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The impact of Stalin's death

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 Imagine you are the new US president Eisenhower in 1953. Does the
 news of Stalin’s death come as a relief or does it send you into panic?
  What impact did Stalin’s
     death have on the
 international community?
 LOs
        To assess the impact of Stalin‟s death on
                 international relations
          To be able to explain how „Peaceful
                Coexistence‟ developed
                   Your task
   Read p.73-4 of Phillips and list the effects of
    Stalin‟s death on international relations
         Impact of Stalin’s death
   Liberal historians (intentionalist) emphasising
    role of individuals in history see his death as
    beginning of „Thaw‟
   Revisionist historians (structuralist) see cause of
    Thaw in changing positions of Politiburo and
    Army leaders
   Stalin‟s daughter, Sveltlana thought Stalin had
    become isolated by end of his life
Sveltlana with Stalin, 1935
   Eisenhower was
    looking for a way of
    reducing government
    spending by
    implementing „New
    Look‟ policy towards
    East
   Both sides had
    established their
    boundaries and were
    looking for new
    approaches to foreign
    policy
                            Eisenhower, US President, 1953-61
               Extension task
   Read Isaacs, p.140-3 and note down the
    reactions of different countries to Stalin‟s death




                                              Stalin‟s death
                                              mask in Gori
                  Extension
   Visit the BBC news website at
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/279
    3501.stm and investigate the conspiracy theories
    behind Stalin‟s death
Answer the questions 1-9 on „Peaceful Co-existence‟
                    Your task
   Read p.75. Where did the phrase „Peaceful co-existence‟
    originate? What were some of the factors which caused
    it?
   Read p.75-8 and list the reasons why „peaceful co-
    existence‟ emerged between the two superpowers. Take
    notes under these headings:
   Consolidation of positions
   Military & economic context
   Death of Stalin
   Beria
   Malenkov
          Peaceful Co-existence
   Origins of term – 1st coined by Malenkov, head
    of Communist Party & Soviet PM , 1952;
    developed into fully formed policy under
    Khrushchev
   Purpose – means of co-operating between East
    & West until Marxist aims of communist society
    could be fulfilled
   Causes – changes in leadership, need to avoid
    all-out nuclear war, wider issues …
                  Consolidation
   By 1949 division of
    Europe entrenched
   Formation of NATO
    (1949) & Warsaw Pact
    (1953) made divisions
    more evident
   Positions were secure –
    now more willing to
    negotiate
        Military & economic context
    By 1955 USA & USSR possessed hydrogen bombs
    Arms race picking up speed, e.g 1950 US had 298
     atomic bombs, in 1955 it had 2,422
    1/3 of USSR spending went on military projects




    US Hydrogen bomb – one very similar was jettisoned in 1958 of coast of Georgia and
                              remains there to this day!
                            Death of Stalin
   Power struggle between Beria (head of secret
    police), Malenkov (Politburo member) & Nikita
    Khrushchev (Politburo member)




    Beria (with Svetlana)         Malenkov    Khrushchev
 Read about Beria‟s depraved
        sexual antics
                  Beria’s initiatives
   Beria: “All we want is a
    peaceful Germany, and it
    makes no difference to us
    whether it is socialist or not”
   Proposed reunified, united
    East Germany
   BUT Berlin Uprising (1953)
    dashed hopes of unified
    Germany – 25,000 arrests,
    400 executions
       Malenkov’s ‘New Course’
   „New Course‟ – war between capitalism and
    communism no longer inevitable
   Resources should be directed towards improving
    living conditions in USSR
   Khrushchev built on Malenkov‟s policy,
    developing „New Course‟ into „Peaceful Co-
    existence‟ & De-Stalinisation
                   Plenary
   Why did the world react positively and
    negatively to Stalin‟s death
   Who coined the phrase „Peaceful Co-existence?
   Reasons for development of PC?
   Extension. Who do you think should really be
    credited with PC? Should it even be a Russian?
                    Homework
   1. Create factoids on these key players in the rise of
    „peaceful coexistence‟ using the information on p.78-9
    and your own research:
       Lavrenti Beria
       Georgi Malenkov
       Nikita Khrushchev
   Chart their earl careers, their attitudes towards the US
    and their failings/weaknesses
   2. Take notes on Austria & Finland (p.80) using the
    „Skills builder‟ question to guide you.

				
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posted:11/3/2011
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