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starter activity Imagine you are the new US president Eisenhower in 1953. Does the news of Stalin’s death come as a relief or does it send you into panic? What impact did Stalin’s death have on the international community? LOs To assess the impact of Stalin‟s death on international relations To be able to explain how „Peaceful Coexistence‟ developed Your task Read p.73-4 of Phillips and list the effects of Stalin‟s death on international relations Impact of Stalin’s death Liberal historians (intentionalist) emphasising role of individuals in history see his death as beginning of „Thaw‟ Revisionist historians (structuralist) see cause of Thaw in changing positions of Politiburo and Army leaders Stalin‟s daughter, Sveltlana thought Stalin had become isolated by end of his life Sveltlana with Stalin, 1935 Eisenhower was looking for a way of reducing government spending by implementing „New Look‟ policy towards East Both sides had established their boundaries and were looking for new approaches to foreign policy Eisenhower, US President, 1953-61 Extension task Read Isaacs, p.140-3 and note down the reactions of different countries to Stalin‟s death Stalin‟s death mask in Gori Extension Visit the BBC news website at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/279 3501.stm and investigate the conspiracy theories behind Stalin‟s death Answer the questions 1-9 on „Peaceful Co-existence‟ Your task Read p.75. Where did the phrase „Peaceful co-existence‟ originate? What were some of the factors which caused it? Read p.75-8 and list the reasons why „peaceful co- existence‟ emerged between the two superpowers. Take notes under these headings: Consolidation of positions Military & economic context Death of Stalin Beria Malenkov Peaceful Co-existence Origins of term – 1st coined by Malenkov, head of Communist Party & Soviet PM , 1952; developed into fully formed policy under Khrushchev Purpose – means of co-operating between East & West until Marxist aims of communist society could be fulfilled Causes – changes in leadership, need to avoid all-out nuclear war, wider issues … Consolidation By 1949 division of Europe entrenched Formation of NATO (1949) & Warsaw Pact (1953) made divisions more evident Positions were secure – now more willing to negotiate Military & economic context By 1955 USA & USSR possessed hydrogen bombs Arms race picking up speed, e.g 1950 US had 298 atomic bombs, in 1955 it had 2,422 1/3 of USSR spending went on military projects US Hydrogen bomb – one very similar was jettisoned in 1958 of coast of Georgia and remains there to this day! Death of Stalin Power struggle between Beria (head of secret police), Malenkov (Politburo member) & Nikita Khrushchev (Politburo member) Beria (with Svetlana) Malenkov Khrushchev Read about Beria‟s depraved sexual antics Beria’s initiatives Beria: “All we want is a peaceful Germany, and it makes no difference to us whether it is socialist or not” Proposed reunified, united East Germany BUT Berlin Uprising (1953) dashed hopes of unified Germany – 25,000 arrests, 400 executions Malenkov’s ‘New Course’ „New Course‟ – war between capitalism and communism no longer inevitable Resources should be directed towards improving living conditions in USSR Khrushchev built on Malenkov‟s policy, developing „New Course‟ into „Peaceful Co- existence‟ & De-Stalinisation Plenary Why did the world react positively and negatively to Stalin‟s death Who coined the phrase „Peaceful Co-existence? Reasons for development of PC? Extension. Who do you think should really be credited with PC? Should it even be a Russian? Homework 1. Create factoids on these key players in the rise of „peaceful coexistence‟ using the information on p.78-9 and your own research: Lavrenti Beria Georgi Malenkov Nikita Khrushchev Chart their earl careers, their attitudes towards the US and their failings/weaknesses 2. Take notes on Austria & Finland (p.80) using the „Skills builder‟ question to guide you.
"The impact of Stalin's death"