam
        •       Dunklee Pond Dam

2.   Water Supply Pumps/Tanks/Wells/Reservoirs


3.   Elderly Housing
        •       Hollis Village
                                                                          Hollis Village
        •       Pitary’s Homes Inc.


4.   Commercial – Economic Impact Areas – Area’s Largest Employers
        •       Source Electronics
        ●       Morin’s Landscaping
        ●       Puritan Press
        ●       Jennings Excavation
        ●       Diamond Casting & Machine
        ●       Route 130 Businesses, near Brookline Town Line
        ●       Clinton Drive Industrial Park

5.   Events
        ●       Hollis Old Home Days
        ●       Strawberry and Apple Festival
        ●       Apple Festival Half Marathon
        ●       Super Bowl Brunch
        ●       Town Meeting
        ●       School Budget Meeting
        ●       Elections

6.   Recreational Areas
        ●       Silver Lake State Park
        ●       Wallace’s Grove
        ●       Alpine Ridge Golf Course
        ●       Volunteer Park
        ●       Nichols Field
        ●       Overlook Golf Course
                                                                           Nichols Field
7.   Areas in the Floodplain
        ●       All dwelling units, businesses, and bridges etc., located in the floodplain (See
                Map 4).




                                            Page 22.
                            Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                             July 2006


8.   Power Lines and Substations

         •       Hollis Power Substation

9.   Problem Culverts or Roads
     (Potential Flooding or Ice Jams)

         •       Farley Road
         •       South Merrimack Road
         •       Van Dyke Road
         •       Wright Road
         •       Depot Road
         •       Dow Road
         •       Twiss Lane                                                 Hollis Power Substation
         •       West Hollis Road
         •       Rocky Pond Road
         •       Deacon Lane
         •       Federal Hill Road
         •       Route 122 North

10. Historic Structures
         ●       Town Hall
         ●       Hollis Social Library
         ●       Congregational Church
         ●       Lawrence Barn
         ●       Wheeler House

Category 3: Potential Resources
                                                                                 Lawrence Barn
1.       Emergency Water Supply                                      Currently being reassembled - 1/28/06
                                                                             www.lawrencebarn.org
         •       Potentially obtain additional supply
                 from the City of Nashua.

2.       Grocery Stores-Emergency Supplies
         ●       Hollis Village Marketplace
         ●       Hollis Village Pharmacy
         ●       Hollis Village Grocery
         ●       Hatch Plaza

3.       Churches - Potential Shelters
         ●       Congregational Church of Hollis
         ●       Kingdom Hall Jehovah’s Witnesses
         ●       Faith Baptist Church
         ●       First Wesleyan Church                                      Hollis Congregational Church




                                             Page 23.
                                                    Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                                     July 2006


     B.          Vulnerability Assessment
              It is important to determine which critical facilities are the most vulnerable to specific types of
     hazard events and to estimate their potential loss. The first step is to identify the facilities most likely to
     be damaged in a hazard event. To do this, the locations of critical facilities illustrated on Map 3 were
     compared to the locations of various topographical elements, floodplains, roads, and waterbodies.
     Vulnerable facilities were identified by comparing their location to possible hazard events. For example,
     all of the facilities within the 100-year and 500-year floodplain were identified and used in conducting the
     potential loss analysis. Similarly, facilities near steep slopes, vulnerable to severe winter weather,
     hazardous materials incidents and high traffic congestion etc. were identified and included in the
     analysis. Map 5 displays the facilities that were identified during this analysis.

     C.          Critical Facilities Matrix
             The following matrix identifies critical facility types and categorizes them as having a low (L),
     medium (M) or high (H) severity potential in the event of one of the following twelve hazards: 1) Severe
     Winter Weather; 2) Hazardous Material Incidents; 3) Traffic Congestion and Vehicular Accidents; 4)
     Explosions/Fires; 5) Hurricanes; 6) Dam Failure; 7) Terrorism; 8) Earthquakes/Landslides; 9) Wildfires;
     10) Flooding; 11) Tornadoes/Downbursts; and 12) Lightning. Each facility type was ranked based on the
     degree to which it could potentially be affected by the individual hazard. For instance, the Police Station
     is ranked as having a high risk from Hurricanes, Severe Winter Weather, and Terrorism. Extreme
     weather and acts of terrorism have the potential to damage the Police Station which houses the
     Emergency Operations Center. Lack of an Emergency Operations Center could significantly limit the
     Town’s ability to respond in an emergency situation.


                                                Table 4: Critical Facilities Matrix
                         Severe Winter




                                                                                                              Earthquakes/
                                                                                    Dam Failure




                                                                                                                                                    Downbursts
                                                        Explosions/




                                                                                                                                                    Tornadoes/
                                         Traffic and




                                                                      Hurricanes




                                                                                                               Landslides
                                         Hazardous




                                                                                                  Terrorism




                                                                                                                                                                 Lightning
                                         Accidents
                                         Vehicular
                                          Materials




                                                                                                                             Wildfires
                                          Incidents




                                                                                                                                         Flooding
                           Weather




                                                           Fires




  Facility Name



    Police Station           M             M    M          H           H             M             H              L           M            L              M                  M

     Fire Station            M             M    M          H           H             M             H              L           M            L              M                  M

     Town Hall               M             M    L          H           M             M             H              L           M            L              M                  M

Municipal Buildings          M             L    L          H            L            M             H              L           M            L              M                  M

       Schools               M             M    M          H            L            M             H              L           M            L              M                  M

     Child Care              L             M    M          M            L            M             M              L           M            L              L                  L

Electrical Substations       M             M    L          H           H              H            H              L            H           L              M                  H

 PSNH Powerlines             H             L    L          H           H             H             H              L           H            L              H                  H

Commercial Centers           L             M    L          M            L            M             H              L           M            L              L                  L

  Office Buildings           L             M    L          M            L            M             H              L           M            L              L                  L

Manufacturing Sites           L            H    L          M            L            M             H              L           M            L              L                  M

Hazardous Materials
                             L             H    L          H           M             M             H              L           H            L              M                  H
   Sites/Storage




                                                                         Page 24.
                                                    Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                                     July 2006




                         Severe Winter




                                                                                                              Earthquakes/
                                                                                    Dam Failure




                                                                                                                                                    Downbursts
                                                        Explosions/




                                                                                                                                                    Tornadoes/
                                         Traffic and




                                                                      Hurricanes




                                                                                                               Landslides
                                         Hazardous




                                                                                                  Terrorism




                                                                                                                                                                 Lightning
                                         Accidents
                                         Vehicular
                                          Materials




                                                                                                                             Wildfires
                                          Incidents




                                                                                                                                         Flooding
                           Weather




                                                           Fires
  Facility Name



 Evacuation Routes           H             H    H          H           H             H             H              L           M            L              L                  L

       Bridges               H             H    H          H           H             H             H              L            L          M               H                  L

  Communications
                             H             L    L          H           H             M             H              L           H            L              H                  H
     Towers
  Playgrounds and
                             L             M    L           L           L            M              L             L            L           L              L                  H
 Recreational Fields

 Historic Structures         M             L    L           L           L            M              L             L            L           L              M                  M

 Conservation Land           L             L    L           L           L            M              L             L           H            L              L                  L

 Recurrent Flooding
                             M             L    M           L          M              H             L             L            L          H               L                  L
       Areas

      Churches               M             M    L          M           M              H            M              L           M            L              M                  M

   High Traffic
                             H             H    H          H           H             H             H              L           M            L              L                  L
Congestion Locations
 Vehicular Accident
                             H             M    H          H           H             H             M              L           H            L              L                  L
       Sites

Multi-Family Housing         M             M    L          H           M              H            M              L           H            L              L                  L

Structures in the 100-
                             M             L    L           L          M              H             L            M             L          H               M                  M
   Year Floodplain
Structures in the 500-
                             M             L    L           L           L             H             L            M             L          M               M                  M
   Year Floodplain




                                                                         Page 25.
                                            Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                             July 2006


D.       Calculating the Potential Loss
         The next step in completing the loss estimation involved assessing the level of damage from a
hazard event as a percentage of the facility’s structural value. The Federal Emergency Management
Agency (FEMA) has developed a process in which replacement values for structures located in the 100-
year and 500-year floodplains can be calculated according to the amount of damage suffered7. In Hollis,
the assessed values were determined for every structure identified in the floodplain. The potential loss
was then calculated by multiplying the assessed value of the structure by the percent of damage expected
from a hazard event (i.e., 100-year, 4-foot flood, etc.). The following discussion summarizes the potential
loss estimates to structures (residential and non-residential) due to natural or manmade hazard events.
Facilities considered to be at high or medium risk are displayed in Map 5.

1.   Severe Winter Weather

     There are three types of severe winter weather events:
     blizzards/nor’easters, ice storms, and extreme cold.            Hollis Severe Winter Weather Events
     All of these events are a threat to the community with          Frequency                 High
     subzero temperatures from extreme wind chill and                Potential Severity        High
     storms causing low visibility for commuters.
     Snowstorms are known to collapse buildings. Ice storms disrupt power and communication services.
     Extreme cold affects the elderly. None of these storms affect one area of town more than another.
     Winter events are difficult to set a cost to repair or replace as there are numerous effects of each type
     of event.

2.   Hazardous Material Incidents

     These incidents can be separated into two categories:
     1) Fixed Facilities, or 2) Transportation. Fixed facilities Hollis Hazardous Material Incidents
     include companies that store hazardous waste at their       Frequency               Low
     facility and all hazardous waste sites. Several fixed       Potential Severity      High
     facilities in Hollis handle hazardous materials (see
     Table 3), making it a high risk for the Town. Companies such as Lorden Oil, Hollis Auto, Suburban
     Propane, Draper Energy, Diamond Casting & Machine Company, and Skillings & Sons store
     hazardous materials on site.

     Transportation incidents include deliveries along main routes (i.e., NH 130 and NH 122) as well as by
     airplane. It is important to note that a hazardous materials spill or leak on any town road could
     create significant disruptions to the road network, and pose a threat to humans and the environment.


3.   Traffic Congestion & Vehicular Accidents

     Traffic congestion is seldom a problem in Hollis. It is                  Hollis Traffic Congestion & Vehicular
     only during cultural events or peak tourist days in the                  Accidents
     summer where this may pose a risk and lead to                            Frequency                Low
     accidents.                                                               Potential Severity       Low

     Vehicular accidents are a notable threat to the Town of
     Hollis. The road network in Hollis provides major east-west and north-south access to commuters
     throughout the region. Routes 111 and 111A in the Southeast corner of Hollis are heavily traveled.
     Accidents are recurrent at this intersection usually due to driver error, not to high levels of traffic.
     The two major commute route and evacuation routes for Hollis, NH 130 & 122 intersect at the Town’s


         7   “Understanding Your Risks, Identifying Hazards and Estimating Losses”, FEMA, page 4-13.


                                                             Page 26.
                                         Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                          July 2006


     center referred to locally as “Four Corners.” This area has seen a number of accidents throughout the
     years, again usually due to driver error.

     Poor winter conditions are often the cause for vehicular accidents on any road. This is especially the
     case for Hollis. Proctor Hill Road (NH 130W ) and South Merrimack Road have been the locations for
     a sizable number of accidents due to poor driving conditions from the combined hazards of
     topography and winter weather.

4.   Explosions / Fires

     Explosions and Fires can occur at utilities such as
     electrical substations, power lines, or gas lines,           Hollis Explosions/ Fire Events
     hazardous materials sites, and all structures                Frequency                   Low
     throughout the town. Historically, two fires have            Potential Severity          Low
     occurred at the Hollis Congregational Church and a
     large brush fire during the early spring of 1900 destroyed a barn and fifty acres of surrounding fields
     and pasture.8 The Block apartment complex has had two large fires.

5.   Lightning

     Thunderstorms present the danger of lightning strikes
     and have the potential of starting fires and causing                  Hollis Lightning Events
     human harm. Lighting has previously struck the Hollis                 Frequency               Moderate
     Town Hall and Police Station. Lightning strikes can                   Potential Severity      High
     occur in any given location, remote areas are more
     vulnerable as they are less accessible to emergency
     vehicles.

     Depending on the location of the strike, it is hard to estimate the cost of repairs due to damage.

6.   Hurricanes

     Hollis and Hillsborough Country have experienced
     high winds from some hurricane events but is at a                     Hollis Hurricane Events
     more significant risk to flooding for the associated                  Frequency               High
     rainfall from hurricanes. Hollis is most at risk during               Potential Severity      Moderate
     the hurricane season of June through November. It is
     not uncommon fro New England to be impacted by a
     hurricane more than once in a season.

7.   Tornadoes/Downbursts

     There are no known tornadic events that have
                                                                 Hollis Severe Tornadic Events
     occurred in Hollis. However, Hillsborough County
                                                                 Frequency                 Low
     has a higher risk of tornadic activity compared to the
                                                                 Potential Severity        Moderate
     rest of the State. On average, six tornadoes touch
     down somewhere in New England. There are
     eighteen recorded tornadic events in Hillsborough County since 1956, of which seven were F2 events
     and one F3 event. It is a possibility that a tornado could occur again in Hillsborough County and
     even in Hollis.



         8   Hollis Times, April 1900.


                                                          Page 27.
                                     Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                      July 2006




8.   Dam Failure

         There are five dams in Hollis, none of which have         Hollis Dam Failure Events
     had known breaches. A breach of the Pepperell dam             Frequency                Low
     upriver in Massachusetts is of great concern. A               Potential Severity       Moderate
     breach of the dam could potentially flood the Nashua
     River and with it, a sizable area in the Southeast
     corner of Hollis. This could be of concern especially for a recently developed subdivision off of
     Runnells Bridge Road in the Southeast corner. It is essential that Emergency Management staff
     become familiar with the Pepperell Dam Failure EAP plan which lists proper procedures for dealing
     with such a disaster.

9.   Terrorism

         This is a relatively new threat that must be               Hollis Terrorism Events
     addressed through training and equipping of local              Frequency               Low
     emergency response personnel in cooperation with               Potential Severity      Low
     state and federal agencies. Hollis has recently
     annexed a Terrorism section to its Emergency Operations Plan. It is essential that staff thoroughly
     understand this section and the specific procedures to follow in the event of an attack. Considering
     the potential effects of terrorist activities on surrounding communities, Regional Mutual Aid
     Agreements specifically addressing terrorism are essential.

     Potential impact areas:

         •    Municipal Buildings
         •    Bridges
         •    Electrical Substations
         •    Telecommunications Towers
         •    High Voltage Power Lines
         •    Wells
         •    Hazardous Materials Sites
         •    Terrorist attack on Boston – Population from Boston area and this region may need to evacuate
              North
         •    Biological Pathogens
         •    Schools
         •    Multi-Family Housing Developments
         •    Town Festivals/Activities

10. Earthquakes/Landslides

         There are no recorded landslides in Hollis.                 Hollis Severe Earthquake/Landslides
     However, land formations along the Nashua River                 Frequency               Low
     are could possibly lead to landslide activity. It is            Potential Severity      Low
     imperative that deforestation is prevented along
     the Nashua River to reduce the risk of landslides.

          Few significant slopes exist throughout the town. There are two locations where the slopes are
     fairly significant are along Wright Road and Hayden Road. Both of these locations are sparsely
     populated and are a low risk for the town. Since there are no recorded landslides to this date, it is
     difficult to set a cost of repair or replacement to any of the structures in Town. The abundance of
     granite throughout Hollis also lessens the possibility of such a disaster from occurring.



                                                      Page 28.
                                             Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                              July 2006




11. Wildfires

       No wildfires have been historically noted for the                       Hollis Wildfire Events
   Town of Hollis. A majority of the sizable forested                          Frequency                        Low
   lands within Hollis such as the Gardner Memorial                            Potential Severity               Low
   Forest and Spalding Park Town Forest are located
   near single family homes. These forested areas only
   pose a small threat due to availability of road access.

   Potential wildfire areas just outside the 1.5-mile fire station radius may pose a higher risk than those
   living closer to the center of town. Response time to this area may be slightly delayed due to its
   distance from the existing fire stations.

12. Flooding (Riverine)

   High Risk
       This considers eight-foot flooding in 100 and 500-year floodplain areas and assumes that, on
   average, all structures receive 49% damage9. The costs for repairing or replacing bridges, railroads,
   power lines, telephone lines, natural gas pipelines, the wastewater treatment plant, contents of
   structures and the loss of cropland values are not included in this estimate.

              Residential Damage:
                      37 Structures x ($261,748 average assessed value12 x 0.49) = $4,745,509
              Non-Residential Damage:
                      4 Structures x ($551,100 average assessed value13 x 0.49) = $1,080,156



   Medium Risk
       Considers a four-foot flood in 100-year floodplain areas and assumes that, on average, all
   structures receive 28% damage10.


              Residential Damage:
                      17 Structures x ($232,024 average assessed value12 x 0.28) = $1,104,439
              Non-Residential Damage:
                      3 Structures x ($487,133 average assessed replacement value13 x 0.28) = $409,191



   Low Risk
       Considers one foot flooding in 100-year floodplain areas and assumes that, on average, all
   structures receive 15% damage11.

             Residential Damage:
                     17 Structures x ($232,024 average assessed value12 x 0.15) = $591,661
             Non-Residential Damage:
                     3 Structures x ($487,133 average replacement value13 x 0.15) = $219,207
   12




        9 “Understanding Your Risks, Identifying Hazards and Estimating Losses”, FEMA, page 4-13.
        10 Understanding Your Risks, Identifying Hazards and Estimating Losses”, FEMA, page 4-13.
        11 Understanding Your Risks, Identifying Hazards and Estimating Losses”, FEMA, page 4-13.

        12   NRPC estimate, based on average assessed values for residential structures, 2003 Town of Hollis Assessing Data.


                                                              Page 29.
                                               Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                                July 2006


     13

E.        Assessment of Future Development Losses14
         The future use of land is dependent on a number of factors. First and foremost are the constraints
of the land. Attempts to push against these constraints in order to develop a poorly suited parcel of land
often leads to a higher potential risk of being impacted by a natural hazard. The second factor is what the
local land use laws permit. The goals of a community’s master plan, economic trends, remaining
developable land, redevelopment of land, adequate infrastructure and the local and regional
transportation network are also important factors in determining future land use.

        As mentioned previously in Town Overview, the Town of Hollis encompasses 32.3 square miles.
Elevations range from 160 feet above mean sea level (aMSL) on the eastern border to approximately 850
feet MSL in the northwest corner of town adjacent to Brookline and Milford. The only higher elevations
and steep slopes are found in the eastern portion of Hollis where there are a few slopes in excess of 25%.
Approximately 7% of Hollis’s soils have high limitations on septic systems. Prime agricultural soils are
found primarily in the southern and central part of town along the brooks which flow east into the
Nashua River. This presents the town with a continuing concern of existing farmland being sold to
developers for land uses not pertaining to agriculture such as residential or commercial.

         On the other hand, as previously mentioned in the Development Trends section, Hollis has been
actively purchasing land for protection since 2001 when the Hollis Land Protection Study Committee was
created. There are currently 12,000 acres of forest in Hollis, with approximately 40% contained in blocks
larger than 500 acres in size.

        Results from Hollis’ buildout analysis indicate that of the total 20,662 acres that encompass the
town of Hollis, 9,460 acres are currently developed (including right-of-ways and roads), while 5,852 is
currently protected (which includes open space, recreation and parcels designated as “water”). Of the
5,852 currently protected acres includes 1,143 acres of lakes and ponds and 1,063 acres located within a
100 or 500 year floodplain. Therefore, this leaves Hollis a current estimate of 5,350 acres of developable
land before reaching buildout.

        Looking at the developable land in Hollis, there is a potential for a maximum of approximately
1,577 new single-family residential housing units in Hollis before all remaining land is developed. There
are an estimated 15 acres remaining in the Agricultural and Business District to be developed. Finally,
approximately 17 acres are available for development within the Industrial District.

        As developable land becomes scarce, there is pressure to increase densities, utilize flood-prone
agricultural land along the southern and central parts of Hollis. Maintaining zoning standards to protect
watersheds and their floodplains from development and maintaining existing controls for new
construction on poor soils or steep slopes is important. To mitigate potential future hazard damage,
adequate waters and pressure must be maintained for fire protection and the critical facilities map must
be updated as new facilities are built or relocated. A recent example would be the Lawrence Barn which
has been relocated to Nichols Field and is currently in the process of reconstruction. The Barn is
important to Hollis not only for its history but its proposed use as a new community center.

        The transportation network will also need to grow with development to allow for emergency
vehicles to operate within necessary response times or if necessary, to provide for orderly evacuations.
Updating flood maps will ensure accuracy that is important in locating developments on the remaining
land in Hollis.




          13   NRPC estimate, based on average assessed values for non-residential structures, 2003 Town of Hollis Assessing Data.
          14   Statistics extracted or derived from the 2003 Town of Hollis Master Plan draft.


                                                                Page 30.
                  Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                   July 2006



Map 5: Facilities in Hollis Identified in Potential Loss Analysis




                                   Page 31.
                                                  Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                                   July 2006



      CHAPTER V.                   EXISTING AND PROPOSED HAZARD MITIGATION STRATEGIES
             The next step involves identifying existing mitigation strategies for the hazards likely to affect the
      town and evaluate their effectiveness. This section outlines those programs and recommends
      improvements and changes to these programs to ensure the highest quality emergency service possible.

               Existing hazard mitigation strategies were obtained during a brainstorming session with the
      Hazard Mitigation Team, as well as from the Town of Hollis Emergency Management Plan and the Town
      of Hollis Zoning Bylaw. Table 5 below provides a comprehensive list of all existing mitigation strategies
      currently in place.

      A.        Existing Mitigation Strategies

                      Table 5: Existing Mitigation Strategies and Proposed Improvements
                                                                                                                         Improvements
                                Existing Protection Program or           Area of Town      Enforcement      Effective-
      Hazard Type                                                                                                         or Changes
                                     Activity Description                  Covered         Department          ness
                                                                                                                            Needed
                                                                                           Police Chief,
                                                                                                                         Periodic Review
                                  Mutual Aid Agreements with                                Director of
                                                                                                                               and
        All Hazards              neighboring communities for all                All      Communications,      High
                                                                                                                         Update Mutual
                                            hazards.                                        Fire Chief
                                                                                                                          Aid Contracts


                                                                                            Police Chief
   Traffic Congestion and      Respond to accidents, traffic control
                                                                                All       Communications     Medium           None
    Vehicular Accidents        for snow & tree removal operations.
                                                                                             Director

                                 Police/Communications building
                                (which has low flood risk) provides                         Police Chief
           Flooding            information and direction in helping             All       Communications      Low             None
                               to redirect traffic around any areas of                       Director
                                               flooding.

                                Shelter provision to aid people who                         Police Chief
  Severe Winter Weather                                                                                                  One four-wheel
                                 are in need to of shelter protection           All       Communications     Medium
         Events                                                                                                           drive vehicle
                                         due to extreme cold.                                Director


                                 Aid people who are in need to be                           Police Chief                  Air conditioned
       Extreme Heat              brought to shelter due to extreme              All       Communications     Medium      shelter should be
                                               heat.                                         Director                       designated

                                                                                            Police Chief
   Terrorism, Flooding,                                                                   Communications
                                                                                                                           Source and
Hazardous Material Incident,    Provide Emergency Water Supply                               Director
                                                                                All                           Low           method of
Dam Failure, Severe Winter     with the distribution of bottled water.                     DPW Director
                                                                                                                           distribution
         Weather                                                                            Director of
                                                                                           Administration

  Traffic Congestion and
                               Mutual Aid Agreements with Town                                                           Update Mutual
  Vehicular Accidents, All                                                 Roadways        DPW Director       High
                                    for all natural hazards.                                                              Aid contracts
          Hazards

                                 Pepperell Dam Failure EAP Plan                             Emergency
                                                                           Southeast
        Dam Failure            which outlines procedures for dealing                        Management        High            None
                                                                            corner
                                       with such a disaster.                                 Director
                               Road Maintenance -full and part-time
Poor Road Conditions due to      personnel available 24/7 during
                                                                           Roadways        DPW Director       High            None
       All Hazards                 event. Snow plow routes are
                                           established.




                                                                     Page 32.
                                            Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                             July 2006


                                                                                                                       Improvements
                          Existing Protection Program or          Area of Town       Enforcement          Effective-
    Hazard Type                                                                                                         or Changes
                               Activity Description                 Covered          Department              ness
                                                                                                                          Needed

Hurricanes, Tornadoes,   Tree Removal for Potential Hazards-
                                                                                                                       Yearly removal &
Severe Winter Weather,   Work with contractors – emergency          Roadways          DPW Director         Medium
                                                                                                                         maintenance
 Lightning, Flooding.              tree removal.


                           Work with local contractors and                                                              Maintaining an
Traffic Congestion and
                         police for traffic re-routing and road     Roadways          DPW Director          Low          inventory of
 Vehicular Accidents
                                       rebuilding.                                                                        barricades


                            Make sure roadways are open.
                                                                                                                       Maintain culverts
      Flooding           Possible rescue and bringing residents     Roadways          DPW Director          Low
                                                                                                                       and catch basins
                           or stranded motorists to shelters.

                                                                   Town Offices       Director of
                          Emergency Management Manual
                                                                  including Town    Administration                        Updated as
     All Hazards         which outlines appropriate responses                                               Low
                                                                    Hall & Town     and/or Board of                        required
                                 to specific hazards.
                                                                   Clerk’s Office      Selectmen
                                       Town Hall
                           Emergency Heat, Water & Shelter-
                                                                                      Director of
                         steep roofed structure that can take a    Town Offices
                                                                                    Administration
     All Hazards         snow load. Generator to keep furnace       and Town                                Low              None
                                                                                    and/or Board of
                          and essentials running. Town well.       Clerk’s Office
                                                                                       Selectmen
                          Town Clerk’s Office – Under Condo
                                      Association.
                                       Town Hall                                                                        Reconstruction of
                                                                                      Director of
                            Fire Protection- has been struck                                                              Town Offices –
                                                                                    Administration
    Fire, Lightning      previously – high steeple. Smoke and       Town Hall                              Medium        install sprinkler
                                                                                    and/or Board of
                          fire alarms, emergency lighting, no                                                          system in upstairs
                                                                                       Selectmen
                            sprinklers, exits clearly marked.                                                               and tower
                                                                                                                        New generator to
                         Emergency Power provided for Town                            Director of                      allow for extended
                          Hall by use of a generator to sustain                     Administration                       use of power in
     All Hazards                                                    Town Hall                               Low
                           the furnace and limited utilities.                       and/or Board of                      Town Hall. CO
                           Emergency lighting – all checked                            Selectmen                        fumes currently a
                                          often.                                                                             problem.
                                                                                       Director of
                                                                                    Communications
                         Communication system to help in the
     All Hazards                                                         All         Fire and Police        High             None
                         coordination of DPW, Fire and Police.
                                                                                    Chiefs, Director of
                                                                                          DPW
                                                                                       Director of
                            Power Outage Communication
                                                                                    Communications
                           system to help in coordination of
     All Hazards                                                         All         Fire and Police        High             None
                          DPW, Fire and Police. Direct elderly
                                                                                    Chiefs, Director of
                                      to shelters.
                                                                                          DPW
                          Water Distribution Communication,
                          pick up and delivery -Communicate                            Director of                       Address in the
                         and help in the coordination of DPW,                       Communications,                        proposed
     All Hazards            Fire, Police and Administration.             All         Fire and Police        High          Community
                           Distribution of water. Pick up and                       Chiefs, Director of                  Preparedness
                               deliver to key locations for                               DPW                               Guide
                                       distribution.
                                                                                       Director of
                                                                                                                          Installation of
                          Communications Backup-Back up                             Communications,
                                                                                                                        communications
     All Hazards          phone system and communications                All         Fire and Police        High
                                                                                                                         systems at Fire
                             system at different location.                          Chiefs, Director of
                                                                                                                       Station for backup.
                                                                                          DPW
                          Road Salting, Sanding and Plowing-
                                                                                                                        Purchase of new
Severe Winter Weather    DPW treat with sand and salt after ½”
                                                                         All        Director of DPW         High           trucks &
       Events                           of snow
                                                                                                                          equipment
                                  Plow roads over 2”



                                                              Page 33.
                                         Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                          July 2006


                                                                                                                 Improvements
                         Existing Protection Program or       Area of Town        Enforcement       Effective-
Hazard Type                                                                                                       or Changes
                              Activity Description              Covered           Department           ness
                                                                                                                    Needed
                           (Both dependent upon weather
                                    conditions)



                                                                                                                 Include section for
                           Hurricane Response-Standby,                                                            public education
                                                                                 Directors of DPW
                              maintain contact with                                                                 in proposed
     Hurricane                                                       All          and Emergency      Medium
                        Communications Center and respond                                                           Community
                                                                                   Management
                                    as needed                                                                      Preparedness
                                                                                                                       Guide



B.         Proposed Mitigation Strategies
         In addition to the programs and activities that Hollis is currently undertaking to protect its
residents and property from natural and manmade disasters, a number of additional strategies were
identified by the Local Hazard Mitigation Committee for consideration. The process of compiling a
comprehensive list of all mitigation strategies currently in place throughout the town helped the
Committee to identify gaps in the existing coverage and improvements which could be made to the
existing strategies. These types of actions were considered when determining new projects, programs,
and activities which the Town of Hollis can develop:

           •     Prevention
           •     Property Protection
           •     Structural Protection
           •     Emergency Services
           •     Public Education and Involvement

        Prevention measures include: planning, zoning, open space preservation, floodplain and wetland
development regulations, storm water management, best management practices, communication systems
with rail companies, and communication with landowners regarding hazardous materials.

         Property Protection includes: utility relocation/burying or flood proofing, lightning protection
for elevated structures, identifying all water sources in recreational facilities, sewer backup protection,
insurance and minimization actions.

        Structural Protection includes: placement of anemometers, evacuation plans for each building,
enclosing hazardous facilities, detention/retention basins, larger culverts and higher flood standards for
construction projects.

        Emergency Services include: SCADA intrusion systems, regional mutual aid agreements,
protection of critical facilities, health and safety maintenance, and an inventory of all assets in Town.

       Public Education and Involvement measures include: providing map information,
informational mailings or workshops, real estate disclosure of flood hazards, environmental education,
and public announcements on Cable Access channels which provides instantaneous updates on
emergency situations in Town.

       The brainstorming session resulted in a list of actions that could be taken to mitigate future
hazards. These results are compiled in Table 6.




                                                          Page 34.
                                             Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                              July 2006



                                  Table 6: Proposed Mitigation Strategies
                                                                                                                         Type of
Hazard Type         Potential Program or Activity                        Description of Proposed Strategy                Activity

                                                             Will assist with emergency evacuations and
                Regional communication system with           procedures, utilizing a mobile operations center in the
                 radio interoperability on the same          event of a severe emergency throughout                     Emergency
      All
                             frequency.                      town/region.                                                Services


                                                             The establishment of a reserve Emergency Operations
                    Establish a reserve Emergency            Center at the Central Fire Station would better            Emergency
      All
                         Operations Center.                  provide emergency response services to access               Services
                                                             properties and structures town-wide.
                                                             The installation of generators at all Town facilities
                                                             and schools would protect these town facilities and
                Install generators at all Town facilities    potential shelters and will enable emergency               Emergency
      All
                             and schools.                    preparations to be conducted at additional sites.           Services


                                                             Provide information in a booklet for the public,
                                                                                                                        Prevention,
                                                             outlining preventative measures and what to do in an
                Develop a Community Preparedness                                                                          Public
      All                                                    emergency. Include measure for property and
                   Guide for public distribution.                                                                      Education and
                                                             structural protection, as well as emergency contact
                                                                                                                        Awareness
                                                             information.
  Hazardous                                                  Implement a SCADA system with meter stations at
   Material                                                  wells that notify the police in case of an emergency.      Prevention,
               Develop measures to prevent drinking
     Leak,                                                   Educate the public about wells and safe drinking            Property
                      water contamination.
  Terrorism,                                                 water.                                                     Protection
   Flooding
                                                             The Plan would address departmental
                                                             responsibilities, evacuation procedure, and safety
                                                                                                                        Emergency
               Compile a Lightning Evacuation Plan.          precautions, such as lightning protection for elevated
   Lightning                                                                                                             Services,
                                                             and/or exposed structures. Develop a public
                                                                                                                        Prevention
                                                             education plan and Include in an Emergency
                                                             Preparedness Guide.
  Hurricane,
  Tornadoes,
                                                                                                                        Prevention,
    Severe     Purchase a portable weather station and       Purchase a portable weather system and install
                                                                                                                          Public
    Winter              install anemometers.                 anemometers to monitor and track wind speed and
                                                                                                                       Education and
   Weather,                                                  direction
                                                                                                                        Awareness
    Severe
   Storms.
                                                              Emergency warning system would include a reverse
                                                             911 system such as City Watch that would notify each
                                                             residence or enterprise of an emergency via
                 Implement an emergency warning              telephone. The notifications would provide a               Emergency
      All
                             system.                         warning and instructions of how to address the              Services
                                                             situation. The public would be informed of this
                                                             system through direct mailings and a section
                                                             included in the Emergency Preparedness Guide.
                                                             Protect conditions of roads proposed for evacuation
                                                                                                                        Emergency
                                                             by minimizing/ eliminating hazardous culverts and
      All,       Culvert and bridge evaluations and                                                                      Services,
                                                             bridges on evacuation routes to enhance evacuation
   Flooding            rehabilitation projects                                                                          Structural
                                                             capabilities in the event of an emergency
                                                                                                                        Protection
                                                             Update Town building codes to ensure structural
                                                             integrity of new and existing critical facilities,
                   Update of Town building codes.            especially emergency services and potential shelters.      Structural
      All
                                                             Will ensure protection of structures and property          Protection
                                                             values. Planning Board will notify public of update
                                                             to Building Codes and intent.




                                                              Page 35.
                                               Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                                July 2006


C.      Prioritization of Proposed Mitigation Strategies
        The goal of each strategy is reduction or prevention of damage from a hazard event. In order to
determine their effectiveness in accomplishing this goal, a set of criteria was applied to each proposed
strategy. The STAPLEE method analyzes the Social, Technical, Administrative, Political, Legal, Economic
and Environmental aspects of a project and is commonly used by public administration officials and
planners for making planning decisions. The following questions were asked about the proposed
mitigation strategies and discussed in Table 7:

        •     Social: Is the proposed strategy socially acceptable to the community? Are there equity
              issues involved that would mean that one segment of the community is treated unfairly?
        •     Technical: Will the proposed strategy work? Will it create more problems than it solves?
        •     Administrative: Can the community implement the strategy? Is there someone to
              coordinate and lead the effort?
        •     Political: Is the strategy politically acceptable? Is there public support both to implement
              and to maintain the project?
        •     Legal: Is the community authorized to implement the proposed strategy? Is there a clear
              legal basis or precedent for this activity?
        •     Economic: What are the costs and benefits of this strategy? Does the cost seem reasonable
              for the size of the problem and the likely benefits?
        •     Environmental: How will the strategy impact the environment? Will the strategy need
              environmental regulatory approvals?

         Each proposed mitigation strategy was evaluated and assigned a score (Good = 3, Average = 2,
Poor = 1) based on the above criteria. An evaluation chart with total scores for each strategy can be found
in the collection of individual tables under Table 7.


                Table 7: STAPLEE Analyses of Proposed Mitigation Strategies

             Mitigation Action: Communication Systems with Radio Interoperability
                         Criteria                                          Evaluation                         Score

                Is it Socially acceptable?                      Yes. It benefits everyone equally.             3
              Is it Technically feasible and
                                                         Yes. It is feasible and would be easy to install.     2
                  potentially successful?
                                                       Yes. Coordination would be a minor task with this
            Is it Administratively workable?            proposed action between the Communications,             2
                                                        Administration and Fire Department Directors.
               Is it Politically acceptable?                Yes. Pending budgetary appropriations.              2
               Is there Legal authority to
                                                             Yes. Upon Approval of the Selectmen.               2
                       implement?
                                                       Yes. The costs include new radios and installation.
             Is it Economically beneficial?                                                                     2
                                                     The benefits include a backup communications system.
                                                       Yes. A backup communications system will help to
                                                      ensure communications for Hollis during emergency
            Is it Environmentally beneficial?                                                                   2
                                                      situations. It may better prepare Hollis to address a
                                                                        particular hazard.
                      FINAL SCORE                                                                              15




                                                                Page 36.
                                             Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                              July 2006




          Mitigation Action: Install Generators at Town Hall, DPW and Fire Station
                       Criteria                                                     Evaluation                        Score

              Is it Socially acceptable?                                 Yes. It benefits everyone equally.            3

Is it Technically feasible and potentially successful?        Yes. Many town facilities have back-up generators.        3
                                                              Yes. The Board of Selectmen needs to authorize the
         Is it Administratively workable?                                                                               3
                                                                                    purchase.
                                                                It could be depending on funding sources and
             Is it Politically acceptable?                                                                              3
                                                                            justification of the need.
      Is there Legal authority to implement?                       Yes. The Selectmen can approve funding.             3
                                                              Yes. The costs involved are to purchase and install a
           Is it Economically beneficial?                      generator. The benefit is additional facilities and      3
                                                                     shelters with back-up power sources.
          Is it Environmentally beneficial?                                 No environmental impacts.                   3

                    FINAL SCORE                                                                                        21




 Mitigation Action: Develop a Community Preparedness Guide for Public Distribution
                       Criteria                                                     Evaluation                        Score

              Is it Socially acceptable?                                 Yes. It benefits everyone equally.            3
                                                                Yes. It will require staff time and will provide
Is it Technically feasible and potentially successful?        direction to the public on procedures, contacts and       3
                                                                 shelters in a variety of emergency situations.
                                                              Yes. Hollis staff will need to develop and distribute
         Is it Administratively workable?                                                                               3
                                                                                   the booklet.
             Is it Politically acceptable?                                             Yes.                             3

      Is there Legal authority to implement?                    Yes. Upon approval of the Board of Selectmen.          3
                                                                Yes. The costs include staff time, software, and
                                                               developing and distributing the booklet. Benefits
           Is it Economically beneficial?                                                                               3
                                                               include a comprehensive public guide on how to
                                                                         handle emergency situations.
          Is it Environmentally beneficial?                                 No environmental benefits.                  2

                    FINAL SCORE                                                                                        20




                                                              Page 37.
                                               Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                                July 2006




  Mitigation Action: Develop an Emergency Warning System that Includes a Reverse 911
                                       System

                         Criteria                                                     Evaluation                           Score

                Is it Socially acceptable?                                 Yes. It benefits everyone equally.               3
                                                              Yes. Would need to provide education to staff and the
  Is it Technically feasible and potentially successful?                                                                    3
                                                                                     public.
                                                               Yes. Staff time would be required to implement the
           Is it Administratively workable?                                                                                  2
                                                                                    system.
               Is it Politically acceptable?                                              Yes                                2
                                                                    Yes. Approval of the Board of Selectmen and
        Is there Legal authority to implement?                                                                              2
                                                                          Emergency Management Director.
                                                              Yes. Costs include initial start up costs and will require
                                                              staff training and public education. Benefits include an
             Is it Economically beneficial?                                                                                 3
                                                                   advanced system of notification that would be
                                                                   extremely beneficial in an emergency situation.
                                                               Yes. This type of system should facilitate emergency
           Is it Environmentally beneficial?                                                                                3
                                                                                 response activities.
                      FINAL SCORE                                                                                           18




Mitigation Action: Bridge and Culvert Evaluations and Improvements to Enhance Evacuation
                                       Capabilities

                         Criteria                                                     Evaluation                           Score

                Is it Socially acceptable?                                 Yes. It benefits everyone equally.               3
                                                                   Yes. The projects will work to improve road
                                                               conditions to help ensure safe and reliable evacuation
  Is it Technically feasible and potentially successful?                                                                     3
                                                                 routes. The Town has the capacity and has been
                                                                                evaluating bridges.
                                                               Yes. Department of Public Works will be in charge of
           Is it Administratively workable?                                                                                  3
                                                                planning staff and work hours towards the project.
               Is it Politically acceptable?                                             Yes.                                3

        Is there Legal authority to implement?                      Yes, upon approval of Board of Selectmen.               3
                                                               Yes. The costs are related to staff time. The benefits
             Is it Economically beneficial?                    are uninterrupted travel on safe roads in the event of        3
                                                                                  an emergency.
                                                                Yes, improves roadway preventing erosion into the
           Is it Environmentally beneficial?                                                                                 3
                                                                                    waterways.
                      FINAL SCORE                                                                                           21




                                                                Page 38.
                                              Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                               July 2006


             Mitigation Action: Continue Update of Town Building Codes to Ensure
                   Structural Integrity of New and Existing Critical Facilities

                        Criteria                                                     Evaluation                       Score

               Is it Socially acceptable?                                       Yes. Town approved.                    3

 Is it Technically feasible and potentially successful?                                 Yes.                            3

          Is it Administratively workable?                                Yes, Building Inspector enforces.             3

              Is it Politically acceptable?                                     Yes, Town approved.                    2

       Is there Legal authority to implement?                               Yes, RSA and Town Meeting.                 2

            Is it Economically beneficial?                                      Yes, keeps structures.                  3

          Is it Environmentally beneficial?                   Yes, Best Management Practice to withstand hazards.       3

                     FINAL SCORE                                                                                       19




Mitigation Action: Develop and Implement Planning Strategies for the Protection of Private
                       Wells (Serving More than One Household).

                        Criteria                                                     Evaluation                       Score

               Is it Socially acceptable?                                 Yes. It benefits everyone equally.           3
                                                               Yes. However it will likely take some time and staff
 Is it Technically feasible and potentially successful?                                                                 2
                                                                   resources to collaborate with other agencies.
          Is it Administratively workable?                                              Yes.                           2

              Is it Politically acceptable?                                             Yes.                            3

       Is there Legal authority to implement?                    Yes. Upon approval of the Board of Selectmen.         2
                                                               Yes. Costs include staff time and plan development.
            Is it Economically beneficial?                    The benefits include making provisions to ensure safe     3
                                                                          public drinking water supply.
                                                               Yes. It will aim to prevent contamination of Hollis
          Is it Environmentally beneficial?                                                                             3
                                                                                  drinking water.
                     FINAL SCORE                                                                                       18




                                                               Page 39.
                                               Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                                July 2006




       Mitigation Action: Purchase a Portable Weather Station and Install Anemometers

                         Criteria                                                     Evaluation                           Score

                Is it Socially acceptable?                                 Yes. It benefits everyone equally.               2
                                                                Yes. It would require staff time to train and operate
  Is it Technically feasible and potentially successful?                                                                     2
                                                                                    the system.
           Is it Administratively workable?                                Yes. It will require staff training.             2

               Is it Politically acceptable?                                           Unknown                               2

        Is there Legal authority to implement?                       Upon approval of the Board of Selectmen                2
                                                               Yes. Costs include the purchase of a portable weather
                                                                    station and the purchase and installation of
             Is it Economically beneficial?                                                                                 3
                                                                anemometers. The benefits include knowledge of
                                                                             wind speed and direction.
                                                                Yes. Both will assist in determining wind direction
                                                                 and speed and this information could be used in
           Is it Environmentally beneficial?                                                                                3
                                                                  minimizing the impacts of hazardous materials
                                                                             spreading through the air.
                      FINAL SCORE                                                                                           16




                               Mitigation Action: Develop a Lightning Evacuation Plan

                         Criteria                                                     Evaluation                           Score

                Is it Socially acceptable?                                 Yes. It benefits everyone equally.               2
                                                               Yes. The plan will work to identify actions necessary
  Is it Technically feasible and potentially successful?                                                                     2
                                                              to plan for lightning events, which are common in NH.
           Is it Administratively workable?                   Yes. Staff time will be allocated to developing the plan.     2

               Is it Politically acceptable?                                              Yes.                               2

        Is there Legal authority to implement?                                            Yes.                              2
                                                              Yes. The costs are related to staff time. The benefits are
             Is it Economically beneficial?                   a plan of action in the event of a severe lightning storm      2
                                                                             where the public is at risk.
           Is it Environmentally beneficial?                                  No environmental impacts.                      2

                      FINAL SCORE                                                                                           14


         Each strategy was evaluated and prioritized according to the final score. The highest scoring
strategies were determined to be of more importance, economically, socially, environmentally, and
politically. Therefore these strategies were prioritized over those that were lower scoring. All of the
strategies are included in Table 8 in order of priority.




                                                                Page 40.
                                          Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                           July 2006




CHAPTER VI.                  IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE
         This step involves developing an action plan that outlines who is responsible for implementing
each of the prioritized strategies determined in the previous step, as well as when and how the actions
will be implemented. The following questions were asked to develop an implementation schedule for the
identified priority mitigation strategies:

         WHO?             Who will lead the implementation efforts? Who will put together funding requests
                          and applications?

         WHEN?            When will these actions be implemented, and in what order?

         HOW?             How will the community fund these projects? How will the community implement
                          these projects? What resources will be needed to implement these projects?

       Table 8 is the Action Plan. In addition to the prioritized mitigation projects, Table 8 includes the
responsible party (WHO), how the project will be supported (HOW), and what the timeframe is for
implementation of the project (WHEN).


                     Table 8: Prioritized Mitigation Projects and Action Plan
                                               Responsibility/
                Project                                                    Funding/Support*             Timeframe
                                                 Oversight
                                               Communications
                                                                          Local/FEMA’s Hazard
  Communications System with Radio               Department
                                                                          Mitigation Assistance         1 year (2007)
         Interoperability                      Fire Department
                                                                                Program


                                                                            Local/Emergency
  Develop a Community Preparedness
                                                All Departments          Management Performance        2 Years (2008)
     Guide for Public Distribution
                                                                             Grant (EMGP)

                                               Fire Department            Local/FEMA’s Hazard
                                           Public Works Department         Mitigation Assistance
   Bridge and Culvert Evaluation and
                                              Road Agent, with           Program, New Hampshire
    Rehabilitation Project to Enhance                                                              Ongoing/2 Years (2008)
                                             assistance with New               Department of
         Evacuation Capability
                                           Hampshire Department of            Transportation’s
                                                Transportation              Bridge Aid Program
                                               Administration
                                                 Department               Local/FEMA’s Hazard
Installation of Generators at DPW, Town
                                               Fire Department            Mitigation Assistance        1 Years (2007)
           Hall and Fire Station
                                             Department of Public               Program
                                                    Works


Update of Town Building Codes to Ensure
                                               Building Inspector
          Structural Integrity of
                                                Planning Board                     Local               2 Years (2008)
  New and Existing Critical Facilities




                                                                          Local/FEMA’s Hazard
Develop an Emergency Warning System
                                            Emergency Management          Mitigation Assistance        5 Years (2011)
  that Includes a Reverse 911 System
                                                                                Program




                                                           Page 41.
                                            Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                             July 2006


                                                 Responsibility/
                Project                                                      Funding/Support*                 Timeframe
                                                   Oversight

   Develop and Implement Planning
                                                                            Local/New Hampshire
 Strategies for the Protection of Private     Emergency Management
                                                                            Drinking Water Source             2 Years (2008)
    Wells Supplying More than One             Engineering Department
                                                                             Protection Program
               Household


                                               Emergency Response               Local/Project
Purchase a Portable Weather Station and         Hazard Mitigation           Impact/CEPP Technical
                                                                                                              2 Years (2008)
         Install Anemometers                   Department of Public           Assistance Grants
                                                     Works                         Program



                                                                             Local/FEMA’s Hazard
 Develop a Lightning Evacuation Plan          Emergency Management           Mitigation Assistance            3 Years (2009)
                                                                                   Program


                        * Note: For descriptions of above mentioned funding sources, please see Appendix D.




                                                             Page 42.
                                         Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                          July 2006



CHAPTER VII.            UPDATING THE PLAN AND CONTINUED PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT
        The completion of a planning document is merely the first step in its life as an evolving tool. The Hazard
Mitigation Plan is a dynamic document which must be reviewed on a regular basis as to its relevancy and
usefulness and to add new tasks as old tasks are completed. Recognizing that many mitigation projects are
ongoing, and that while in the implementation stage communities may suffer budget cuts, experience staff
turnover, or projects may fail altogether, a good plan needs to provide for periodic monitoring and evaluation of its
successes and failures and allow for updates of the Plan where necessary.

A.      Maintenance and Update of the Hazard Mitigation Plan
        It is required that the Town update the Hollis Hazard Mitigation Plan at least every five years. In order to
track progress and update the Mitigation Strategies identified in the Action Plan (Table 8), it is recommended that
the Town of Hollis revisit the plan annually and especially important to incorporate updates within one year after a
Presidential Disaster Declaration. The Emergency Management Director is responsible for initiating this review
and needs to consult with members of the Hazard Mitigation Team and as needed with the Emergency
Management Team and the community.

         Changes should be made to the Plan to accommodate for projects that have failed or are not considered
feasible after a review for their consistency with STAPLEE, the timeframe, the community’s priorities, and funding
resources. Priorities that were not ranked high, but identified as potential mitigation strategies, should be
reviewed as well during the monitoring and update of this Plan to determine feasibility of future implementation.
New mitigation actions or plans proposed upon adoption of the plan must follow the STAPLEE analysis method
previously utilized for the Hazard Mitigation Plan. This will not only ensure consistency with the adopted plan,
but more importantly will guide the members to evaluate its feasibility, public and political approval and overall
potential for success.

B.      Utilization of Existing Municipal Plans, Regulations and Programs
MASTER PLAN

As the Town of Hollis Planning Board prepares to update its Master Plan, this plan coordinated with the
development of the Master plan, and updated as necessary after the adoption of the Master Plan. As the
Development Trends section contains historical information from the current Master Plan, it is necessary for the
Hazard Mitigation Committee/Implementation Team to include any new updates from the development analysis
into this section.

ZONING ORDINANCE AND REGULATIONS

It is important for the Committee/Implementation Team to meet with the Planning Board and discuss the Zoning
Ordinance and Regulations to ensure that any existing and proposed changes do not conflict with the proposed
Mitigation Actions/Plans from this plan. One of the proposed mitigation actions is to update existing building
codes as necessary in order to ensure the protection of critical facility structural integrity and well as for new
proposed critical facilities.

C.      Continued Public Involvement
        In keeping with the process of adopting the 2006 Hollis Hazard Mitigation Plan, the Emergency Management
Director will be responsible for ensuring that the Town Departments and the public have adequate opportunity to
participate in the maintenance and update of the Hazard Mitigation Plan. A public hearing will be held to receive
public comment during the annual review period, and the final product adopted by the Board of Selectmen
appropriately.




                                                          Page 43.
                                       Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                        July 2006


        During the maintenance and update process of the Hazard Mitigation Plan, the following techniques may
be used to ensure continued public involvement:

   •    Provide personal invitations to the Board of Selectmen;
   •    Provide personal invitations to the Budget and CIP Committees;
   •    Provide personal invitations to the Town Department heads;
   •    Post notices of meetings at the Town Hall, Library, and the Town website;
   •    Submit public service announcements and community event announcements to The Cabinet and Nashua
        Telegraph.

These techniques are just examples of what the Hazard Mitigation Committee can utilize. It may be necessary for
the Hazard Mitigation Committee to form a new group upon adoption of the plan dedicated to implementation,
update, and education/outreach of the plan. As noted below in Table 9, this is noted as a Hazard Mitigation
Implementation Team. This will also allow new members to join from other municipal departments and the
public. The Emergency Management Director and committee or team members must try to adhere to the following
agenda, tasks and responsibilities in order to ensure that the mitigation actions and plans are implemented.


                    Table 9: Annual Plan Update and Public Involvement Agenda
          Meeting Schedule                               Task                                       Responsibility
                                                                                       Department heads or any municipal
                                                                                      officials interested in working with the
                                                                                      Hazard Mitigation Committee to find
                                       Assess current status of funding for
                                                                                       new sources of funding. The original
         Every 3 months upon           mitigation projects. Discuss any new
                                                                                        Hazard Mitigation Committee may
         date of plan adoption        projects/plans that should be obtained
                                                                                     decide to form a new Hazard Mitigation
                                                    for Hollis.
                                                                                     Implementation Team to implement the
                                                                                        proposed strategies/plans from the
                                                                                                         plan.
                                       Meet to discuss the Hazard Mitigation             Hazard Mitigation Committee or
       Twice a year or as needed
                                       Plan content and any updates needed                        Hazard Mitigation
       (Dates to be determined)
                                                    for the plan.                               Implementation Team
                                       Discussion and evaluation of Training
                                                                                               Hazard Mitigation
       Twice a year or as needed       Programs and public outreach efforts.
                                                                                     Committee/Implementation Team and
       (Dates to be determined)            New public outreach methods
                                                                                      other interested municipal officials.
                                                     discussed.




                                                        Page 44.
                                           Town of Hollis, NH - Hazard Mitigation Plan
                                                            July 2006



CHAPTER VIII. RECOMMENDATIONS
        The following recommendations have been provided to assist the Town of Hollis in adopting additional
mitigation strategies in the community.

A.        Communications/Emergency Response
          1.   Communications System with Radio Interoperability - Establish a communications system, with
               radio operability on the same frequency, providing the ability to communicate throughout the region
               and the state.
          2.   Emergency Warning System – Develop an emergency warning system that includes a reverse 911
               component. This system will improve notification of emergency situations throughout the town.

B.        Infrastructure and Capital Improvements
          1.   Generators at all Town Facilities – Install generators at all Town Facilities to provide back-up power
               to town facilities and shelters.
          2.   Culvert and Bridge Evaluation and Rehabilitation Projects to Enhance Evacuation and Emergency
               Response Capability – Continue to provide funding for local bridge and culvert improvement projects
               to ensure safe and reliable evacuation routes for Hollis, notably for South Merrimack Road. Work with
               the New Hampshire Department of Transportation to perform regular inspections of bridges and
               apply for funds for rehabilitation projects through the Bridge Aid Program.
          3.   Portable Weather Station and Anemometers – Purchase a portable weather station and purchase and
               install anemometers to monitor wind speed and direction. Can be extremely valuable in monitoring
               the migration of hazardous materials in the air.
          4.   Update of Building Codes to Ensure Structural Integrity of New and Existing Critical Facilities –
               Road Agent will need to work with the Planning Board and Department to evaluate the current
               Building Codes to assess its ability for evaluation of new and existing critical facilities.

C.        Public Education/Involvement
          1.   Community Preparedness Guide – Develop and distribute a community preparedness guide that
               provides contact, shelter and procedural information for a variety of emergency situations.

D.        Safety Plans
          1.   Private Wells Safety Measures – Develop measures to prevent private water supply contamination for
               wells which supply more than one household. Hollis drinking water comes solely from private wells
               which are currently not protected from possible contamination.
          2.   Lightning Evacuation Plan – Develop a plan to address departmental responsibilities, evacuation
               procedures and safety precautions during severe lightning storms.




DF/kmb
640D-63




                                                            Page 45.
                                              BIBLIOGRAPHY

              THESE RESOURCES WERE REFERENCED IN THE PREPARATION OF THIS PLAN


2000 United States Census

Dunne, Thomas and Leopold, Luna B. Water in Environmental Planning, 1978, p. 428.

Federal Emergency Management Agency, Understanding You Risks: Identifying Hazards and
Estimating Losses. A State and Local Mitigation Planning How-To Guide, August 2001.

Hollis Land Protection Study Committee Annual Report, 2003.

Northeast States Emergency Consortium (NESEC) Website, http://www.nesec.org, 2002.

New Hampshire Office of Emergency Management,
http://www.nhoem.state.nh.us/mitigation/hillsborough_county_risk_analysi.htm


Office of Emergency Management (NH OEM) Hazard Mitigation Planning for New Hampshire
Communities, February 2001

Rankin, Royce. Airport Manager with Nashua Municipal Airport. Created Critical Facilities and
Areas of Concern Map: Approximate flight paths to and from Nashua Municipal Airport.

Shaughnessy, John J. State of New Hampshire Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan, September 1999.

Tornado Project, http://www.tornadoproject.com

Town of Gorham, New Hampshire All Hazard Mitigation Plan, November 2000.

Town of Sullivan, New Hampshire Hazard Mitigation Plan, June 2000.

Town of Hollis, New Hampshire Emergency Operations Plan, 2005.

Town of Hollis, New Hampshire Zoning Ordinance, 2005.

Town of Hollis, New Hampshire Master Plan, 1998.

Town of Hudson, New Hampshire Hazard Mitigation Plan, May 2004.

Town of Merrimack, New Hampshire Hazard Mitigation Plan, September 2002.

Town of Wilton, New Hampshire Hazard Mitigation Plan, December 2002.

Town of Straftord, New Hampshire Hazard Mitigation Plan, July 2002.

Town of Goffstown, New Hampshire Hazard Mitigation Plan, July 2002.

Town of Jaffrey, New Hampshire Hazard Mitigation Plan, 2001.

US Army Corp of Engineers Ice Jam Database, http://www.crrel.usace.army.mil/cgi-bin/ice/ijdb
                                                   APPENDIX A

                                        HAZARD DEFINITIONS1

A. Flooding

        Flooding is a temporary overflow of water onto lands not normally covered by water producing
measurable property damage or forcing evacuation of people and vital resources. Floods frequently
cause loss of life; property damage and destruction; damage and disruption of communications,
transportation, electric service, and community services; crop and livestock damage and loss and
interruption of business. Hazards of fire, health and transportation accidents and contamination of water
supplies are likely effects of flooding situations.

         There are several types of hazards that are related to flooding:

         1.   100-year Floodplain events

        Properties within the 100-year floodplain (the area inundated by a 100-year flood)2 are at an
increased risk during a natural disaster or event related to flooding. Steep topography and restricted
riparian basin areas preclude large floodplains.

        The areas that are most susceptible to the 100-year flood in Hollis are depicted in Map 4. The
structures that are located within this area are at a greater risk than structures located upland of these
areas. However, even people who do not live near water are susceptible to flooding.

         2.   Debris-Impacted Infrastructure
        Debris carried by floodwaters can significantly compromise the effectiveness of otherwise
adequately designed bridges, dams, culverts, diverting structures, etc. Storm debris, and structures such
as poorly designed snowmobile bridges, carried by floodwaters, may exacerbate a given flooding hazard
by becoming obstructions to normal storm water flow3.

         All bridges, culverts and related roadways are vulnerable to this kind of hazard.

         3.   Hurricanes (see Section E)

         4.   Rapid Snow Pack Melt


        The climate, mountainous terrain and riverine watersheds are susceptible to flooding which may
be accelerated by moderate temperatures and moderate to heavy rains leading to seasonal rapid melting
of snow pack. The upland areas may be exposed to flash flood incidents with associated erosion and
deposition issues in, or near streambeds. Lower lying areas may experience either flash flooding or
inundation events accelerated by the rapid melting of the snow pack4.

       Structures and improvements located on, along, or at the base of steep slopes are most
vulnerable, as are structures in the 100-year and 500-year floodplains.



1 Except where otherwise noted, The Northeast States Emergency Consortium (http://www.nesec.org/hazards/) was referenced
for all of the definitions of the hazards common in Hillsborough County and New Hampshire.
2 “Water in Environmental Planning.” Thomas Dunne and Luna B. Leopold, 1978. pg. 428.
3 John J. Shaughnessy, State of New Hampshire Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan.
4 John J. Shaughnessy, State of New Hampshire Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan
            5.   River Ice Jams


        Ice forming in riverbeds and against structures presents significant hazardous conditions. Storm
waters encounter these ice formations which may create temporary dams. These dams may create
flooding conditions where none previously existed (i.e., as a consequence of elevation in relation to
normal floodplains). Additionally, the impact of the ice itself on structures such as highway and railroad
bridges may apply pressure laterally and/or may lift these structures which may not be designed for
such impacts5.

       Bridges, culverts, and related roadways, such as identified in the Critical Facilities Database and
Map 3 are most vulnerable.

B. Landslides

         A landslide is the downward or outward movement of slope forming materials reacting under
the force of gravity including: mudflows, mudslides, debris flows, rockslides, debris avalanches, debris
slides and earth flows. Landslides may be formed when a layer of soil atop a slope becomes saturated by
significant precipitation and slides along a more cohesive layer of soil or rock. Areas of particular
landslide hazard are found where steep hillsides intersect thin, permeable layers of earth that overlay
impermeable (dense, silty, or clayey) sediment. These areas are commonly adjacent to old riverbeds or
lakebeds5. Streambank erosion may also eventually result in landslides.

        Much of the development in New Hampshire is along rivers or in these particularly senstive
areas, making landslide events more likely. There are few potential sites for landslides in Hollis due to
the abundance of granite found throughout the Town and the relatively flat landscape. Few significant
slopes exist throughout the town. There are two locations where the slopes are fairly significant are along
Wright Road and Hayden Road. Both of these locations are sparsely populated and are a low risk for the
town.

C.      Earthquakes

       An earthquake is a sudden rapid shaking of the earth caused by the breaking and shifting of rock
beneath the earth's surface. Earthquakes can cause buildings and bridges to collapse, disrupt gas, electric
and phone lines, and often cause landslides, flash floods, fires, avalanches, and tsunamis. Larger
earthquakes usually begin with slight tremors but rapidly take the form of one or more violent shocks,
and end in vibrations of gradually diminishing force called aftershocks.

       Generally, New Hampshire lies in a zone of Moderate seismic vulnerability. Hillsborough
County is in an area of particularly high seismicity which is evident in a cresent of historical events
beginning in the Ossipee Range and following the general contour of the Merrimack River Valley10.

D. Dam Breach and Failure

        Dams function to serve the needs of flood control, recreation, wildlife enhancement and water
resources management5. During severe weather events, such as a flood, a dam’s ability to serve as a flood
control mechanism may be challenged and could breach or fail. In this event, anything downstream of a
dam is in danger.



5   “Water in Environmental Planning.” Thomas Dunne and Luna B. Leopold, 1978. pg. 19.
        The few dams located in Hollis have not posed any major threat to life and/or property. A
breach of the Pepperell Dam upriver in Pepperell, Massachusetts could pose significant threat to
properties located near the Nashua River in the south-east corner of Hollis.


E. Hurricanes

         A hurricane is a tropical cyclone in which winds reach speeds of 74 miles per hour or more and
blow in a large spiral around a relatively calm center. The eye of the storm is usually 20-30 miles wide
and may extend over 400 miles. The dangers of the storm include torrential rains, high winds and storm
surges. It produces measurable damage from heavy rainfalls, winds, and floods.

         High winds are a primary cause of hurricane-inflicted loss of life and property damage. Another
cause is the flooding resulting from the coastal storm surge of the ocean and the torrential rains, both of
which accompany the storm. A hurricane watch is issued when there is a threat of hurricane conditions
within 24-36 hours. A hurricane warning is issued when hurricane conditions (winds greater than 74
mph/119 kph or dangerously high water and rough seas) are expected in 24 hours or less.

       All areas of Hollis are potentially at risk if a hurricane reaches Hillsborough County. Hurricanes
are known to create widespread inland small stream and river flooding because of torrential rains.

        As it relates to wind hazards, damage resulting from hurrican gusts can be substantial, especially
considering the duration of the event which may last for many hours5. In New England, hurricane season
begins on June 1 and continues through the end of November. August and September are peak months
during hurricane season.

        Hillsborough County has experienced high winds associated with hurricane events, but is at a
more significant risk to flooding resulting from the rainfalls from hurricanes7. All areas of Hollis are
potentially at risk if a hurricane reaches Hillsborough County.

F.       Tornadoes/Downbursts

         1. Tornadoes

         A tornado is a violent windstorm characterized by a twisting, funnel shaped cloud. These events
are spawned by thunderstorms and, occasionally by hurricanes, and may occur singularly or in
multiples. They develop when cool air overrides a layer of warm air, causing the warm air to rise
rapidly. Most vortices remain suspended in the atmosphere. Should they touch down, they become a
force of destruction7.

         Risk from Tornadoes is considered to be high in Hillsborough County in comparison to the rest
of the State, but a low risk compared to the rest of the country. The county has experienced 18 tornadic
events between July 27, 1956 and June 16, 19867.

        New Hampshire generally experiences at least one or two of these events each year with varying
degrees of severity. These storms have the potential to inflict more damage than many hurricanes
because high winds can last from 12 hours to 3 days, while the duration of hurricanes ranges from 6 to 12
hours. Infrastructure, including critical facilities, may be impacted by these events, and power outages


6 New Hampshire Office of Emergency Management:

http://www.nhoem.state.nh.us/mitigation/hillsborough_county_risk_analysi.htm
7 John J. Shaughnessy, State of New Hampshire Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan
and transportation disruptions (i.e. snow and/or debris impacted roads, as well as hazards to navigation
and aviation) are often associated with the event.

        Severe winter storms typically occur during January and February, however, winter storms do
occur from late September through late April. All areas of Hollis are potentially at risk for property
damage and loss of life due to Nor’-easters.

            2. Downbursts

         A downburst is a severe localized wind blasting down from a thunderstorm. These ‘straight line’
winds are distinguishable from tornadic activity by the pattern of destruction and debris. Depending on
the size and location of these events, the destruction to property may be devastating. Downbursts fall
into two categories. Microbursts cover an area less than 2.5 miles in diameter, and macrobursts cover an
area at least 2.5 miles in diameter.

        All locations in Hollis are at risk for property damage and loss of life due to downbursts,
especially those areas with heavy tree cover.

G.          Lightning

         During the development of a thunderstorm, the rapidly rising air within the cloud, combined
with the movement of the precipitation within the cloud, causes electrical charges to build up within the
cloud. Generally, positive charges build up near the top of the cloud, while negative charges build up
near the bottom. Normally, the Earth’s surface has a slight negative charge. However, as the negative
charges build up near the base of the cloud, the ground beneath the cloud and the area surrounding the
cloud becomes positively charged. As the cloud moves, these induced positive charges on the ground
follow the cloud like a shadow. Lightning is a giant spark of electricity that occurs between the positive
and negative charges within the atmosphere or between the atmosphere and the ground. In the initial
stages of development, air acts as an insulator between the positive and negative charges. However,
when the potential between the positive and negative charges becomes too great, there is a discharge of
electricity that we know as lightning.

        All areas of Hollis are potentially at risk for property damage and loss of life due to lightning.
Areas that are heavily wooded as well as areas with large open spaces, are susceptible to damage to due
lightning strikes.

H.          Wildfire

         Historically, large NH wildland fires run in roughly 50 year cycles. The increased incidence of
large wildland fire activity in the late 1940s and early 1950s is thought to be associated, in part, with
debris from the Hurricane of 1938. Significant woody ‘fuel’ was deposited in the forests during that
event. Present concerns of New Hampshire Department of Resources and Economic Development,
Division of Forests & Lands are that the Ice Storm of 1998 has left a significant amount of woody debris in
the forests of the region and may fuel future wildfires8.

         Wildfire season usually begins in March in coastal and southern sections, gradually extending to
central, western and northern areas. The wildfire season usually ends in late November. The majority of
wildfires usually occur in April and May, when the majority of vegetation is void of any appreciable
moisture making them highly flammable. Once "green-up" takes place in late May to early June, the fire
danger usually is reduced somewhat.



8   John J. Shaughnessy, State of New Hampshire Natural Hazards Mitigation Plan
        There are a number of sizable forested areas within Hollis that could potentially pose the threat
of wildfires, although no such incidents have been recorded for the Town. These areas are identified on
the Hollis Base Map in the Town Overview.

I.      Severe Winter Weather

        The following kinds of hazards are related to ice and snow:

        1.   Heavy Snow Storms


        A winter storm can range from moderate snow to blizzard conditions. A severe winter storm
deposits four or more inches of snow during a 12-hour period or six inches of snow during a 24-hour
period. According to the official definition given in 1958 by the U.S. Weather Bureau, the winds must
exceed 35 miles per hour and the temperature must drop to 20° F (-7° C) or lower. All winter storms
make walking and driving extremely dangerous.

        All areas of Hollis are susceptible to heavy snow storms.

        2.   Blizzards

         Intense Nor’-easters which occur in the winter months are often referred to as blizzards. A
Blizzard is a snowstorm with sustained winds of 40 miles per hour (mph) or more or gusting up to at
least 50 mph with heavy falling or blowing snow, persisting for one hour or more, temperatures of ten
degrees fahrenheit or colder and potentially life-threatening traveling conditions. The definition includes
the conditions under which dry snow, which has previously fallen, is whipped into the air and creates a
diminution of visual range. Such conditions, when extreme enough, are called ‘white outs’.

        All areas of Hollis are potentially at risk for property damage and loss of life due to blizzards.

        3.   Ice Storms


         An ice storm involves rain, which freezes upon impact. Ice coating at least one-fourth inch in
thickness is heavy enough to damage trees, overhead wires, and similar objects and to produce
widespread power outages. Ice storms also create treacherous conditions for highway travel and
aviation. Debris impacted roads from fallen trees or overhead wires that snapped under the weight of
the ice make emergency access, repair and cleanup extremely difficult.

        All areas of Hollis are potentially at risk for property damage and loss of life due to ice storms.

        4.   Nor’-easters
        A Nor'easter is a large weather system traveling from South to North, passing along, or near the
seacoast. As the storm approaches New England, and its intensity becomes increasingly apparent, the
resulting counterclockwise cyclonic winds impact the coast and inland areas form a Northeasterly
direction. The sustained winds may meet or exceed hurricane force.

    In the winter months, Towns within the State may experience the additional coincidence of blizzard
conditions with many of these events as well as the added impact of the masses of snow and/or ice upon
infrastructure thus, impacting upon transportation and the delivery of goods and services for extended
periods of time, as well as various related impacts upon the economy. The entire area of the State may be
impacted by these events. Heavy snow and / or rainfall may be experienced in different areas of the
State and the heavy rains may contribute to flood conditions. Nor’-easter events which occur toward the
end of a winter season may exacerbate the spring flooding conditions by depositing significant snow
pack at a time of the season when spring rains are poised to initiate rapid snow pack melting9. All areas
of Hollis are potentially at risk for property damage and loss of life due to Nor’-easters.

J.       Terrorism

         Terrorism is the use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of the criminal
laws of the United States for purposes of intimidation, coercion or ransom. Terrorists often use threats to
create fear among the public, to try to convince citizens that their government is powerless to prevent
terrorism, and to get immediate publicity for their causes. Different types of terrorist weapons include
explosives, kidnappings, hijackings, arson, shootings, and NBC's (nuclear, biological agents, and
chemicals). Domestic terrorism involves groups or individuals whose terrorist activities are directed at
elements of our government or population without foreign direction. International terrorism involves
groups or individuals whose terrorist activities are foreign-based and/or directed by countries or groups
outside the United States.

        Given the proximity to Boston, the Southern New Hampshire region is likely to be affected in the
event of a terrorist act.


K.       Hazardous Material Incidents

        Hazardous materials and hazardous wastes contain properties that make them potentially
dangerous or harmful to humans. They can be liquids, solids, contained gases or sludge. Hazardous
wastes can be the by-product of manufacturing, as well as discarded commercial products. Most
households contain cleaning agents that become hazardous waste when disposed of improperly.
Chemicals have numerous benefits but can also cause hazards during their production, storage,
transportation, use or disposal. Hazardous materials can have adverse health related effects and may
even cause death in certain cases. In addition, hazardous materials may damage homes, businesses and
other property, as well as natural ecosystems. Chemical accidents in plants or chemical spills during
transportation may often release hazardous chemicals.

        The risk from hazardous materials spills or releases into groundwater is always present as long
as consumers and homeowners make irresponsible decisions regarding the disposal of household
chemicals. American families improperly dispose of, on average, 15 pounds of hazardous household
chemicals in a year. These household chemicals can contaminate drinking water in wells and cause
damage to various ecosystems. Most people contaminate without being aware that they are doing so.
Further education is needed in order to reduce hazardous waste contamination and increase participation
in Household Hazardous Waste Collection events.

L.       Explosion/Fire

        Explosions are violent releases of energy due to a sudden increase in volume within a given
space. Explosions produce extremely high temperatures and release gases. Urban fires in large,
unoccupied buildings have occurred around the world. They are sometimes deliberate and sometimes
accidental. They have the potential to cause widespread property damage and place both occupants and
neighbors in danger.

         There is a risk of explosion in households that use gas or oil burners or who store such gases or
chemicals in an unsafe manner. Business and industrial sites would also be at potential risk of explosion
if there existed flammable materials and especially gases and/or other chemicals.

10 New Hampshire Office of Emergency Management:

http://www.nhoem.state.nh.us/mitigation/hillsborough_county_risk_analysi.htm
M.      Traffic Congestion and Vehicular Accidents

       Given the number of passengers, frequency of travel, distances traveled and complexity of
modern transport, relatively few major accidents involving large numbers of people have occurred.
Nevertheless, transportation infrastructure has the potential to fail and cause major hazards.

        Traffic congestion is seldom a problem in Hollis. It is only during cultural events or peak tourist
days in the summer where this may pose a risk and lead to accidents. Automobile accidents could occur
on any roadway in the region and are a notable threat to the Town of Hollis. The road network in Hollis
provides major east-west and north-south access to commuters throughout the region. Routes 111 and
111A in the Southeast corner of Hollis are heavily traveled. Accidents are recurrent at this intersection
usually due to driver error, not to high levels of traffic. The two major commute route and evacuation
routes for Hollis, NH 130 & 122 intersect at the Town’s center referred to locally as “Four Corners.” This
area has seen a number of accidents throughout the years, again usually due to driver error.

         Poor winter conditions are often the cause for vehicular accidents on any road. This is especially
the case for Hollis. Proctor Hill Road (NH 130W ) and South Merrimack Road have been the locations for
a sizable number of accidents due to poor driving conditions from the combined hazards of topography
and winter weather.



N.      Biological Hazards

        Biological hazards are natural hazards that can be potentially catastrophic to ecosystem
functioning and human and wildlife well-being. They can include medical wastes, microorganisms,
viruses or toxins. Examples of biological hazards include invasive species and/or wildlife diseases such
as West Nile Virus, Chronic Wasting Disease, Lyme Disease, Avian Influenza (Bird Flu), Dengue Fever,
viral meningitis, red tides and algal blooms. Biological hazards are spread through animals, reptiles,
fowl, bacteria, insects and spiders, plants, molds and fungus. In recent years, Avian Influenza has
become a highly-discussed biological hazard because of its potential to annihilate large numbers of fowl,
and particularly, domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks and turkeys. Humans are susceptible to
Avian Flu through contact with infected birds. Human-induced biological hazards are possible but not
consensually considered natural; they are often referred to as biological terror, where a biological hazard
is manipulated in such a way to cause harm to others.

        In New Hampshire, the biological events most likely to affect a large population include health
outbreaks such as flu, meningitis and conjunctivitis. Diseases such as West Nile Virus and EEE have
found its way to the State, and although deaths have resulted from EEE, no humans have tested positive
for West Nile. Students are quite vulnerable to health outbreaks as they tend to congregate in large
numbers and in shared environments where physical contact is common. If Avian Influenza was present
in New Hampshire, people coming in contact with infected birds would be at greatest risk of contracting
the virus. It is otherwise difficult to predict where a biological hazard would be potentially dangerous
because of human and wildlife mobility.
                                                APPENDIX B

                                                RESOURCES

1. AGENCIES                                                                              PHONE NUMBERS

  New Hampshire Office of Emergency Management (Hazard Mitigation Section)                       271-2231

  Federal Emergency Management Agency                                                         617-223-4175

  NH Regional Planning Commissions:
     Central NH Regional Planning Commission                                                     226-6020
     Lakes Region Planning Commission                                                            279-8171
     Nashua Regional Planning Commission                                                         883-0366
     North Country Council                                                                       444-6303
     Rockingham Planning Commission                                                              778-0885
     Southern New Hampshire Planning Commission                                                  669-4664
     Southwest Region Planning Commission                                                        357-0557
     Strafford Regional Planning Commission                                                      742-2523
     Upper Valley Lake Sunapee Regional Planning Commission                                      448-1680

  NH Executive Department
     Governor’s Office of Energy and Community Services                                          271-2611
     New Hampshire Office of Energy and Planning                                                 271-2155

  NH Department of Cultural Affairs                                                              271-2540
     Division of Historical Resources                                                            271-3483

  NH Department of Environmental Services                                                        271-3503
     Air Resources                                                                               271-1370
     Waste Management                                                                            271-2900
     Water Resources                                                                             271-3406
     Water Supply and Pollution Control                                                          271-3504
     Rivers Management and Protection Program                                                    271-1152

  NH Fish and Game Department                                                                    271-3421

  NH Department of Resources and Economic Development                                            271-2411
     Natural Heritage Inventory                                                                  271-3623
     Division of Forests and Lands                                                               271-2214
     Division of Parks and Recreation                                                            271-3255

  NH Department of Transportation                                                                271-3734

  US Department of Commerce:
     National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service, Gray, Maine      207-688-3216

  US Department of the Interior:
     US Fish and Wildlife Service                                                                225-1411
     US Geologic Survey (USGS)                                                                   225-4681

  US Department of Agriculture:
     Natural Resource Conservation Service                                                       868-7581
2. WEBSITES
     Sponsor                                         Website                                       Summary of Contents

Natural Hazards Research Center,             www.colorado.edu/hazards/                    Searchable database of references and links
University of Colorado                                                                    to many disaster-related websites.

AccuWeather.com, Hurricane Center            http://hurricane.accuweather.com/hurricane   Reputed to be largest online collection of
                                             /tracking.asp?partner=accuweather            hurricane tracking maps.

National Emergency Management                http://nemaweb.org                           Association of state emergency
Association                                                                               management directors; mitigation projects

U.S. State and Local Gateway                 http://www.firstgov.gov/Government/State     General information through the federal-
                                             _Local.shtml                                 state partnership

National Weather Service                                                                  Central page for National Weather
                                             http://www.nws.noaa.gov/                     Warnings, updated every 60 seconds.

USGS Real Time Hydrologic Data               http://water.usgs.gov/realtime.html          Provisional hydrological data.

Dartmouth Flood Observatory                  http://www.dartmouth.edu/~floods/            Observations of flooding situations

FEMA, National Flood Insurance Program,                                                   Searchable site for access of Community
Community Status Book                        http://www.fema.gov/fema/csb.shtm            Status Book

National Lightning Safety Institute                                                       Information and listing of lightning safety
                                             http://lightningsafety.com/
                                                                                          publications

Global Hydrology and Climate Center                                                       A study of the global water cycle and its
                                             http://www.ghcc.msfc.nasa.gov
                                                                                          effects on the climate

LLNL Geologic and Atmospheric Hazards        http://www.llnl.gov/hmc/                     General hazard information developed for
                                                                                          DOE.
The Tornado Project Online                   http://www.tornadoproject.com                Information on tornadoes

National Severe Storms Laboratory            http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/                    Information about tracking severe storms

Earth Satellite Corporation                  http://www.earthsat.com/                     Flood risk maps searchable by state

USDA Forest Service Web                      http://www.fs.fed.us/land/                   Information on forest fires and land
                                                                                          management.

Northeast States Emergency Consortium        http://www.nesec.org                         Multi-hazard consortium funded by FEMA

EnviroMapper                                 http://maps.epa.gov/enviromapper/            Site that allows you to view maps by
                                                                                          locality, watershed, EPA region, etc.

Extreme Weather Sourcebook 2001              http://sciencepolicy.colorado.edu/sourcebo   Economic and societal effects of hazards
                                             ok/
                                                                                          Organizational data about emergency
NHOEM Database Viewer                        http://www.nhoem.state.nh.us/nhoemdb/pC      services in each NH Community
                                             hoose_view.asp
                                                                                          Online service to over 111,000 FEMA
Interflood                                   http://www.interflood.com                    maps and other flood mapping. Fee based.


*Full List of Mitigation Websites compiled   http://www.nhoem.state.nh.us/mitigation
by NHOEM                                     /Websites%20List.htm
3. MITIGATION FUNDING SOURCES

  a. Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) through Office of Emergency Management

  b. Flood Mitigation Assistance Program (FMAP) through Office of Emergency Management
                                           APPENDIX C

               SUMMARY OF HAZARD MITIGATION STRATEGIES

I.   RIVERINE MITIGATION

     A.   Prevention

          Prevention measures are intended to keep the problem from occurring in the first place, and/or
          keep it from getting worse. Future development should not increase flood damage. Building,
          zoning, planning, and/or code enforcement offices usually administer preventative measures.

          1.      Planning and Zoning

                  Land use plans are put in place to guide future development, recommending where, and
                  where not, development should occur. Sensitive and vulnerable lands can be designated
                  for uses that would not be incompatible with occasional flood events, such as parks or
                  wildlife refugees.

                  A Capital Improvements Program can recommend the setting aside of funds for public
                  acquisition of these designated lands.

                  The zoning ordinance can regulate development in these sensitive areas by limiting or
                  preventing some or all development, for example by designating floodplain overlay,
                  conservation, or agricultural districts.

          2.      Open Space Preservation

                  Preserving open space is the best way to prevent flooding and flood damage. Open space
                  preservation should not, however, be limited to the flood plain, since other areas within
                  the watershed may contribute to controlling the runoff that exacerbates flooding.

                  Land Use and Capital Improvement Plans should identify areas to be preserved by
                  acquisition and other means, such as purchasing easements. Aside from outright
                  purchase, open space can also be protected through maintenance agreements with the
                  landowners, or by requiring developers to dedicate land for flood flow, drainage and
                  storage.

          3.      Floodplain Development Regulations

                  Floodplain development regulations typically do not prohibit development in the special
                  flood hazard area, but they do impose construction standards on what is built there. The
                  intent is to protect roads and structures from flood damage and to prevent the
                  development from aggravating the flood potential.

                  Floodplain development regulations are generally incorporated into subdivision
                  regulations, building codes, and floodplain ordinances, which either stand-alone or are
                  contained within a zoning ordinance.

                  Subdivision Regulations: These regulations govern how land will be divided into
                  separate lots or sites. They should require that any flood hazard areas be shown on the
                  plat, and that every lot has a buildable area that is above the base flood elevation.
             Building Codes: Standards can be incorporated into building codes that address flood
             proofing for all new and improved or repaired buildings.

             Floodplain Ordinances: Communities that participate in the National Flood Insurance
             Program are required to adopt the minimum floodplain management regulations, as
             developed by FEMA. The regulations set minimum standards for subdivision regulations
             and building codes. Communities may adopt more stringent standards than those set
             forth by FEMA.

     4.      Storm Water Management

             Development outside of a floodplain can contribute significantly to flooding by covering
             impervious surfaces, which increases storm water runoff. Storm water management is
             usually addressed in subdivision regulations. Developers are typically required to build
             retention or detention basins to minimize any increase in runoff caused by new or
             expanded impervious surfaces, or new drainage systems. Generally, there is a prohibition
             against storm water leaving the site at a rate higher than it did before the development.

             One technique is to use wet basins as part of the landscaping plan of a development. It
             might even be possible to site these basins based on a watershed analysis. Since detention
             only controls the runoff rates and not volumes, other measures must be employed for
             storm water infiltration, for example, swales, infiltration trenches, vegetative filter strips,
             and permeable paving blocks.

     5.      Drainage System Maintenance

             Ongoing maintenance of channel and detention basins is necessary if these facilities are to
             function effectively and efficiently over time. A maintenance program should include
             regulations that prevent dumping in or altering watercourses or storage basins; regrading
             and filling should also be regulated.

             Any maintenance program should include a public education component, so that the
             public becomes aware of the reasons for the regulations. Many people do not realize the
             consequences of filling in a ditch or wetland, or regrading their yard without concern for
             runoff patterns.

B.   Property Protection

     Property protection measures are used to modify buildings subject to flood damage, rather than to
     keep floodwaters away. These may be less expensive to implement, as they are often carried out
     on a cost-sharing basis. In addition, many of these measures do not affect a building’s appearance
     or use, which makes them particularly suitable for historical sites and landmarks.

     1.      Relocation

             Moving structures out of the floodplain is the surest and safest way to protect against
             damage. Relocation is expensive, however, so this approach will probably not be used
             except in extreme circumstances. Communities that have areas subject to severe storm
             surges, ice jams, etc. might want to consider establishing a relocation program,
             incorporating available assistance.
2.   Acquisition

     Acquisition by a governmental entity of land in a floodplain serves two main purposes: (1)
     it ensures that the problem of structures in the floodplain will be addressed; and (2) it has
     the potential to convert problem areas into community assets, with accompanying
     environmental benefits.

     Acquisition is more cost effective than relocation in those areas that are subject to storm
     surges, ice jams, or flash flooding. Acquisition, followed by demolition, is the most
     appropriate strategy for those buildings that are simply too expensive to move, as well as
     for dilapidated structures that are not worth saving or protecting. Relocation can be
     expensive. However, there are government grants and loans that can be applied toward
     such efforts.

3.   Building Elevation

     Elevating a building above the base flood elevation is the best on-site protection strategy.
     The building could be raised to allow water to run underneath it, or fill could be brought
     in to elevate the site on which the building sits.

     This approach is cheaper than relocation, and tends to be less disruptive to a
     neighborhood. Elevation is required by law for new and substantially improved
     residences in a floodplain, and is commonly practiced in flood hazard areas nationwide.

4.   Floodproofing

     If a building cannot be relocated or elevated, it may be floodproofed. This approach works
     well in areas of low flood threat. Flood proofing can be accomplished through barriers to
     flooding, or by treatment to the structure itself.

     Barriers: Levees, floodwalls and berms can keep floodwaters from reaching a building.
     These are useful, but only in areas subject to shallow flooding.

     Dry Flood proofing: This method seals a building against the water by coating the walls
     with waterproofing compounds or plastic sheeting. Openings such as doors or windows,
     can be closed either with removable shields or with sandbags.

     Wet Flood proofing: This technique is usually considered a last resort measure, since
     water is intentionally allowed into the building in order to minimize pressure on the
     structure. Approaches range from moving valuable items to higher floors to rebuilding
     the floodable area. An advantage over other approaches is that simply by moving
     household goods out of the range of floodwaters, thousands of dollars can be saved in
     damages.

5.   Sewer Backup Protection

     Storm water overloads can cause backup into basements through sanitary sewer lines.
     Houses that have any kind of connection to a sanitary sewer system, whether it is
     downspouts, footing drain tile, and/or sump pumps, can be flooded during a heavy rain
     event. To prevent this, there should be no such connections to the system, and all rain and
     ground water should be directed onto the ground, away from the building. Other
     protections include:
             ♦   Floor drain plugs and floor drain standpipe, which keep water from flowing out of the
                 lowest opening in the house.

             ♦   Overhead sewer - keeps water in the sewer line during a backup.

             ♦   Backup valve - allows sewage to flow out while preventing backups from flowing into
                 the house.

     6.      Insurance

             Above and beyond standard homeowner insurance, there is other coverage a homeowner
             can purchase to protect against flood hazard. Two of the most common are National Flood
             Insurance and basement backup insurance.

             National Flood Insurance: When a community participates in the National Flood
             Insurance Program, any local insurance agent is able to sell separate flood insurance
             policies under rules and rates set by FEMA. Rates do not change after claims are paid
             because they are set on a national basis.

             Basement Backup Insurance: National Flood Insurance offers an additional deductible for
             seepage and sewer backup, provided there is a general condition of flooding in the area
             that was the proximate cause of the basement getting wet. Most exclude damage from
             surface flooding that would be covered by the NFIP.

C.   Natural Resource Protection

     Preserving or restoring natural areas or the natural functions of floodplain and watershed areas
     provide the benefits of eliminating or minimizing losses from floods, as well as improve water
     quality and wildlife habitats. Parks, recreation, or conservation agencies usually implement such
     activities. Protection can also be provided through various zoning measures that are specifically
     designed to protect natural resources.

     1.      Wetlands Protection

             Wetlands are capable of storing large amounts of floodwaters, slowing and reducing
             downstream flows, and filtering the water. Any development that is proposed in a
             wetland is regulated by either federal and/or state agencies.

             Depending on the location, the project might fall under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Army
             Corps of Engineers, which in turn, calls upon several other agencies to review the
             proposal. In New Hampshire, the NH Wetlands Board must approve any project that
             impacts a wetland. Many communities in New Hampshire also have local wetland
             ordinances.

             Generally, the goal is to protect wetlands by preventing development that would
             adversely affect them. Mitigation techniques are often employed, which might consist of
             creating a wetland on another site to replace what would be lost through the development.
             This is not an ideal practice, however, since it takes many years for a new wetland to
             achieve the same level of quality as an existing one.

     2.      Erosion and Sedimentation Control

             Controlling erosion and sediment runoff during construction and on farmland is
             important, since eroding soil will typically end up in downstream waterways. Because
             sediment tends to settle where the water flow is slower, it will gradually fill in channels
             and lakes, reducing their ability to carry or store floodwaters.
            Practices to reduce erosion and sedimentation have two principal components: (1)
            minimize erosion with vegetation and; (2) capture sediment before it leaves the site.
            Slowing the runoff increases infiltration into the soil, thereby controlling the loss of topsoil
            from erosion and the resulting sedimentation. Runoff can be slowed by vegetation,
            terraces, contour strip farming, no-till farm practices, and impoundments (such as
            sediment basins, farm ponds, and wetlands).

     3.     Best Management Practices

            Best Management Practices (BMPs) are measures that reduce nonpoint source pollutants
            that enter waterways. Nonpoint source pollutants are carried by storm water to
            waterways, and include such things as lawn fertilizers, pesticides, farm chemicals, and oils
            from street surfaces and industrial sites.

            BMPs can be incorporated into many aspects of new developments and ongoing land use
            practices. In New Hampshire, the Department of Environmental Services has developed
            best management practices for a range of activities, from farming to earth excavations.

D.   Emergency Services

     Emergency services protect people during and after a flood. Many communities in New
     Hampshire have emergency management programs in place, administered by an emergency
     management director (very often the local police or fire chief).

     1.     Flood Warning

            On large rivers, the National Weather Service handles early recognition. Communities on
            smaller rivers must develop their own warning systems. Warnings may be disseminated
            in a variety of ways, such as sirens, radio, television, mobile public address systems, or
            door-to-door contact. It seems that multiple or redundant systems are the most effective,
            giving people more than one opportunity to be warned.

     2.     Flood Response

            Flood response refers to actions that are designed to prevent or reduce damage or injury
            once a flood threat is recognized. Such actions and the appropriate parties include:

            ♦   activating the emergency operations center (emergency director)
            ♦   sandbagging designated areas (public works department)
            ♦   closing streets and bridges (police department)
            ♦   shutting off power to threatened areas (public service)
            ♦   releasing children from school (school district)
            ♦   ordering an evacuation (selectmen/city council/emergency director)
            ♦   opening evacuation shelters (churches, schools, Red Cross, municipal facilities)

            These actions should be part of a flood response plan, which should be developed in
            coordination with the persons and agencies that share the responsibilities. Drills and
            exercises should be conducted so that the key participants know what actions to take.
     3.       Critical Facilities Protection

              Protecting critical facilities is vital, since expending efforts on these facilities can draw
              workers and resources away from protecting other parts of town. Critical facilities fall into
              two categories:

              Buildings or locations vital to the flood response effort:

              ♦   emergency operations centers
              ♦   police and fire stations
              ♦   hospitals
              ♦   highway garages
              ♦   selected roads and bridges
              ♦   evacuation routes

              Buildings or locations that, if flooded, would create secondary disasters

              ♦   hazardous materials facilities
              ♦   water/wastewater treatment plants
              ♦   schools
              ♦   nursing homes

              All such facilities should have their own flood response plan that is coordinated with the
              community’s plan. Nursing homes, other public health facilities, and schools will typically
              be required by the state to have emergency response plans in place.

     4.       Health and Safety Maintenance

              The flood response plan should identify appropriate measures to prevent danger to health
              and safety. Such measures include:

              ♦   Patrolling evacuated areas to prevent looting.
              ♦   Providing safe drinking water.
              ♦   Vaccinating residents for tetanus.
              ♦   Clearing streets.
              ♦   Cleaning up debris.

              The plan should also identify which agencies will be responsible for carrying out the
              identified measures. A public information program can be helpful to educate residents on
              the benefits of taking health and safety precautions.

E.   Structural Projects

     Structural projects are used to prevent floodwaters from reaching properties. These are all man-
     made structures, and can be grouped into six types. Some shortcomings of structural approaches
     can be as follows:

     ♦    They can be very expensive.
     ♦    They disturb the land, disrupt natural water flows, and destroy natural habitats.
♦    They are built to an anticipated flood event, and may be exceeded by a greater-than-expected
     flood.
♦    They can create a false sense of security.

1.       Reservoirs

         Reservoirs control flooding by holding water behind dams or in storage basins. After a
         flood peaks, water is released or pumped out slowly at a rate the river downstream can
         handle.

         Reservoirs are suitable for protecting existing development, and they may be the only
         flood control measure that can protect development close to a watercourse. They are most
         efficient in deeper valleys or on smaller rivers where there is less water to store. Reservoirs
         might consist of man-made holes dug to hold the approximate amount of floodwaters, or
         even abandoned quarries. As with other structural projects, reservoirs:

         ♦    are expensive;
         ♦    occupy a lot of land;
         ♦    require periodic maintenance;
         ♦    may fail to prevent damage from floods that exceed their design levels; and
         ♦    may eliminate the natural and beneficial functions of the floodplain.

         Reservoirs should only be used after a thorough watershed analysis that identifies the
         most appropriate location, and ensures that they would not cause flooding somewhere
         else. Because they are so expensive and usually involve more than one community, they
         are typically implemented with the help of state or federal agencies, such as the Army
         Corps of Engineers.

2.       Levees/Floodwalls

         Probably the best know structural flood control measure is either a levee (a barrier of
         earth) or a floodwall made of steel or concrete erected between the watercourse and the
         land. If space is a consideration, floodwalls are typically used, since levees need more
         space. Levees and floodwalls should be set back out of the floodway, so that they will not
         divert floodwater onto other properties.

3.       Diversions

         A diversion is simply a new channel that sends floodwater to a different location, thereby
         reducing flooding along an existing watercourse. Diversions can be surface channels,
         overflow weirs, or tunnels. During normal flows, the water stays in the old channel.
         During flood flows, the stream spills over the diversion channel or tunnel, which carries
         the excess water to the receiving lake or river.

         Diversions are limited by topography; they won’t work everywhere. Unless the receiving
         water body is relatively close to the flood prone stream and the land in between is low and
         vacant, the cost of creating a diversion can be prohibitive. Where topography and land use
         are not favorable, a more expensive tunnel is needed. In either case, care must be taken to
         ensure that the diversion does not create a flooding problem somewhere else.
     4.      Channel Modifications

             Channel modifications include making a channel wider, deeper, smoother, or straighter.
             These techniques will result in more water being carried away, but, as with other
             techniques mentioned, it is important to ensure that the modifications do not create or
             increase a flooding problem downstream.

             Dredging: Dredging is often cost-prohibitive because the dredged material must be
             disposed of somewhere else, and the stream will usually fill back in with sediment.
             Dredging is usually undertaken only on larger rivers, and then only to maintain a
             navigation channel.

             Drainage modifications: These include man-made ditches and storm sewers that help
             drain areas where the surface drainage system is inadequate or where underground
             drainage ways may be safer or more attractive. These approaches are usually designed to
             carry the runoff from smaller, more frequent storms.

     5.      Storm Sewers

             Mitigation techniques for storm sewers include installing new sewers, enlarging small
             pipes, street improvements, and preventing back flow. Because drainage ditches and
             storm sewers convey water faster to other locations, improvements are only recommended
             for small local problems where the receiving body of water can absorb the increased flows
             without increased flooding.

             In many developments, streets are used as part of the drainage system, to carry or hold
             water from larger, less frequent storms. The streets collect runoff and convey it to a
             receiving sewer, ditch, or stream. Allowing water to stand in the streets and then draining
             it slowly can be a more effective and less expensive measure than enlarging sewers and
             ditches.

F.   Public Information

     Public information activities are intended to advise property owners, potential property owners,
     and visitors about the particular hazards associated with a property, ways to protect people and
     property from these hazards, and the natural and beneficial functions of a floodplain.

     1.      Map Information

             Flood maps developed by FEMA outline the boundaries of the flood hazard areas. These
             maps can be used by anyone interested in a particular property to determine if it is flood-
             prone. These maps are available from FEMA, the NH Office of Emergency Management,
             the NH Office of State Planning, or your regional planning commission.

     2.      Outreach Projects

             Outreach projects are proactive; they give the public information even if they have not
             asked for it. Outreach projects are designed to encourage people to seek out more
             information and take steps to protect themselves and their properties. Examples of
             outreach activities include:
     ♦   Mass mailings or newsletters to all residents.
     ♦   Notices directed to floodplain residents.
     ♦   Displays in public buildings, malls, etc.
     ♦   Newspaper articles and special sections.
     ♦   Radio and TV news releases and interview shows.
     ♦   A local flood proofing video for cable TV programs to loan to organizations.
     ♦   A detailed property owner handbook tailored for local conditions.
     ♦   Presentations at meetings of neighborhood groups.

     Research has shown that outreach programs work, although awareness is not enough.
     People need to know what they can do about the hazards, so projects should include
     information on protection measures. Research also shows that locally designed and run
     programs are much more effective than national advertising.

3.   Real Estate Disclosure

     Disclosure of information regarding flood-prone properties is important if potential buyers
     are to be in a position to mitigate damage. Federally regulated lending institutions are
     required to advise applicants that a property is in the floodplain. However, this
     requirement needs to be met only five days prior to closing, and by that time, the applicant
     is typically committed to the purchase. State laws and local real estate practice can help by
     making this information available to prospective buyers early in the process.

4.   Library

     Your local library can serve as a repository for pertinent information on flooding and flood
     protection. Some libraries also maintain their own public information campaigns,
     augmenting the activities of the various governmental agencies involved in flood
     mitigation.

5.   Technical Assistance

     Certain types of technical assistance are available from the NFIP Coordinator, FEMA, and
     the Natural Resources Conservation District. Community officials can also set up a service
     delivery program to provide one-on-one sessions with property owners.

     An example of technical assistance is the flood audit, in which a specialist visits a property.
     Following the visit, the owner is provided with a written report, detailing the past and
     potential flood depths, and recommending alternative protection measures.

6.   Environmental Education

     Education can be a great mitigating tool, if people can learn what not to do before damage
     occurs. The sooner the education begins, the better. Environmental education programs
     for children can be taught in the schools, park and recreation departments, conservation
     associations, or youth organizations. An activity can be as involved as course curriculum
     development or as simple as an explanatory sign near a river.

     Education programs do not have to be limited to children. Adults can benefit from
     knowledge of flooding and mitigation measures. Decision-makers, armed with this
     knowledge, can make a difference in their communities.
II.   COASTAL FLOODING

      A.   Prevention

           1.     Floodplain Regulations

                  Many of the same requirements for mitigating flood damage in riverine situations apply to
                  coastal zones, especially more stringent building codes, relocation and acquisition
                  programs, elevations of structures, improved open space preservation and land use
                  planning.

           2.     Erosion Regulations

                  Erosion regulations specify setbacks for structures from the water. In Rhode Island, for
                  example, the setbacks are 30 times the annual erosion rate for new or substantially
                  renovated residential structures, and 60 times the annual erosion rate for commercial
                  structures. And, regardless of the erosion rate, setbacks must be at least 50 feet. Setbacks
                  are measured from the top of a bluff, dike or 25 feet inland of a dune crest.

           3.     Dune and Beach Maintenance

                  Preventative measures involve either the construction of new or artificial dunes and/or the
                  stabilization of existing dunes. Both of these techniques require an understanding of the
                  biological and physical processes of the coastal zone. Vegetation used for dune
                  construction and for dune stabilization is usually a variety species.

                  The most effective methods of creating new dunes involve disrupting the airflow to
                  encourage sand deposition through the use of fences made of porous materials. It is
                  important that the fences alter the airflow but do not halt it. Artificial dunes can also build
                  up the planting of vegetation.

                  Stabilization is aimed at securing bare sand surfaces against deflation. This can be
                  achieved through grading and rapid construction of new dunes; surface fixing, by the
                  addition of chemicals, and by the planting of vegetation, with focuses on grasses, shrubs
                  and trees.

                  Beach nourishment is the artificial replacement and/or addition of sediment to beaches.
                  The effectiveness of this technique depends on the type of sand imported, the slope of the
                  natural beach, cross-shore currents and the frequency of storms. Nourishment is most
                  effective when combined with dune restoration and beach maintenance.

           4.     Wetlands Protection

                  Wetland preservation is very important because wetlands play a role in flood control by
                  their ability to store tremendous amounts of water, releasing the water slowly, thereby
                  reducing downstream flows. Wetlands provide important wildlife habitat, support a wide
                  variety of vegetation, and a filter of river-borne material before it enters the coastal waters.
B.   Property Protection

             1.        Structural Measures

                  ♦    Roads: Realigning roads so that they are parallel to the beachfront rather than
                       perpendicular prevents them from channeling floodwaters inland.
                  ♦    Seawalls: Vertical walls built on seashores are designed to protect against direct storm
                       wave action. The biggest problem with seawalls is that they can have an adverse impact
                       on neighboring properties and the movement of sand. The wall, often increasing shoreline
                       erosion, disrupts the natural forces that transport sand and replenish beaches.
                  ♦    Revetments: These are designed to protect the backshore from high tides and surges.
                       Revetments may be constructed out of a number of materials and configurations.
                       Revetments are more successful on lower-energy coasts.
                  ♦    Bulkheads: Vertical walls on the shoreline are often constructed of wood or steel, and are
                       designed to retain loose fill and sediment behind it. They are usually not good protection
                       from storms or other flooding events.
                  ♦    Terraces: Terraces are used in cliff areas and involve the insertion of vertical pilings and
                       planks at different levels.
                  ♦    Breakwaters: Breakwaters protect the shoreline by breaking down incoming waves in
                       order to diffuse and refract the wave fronts.
                  ♦    Dredging: Involves the modification of a channel by extracting sediment. It usually is
                       only used to maintain navigation in waterways.
                  ♦    Slope stabilization: Includes a number of methods to prevent landslides, such as slope
                       reduction and adding retention structures.
                  ♦    Groins: These are wall-like structures, placed perpendicular to the beach to capture
                       materials drifting along the shoreline.
                  ♦    Jetties: These are wall-like structures built perpendicular to the coast to stabilize channels,
                       inlets and outlets. The primary function is to protect navigation channels; they capture
                       sediments by restricting the movement of materials transported by longshore currents.

             2.    Emergency Measures

                  ♦ Sand scraping: A temporary way to reinforce a beach structure by, for example, filling in
                      behind protective seawalls using earth-moving equipment.
                  ♦ Installing storm shutters to protect exposed glass surfaces.
                  ♦ Install hurricane straps to structures to secure the roof to the walls and foundation.
                  ♦ Have your home or business inspected by a building professional to ensure that the building
                      components are capable of withstanding wind effects.

C.   Natural Resource Protection

        See the previous sections under Riverine Mitigation, and Paragraph A of this Section.

D.   Emergency Services

     In the event of severe weather, coastal communities need to have effective evacuation plans for low-lying
     and remote coastal areas. A major part of an evacuation plan is an effective hurricane/flood early warning
     system, such as a weather radio distribution program and an awareness of the National Weather Service
     programs. These plans also need to include the appropriate resources, such as all-terrain vehicles,
     powerboats and helicopters to reach stranded residents, as well as temporary shelter, food, water, other
     basic necessities and backup power sources for emergency facilities.
E      Structural Projects

       See the previous section on Property Protection.

F.     Public Information

               1.      COBRA

               The Coastal Barriers Resources Act of 1982 (COBRA) removed the Federal government from
               financial involvement associated with building and development in undeveloped portions of
               coastal areas. These areas were mapped and designated as Coastal Barrier Resources system units
               or “otherwise protected areas.”

               COBRA restricts any Federal program that may have the effect of encouraging development on
               coastal barrier beaches or islands. These include “any form of loan, grant, guarantee, insurance,
               payment, rebate, subsidy or any other form of direct or indirect Federal assistance” with specific
               and limited exceptions.

               COBRA also banned the sale of NFIP flood insurance for structures built or substantially improved
               on or after a specified date. For the initial COBRA designations, this date is October 1, 1983. For all
               subsequent designations, this date is the date the COBRA zone was identified. COBRA zones and
               their identification dates are shown in the legend of the community’s Flood Insurance Rate Map.

III.   EARTHQUAKES

       A.      Preventive

               1.      Planning/zoning to keep critical facilities away from fault lines.
               2.      Planning, zoning and building codes to avoid areas below steep slopes or soils subject to
                       liquefaction.
               3.      Building codes to prohibit loose masonry, overhangs, etc.

       B.      Property Protection

               1.      Acquire and clear hazard areas.
               2.      Retrofitting to add braces, remove overhangs.
               3.      Apply mylar to windows and glass surfaces to protect from shattering glass.
               4.      Tie down major appliances and provide flexible utility connections.
               5.      Earthquake insurance riders.

       C.      Emergency Services

               1.      Earthquake response plans to account for secondary problems, such as fires and hazardous
                       materials spills.

       D.      Structural Projects

               1.      Slope stabilization.

IV.    DAM FAILURE

       A.      Preventive

               1.      Dam failure inundation maps.
               2.      Planning/zoning/open space preservation to keep area clear.
           3.      Building codes with flood elevation based on dam failure.
           4.      Dam safety inspections.
           5.      Draining the reservoir when conditions appear unsafe.

      B.   Property Protection

           1.      Acquisition of buildings in the path of a dam breach flood.
           2.      Flood insurance.

      C.   Emergency Services

           1.      Dam conditioning monitoring.
           2.      Warning and evacuation plans based on dam failure.

      D.   Structural Projects

           1.      Dam improvements, spillway enlargements.
           2.      Remove unsafe dams.

V.    WILDFIRES

      A.   Preventive

           1.      Zoning districts to reflect fire risk zones.
           2.      Planning and zoning to restrict development in areas near fire protection and water
                   resources.
           3.      Requiring new subdivisions to space buildings, provide firebreaks, have on-site water
                   storage, wide roads and multiple accesses.
           4.      Building code standards for roof materials, spark arrestors.
           5.      Maintenance programs to clear dead and dry bush, trees.
           6.      Regulation on open fires.

      B.   Property Protection

           1.      Retrofitting of roofs and adding spark arrestors.
           2.      Landscaping to keep bushes and trees away from structures.
           3.      Insurance rates based on distance from fire protection.

      C.   Natural Resource Protection

           1.      Prohibit development in high-risk areas.

      D.   Emergency Services

           1.      Fire Fighting

VI.   WINTER STORMS

      A.   Prevention

           Building code standards for light frame construction, especially for wind-resistant roofs.
B.   Property Protection

     1.     Storm shutters and windows
     2.     Hurricane straps on roofs and overhangs
     3.     Seal outside and inside of storm windows and check seals in spring and fall.
     4.     Family and/or businesses severe weather action plan & drills:

            ♦   include a NOAA weather radio
            ♦   designate a shelter area or location
            ♦   keep a disaster supply kit, including stored food and water
            ♦   keep snow removal equipment in good repair; have extra shovels, sand, rock, salt and
                gas
            ♦   know how to turn off water, gas, and electricity at home or work

C.   Natural Resource Protection

     Maintenance program for trimming tree and shrubs

D.   Emergency Services

     1.     Early warning systems/NOAA Weather Radio
     2.     Evacuation Plans
                                                         APPENDIX D
     TECHNICAL AND FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FOR HAZARD MITIGATION

HAZARD MITIGATION GRANT PROGRAM - "Section 404 Mitigation"
The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP) in New Hampshire is administered in accordance with the 404 HMGP
   Administration Plan that was derived under the authority of Section 404 of the Stafford Act in accordance with
                                             Subpart N. of 44 CFR.

The program receives its funding pursuant to a Notice of Interest submitted by the Governor’s Authorized Representative (or
GAR, i.e. the Director of NHBEM) to the FEMA Regional
Director within 60 days of the date of a Presidentially
Declared Disaster. The amount of funding that may be              Minimum Project Criteria:
awarded to the State/Grantee under the HMGP may not
exceed 15% of (over and above) the overall funds as are           • Must conform with the State’s "409" Plan
awarded to the State pursuant to the Disaster Recovery
programs as are listed in 44 CFR Subpart N. Section               • Have a beneficial impact on the Declared area
206.431 (d) (inclusive of all Public Assistance, Individual
Assistance, etc.). Within 15 days of the Disaster                 • Must conform with:
Declaration, an Inter-Agency Hazard Mitigation Team is                     - NFIP Floodplain Regulations
convened consisting of members of various Federal, State,                  - Wetlands Protection Regulations
County, Local and Private Agencies with an interest in                     - Environmental Regulations
Disaster Recovery and Mitigation. From this meeting, a                     - Historical Protection Regulations
Report is produced which evaluates the event and stipulates
the State’s desired Mitigation initiatives.                       • Be cost effective and substantially reduce the risk of
                                                                      future damage
Upon the GAR’s receipt of the notice of an award of
funding by the Regional Director, the State Hazard                • Not cost more than the anticipated value of the
Mitigation Officer (SHMO) publishes a Notice of Interest              reduction of both direct damages and subsequent
(NOI) to all NH communities and State Agencies                        negative impacts to the area if future disasters were to
announcing the availability of funding and solicits                   occur i.e., min 1:1 benefit/cost ratio
applications for grants. The 404 Administrative Plan calls
for a State Hazard Mitigation Team to review all                  • Both costs and benefits are to be computed on a "net
applications. The Team is comprised of individuals from               present value" basis
various State Agencies.
                                                                   •   Has been determined to be the most practical,
                                                                       effective and environmentally sound alternative after
          Eligible Subgrantees include:                                a consideration of a range of options
 •    State and Local governments,
 •    Certain Not for Profit Corporations                          •   Contributes to a long-term solution to the problem it
                                                                       is intended to address
 •    Indian Tribes or authorized tribal organizations
      and Alaskan corporations not privately owned.
                                                                   •   Considers long-term changes and has manageable
                                                                       future maintenance and modification requirements.


       Eligible Projects may be of any nature that will result in the protection to public or private property and include:

      •    Structural hazard control or protection projects
      •    Construction activities that will result in protection from hazards
      •    Retrofitting of facilities
      •    Certain property acquisitions or relocations
      •    Development of State and local mitigation standards
      •    Development of comprehensive hazard mitigation programs with implementation as an essential component
      •    Development or improvement of warning systems
PUBLIC ASSISTANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION

Hazard Mitigation Section 406

Hazard Mitigation, as per Section 406 of the Stafford Act, is a funding source for cost-effective measures that would reduce or
eliminate the threat of future damage to a facility damaged during the disaster.

The measures must apply only to the damaged elements of a facility rather than to other, undamaged parts of the facility or to
the entire system. For example, if flooding inundates a sanitary sewer and blocks the manholes with sediment, mitigation to
prevent the blockage of the damaged manholes in a future event may be considered eligible.

Work to improve undamaged manholes using the same method would not be eligible, even though the manholes are part of the
same system.

Hazard mitigation measures restore a facility beyond its pre-disaster condition.

Section 406 mitigation measures are considered part of the total eligible cost of repair, restoration, reconstruction, or
replacement of a facility. They are limited to measures of permanent work, and the applicant may not apply mitigation funding
to alternate projects or improved projects if a new replacement facility is involved.

Upgrades required to meet applicable codes and standards are not “mitigation measures” because such measures are part of
eligible restoration work.



                                                    406 MITIGATION:

                  “Hazard Mitigation that is specific to a given Disaster Declaration,
                  specific to a given site, associated with a FEMA Damage Survey Report
                  is referred to a ‘406 mitigation’.” This Authority is derived under
                  Section 406 of the Stafford Act.

                  The Cost Share associated with this program is the same as with the
                  FEMA Public Assistance Program:

                  75%      FEMA
MITIGATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

FEMA’s Hazard Mitigation Assistance Program supports Hazard Mitigation planning and implementation activities that
reduce long-term hazard vulnerability and risk. Funding is provided pursuant to the Stafford Act.
(See 44 CFR, Part 361, Subpart A)

This program supports the Natural Hazards Program at           Mitigation Assistance Program
NHBEM and provides funding for State and Local
planning, training and administrative support to both the           •   Create and maintain comprehensive State
Natural Hazards Program Officer and the State Hazard                    Hazard Mitigation Programs i.e., centrally
Mitigation Officer, as well as grants which promote                     coordinate all State Hazard Mitigation
hazard mitigation locally and statewide.                                activities for all identified hazards, and
                                                                        provide financial and technical assistance to
Technical Assistance sessions are provided to                           communities and local governments
communities and State agencies through individual                   •   75% FEMA - 25% State in-kind or cash
community outreach visits and regional seminars.

                                                               Eligible Activities
                                                                    •   Preparedness and Response Planning
                                                                    •   Mitigation Planning and Implementation
Past MAP Funded Mitigation Initiatives                              •   Public Awareness and Education

MAP funds have been, and are presently being used to support the Natural Hazards Program including:

    •    Support CEMPS, Hurricane Program and other initiatives of the Natural Hazards Program Office
    •    Support for Non-Commercial Service Announcements
    •    Support State and local officials with training and travel expenses
    •    Support the development of a NH Guide to Local Community Hazard Mitigation Planning
    •    Bring training in community Hazard Mitigation Planning to members of the nine Regional Planning Commissions
         throughout the State


Present MAP Funded Mitigation Initiatives
    •    Support CEMPS, Hurricane Program and other initiatives of the Natural Hazards Program Office
    •    Support a cooperative effort between NHBEM, NHDES-WRD and NH GRANIT, to digitize the State’s Class B and
         Class C dams including digitization of the inundation pathways in a GIS format
    •    Support State and local officials with training and travel expenses
    •    Support continued State and local Hazard Mitigation Planning and Projects
    •    Support the SHMO with training and travel
    •    Provide Technical Assistance to State and local officials
Future Initiatives Intended with MAP Funding
    •    Continued support of the Natural Hazards Officer’s program initiatives
    •    Extend the support for the creation of local community planning
    •    Continued Support of State and local officials with training and travel expenses
    •    Provide Technical Assistance to State and local officials
PROJECT IMPACT
New Hampshire began its participation in Project
Impact with the nomination of the Town of                                PROJECT IMPACT
Peterborough as Project Impact Community
for 1998. The Town was awarded a
$500,000.00 grant to initiate Hazard
                                                   ♦ States nominate communities annually
Mitigation Planning and projects and to assist
in building partnerships with local businesses     ♦ Final selection by FEMA
and other entities interested in reducing the
community’s losses resulting from various          ♦ Hazard Mitigation Planning and Technical Assistance
disasters to which the community has been, or          Provided
may be exposed.
                                                   ♦ Project and Planning Grants Awarded
With referrals from the NHBEM Field Reps,
the Hazard Mitigation Team Nominated two           Project Impact is designed to “Build a Disaster Resistant
communities for Project Impact 1999 which          Community” by assisting them in the formation of
have been approved by FEMA. The Grant              public/private partnerships with “seed” grants. Eligible grant
Award for Project Impact 1999 is                   activities include:
$300,000.00.
                                                   ♦ Mitigation for existing structures
The State distinguished itself nationally at the
Project Impact Summit held in Washington,          ♦ Adoption of policies or practices going to mitigating
DC in December 1998 when its selection of              effects of hazards
three communities for participation in Project
Impact 1999 was announced.                         ♦ Activities that lead to building and/or sustaining
                                                       public/private Hazard Mitigation partnerships
The communities of Salem and Plymouth have
submitted their respective project lists, which
have been reviewed and approved by FEMA.           Project Impact also provides the States with an administrative
The Town of Holderness (the State's 3rd            budget, which may be used to directly support Project Impact
highest NFIP repetitive loss community) is         communities and to convene statewide support for
currently working with the Lakes Region            comprehensive Hazard Mitigation strategies. Funds may be
Planning Commission toward the development         used for:
of a Flood Mitigation Planning Grant
application through the FMA program.               ♦ Funding training initiatives

                                                   ♦ Support of necessary travel expenses

                                                   ♦ Provide related mini-grants to Project Impact
                                                       Communities

                                                   ♦ Fund costs of information development and
                                                       dissemination in support of Project Impact

                                                   ♦ Fund development of training packages for State and
                                                       local Officials

                                                   ♦ Fund expert short-term technical assistance to
                                                       communities
FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
New Hampshire has been a participant in the Flood Mitigation Assistance
Program (FMA or FMAP) since 1996/97. In order to be eligible, a community                 Flood Mitigation
must be a participant in the National Flood Insurance Program.
                                                                                         Assistance Program
In 1997, the State was awarded funds to assist communities with Flood
Mitigation Planning and Projects. A Planning Grant from the 1996/97 funds                  •    NFIP Funded by a % of
was awarded to the City of Keene in 1998. In preparation for the development                    Policy Premiums
of the Flood Mitigation Plan, the Planning Department of the City of Keene
created a digital database of its floodplain including the digitizing of its tax           •    Planning Grants
assessing maps as well as its Special Flood Hazard Areas in GIS layers. The
Plan Draft was submitted to FEMA for review and approval in March of 2000.                 •    Technical Assistance Grants
The Plan includes a detailed inventory of projects and a "model" project                        to States (10% of Project
prioritization approach.                                                                        Grant)

In 1998, the FMAP Planning Grant was awarded to the Town of Salem. Given                   •    Project Grants to
the complexity of the issues in the Spicket River watershed, the Town of Salem                  communities
subcontracted a substantial portion of the development of its Flood Mitigation
Planning to SFC Engineering Partnership of Manchester, NH, a private                       •    Communities must have
engineering firm. Salem submitted a Plan and proposed projects to the State                     FEMA approved Flood
and FEMA in May of 1999 that were approved by FEMA. This made Salem                             Mitigation Plans to receive
the first community in NH to have a FEMA/NFIP approved Flood Mitigation                         Project Funds
Plan.

FEMA expressed its interests in prioritizing "repetitive loss" properties with
1999 project funding. Accordingly, the State made specific outreach to the Towns of Hampton, Rye and Holderness (in that
order) as the State's top three repetitive loss communities, to solicit a request for the 1999 FEMA Planning grant.



                                                Eligible Projects
                                                     (44 CFR Part 78)

            •   Elevation of NFIP insured residential structures
            •   Elevation and dry-proofing of NFIP insured non-residential structures
            •   Acquisition of NFIP insured structures and underlying real property
            •   Relocation of NFIP insured structures from acquired or restricted real property to sites not prone
                to flood hazards
            •   Demolition of NFIP insured structures on acquired or restricted real property
            •   Other activities that bring NFIP insured structures into compliance with statutorily authorized
                floodplain management requirements
            •   Beach nourishment activities that include planting native dune vegetation and/or the installation
                of sand fencing.
            •   Minor physical mitigation projects that do not duplicate the flood prevention activities of other
                Federal agencies and lessen the frequency of flooding or severity of flooding and decrease the
                predicted flood damages in localized flood problem areas. These include: modification of
                existing culverts and bridges, installation or modification of flood gates, stabilization of stream
                banks, and creation of small debris or flood/storm water retention basins in small watersheds (not
                dikes, levees, seawalls etc.)
EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE GRANT (EMGP)

FEMA and the State co-sponsor the EMPG Program, which supports the development and updating of disaster assistance
plans and capabilities and promotes educational opportunities with respect to preparedness and mitigation.
Authority: See Subchapter E. of 44 CFR.

Past EMPG initiatives include:
    • Support of the position of Protection Planner/Hazard                  EMERGENCY
       Mitigation Officer                                                  MANAGEMENT
    • Installation of river gauges
    • Support of the NH State Environthon School Program
                                                                        PERFORMANCE GRANT
    • Coordinate the Voluntary Organizations Active in Disasters         •   Evaluate natural hazards on a
       (VOAD) Program (See Resource Profile Annex) NHOEM                     continuing basis and develop
       via the EMPG has sponsored annual meetings with training              programs and actions required to
       workshops                                                             mitigate such hazards
    • Sponsoring Dam Safety Training initiatives and workshops           •   Provide Technical Assistance
    • Production and distribution of a handbook for small                •   (50% State match - cash or in kind)
       embankment dam owners
    • Inventory of the State’s Dams                                  Eligible Projects Include:
    • Review of Dam Plans                                                • Evaluations of Natural Hazards
    • Sponsored extensive statewide, two day workshops for               • Hazard Mitigation activities (i.e.
       Granite State Incident Stress Debriefing Teams and funded              Plan/ policy/program/strategy
       educational materials                                                  development
    • Community visits and production of informational materials         • Plan updates
    • Assist with Plan Annex update for local Haz Mat planning.          • Handbooks: publication &
    • Funding workshops for NH Road Agents in cooperation                     distribution
       with the T2 program of the Technology Transfer Center at          • Creating exercise materials
       the University of New Hampshire                                   • Developing Standard Operating
                                                                              Procedures
Present EMPG funded Hazard Mitigation initiatives
                                                                         • Training state employees
    • Support the position of Protection Planner/Hazard
                                                                         • Report of formal analysis of State
        Mitigation Officer
                                                                              enabling legislation and authorities
    • Continued support of the Environthon Program
                                                                         • Update inventory of State/local
    • Development of this Plan                                                Critical Facilities
    • Providing Technical Assistance to State and local officials        • Develop a tracking system of critical
    • Development of Emergency Operations Plans (EOPs) for                    actions to be taken post-event
        Significant and High Hazard dams                                 • Creating Damage Assessment Plans
                                                                              and defining procedures
Future EMPG funded Hazard Mitigation initiatives
                                                                         • Developing Plans for procedures
    • Continued Support of the position of Protection                         when no Federal Aid is forthcoming
        Planner/Hazard Mitigation Officer
                                                                         • Creating Plans for Search and
    • Continued support of the Environthon Program                            Rescue Operations
    • Update and maintenance of this Plan                                • Developing Disaster accounting
    • Provide Technical Assistance to State and local officials               procedures
    • Support of other planning, technical assistance and training
        as indicated                                                         This list is not all inclusive.
    • Digitization of EOPs for the State’s "Significant" and "High
        Hazard" dams to provide rapid access to information in
        Emergency situations and to facilitate Plan maintenance.
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM
These Federal funds are provided through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and are
administered by the CDBG Program of the New Hampshire Office of State Planning.

Some CDBG disaster related funding has been
transferred to FEMA recently and the SHMO is
scheduled to receive guidance as to the specific funds                 Community Development
and new program management criteria.
                                                                           Block Grant
The specific CDBG funds designated for hazard
mitigation purposes are made available to address            •   U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development
"unmet needs" pursuant to a given Disaster
Declaration to States which request them. For these          •   Funds for a Declared Disaster’s "Unmet Needs"
funds, project selection guidance is provided by
NHBEM and NHOSP administers the grant.                       •   Projects must meet one of three National Objectives
Pursuant to Declaration DR-1144-NH, $557,000.00              •   Provide a direct benefit to low and moderate income
was made available to the State and pursuant to DR-              persons or households
1199-NH, the grant award is targeted at
$1,500,000.00.
                                                             •   Prevent or eliminate slums and blight
In October of 1998, HUD announced the program
                                                             •   Eliminate conditions which seriously and
guidelines for the expenditure of the DR-1144-NH
                                                                 immediately threaten the public health and welfare
related funding The community of Salem applied for,
and has received preliminary approval for funding to
                                                         Additional conditions with respect to the expenditure of these
acquire a 19-unit trailer park in the Floodplain.
                                                         funds includes the provision that at least 50% of the grant award
                                                         must be expended in a manner which benefits individuals who
                                                         earn 80% or less than the area’s (county’s) median income.
The following funding sources were found on the site: http://www.nesec.org/resources/

CEPP TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS PROGRAM
Provide financial assistance to States, Local agencies, and Indian Tribes for chemical accident prevention activities that relate
to the Risk Management Program under the Clean Air Act Section 112(r). Provide financial assistance to Tribes for chemical
emergency planning, and community right-to-know programs which are established to prevent or eliminate unreasonable risk
to the health and environment of communities within the State.


HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT STATE PROGRAM SUPPORT
Assist State governments in the development and implementation of an authorized hazardous waste management program for
the purpose of controlling the generation, transportation, treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes.

GRANTS-IN-AID FOR RAILROAD SAFETY
Promote safety in all areas of railroad operations; reduce railroad related accidents and casualties; and reduce damage to
property caused by accidents involving any carrier of hazardous materials by providing State participation in the enforcement
and promotion of safety practices.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM
Provide technical and financial assistance through the States to support State, local and Indian tribal governments in oil and
hazardous materials emergency planning and exercising. Enhance State, Tribal and local governments capabilities to inter-
operate with the National Response System (NRS). Support the Comprehensive Hazardous Materials (HAZMAT) Emergency
Response - Capability Assessment Program (CHER-CAP) Activities.

MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY
Protect the public from risks inherent in commercial vehicle operations on the public highways, and minimize risks involved in
moving hazardous materials over public highways.

STATE AND COMMUNITY HIGHWAY SAFETY
Provide a coordinated national highway safety program to reduce traffic accidents, deaths, injuries, and property damage.


NH DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
Hazard Mitigation Resource Profile
The Department of Transportation is responsible for the planning, development and maintenance of the state transportation
network. This network provides for the safe and convenient movement of people and goods throughout the state by means of a
system of highways and railroads, air service, mass transit and other practicable modes of transportation in order to support
state growth and economic development and promote the general welfare of the citizens of the state.

To support the mission, the Department must mitigate the factors which impede the successful completion of the assigned
transportation related duties. These factors include any hazards which restrict the free flow of traffic, including hurricanes,
floods, ice storms and other natural disasters, and emergencies resulting from hazardous spills, nuclear power plant events and
other man- caused emergencies. The full resources of the Department, including heavy trucks, loaders, graders, manpower and
materials are available to combat any disaster to the state maintained system, as well as to provide preventative mitigation to
lessen similar occurrences in the future.

Specific response examples include snow plowing, treating roads with sand and salt, hauling materials such as rock to support
dams or roadside slopes, cutting and chipping trees, removing debris from transportation corridors, providing inspection for
highways, railroads, bridges and other public facilities, and providing two-way radio communications. The Department
assigns personnel to the Emergency Operations Center to coordinate response efforts, and specific duties for Seabrook Station
and Vermont Yankee events are assigned to highway maintenance District offices and field personnel.

NEW HAMPSHIRE DRINKING WATER SOURCE PROTECTION PROGRAM
This grant is available to public water suppliers for source water protection. The program, which began in 1997, has a total of
$200,000 available to disburse each year to eligible municipalities. Grant amounts vary from $2,000 to $50,000. Past grants
have been used for funding a watershed assessment and protection plan; perimeter fencing to protect a wellhead area; and for
monitoring wells for groundwater evaluation.
Past recipients include: Conway, Lebanon, Manchester, Rochester, Dover, Keene, and Portsmouth. For further information
contact: Pierce Rigrod at (603) 271-0688 or email prigrod@des.state.nh.us. Go to: Drinking water source protection for on-
line information and applications.


STATE REVOLVING FUND LOANS
State Revolving Fund (SRF) loans are low-interest loans provided by the State to help municipalities with projects such as
landfill closures, wastewater projects, public water supply improvements, and brownfields clean up. The money comes from a
combination of federal grants (80 percent) and state matching funds (20 percent).


                      Mitigation Programs of Other NH State Agencies
The following agencies of the State of New Hampshire are directly, or indirectly involved in activities that include
Hazard Mitigation Planning and/or program implementation.

                                            NH OSP/NFIP Program
                                           NH OSP Coastal Program
                                    NH DRED Division of Forests and Lands
                              NH DES Water Resources Division – Dam Safety Program
                                          NH DES Wetlands Program
                                     NH DES Shoreline Protection Program
                                                        APPENDIX E

                                 FUJITA TORNADO DAMAGE SCALE
            Developed in 1971 by T. Theodore Fujita of the University of Chicago

 SCALE                    WIND ESTIMATE *** (MPH)                                           TYPICAL DAMAGE
                                                                      Light damage. Some damage to chimneys; branches broken
    F0                                   < 73                           off trees; shallow-rooted trees pushed over; sign boards
                                                                                                damaged.
                                                                       Moderate damage. Peels surface off roofs; mobile homes
    F1                                  73-112                        pushed off foundations or overturned; moving autos blown
                                                                                              off roads.
                                                                      Considerable damage. Roofs torn off frame houses; mobile
                                                                      homes demolished; boxcars overturned; large trees snapped
    F2                                 113-157
                                                                       or uprooted; light-object missiles generated; cars lifted off
                                                                                                 ground.
                                                                         Severe damage. Roofs and some walls torn off well-
    F3                                 158-206                        constructed houses; trains overturned; most trees in forests
                                                                        uprooted; heavy cars lifted off the ground and thrown.

                                                                         Devastating damage. Well-constructed houses leveled;
    F4                                 207-260                            structures with weak foundations blown away some
                                                                           distance; cars thrown and large missiles generated.

                                                                          Incredible damage. Strong frame houses leveled off
                                                                      foundations and swept away; automobile-sized missiles fly
    F5                                 261-318
                                                                         through the air in excess of 100 meters (109 yds); trees
                                                                              debarked; incredible phenomena will occur.

*** IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT F-SCALE WINDS: Do not use F-scale winds literally. These precise wind speed numbers are actually guesses
  and have never been scientifically verified. Different wind speeds may cause similar-looking damage from place to place -- even from
 building to building. Without a thorough engineering analysis of tornado damage in any event, the actual wind speeds needed to cause
                                                         that damage are unknown.


    Information depicted above can be found at: http://www.spc.noaa.gov/faq/tornado/f-scale.html
                                                 APPENDIX F

                           SAFFIR/SIMPSON HURRICANE SCALE

       Courtesy of National Hurricane Center
       This can be used to give an estimate of the potential property damage and flooding expected
       along the coast with a hurricane.

   Category        Definition                                             Effects
                 Winds 74-95     No real damage to building structures. Damage primarily to unanchored mobile
One
                 mph             homes, shrubbery, and trees. Also, some coastal road flooding and minor pier damage

                                 Some roofing material, door, and window damage to buildings. Considerable damage
                 Winds 96-110
Two                              to vegetation, mobile homes, and piers. Coastal and low-lying escape routes flood 2-4
                 mph
                                 hours before arrival of center. Small craft in unprotected anchorages break moorings.
                                 Some structural damage to small residences and utility buildings with a minor amount
                 Winds 111-130   of curtainwall failures. Mobile homes are destroyed. Flooding near the coast destroys
Three
                 mph             smaller structures with larger structures damaged by floating debris. Terrain
                                 continuously lower than 5 feet ASL may be flooded inland 8 miles or more.
                                 More extensive curtainwall failures with some complete roof structure failure on small
                 Winds 131-155   residences. Major erosion of beach. Major damage to lower floors of structures near the
Four
                 mph             shore. Terrain continuously lower than 10 feet ASL may be flooded requiring massive
                                 evacuation of residential areas inland as far as 6 miles.
                                 Complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings. Some complete
                                 building failures with small utility buildings blown over or away. Major damage to
                 Winds greater
Five                             lower floors of all structures located less than 15 feet ASL and within 500 yards of the
                 than 155 mph
                                 shoreline. Massive evacuation of residential areas on low ground within 5 to 10 miles
                                 of the shoreline may be required.


         Above information can be found at: http://www.fema.gov/hazards/hurricanes/saffir.shtm
                                             APPENDIX G

                          THE RICHTER MAGNITUDE SCALE

Earthquake Severity

            Magnitudes                                    Earthquake Effects

  Less than 3.5             Generally not felt, but recorded.


  3.5-5.4                   Often felt, but rarely causes damage.

                            At most slight damage to well-designed buildings.
  Under 6.0                 Can cause major damage to poorly constructed buildings
                            over small regions.
                            Can be destructive in areas up to about 100 kilometers
  6.1-6.9
                            across where people live.

  7.0-7.9                   Major earthquake. Can cause serious damage over larger areas.


                            Great earthquake. Can cause serious damage in areas several
  8 or greater
                            hundred kilometers across.

 Information above found at: http://www.seismo.unr.edu/ftp/pub/louie/class/100/magnitude.html

The Richter Magnitude Scale
         Seismic waves are the vibrations from earthquakes that travel through the Earth; they are
recorded on instruments called seismographs. Seismographs record a zig-zag trace that shows the
varying amplitude of ground oscillations beneath the instrument. Sensitive seismographs, which greatly
magnify these ground motions, can detect strong earthquakes from sources anywhere in the world. The
time, locations, and magnitude of an earthquake can be determined from the data recorded by
seismograph stations.

         The Richter magnitude scale was developed in 1935 by Charles F. Richter of the California
Institute of Technology as a mathematical device to compare the size of earthquakes. The magnitude of
an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the amplitude of waves recorded by seismographs.
Adjustments are included for the variation in the distance between the various seismographs and the
epicenter of the earthquakes. On the Richter Scale, magnitude is expressed in whole numbers and
decimal fractions. For example, a magnitude 5.3 might be computed for a moderate earthquake, and a
strong earthquake might be rated as magnitude 6.3. Because of the logarithmic basis of the scale, each
whole number increase in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in measured amplitude; as an estimate
of energy, each whole number step in the magnitude scale corresponds to the release of about 31 times
more energy than the amount associated with the preceding whole number value.

       At first, the Richter Scale could be applied only to the records from instruments of identical
manufacture. Now, instruments are carefully calibrated with respect to each other. Thus, magnitude can
be computed from the record of any calibrated seismograph.
         Earthquakes with magnitude of about 2.0 or less are usually called micro-earthquakes; they are
not commonly felt by people and are generally recorded only on local seismographs. Events with
magnitudes of about 4.5 or greater - there are several thousand such shocks annually - are strong enough
to be recorded by sensitive seismographs all over the world. Great earthquakes, such as the 1964 Good
Friday earthquake in Alaska, have magnitudes of 8.0 or higher. On the average, one earthquake of such
size occurs somewhere in the world each year. The Richter Scale has no upper limit. Recently, another
scale called the moment magnitude scale has been devised for more precise study of great earthquakes.
The Richter Scale is not used to express damage. An earthquake in a densely populated area which
results in many deaths and considerable damage may have the same magnitude as a shock in a remote
area that does nothing more than frighten the wildlife. Large-magnitude earthquakes that occur beneath
the oceans may not even be felt by humans.

          Above information can be found at: http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/general/richter.html
                                            APPENDIX H
           MINUTES FROM COMMUNITY HAZARD MITIGATION MEETINGS

Meeting #1
                                                Minutes
                                 Hollis Hazard Mitigation Committee
                                        July 20, 2005 at 9:00 AM

Attendees:
Director Michael Pischetola      Communications Center
Director Cath Hallsworth         Administration Department
Chief Richard Darling            Police Department
Chief Richard Towne              Fire Department
Director Arthur LeBlanc          Public Works Department
Jon Heiss                        NRPC
Kerrie Diers                     NRPC
Camille Pattison                 NRPC

1. Introductions
   Each member of the Committee introduced themselves and signed the
   attendance sheet

2. Hazard Mitigation Plan and Project Process
   Jon Heiss briefly explained what a hazard mitigation plan is and described the role of the
   Committee. He reviewed the types of natural disasters covered by the plan and the plan
   components of chapters 1-7.

3. Homework Discussion
   Jon Heiss and Kerrie Diers discussed the homework assignment for the
   Committee. The task was to look through the previous Hollis hazard events list
   to verify and/or add information on missing events and how they impacted the
   Town.


4. Next Meeting

    •      The next meeting dates for the Committee was decided: August 10th, at 9:00
           AM in the Hollis Town Hall. Further meeting dates will be decided as the
           summer ends and members are available to schedule additional dates.
    •      Jon Heiss will receive a copy of the recently completed mitigation plan from Cath
           Hallsworth. Information relevant for the Hazard Mitigation Plan will be utilized where
           possible.
    •      Police Chief Richard Darling suggested the NRPC Interns Brendan O'Shaughnessy and Sheli
           Dookran notify the local Police Departments before heading out in the field to GPS critical
           facilities.
    •      NRPC will contact Town officials to obtain EOC operations information.
    •      Committee will mail results of homework to NRPC office or bring to next meeting on
           August 10.
#640C-33
Meeting #2

                                               Minutes
                                    Hollis Hazard Mitigation Team
                                     August 10, 2005 at 9:00 AM

Attendees:
Robert Dichard                    Communications Center
Director Cath Hallsworth          Administration Department
Chief Richard Darling             Police Department
Chief Richard Towne               Fire Department
Director Arthur LeBlanc           Public Works Department
Jon Heiss                         NRPC
Kerrie Diers                      NRPC
Camille Pattison                  NRPC
Tali Kritzer                      NRPC

1. Introductions
       • Attendance sheet was signed and agenda for meeting discussed.


2. Mapping Exercise
           •   Committee members utilized the NRPC critical facility list to verify previously GPS’d
               points.
           •   Members provided new critical facility name and locations for the map and NRPC list.
           •   Past natural hazard events discussed from previous assignment.
           •   Committee discussed potential hazard locations within Hollis.


3. Critical Facility Prioritization List
           •   Committee members added facilities and locations to the previously distributed NRPC
               list.
           •   Specific facilities and locations were prioritized where necessary.


4. Hazard Mitigation Plan Objectives
           •   NRPC and Committee looked over NH Goals & Objectives for Hazard Mitigation
               Planning.
           •   Committee decided what of NH goals could be applied to the Hollis Mitigation Plan.


5. Next Meeting Discussion
           •   Jon will get a copy of the Hollis CIP for next meeting.
           •   Jon will update Critical Facility list and map.
           •   Jon will get a copy of the snow plow list from Richard Towne to update Fire Ponds.
           •   Third meeting scheduled for Wednesday August 31st at 9AM.
           •   NRPC quickly discussed next meeting tasks of existing mitigation strategy identification
               and critical facility map review.

#640C-39
Meeting #3

                                               Minutes
                                    Hollis Hazard Mitigation Team
                                     August 31, 2005 at 9:00 AM

Attendees:
Director Michael Pischetola                      Communications Center
Director Cath Hallsworth                         Administration Department
Chief Richard Darling                            Police Department
Chief Richard Towne                              Fire Department
Director Arthur LeBlanc                          Public Works Department
Jon Heiss                                        NRPC

1. Introductions
       • Agenda for meeting discussed.


2. Review of First Chapters
           •   Committee members reviewed first four draft chapters of Hazard Mitigation Plan.
           •   Chief Darling recommended revising the description of Vehicle Accidents in the Past
               Hazards Event Table. Members also recommended adding South Merrimack Road to
               the Location column.
           •   Committee reviewed updated maps and Risk Assessment for Chapter 4.
           •   Additional Facilities and Areas to Protect were suggested for Risk Assessment section.
           •   Critical Facilities Matrix reviewed by Committee.
           •   Existing Mitigation Strategies section was reviewed for additional comments. Updates
               for Improvements or Changes Needed column provided for certain Programs.


3. Existing Mitigation Strategies
           •   Committee members provided their completed mitigation strategies tables by
               department.
           •   Missing tables were requested to be completed by the end of the week and mailed to
               NRPC.


4. Implementation Strategy Creation
           •   Proposed strategies and projects were discussed for possible implementation strategy.
           •   Committee reviewed proposed strategies and performed the STAPLEE analysis.


6. Next Meeting Discussion
      • Jon will update the plan with comments from Committee of first chapters.
      • Jon will work on the Potential Loss Analysis between now and meeting 5.
      • Meeting 5 will be review of plan and discussion of final steps leading towards submittal
         to BEM office & FEMA.

#640C-41
Meeting #4

                                               Minutes
                                    Hollis Hazard Mitigation Team
                                    September 28, 2005 at 9:00 AM

Attendees:
Director Michael Pischetola                      Communications Department
Director Cath Hallsworth                         Administration Department
Chief Richard Darling                            Police Department
Chief Richard Towne                              Fire Department
Director Arthur LeBlanc                          Public Works Department
Jon Heiss                                        NRPC

1. Introductions
       • Agenda for meeting discussed.


2. Review of First Chapters
           •   Committee members reviewed first four draft chapters of Hazard Mitigation Plan.
           •   Chief Darling recommended revising the description of Vehicle Accidents in the Past
               Hazards Event Table. Members also recommended adding South Merrimack Road to
               the Location column.
           •   Committee reviewed updated maps and Risk Assessment for Chapter 4.
           •   Additional Facilities and Areas to Protect were suggested for Risk Assessment section.
           •   Critical Facilities Matrix reviewed by Committee.
           •   Existing Mitigation Strategies section was reviewed for additional comments. Updates
               for Improvements or Changes Needed column provided for certain Programs.


3. Existing Mitigation Strategies
           • Committee members provided their completed mitigation strategies tables by
           department.
           • Missing tables were requested to be completed by the end of the week and mailed to
           NRPC.


4. Implementation Strategy Creation
           •   Proposed strategies and projects were discussed for possible implementation strategy.
           •   Committee reviewed proposed strategies and performed the STAPLEE analysis.


7. Next Meeting Discussion
      • Jon will update the plan with comments from Committee of first chapters.
      • Jon will work on the Potential Loss Analysis between now and meeting 5.
      • Meeting 5 will be review of plan and discussion of final steps leading towards submittal
         to BEM office & FEMA.

#640C-41
Meeting #5

                                                Minutes
                                     Hollis Hazard Mitigation Team
                                      October 27, 2005 at 9:00 AM

Attendees:
Director Michael Pischetola               Communications Department
Director Don McCoy                        Emergency Management
Director Cath Hallsworth                  Administration Department
Chief Richard Darling                     Police Department
Chief Richard Towne                       Fire Department
Jon Heiss                                 NRPC

1. Introductions
       • Agenda for meeting discussed.
       • Previous Meeting Minutes were approved by the Committee.


2. Review of Draft Plan
           •   Jon Heiss walked through the current draft with the Committee members.
           •   Updated sections and revisions were discussed with the Committee, particularly the
               Potential Loss Analysis and Critical Facilities Table & Matrix.
           •   Committee members discussed the reality of proposing a Reverse 911 system for Hollis.
               Director McCoy discussed the need for research on this new system and its potential
               costs. The Committee decided that it should be included within the Proposed Strategies
               for possible future funding.
           •   The remaining sections of the plan were discussed with few suggested revisions.


3. Remaining Tasks and Timeline
           •   Jon Heiss provided timeline for Committee.
           •   Jon Heiss will make the suggested revisions to the plan along with adding the
               appendices and title page. Jon will make copies of the plan on cd and distribute to the
               Committee for “final” comments before meeting with the Board of Selectmen.
           •   Cath Hallsworth, Don McCoy and Jon discussed presenting the plan to the Board of
               Selectmen at the end of November and request a Public Comment period.
           •   Don McCoy strongly suggested having a Public Meeting to discuss the plan and get
               feedback.
           •   Jon, Cath and Don will further discuss this possibility.
           •   Jon will continue to provide updates for the Committee members regarding plan
               completion status and any possible future meetings.

#640C-42
Meeting #6
                                       Meeting Summary
                                    Hollis Board of Selectmen
                                   November 28th, 2005 6:30 PM

The Hollis Hazard Mitigation Team and the Nashua Regional Planning Commission staff presented
the draft plan to the Board of Selectmen on November 28th, 2005 and sought their approval to release
the draft plan to the public for review. The Board voted to release the draft plan to the public and
initiate a public comment period beginning on Monday, November 28th and ending on Friday,
December 16th.

Notification of the public comment period was placed in the Nashua Telegraph and the
Hollis/Brookline Journal. Copies of the draft plan were available for review at the Town Hall,
Social Library and the offices of the Nashua Regional Planning Commission; in addition an
electronic version of the draft plan was available on the Nashua Regional Planning Commission
website.
Letter #1 to Selectmen for Meeting #6
Letter #2 to Selectmen for Meeting #6



                                                       Mark Johnson, Chair
                                                       Hollis Board of Selectmen
                                                       7 Monument Square
                                                       Hollis, NH 03049




Dear Chairman Johnson:

          The Nashua Regional Planning Commission has been working over the course of the last year, with the
Hollis Hazard Mitigation Team, to develop a Hazard Mitigation Plan for the Town. Local hazard mitigation plans
identify the critical facilities and areas of concern in a community and propose measures to mitigate potential
damage in the event of emergency situations. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) requires states
to develop local hazard mitigation plans. The New Hampshire Office of Emergency Management (NH OEM) works
with FEMA and the Regional Planning Commissions to develop these plans. The development of the plan has been
funded with a grant from NH OEM.

         A Draft Hollis Hazard Mitigation Plan has been completed and the Hazard Mitigation Team is seeking
approval from the Board of Selectmen to release the plan to the public and initiate the public comment period. The
comment period will occur for approximately two weeks and will provide an opportunity for the public to review the
plan and submit any feedback and comments to the team. Plans will be available for review at the Library, Town
Hall, and the Nashua Regional Planning Commission office. At the close of the public comment period, all
comments will be reviewed and any appropriate changes or additions will be made to the plan.

         We appreciate the Board’s consideration of releasing the Draft Hollis Hazard Mitigation Plan to the public
for review and comments. The team anticipates that a final version will be ready for the Board’s approval in late
December of 2005. Upon approval of the Board, the plan and associated maps will be submitted to NH OEM and
FEMA.

       Please feel free to contact me with any questions by phone at 883-0366 ext. 23 or via e-mail at
jonh@nashuarpc.org.

                                                       Sincerely,

                                                       NASHUA REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION




                                                       Jonathan Heiss,
                                                       Regional Planner

JH/srv

cc:      Don McCoy, Emergency Management Director
         Cath Hallsworth, Director of Administration
Board of Selectmen Minutes


                                    BOARD OF SELECTMEN
                                       November 28, 2005
Selectmen present: Mark Johnson, Vahrij Manoukian, Ray Lindsay and Melinda Willis
Absent: Peter Band
Budget Committee: Christine Furman
Staff present: Cath Hallsworth, Director of Administration; Paul Calabria, Finance Officer;
Cathy Hoffman, Secretary
COMMUNITY ROOM (6:02 PM)
JON HEISS, NASHUA REGIONAL PLANNING COMMISSION
Hazard Mitigation Plan: J. Heiss introduced himself to the Board and informed Board members
that he and the department heads, which included DPW Director Arthur LeBlanc, Emergency
Management Director Don McCoy, Police Chief Richard Darling, Director of Administration
Cath Hallsworth, Communications Director Michael Pischetola and Fire Chief Rick Towne,
worked for two months to develop the Town’s hazard mitigation plan. He added that Joan
Tinklepaugh, Hollis Historical Society provided invaluable information on historical incidents in
the Town.
The plan addresses natural and man-made hazards that might occur, identifies critical facilities
that could be impacted, and identifies areas of concern in Hollis that are at risk for natural
disasters. After the information was collected the hazards and critical facilities were mapped,
their vulnerability assessed, strategies created to mitigate the economic impacts and plans
developed to prevent or minimize the impacts of these potential disasters.
J. Heiss stated that once the plan is complete and approved by FEMA, Hollis would be eligible
for federal funding. D. McCoy added that having a plan in place is a requirement. Without a
plan, the Town would not qualify to receive funding.
J. Heiss presented the Board with draft copies of the plan. He explained that the plan must be
available for public comment and review for at least two-weeks. After revisions, the plan must
be officially adopted by the Selectmen and sent to FEMA for approval. Hard copies of the plan
will be placed at the library and Town Hall. The plan will also be posted on NRPC’s website at
www.nashuarpc.org.
MOVED by Mark Johnson, seconded by Melinda Willis, that the Selectmen release the draft
copy of the Town of Hollis-Hazard Mitigation Plan for public comment until December 16th.
Voting in favor of the motion were Johnson, Manoukian, Lindsay and Willis. None were
opposed. Band was absent. The motion PASSED 4-0-0.
Public Notice


                                                                                             November 2005


                                                                                        TOWN OF HOLLIS


                                                                                          PUBLIC NOTICE


The Town of Hollis is sponsoring a public comment period to solicit input on the Draft Hollis Hazard
Mitigation Plan. The Town of Hollis looks forward to the public taking advantage of this opportunity to
participate in the Town’s hazard mitigation planning process.

The Draft Hazard Mitigation Plan identifies the critical facilities and areas of concern in the community
and proposes measures to mitigate potential damage in the event of emergency situations. The Federal
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) requires states to develop local hazard mitigation plans. The
New Hampshire Office of Emergency Management (NH OEM) works with FEMA and the Regional
Planning Commissions to develop these plans. The development of the plan has been funded with a
grant from NH OEM.

The Draft Hollis Hazard Mitigation Plan is on file at the Hollis Town Clerk’s Office, the Hollis Social
Library, Hollis Police Department, Hollis Communications, and the offices and website of the Nashua
Regional Planning Commission (NRPC). If you would like to comment on any aspect of the plan, please
provide written comments by Friday November 16, 2005 at 4:00 PM to Jonathan Heiss, Regional
Planner. Written comments should be mailed or delivered to Nashua Regional Planning Commission,
115 Main Street, Nashua, NH 03060, or e-mailed to jonh@nashuarpc.org.

For further information, please contact Jonathan Heiss, Regional Planner, at (603) 883-0366, ext.23.
                                                                                             November 2005



                                                                                    TOWN OF HOLLIS


                                                                                            PUBLIC NOTICE



The Town of Hollis is sponsoring a public comment period to solicit input on the Draft Hollis Hazard
Mitigation Plan. The Town of Hollis looks forward to the public taking advantage of this opportunity to
participate in the Town’s hazard mitigation planning process.

The Draft Hazard Mitigation Plan identifies the critical facilities and areas of concern in the community
and proposes measures to mitigate potential damage in the event of emergency situations. The Federal
Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) requires states to develop local hazard mitigation plans. The
New Hampshire Office of Emergency Management (NH OEM) works with FEMA and the Regional
Planning Commissions to develop these plans. The development of the plan has been funded with a
grant from NH OEM.

The Draft Hollis Hazard Mitigation Plan is on file at the Hollis Town Clerk’s Office, the Hollis Social
Library, Hollis Police Department, Hollis Communications, and the offices and website of the Nashua
Regional Planning Commission (NRPC). If you would like to comment on any aspect of the plan, please
provide written comments by Friday, December 16 at 4:00 PM to Jonathan Heiss, Regional Planner.
Written comments should be mailed or delivered to Nashua Regional Planning Commission, 115 Main
Street, Nashua, NH 03060, or e-mailed to jonh@nashuarpc.org.

For further information, please contact Jonathan Heiss, Regional Planner, at (603) 883-0366, ext.23.
Follow-up Letter to Hollis Board of Selectmen

				
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